Transport Area Working Group                                   M. Cotton
Internet-Draft                                                     ICANN
Updates: 2780, 2782, 3828, 4340,                               L. Eggert
4960 (if approved)                                                 Nokia
Intended status: BCP                                            J. Touch
Expires: April 15, 28, 2011                                          USC/ISI
                                                           M. Westerlund
                                                             S. Cheshire
                                                        October 12, 25, 2010

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Procedures for the Management
    of the Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry


   This document defines the procedures that the Internet Assigned
   Numbers Authority (IANA) uses when handling registration and other
   requests related to the Service Name and Transport Protocol Port
   Number Registry.  It also discusses the rationale and principles
   behind these procedures and how they facilitate the long-term
   sustainability of the registry.

   This document updates IANA's procedures by obsoleting Sections 8 and
   9.1 of the IANA allocation guidelines [RFC2780], and it updates the
   IANA allocation procedures for UDP-Lite [RFC3828], DCCP [RFC4340] and
   SCTP [RFC4960].  It also updates the DNS SRV specification [RFC2782]
   to clarify what a service name is and how it is registered.

Status of this Memo

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   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 15, 28, 2011.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Conventions Used in this Document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  Service Names  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.1.  Service Name Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.2.  Service Name Usage in DNS SRV Records  . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  Port Number Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     6.1.  Service names and Port Numbers for Experimentation . . . . 11
   7.  Principles for Service Name and Transport Protocol Port
       Number Registry Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     7.1.  Past Principles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     7.2.  Updated Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   8.  IANA Procedures for Managing the Service Name and
       Transport Protocol Port Number Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     8.1.  Service Name and Port Number Registration  . . . . . . . . 15 16
     8.2.  Service Name and Port Number De-Registration . . . . . . . 20
     8.3.  Service Name and Port Number Re-Use  . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     8.4.  Service Name and Port Number Revocation  . . . . . . . . . 21
     8.5.  Service Name and Port Number Transfers . . . . . . . . . . 21
     8.6.  Maintenance Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     8.7.  Disagreements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     10.1. Service Name Consistency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     10.2. Port Numbers for SCTP and DCCP Experimentation . . . . . . 25
     10.3. Updates to DCCP Registries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   11. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   12. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

1.  Introduction

   For many years, the allocation of new service names and port number
   values for use with the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) [RFC0793]
   and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) [RFC0768] have had less than
   clear guidelines.  New transport protocols have been added - the
   Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [RFC4960] and the
   Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) [RFC4342] - and new
   mechanisms like DNS SRV records [RFC2782] have been developed, each
   with separate registries and separate guidelines.  The community also
   recognized the need for additional procedures beyond just assignment;
   notably modification, revocation, and release.

   A key element of the procedural streamlining specified in this
   document is to establish identical assignment procedures for all IETF
   transport protocols.  This document brings the IANA procedures for
   TCP and UDP in line with those for SCTP and DCCP, resulting in a
   single process that requesters and IANA follow for all requests for
   all transport protocols, including future protocols not yet defined.

   In addition to detailing the IANA procedures for the initial
   assignment of service names and port numbers, this document also
   specifies post-assignment procedures that until now have been handled
   in an ad hoc manner.  These include procedures to de-register a port
   number that is no longer in use, to re-use a port number allocated
   for one application that is no longer in use for another application,
   and the procedure by which IANA can unilaterally revoke a prior port
   number assignment.  Section 8 discusses the specifics of these
   procedures and processes that requesters and IANA follow for all
   requests for all current and future transport protocols.

   IANA is the authority for assigning service names and port numbers.
   The registries that are created to store these registrations are
   maintained by IANA.  For protocols developed by IETF working groups,
   IANA now also offers a method for the "early assignment" [RFC4020] of
   service names and port numbers, as described in Section 8.1.

   This document updates IANA's procedures for UDP and TCP port numbers
   by obsoleting Sections 8 and 9.1 of the IANA allocation guidelines
   [RFC2780].  (Note that other sections of the IANA allocation
   guidelines, relating to the protocol field values in IPv4 header,
   were also updated in February 2008 [RFC5237].)  This document also
   updates the IANA allocation procedures for DCCP [RFC4340] and SCTP

   The Lightweight User Datagram Protocol (UDP-Lite) [RFC5237] shares
   the port space with UDP.  The UDP-Lite specification says: "UDP-Lite
   uses the same set of port number values assigned by the IANA for use
   by UDP".  Thus the update of UDP procedures result in an update also
   of the UDP-Lite procedures.

   This document also clarifies what a service name is and how it is
   registered.  This will impact the DNS SRV specification [RFC2782],
   because that specification merely makes a brief mention that the
   symbolic names of services are defined in "Assigned Numbers"
   [RFC1700], without stating to which section it refers within that
   230-page document.  The DNS SRV specification may have been referring
   to the list of Port Assignments (known as /etc/services on Unix), or
   to the "Protocol And Service Names" section, or to both, or to some
   other section.  Furthermore, "Assigned Numbers" is now obsolete
   [RFC3232] and has been replaced by on-line registries

   The development of new transport protocols is a major effort that the
   IETF does not undertake very often.  If a new transport protocol is
   standardized in the future, for consistency it is expected to follow
   as much as possible the guidelines and practices around using service
   names and port numbers.

2.  Motivation

   Information about the registration procedures for the port registry
   has existed in three locations: the forms for requesting port number
   registrations on the IANA web site [SYSFORM] [USRFORM], an
   introductory text section in the file listing the port number
   registrations themselves [PORTREG], and two brief sections of the
   IANA Allocation Guidelines [RFC2780].

   Similarly, the procedures surrounding service names have been
   historically unclear.  Service names were originally created as
   mnemonic identifiers for port numbers without a well-defined syntax,
   beyond the 14-character limit mentioned on the IANA website [SYSFORM]
   [USRFORM].  Even that length limit has not been consistently applied,
   and some assigned service names are 15 characters long.  When service
   identification via DNS SRV Resource Records (RRs) was introduced, the
   requirement by IANA to only assign service names and port numbers in
   combination, led to the creation of an ad hoc service name registry
   outside of the control of IANA [SRVREG].

   This document aggregates all this scattered information into a single
   reference that aligns and clearly defines the management procedures
   for both service names and port numbers.  It gives more detailed
   guidance to prospective requesters of service names and ports than
   the existing documentation, and it streamlines the IANA procedures
   for the management of the registry, so that requests can be completed
   in a timely manner.

   This document defines rules for registration of service names without
   associated port numbers, for such usages as DNS SRV records
   [RFC2782], which was not possible under the previous IANA procedures.
   The document also merges service name registrations from the non-IANA
   ad hoc registry [SRVREG] and from the IANA "Protocol and Service
   Names" registry [PROTSERVREG] into the IANA "Service Name and
   Transport Protocol Port Number" registry [PORTREG], which from here
   on is the single authoritative registry for service names and port

   An additional purpose of this document is to describe the principles
   that guide the IETF and IANA in their role as the long-term joint
   stewards of the service name and port number registry.  TCP and UDP
   have had remarkable success over the last decades.  Thousands of
   applications and application-level protocols have service names and
   ports assigned for their use, and there is every reason to believe
   that this trend will continue into the future.  It is hence extremely
   important that management of the registry follow principles that
   ensure its long-term usefulness as a shared resource.  Section 7
   discusses these principles in detail.

3.  Background

   The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) [RFC0793] and the User
   Datagram Protocol (UDP) [RFC0768] have enjoyed a remarkable success
   over the decades as the two most widely used transport protocols on
   the Internet.  They have relied on the concept of "ports" as logical
   entities for Internet communication.  Ports serve two purposes:
   first, they provide a demultiplexing identifier to differentiate
   transport sessions between the same pair of endpoints, and second,
   they may also identify the application protocol and associated
   service to which processes bind.  Newer transport protocols, such as
   the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [RFC4960] and the
   Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) [RFC4342] have also
   adopted the concept of ports for their communication sessions and use
   16-bit port numbers in the same way as TCP and UDP (and UDP-Lite
   [RFC3828], a variant of UDP).

   Port numbers are the original and most widely used means for
   application and service identification on the Internet.  Ports are
   16-bit numbers, and the combination of source and destination port
   numbers together with the IP addresses of the communicating end
   systems uniquely identifies a session of a given transport protocol.
   Port numbers are also known by their associated service names such as
   "telnet" for port number 23 and "http" (as well as "www" and "www-
   http") for port number 80.

   Hosts running services, hosts accessing services on other hosts, and
   intermediate devices (such as firewalls and NATs) that restrict
   services need to agree on which service corresponds to a particular
   destination port.  Although this is ultimately a local decision with
   meaning only between the endpoints of a connection, it is common for
   many services to have a default port upon which those servers usually
   listen, when possible, and these ports are recorded by the Internet
   Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) through the service name and port
   number registry [PORTREG].

   Over time, the assumption that a particular port number necessarily
   implies a particular service may become less true.  For example,
   multiple instances of the same service on the same host cannot
   generally listen on the same port, and multiple hosts behind the same
   NAT gateway cannot all have a mapping for the same port on the
   external side of the NAT gateway, whether using static port mappings
   configured by hand by the user, or dynamic port mappings configured
   automatically using a port mapping protocol like NAT Port Mapping
   Protocol (NAT-PMP) [I-D.cheshire-nat-pmp] or Internet Gateway Device
   (IGD) [IGD].

   Applications may use numeric port numbers directly, look up port
   numbers based on service names via system calls such as
   getservbyname() on UNIX, look up port numbers by performing queries
   for DNS SRV records [RFC2782][I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd], or
   determine port numbers in a variety of other ways like the TCP Port
   Service Multiplexer (TCPMUX) [RFC1078].

   Designers of applications and application-level protocols may apply
   to IANA for an assigned service name and port number for a specific
   application, and may - after successful registration - assume that no
   other application will use that service name or port number for its
   communication sessions.  Alternatively, application designers may
   also ask for only an assigned service name, if their application does
   not require a fixed port number.  The latter alternative is
   encouraged when possible, in order to conserve the more limited port
   number space.  This is applicable, for example, to applications that
   use DNS SRV records to look up port numbers at runtime.

4.  Conventions Used in this Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in "Key words for use in
   RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels" [RFC2119].

5.  Service Names

   Service names are the unique key in the Service Name and Transport
   Protocol Port Number Registry.  This unique symbolic name for a
   service may also be used for other purposes, such as in DNS SRV
   records [RFC2782].  Within the registry, this unique key ensures that
   different services can be unambiguously distinguished, thus
   preventing name collisions and avoiding confusion about who is the
   Registrant for a particular entry.

   There may be more than one service name associated with a particular
   transport protocol and port.  There are three ways that such service
   name overloading can occur:

   o  Overloading occurs when one service is an extension of another
      service, and an in-band mechanism exists for determining if the
      extension is present or not.  One example is port 3478, which has
      the service name aliases "stun" and "turn".  TURN [RFC5766] is an
      extension to the STUN [RFC5389] service.  TURN-enabled clients
      wishing to locate TURN servers could attempt to discover "stun"
      services and then check in-band if the server supports TURN, but
      this would be inefficient.  Enabling them to directly query for
      "turn" servers by name is a better approach.  (Note that TURN
      servers in this case should also be locatable via a "stun"
      discovery, because every TURN server is also a STUN server.)

   o  By historical accident the service name "http" corresponds to the
      same port number as "www" and "www-http".  When used in SRV
      records [RFC2782], and similar service discovery mechanisms only
      the service name "http" should be used, not these additional
      names.  If a server were to advertise "www" then it would not be
      discovered by clients browsing for "http".  Advertising or
      browsing for the aliases as well as the primary service name would
      be inefficient, and achieves nothing that it not already achieved
      by using the service name "http" exclusively.

   o  As indicated in this document, in Section 10.1, to enable legacy
      names to be replaced with names consistent with the syntax this
      document prescribes.  In this case, only the new name should be
      used in SRV records, both to avoid the same issues as with
      historical cases of multiple names, as well as because the legacy
      names are incompatible with SRV record use.

   For future assignments, applications will not be permitted that
   merely request a new name exactly duplicating an existing service.
   Having multiple names for the same service serves no purpose.
   Implementers are requested to inform IANA if they discover other
   cases where a single service has multiple names, so that one name may
   be recorded as the primary name for service discovery purposes.

   Service names are assigned on a "first come, first served" basis, as
   described in Section 8.1.  Names should be brief and informative,
   avoiding words or abbreviations that are redundant in the context of
   the registry (e.g., "port", "service", "protocol", etc.)  Names
   referring to discovery services, e.g., using multicast or broadcast
   to identify endpoints capable of a given service, SHOULD use an
   easily identifiable suffix (e.g., "-disc").

5.1.  Service Name Syntax

   Valid service names are hereby normatively defined as follows:

   o  MUST be at least 1 character and no more than 15 characters long

   o  MUST contain only US-ASCII [ANSI.X3-4.1986] letters 'A' - 'Z' and
      'a' - 'z', digits '0' - '9', and hyphens ('-', ASCII 0x2D or
      decimal 45)

   o  MUST contain at least one letter ('A' - 'Z' or 'a' - 'z')

   o  MUST NOT begin or end with a hyphen

   o  hyphens MUST NOT be adjacent to other hyphens

   The reason for requiring at least one letter is to avoid service
   names like "23" (could be confused with a numeric port number) or
   "6000-6063" (could be confused with a numeric port number range).
   Although service names may contain both upper-case and lower-case
   letters, case is ignored for comparison purposes, so both "http" and
   "HTTP" denote the same service.

   Service names are purely opaque identifiers, and no semantics are
   implied by any superficial structure that a given service name may
   appear to have.  For example, a company called "Example" may choose
   to register service names "Example-Foo" and "Example-Bar" for its
   "Foo" and "Bar" products, but the "Example" company can't claim to
   "own" all service names beginning with "Example-", they can't prevent
   someone else registering "Example-Baz" for a different service, and
   they can't prevent other developers from using the "Example-Foo" and
   "Example-Bar" service types in order to interoperate with the "Foo"
   and "Bar" products.  Technically speaking, in service discovery
   protocols, service names are merely a series of byte values on the
   wire; for the mnemonic convenience of human developers it can be
   convenient to interpret those byte values as human-readable ascii
   characters, but software should treat them as purely opaque
   identifiers and not attempt to parse them for any additional embedded

   In approximately 98% of cases, the new "service name" is exactly the
   same as the old historic "short name" from the IANA web forms
   [SYSFORM] [USRFORM].  In approximately 2% of cases, the new "service
   name" is derived from the old historic "short name" as described
   below in Section 10.1.

   The rules for valid service names, excepting the limit of 15
   characters maximum, are also expressed below (as a non-normative
   convenience) using ABNF [RFC5234].

      ALNUM   = ALPHA / DIGIT     ; A-Z, a-z, 0-9
      HYPHEN  = %x2d              ; "-"
      ALPHA   = %x41-5A / %x61-7A ; A-Z / a-z [RFC5234]
      DIGIT   = %x30-39           ; 0-9       [RFC5234]

5.2.  Service Name Usage in DNS SRV Records

   The DNS SRV specification [RFC2782] states that the Service Label
   part of the owner name of a DNS SRV record includes a "Service"
   element, described as "the symbolic name of the desired service", but
   as discussed above, it is not clear precisely what this means.

   This document clarifies that the Service Label MUST be a service name
   as defined herein.  The service name SHOULD be registered with IANA
   and recorded in the Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number
   Registry [PORTREG].

   The details of using Service Names in SRV Service Labels are
   specified in the DNS SRV specification [RFC2782].  This document does
   not change that specification.

6.  Port Number Ranges

   TCP, UDP, UDP-Lite, SCTP and DCCP use 16-bit namespaces for their
   port number registries.  The port registries for all these transport
   protocols are subdivided into three ranges of numbers, and
   Section 8.1.1 describes the IANA procedures for each range in detail:

   o  the System Ports, also known as the Well Known Ports, from 0-1023
      (assigned by IANA)

   o  the User Ports, also known as the Registered Ports, from 1024-
      49151 (assigned by IANA)

   o  the Dynamic Ports, also known as the Private Ports, from 49152-
      65535 (never assigned)

   Of the assignable port ranges (System Ports and User Ports, i.e.,
   port numbers 0-49151), individual port numbers are in one of three
   states at any given time:

   o  Assigned: Assigned port numbers are currently allocated to the
      service indicated in the registry.

   o  Unassigned: Unassigned port numbers are currently available for
      assignment upon request, as per the procedures outlined in this

   o  Reserved: Reserved port numbers are not available for regular
      assignment; they are "assigned to IANA" for special purposes.
      Reserved port numbers include values at the edges of each range,
      e.g., 0, 1023, 1024, etc., which may be used to extend these
      ranges or the overall port number space in the future.

   In order to keep the size of the registry manageable, IANA typically
   only records the Assigned and Reserved service names and port numbers
   in the registry.  Unassigned values are typically not explicitly
   listed.  (There are an near-infinite number of Unassigned service
   names and enumerating them all would not be practical.)

   As a data point, when this document was written, approximately 76% of
   the TCP and UDP System Ports were assigned, and approximately 9% of
   the User Ports were assigned.  (As noted, Dynamic Ports are never

6.1.  Service names and Port Numbers for Experimentation

   Of the System Ports, two TCP and UDP port numbers (1021 and 1022),
   together with their respective service names ("exp1" and "exp2"),
   have been assigned for experimentation with new applications and
   application-layer protocols that require a port number in the
   assigned ports ranges [RFC4727].

   Please refer to Sections 1 and 1.1 of "Assigning Experimental and
   Testing Numbers Considered Useful" [RFC3692] for how these
   experimental port numbers are to be used.

   This document registers the same two service names and port numbers
   for experimentation with new application-layer protocols over SCTP
   and DCCP in Section 10.2.

   Unfortunately, it can be difficult to limit access to these ports.
   Users SHOULD take measures to ensure that experimental ports are
   connecting to the intended process.  For example, users of these
   experimental ports might include a 64-bit nonce, once on each segment
   of a message-oriented channel (e.g., UDP), or once at the beginning
   of a byte-stream (e.g., TCP), which is used to confirm that the port
   is being used as intended.  Such confirmation of intended use is
   especially important when these ports are associated with privileged
   (e.g., system or administrator) processes.

7.  Principles for Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number
    Registry Management

   Management procedures for the service name and transport protocol
   port number registry include allocation of service names and port
   numbers upon request, as well as management of information about
   existing allocations.  The latter includes maintaining contact and
   description information about assignments, revoking abandoned
   assignments, and redefining assignments when needed.  Of these
   procedures, careful port number allocation is most critical, in order
   to continue to conserve the remaining port numbers.

   As noted earlier, only about 9% of the User Port space is currently
   assigned.  The current rate of assignment is approximately 400 ports
   per year, and has remained steady for the past 8 years.  At that
   rate, if similar conservation continues, this resource will sustain
   another 85 years of assignment - without the need to resort to
   reassignment of released values or revocation.  The namespace
   available for service names is much larger, which allows for simpler
   management procedures.

7.1.  Past Principles

   Before the publication of this document, the principles of service
   name and port number management followed a few mostly-undocumented
   guidelines.  They are recorded here for historical purposes, and this
   document updates them in Section 7.2.  These principles were:

   o  TCP and UDP ports were simultaneously allocated when either was

   o  Port numbers were the primary allocation; service names were
      informative only, and did not have a well-defined syntax

   o  Port numbers were conserved informally, and sometimes
      inconsistently (e.g., some services were allocated ranges of many
      port numbers even where not strictly necessary)

   o  SCTP and DCCP service name and port number registries were managed
      separately from the TCP/UDP registries

   o  Service names could not be assigned in the old ports registry
      without assigning an associated port number at the same time

   This document clarifies and aligns these guidelines in order to more
   conservatively manage the limited remaining port number space and to
   enable and promote the use of service names for service
   identification without associated port numbers, where possible.

7.2.  Updated Principles

   This section summarizes the basic principles by which IANA handles
   the Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry, and
   attempts to conserve the port number space.  This description is
   intended to inform applicants requesting service names and port
   numbers.  IANA are not required to be bound by these principles when
   handling requests; other factors may come into play, and exceptions
   may occur where deemed in the best interest of the Internet.

   IANA will begin assigning service names that do not request an
   associated port number allocation under a simple "First Come, First
   Served" policy [RFC5226].  IANA MAY, at its discretion, refer service
   name requests to "Expert Review" in cases of mass registrations or
   other situations where IANA believes expert review is advisable.

   The basic principle of service name and port number registry
   management is to conserve use of the port space where possible.
   Extensions to support larger port number spaces would require
   changing many core protocols of the current Internet in a way that
   would not be backward compatible and interfere with both current and
   legacy applications.  To help ensure this conservation the policy for
   any registration request for port number allocations uses the "Expert
   Review" policy [RFC5226].

   Conservation of the port number space is required because this space
   is a limited resource, so applications are expected to participate in
   the traffic demultiplexing process where feasible.  The port numbers
   are expected to encode as little information as possible that will
   still enable an application to perform further demultiplexing by
   itself.  In particular:

   o  IANA will allocate only one assigned port number per service or

   o  IANA will allocate only one assigned port number for all versions
      of a service (e.g., running the service with or without a security
      mechanism, or for updated variants of a service)

   o  IANA will allocate only one assigned port number for all different
      types of device using or participating in the same service

   o  IANA will allocate port numbers only for the transport protocol(s)
      explicitly named in a registration request

   o  IANA may recover unused port numbers, via the new procedures of
      de-registration, revocation, and transfer

   Where possible, a given service is expected to demultiplex messages
   if necessary.  For example, applications and protocols are expected
   to include in-band version information, so that future versions of
   the application or protocol can share the same allocated port.
   Applications and protocols are also expected to be able to
   efficiently use a single allocated port for multiple sessions, either
   by demultiplexing multiple streams within one port, or using the
   allocated port to coordinate using dynamic ports for subsequent
   exchanges (e.g., in the spirit of FTP [RFC0959]).

   Ports are used in various ways, notably:

   o  as endpoint process identifiers

   o  as application protocol identifiers

   o  for firewall filtering purposes

   Both the process identifier and the protocol identifier uses suggest
   that anything a single process can demultiplex, or that can be
   encoded into a single protocol, should be.  The firewall filtering
   use suggests that some uses that could be multiplexed or encoded
   could instead be separated to allow for easier firewall management.
   Note that this latter use is much less sound, because port numbers
   have meaning only for the two endpoints involved in a connection, and
   drawing conclusions about the service that generated a given flow
   based on observed port numbers is not always reliable.  Further,
   previous separation of protocol variants based on security
   capabilities (e.g., HTTP on TCP port 80 vs. HTTPS on TCP port 443) is
   not recommended for new protocols, because all new protocols should
   be security-capable and capable of negotiating the use of security

   IANA will begin assigning port numbers for only those transport
   protocols explicitly included in a registration request.  This ends
   the long-standing practice of automatically assigning a port number
   to an application for both TCP and a UDP, even if the request is for
   only one of these transport protocols.  The new allocation procedure
   conserves resources by allocating a port number to an application for
   only those transport protocols (TCP, UDP, SCTP and/or DCCP) it
   actually uses.  The port number will be marked as Reserved - instead
   of Assigned - in the port number registries of the other transport
   protocols.  When applications start supporting the use of some of
   those additional transport protocols, the Registrant for the
   registration MUST request IANA to convert the reservation into a
   proper assignment.  An application MUST NOT assume that it can use a
   port number assigned to it for use with one transport protocol with
   another transport protocol without asking IANA to convert the
   reservation into an assignment.

   When the available pool of unassigned numbers has run out in a ports
   range, it will be necessary for IANA to consider the Reserved ports
   for assignment.  This is part of the motivation for not automatically
   assigning ports for transport protocols other than the requested
   one(s).  This will allow more ports to be available for assignment
   when that time comes.  To help conserve ports, application developers
   should register only the transport protocols that their application
   currently uses.

   Conservation of port numbers is improved by procedures that allow
   previously allocated port numbers to become Unassigned, either
   through de-registration or through revocation, and by a procedure
   that lets application designers transfer an allocated but unused port
   number to a new application.  Section 8 describes these procedures,
   which until now were undocumented.  Port number conservation is also
   improved by recommending that applications that do not require an
   allocated port should register only a service name without an
   associated port number.

8.  IANA Procedures for Managing the Service Name and Transport Protocol
    Port Number Registry

   This section describes the process for handling requests associated
   with IANA's management of the Service Name and Transport Protocol
   Port Number Registry.  Such requests include initial registration,
   de-registration, re-use, changes to the service name, and updates to
   the contact information or description associated with an assignment.
   Revocation is as additional process, initiated by IANA.

8.1.  Service Name and Port Number Registration

   Registration refers to the allocation of service names or port
   numbers to applicants.  All such registrations are made from service
   names or port numbers that are Unassigned or Reserved at the time of
   the allocation.  Unassigned names and numbers are allocated according
   to the rules described in Section 8.1.1 below.  Reserved numbers and
   names are assigned only by Standards Action or IESG Approval, and
   MUST accompanied by a statement explaining the reason a Reserved
   number or name is appropriate for this action.

   When a registration for one or more transport protocols is approved,
   the port number for any non-requested transport protocol(s) will be
   marked as Reserved.  IANA SHOULD NOT assign that port number to any
   other application or service until no other port numbers remain
   Unassigned in the requested range.  The current Registrant for a port
   number MAY register these Reserved port numbers for other transport
   protocols when needed.

   A service name or port number registration request contains the
   following information.  The service name is the unique identifier of
   a given service:

      Service Name (REQUIRED)
      Transport Protocol(s) (REQUIRED)
      Registrant (REQUIRED)
      Contact (REQUIRED)
      Description (REQUIRED)
      Reference (REQUIRED)
      Port Number (OPTIONAL)
      Service Code (REQUIRED for DCCP only)
      Known Unauthorized Uses (OPTIONAL)
      Assignment Notes (OPTIONAL)

   o  Service Name: A desired unique service name for the service
      associated with the registration request MUST be provided, for use
      in various service selection and discovery mechanisms (including,
      but not limited to, DNS SRV records [RFC2782]).  The name MUST be
      compliant with the syntax defined in Section 5.1.  In order to be
      unique, they MUST NOT be identical to any currently assigned
      service name in the IANA registry [PORTREG].  Service names are
      case-insensitive; they may be provided and entered into the
      registry with mixed case for clarity, but for the comparison
      purposes the case is ignored.

   o  Transport Protocol(s): The transport protocol(s) for which a
      allocation is requested MUST be provided.  This field is currently
      limited to one or more of TCP, UDP, SCTP, and DCCP.  Requests
      without any port allocation and only a service name are still
      required to indicate which protocol the service uses.

   o  Registrant: Name and email address of the Registrant.  This is
      REQUIRED.  The Registrant is the Organization or Company
      responsible for the initial registration.  For registrations done
      through IETF-published RFCs, the Registrant will be the IESG.

   o  Contact: Name and email address of the Contact person for the
      registration.  This is REQUIRED.  The Contact person is the
      responsible person for the Internet community to send questions
      to.  This person would also be authorized to submit changes on
      behalf of the Registrant; in cases of conflict between the
      Registrant and the Contact, the Registrant decisions take
      precedence.  Additional address information MAY be provided.  For
      registrations done through IETF-published RFCs, the Contact will
      be the IESG.

   o  Description: A short description of the service associated with
      the registration request is REQUIRED.  It should avoid all but the
      most well-known acronyms.

   o  Reference: A description of (or a reference to a document
      describing) the protocol or application using this port.  The
      description must state whether the protocol uses broadcast,
      multicast, or anycast communication.

      For registrations requesting only a Service Name, or a Service
      Name and User Port, a statement that the protocol is proprietary
      and not publicly documented is also acceptable provided that the
      required information regarding use of broadcast, multicast, or
      anycast is given.

      For registration requests for a User Port, the registration
      request MUST explain why a port number in the Dynamic Ports range
      is unsuitable for the given application.

      For registration requests for a System Port, the registration
      request MUST explain why a port number in the User Ports or
      Dynamic Ports ranges is unsuitable, and a reference to a stable
      protocol specification document MUST be provided.  For requests
      from IETF Working Groups, IANA MAY accept "early registration"
      [RFC4020] requests referencing a sufficiently stable Internet
      Draft instead of a published Standards-Track RFC.

   o  Port Number: If assignment of a port number is desired, either the
      currently Unassigned or Reserved port number the requester
      suggests for allocation, or indication of which port range, user
      or system, that the requester requires, MUST be provided.  If only
      a service name is to be assigned, this field is left empty.  If a
      specific port number is requested, IANA is encouraged to allocate
      the requested number.  If a range is specified, IANA will choose a
      suitable number from the User or System Ports ranges.  Note that
      the applicant MUST NOT use the requested port prior to the
      completion of the registration.

   o  Service Code: If the registration request includes DCCP as a
      transport protocol then the request MUST include a desired unique
      DCCP service code [RFC5595], and MUST NOT include a requested DCCP
      service code otherwise.  Section 19.8 of the DCCP specification
      [RFC4340] defines requirements and rules for allocation, updated
      by this document.

   o  Known Unauthorized Uses: A list of uses by applications or
      organizations who are not the Registrant.  This list may be
      augmented by IANA after assignment when unauthorized uses are

   o  Assignment Notes: Indications of owner/name change, or any other
      assignment process issue.  This list may be updated by IANA after
      assignment to help track changes to an assignment, e.g., de-
      registration, owner/name changes, etc.

   If the registration request is for the addition of a new transport
   protocol to an already assigned service name, IANA needs to confirm
   with the Registrant for the existing assignment whether this addition
   is appropriate.

   If the registration request is for a service name overloading a port
   number (see Section 5), IANA needs to confirm with the Registrant for
   the existing service name whether the registration of the overloading
   is appropriate.

   When IANA receives a registration request - containing the above
   information - that is requesting a port number, IANA SHALL initiate
   an "Expert Review" [RFC5226] in order to determine whether an
   assignment should be made.  For requests that are not requesting a
   port number, IANA SHOULD assign the service name under a simple
   "First Come First Served" policy [RFC5226].

8.1.1.  Variances for Specific Port Number Ranges

   Section 6 describes the different port number ranges.  It is
   important to note that IANA applies slightly different procedures
   when managing the different port ranges of the service name and port
   number registry:

   o  Ports in the Dynamic Ports range (49152-65535) have been
      specifically set aside for local and dynamic use and cannot be
      assigned through IANA.  Application software may simply use them
      for communication without any sort of registration.  On the other
      hand, application software MUST NOT assume that a specific port
      number in the Dynamic Ports range will always be available for
      communication at all times, and a port number in that range hence
      MUST NOT be used as a service identifier.

   o  Ports in the User Ports range (1024-49151) are available for
      registration through IANA, and MAY be used as service identifiers
      upon successful registration.  Because registering a port number
      for a specific application consumes a fraction of the shared
      resource that is the port number registry, IANA will require the
      requester to document the intended use of the port number.  This
      documentation will be input to the "Expert Review" allocation
      procedure [RFC5226], by which IANA will have a technical expert
      review the request to determine whether to grant the registration.
      The submitted documentation MUST explain why using a port number
      in the Dynamic Ports range is unsuitable for the given
      application.  Ports in the User Ports range may also be assigned
      under the "IETF Review" or "IESG Approval" allocation procedures
      [RFC5226], which is how most assignments for IETF protocols are

   o  Ports in the System Ports range (0-1023) are also available for
      registration through IANA.  Because the System Ports range is both
      the smallest and the most densely allocated, the requirements for
      new allocations are more strict than those for the User Ports
      range, and will only be granted under the "IETF Review" or "IESG
      Approval" allocation procedures [RFC5226].  A request for a System
      Port number MUST document *both* why using a port number from the
      User Ports is unsuitable *and* why using a port number from the
      Dynamic Ports ranges is unsuitable for that application.

8.2.  Service Name and Port Number De-Registration

   The Registrant of a granted port number assignment can return the
   port number to IANA at any time if they no longer have a need for it.
   The port number will be de-registered and will be marked as Reserved.
   IANA should not re-assign port numbers that have been de-registered
   until all unassigned port numbers in the specific range have been

   Before proceeding with a port number de-registration, IANA needs to
   reasonably establish that the value is actually no longer in use.

   Because there is much less danger of exhausting the service name
   space compared to the port number space, it is RECOMMENDED that a
   given service name remain assigned even after all associated port
   number assignments have become de-registered.  Under this policy, it
   will appear in the registry as if it had been created through a
   service name registration request that did not include any port

   On rare occasions, it may still be useful to de-register a service
   name.  In such cases, IANA will mark the service name as Reserved.
   IANA will involve their IESG-appointed expert in such cases.

   IANA will include a comment in the registry when de-registration
   happens to indicate its historic usage.

8.3.  Service Name and Port Number Re-Use

   If the Registrant of a granted port number assignment no longer have
   a need for the assigned number, but would like to re-use it for a
   different application, they can submit a request to IANA to do so.

   Logically, port number re-use is to be thought of as a de-
   registration (Section 8.2) followed by an immediate re-registration
   (Section 8.1) of the same port number for a new application.
   Consequently, the information that needs to be provided about the
   proposed new use of the port number is identical to what would need
   to be provided for a new port number allocation for the specific
   ports range.

   Because there is much less danger of exhausting the service name
   space compared to the port number space, it is RECOMMENDED that the
   original service name associated with the prior use of the port
   number remains assigned, and a new service be created and associated
   with the port number.  This is again consistent with viewing a re-use
   request as a de-registration followed by an immediate re-
   registration.  Re-using an assigned service name for a different
   application is NOT RECOMMENDED.

   IANA needs to carefully review such requests before approving them.
   In some instances, the Expert Reviewer will determine that the
   application that the port number was assigned to has found usage
   beyond the original requester, or that there is a concern that it may
   have such users.  This determination MUST be made quickly.  A
   community call concerning revocation of a port number (see below) MAY
   be considered, if a broader use of the port number is suspected.

8.4.  Service Name and Port Number Revocation

   A port number revocation can be thought of as an IANA-initiated de-
   registration (Section 8.2), and has exactly the same effect on the

   Sometimes, it will be clear that a specific port number is no longer
   in use and that IANA can revoke it and mark it as Reserved.  At other
   times, it may be unclear whether a given assigned port number is
   still in use somewhere in the Internet.  In those cases, IANA must
   carefully consider the consequences of revoking the port number, and
   SHOULD only do so if there is an overwhelming need.

   With the help of their IESG-appointed Expert Reviewer, IANA SHALL
   formulate a request to the IESG to issue a four-week community call
   concerning the pending port number revocation.  The IESG and IANA,
   with the Expert Reviewer's support, SHALL determine promptly after
   the end of the community call whether revocation should proceed and
   then communicate their decision to the community.  This procedure
   typically involves similar steps to de-registration except that it is
   initiated by IANA.

   Because there is much less danger of exhausting the service name
   space compared to the port number space, revoking service names is

8.5.  Service Name and Port Number Transfers

   The value of service names and port numbers is defined by their
   careful management as a shared Internet resource, whereas enabling
   transfer allows the potential for associated monetary exchanges.  As
   a result, the IETF does not permit service name or port number
   assignments to be transferred between parties, even when they are
   mutually consenting.

   The appropriate alternate procedure is a coordinated de-registration
   and registration: The new party requests the service name or port
   number via a registration and the previous party releases its
   assignment via the de-registration procedure outlined above.

   With the help of their IESG-appointed Expert Reviewer, IANA SHALL
   carefully determine if there is a valid technical, operational or
   managerial reason to grant the requested new assignment.

8.6.  Maintenance Issues

   In addition to the formal procedures described above, updates to the
   Description and Contact information are coordinated by IANA in an
   informal manner, and may be initiated by either the registrant or by
   IANA, e.g., by the latter requesting an update to current contact
   information.  (Note that Registrant cannot be changed; see
   Section 8.5 above.)

8.7.  Disagreements

   In the case of disagreements around any request there is the
   possibility of appeal following the normal appelas process for IANA
   registrations as defined by Section 7 of "Guidelines for Writing an
   IANA Considerations Section in RFCs" [RFC5226].

9.  Security Considerations

   The IANA guidelines described in this document do not change the
   security properties of UDP, TCP, SCTP, or DCCP.

   Assignment of a service name or port number does not in any way imply
   an endorsement of an application or product, and the fact that
   network traffic is flowing to or from an assigned port number does
   not mean that it is "good" traffic, or even that it is used by the
   assigned service.  Firewall and system administrators should choose
   how to configure their systems based on their knowledge of the
   traffic in question, not based on whether or not there is an assigned
   service name or port number.

   Services are expected to include support for security, either as
   default or dynamically negotiated in-band.  The use of separate
   service name or port number assignments for secure and insecure
   variants of the same service is to be avoided in order to discourage
   the deployment of insecure services.

10.  IANA Considerations

   This document obsoletes Sections 8 and 9.1 of the March 2000 IANA
   Allocation Guidelines [RFC2780].

   Upon approval of this document, IANA is requested to contact Stuart
   Cheshire, maintainer of the independent service name registry
   [SRVREG], in order to merge the contents of that private registry
   into the official IANA registry.  It is expected that the independent
   registry web page will be updated with pointers to the IANA registry
   and to this RFC.

   IANA is instructed to create a new service name entry in the service
   name and port number registry [PORTREG] for any entry in the
   "Protocol and Service Names" registry [PROTSERVREG] that does not
   already have one assigned.

   IANA is also instructed to indicate in the Assignment Notes for "www"
   and "www-http" that they are duplicate terms that refer to the "http"
   service, and should not be used for discovery purposes.  For this
   conceptual service (human-readable web pages served over HTTP) the
   correct service name to use for service discovery purposes is "http"
   (see Section 5).

10.1.  Service Name Consistency

   Section 8.1 defines which character strings are well-formed service
   names, which until now had not been clearly defined.  The definition
   in Section 8.1 was chosen to allow maximum compatibility of service
   names with current and future service discovery mechanisms.

   As of August 5, 2009 approximately 98% of the so-called "Short Names"
   from existing port number registrations [PORTREG] meet the rules for
   legal service names stated in Section 8.1, and hence for these
   services their service name will be exactly the same as their "Short

   The remaining approximately 2% of the exiting "Short Names" are not
   suitable to be used directly as well-formed service names because
   they contain illegal characters such as asterisks, dots, pluses,
   slashes, or underscores.  All existing "Short Names" conform to the
   length requirement of 15 characters or fewer.  For these unsuitable
   "Short Names", listed in the table below, the service name will be
   the Short Name with any illegal characters replaced by hyphens.  IANA
   SHALL add an entry to the registry giving the new well-formed primary
   service name for the existing service, that otherwise duplicates the
   original assignment information.  In the description field of this
   new entry giving the primary service name, IANA SHALL record that it
   assigns a well-formed service name for the previous service and
   reference the original assignment.  In the Assignment Notes field of
   the original assignment, IANA SHALL add a note that this entry is an
   alias to the new well-formed service name, and that the old service
   name is historic, not usable for use with many common service
   discovery mechanisms.

   Names containing illegal characters to be replaced by hyphens:

          | 914c/g         | acmaint_dbd     | acmaint_transd  |
          | atex_elmd      | avanti_cdp      | badm_priv       |
          | badm_pub       | bdir_priv       | bdir_pub        |
          | bmc_ctd_ldap   | bmc_patroldb    | boks_clntd      |
          | boks_servc     | boks_servm      | broker_service  |
          | bues_service   | canit_store     | cedros_fds      |
          | cl/1           | contamac_icm    | corel_vncadmin  |
          | csc_proxy      | cvc_hostd       | dbcontrol_agent |
          | dec_dlm        | dl_agent        | documentum_s    |
          | dsmeter_iatc   | dsx_monitor     | elpro_tunnel    |
          | elvin_client   | elvin_server    | encrypted_admin |
          | erunbook_agent | erunbook_server | esri_sde        |
          | EtherNet/IP-1  | EtherNet/IP-2   | event_listener  |
          | flr_agent      | gds_db          | ibm_wrless_lan  |
          | iceedcp_rx     | iceedcp_tx      | iclcnet_svinfo  |
          | idig_mux       | ife_icorp       | instl_bootc     |
          | instl_boots    | intel_rci       | interhdl_elmd   |
          | lan900_remote  | LiebDevMgmt_A   | LiebDevMgmt_C   |
          | LiebDevMgmt_DM | mapper-ws_ethd  | matrix_vnet     |
          | mdbs_daemon    | menandmice_noh  | msl_lmd         |
          | nburn_id       | ncr_ccl         | nds_sso         |
          | netmap_lm      | nms_topo_serv   | notify_srvr     |
          | novell-lu6.2   | nuts_bootp      | nuts_dem        |
          | ocs_amu        | ocs_cmu         | pipe_server     |
          | pra_elmd       | printer_agent   | redstorm_diag   |
          | redstorm_find  | redstorm_info   | redstorm_join   |
          | resource_mgr   | rmonitor_secure | rsvp_tunnel     |
          | sai_sentlm     | sge_execd       | sge_qmaster     |
          | shiva_confsrvr | sql*net         | srvc_registry   |
          | stm_pproc      | subntbcst_tftp  | udt_os          |
          | universe_suite | veritas_pbx     | vision_elmd     |
          | vision_server  | wrs_registry    | z39.50          |

   Following the example set by the "application/whoispp-query" MIME
   Content-Type [RFC2957], the service name for "whois++" will be

10.2.  Port Numbers for SCTP and DCCP Experimentation

   Two System UDP and TCP ports, 1021 and 1022, have been reserved for
   experimental use [RFC4727].  This document assigns the same port
   numbers for SCTP and DCCP, updates the TCP and UDP registrations, and
   also instructs IANA to automatically assign these two port numbers
   for any future transport protocol with a similar 16-bit port number

   Note that these port numbers are meant for temporary experimentation
   and development in controlled environments.  Before using these port
   numbers, carefully consider the advice in Section 6.1 in this
   document, as well as in Sections 1 and 1.1 of "Assigning Experimental
   and Testing Numbers Considered Useful" [RFC3692].  Most importantly,
   application developers must request a permanent port number
   assignment from IANA as described in Section 8.1 before any kind of
   non-experimental deployment.

            | Registrant         | IETF <>       |
            | Contact            | IESG <>       |
            | Service Name       | exp1                       |
            | Port Number        | 1021                       |
            | Transport Protocol | DCCP, SCTP, TCP, UDP       |
            | Description        | RFC3692-style Experiment 1 |
            | Reference          | [RFCyyyy],RFC 4727]        |

            | Registrant         | IETF <>       |
            | Contact            | IESG <>       |
            | Service Name       | exp2                       |
            | Port Number        | 1022                       |
            | Transport Protocol | DCCP, SCTP, TCP, UDP       |
            | Description        | RFC3692-style Experiment 2 |
            | Reference          | [RFCyyyy], [RFC4727]       |

   [RFC Editor Note: Please change "yyyy" to the RFC number allocated to
   this document before publication.]

10.3.  Updates to DCCP Registries

   This document updates the IANA allocation procedures for the DCCP
   Port Number and DCCP Service Codes Registries [RFC4340].

10.3.1.  DCCP Service Code Registry

   Service Codes are allocated first-come-first-served according to
   Section 19.8 of the DCCP specification [RFC4340].  This document
   updates that section by extending the guidelines given there in the
   following ways:

   o  IANA MAY assign new Service Codes without seeking Expert Review
      using their discretion, but SHOULD seek expert review if a request
      seeks more than five Service Codes.

   o  IANA should feel free to contact the DCCP Expert Reviewer with
      questions on any registry, regardless of the registry policy, for
      clarification or if there is a problem with a request [RFC4340].

10.3.2.  DCCP Port Numbers Registry

   The DCCP ports registry is defined by Section 19.9 of the DCCP
   specification [RFC4340].  Allocations in this registry require prior
   allocation of a Service Code.  Not all Service Codes require IANA-
   assigned ports.  This document updates that section by extending the
   guidelines given there in the following way:

   o  IANA should normally assign a value in the range 1024-49151 to a
      DCCP server port.  IANA allocation requests to allocate port
      numbers in the System Ports range (0 through 1023), require an
      "IETF Review" [RFC5226] prior to allocation by IANA [RFC4340].

   o  IANA MUST NOT allocate more than one DCCP server port to a single
      service code value.

   o  The allocation of multiple service codes to the same DCCP port is
      allowed, but subject to expert review.

   o  The set of Service Code values associated with a DCCP server port
      should be recorded in the service name and port number registry.

   o  A request for additional Service Codes to be associated with an
      already allocated Port Number requires Expert Review.  These
      requests will normally be accepted when they originate from the
      contact associated with the port registration.  In other cases,
      these applications will be expected to use an unallocated port,
      when this is available.

   The DCCP specification [RFC4340] notes that a short port name MUST be
   associated with each DCCP server port that has been assigned.  This
   document clarifies that this short port name is the Service Name as
   defined here, and this name MUST be unique.

11.  Contributors

   Alfred Hoenes ( and Allison Mankin ( have
   contributed text and ideas to this document.

12.  Acknowledgments

   The text in Section 10.3 is based on a suggestion originally proposed
   as a part of the DCCP Service Codes document[RFC5595] by Gorry

   Lars Eggert is partly funded by the Trilogy Project [TRILOGY], a
   research project supported by the European Commission under its
   Seventh Framework Program.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

              American National Standards Institute, "Coded Character
              Set - 7-bit American Standard Code for Information
              Interchange", ANSI X3.4, 1986.

   [RFC0768]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
              August 1980.

   [RFC0793]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
              RFC 793, September 1981.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2780]  Bradner, S. and V. Paxson, "IANA Allocation Guidelines For
              Values In the Internet Protocol and Related Headers",
              BCP 37, RFC 2780, March 2000.

   [RFC3828]  Larzon, L-A., Degermark, M., Pink, S., Jonsson, L-E., and
              G. Fairhurst, "The Lightweight User Datagram Protocol
              (UDP-Lite)", RFC 3828, July 2004.

   [RFC4020]  Kompella, K. and A. Zinin, "Early IANA Allocation of
              Standards Track Code Points", BCP 100, RFC 4020,
              February 2005.

   [RFC4340]  Kohler, E., Handley, M., and S. Floyd, "Datagram
              Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)", RFC 4340, March 2006.

   [RFC4727]  Fenner, B., "Experimental Values In IPv4, IPv6, ICMPv4,
              ICMPv6, UDP, and TCP Headers", RFC 4727, November 2006.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

13.2.  Informative References

              Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service
              Discovery", draft-cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd-06 (work in
              progress), March 2010.

              Cheshire, S., "NAT Port Mapping Protocol (NAT-PMP)",
              draft-cheshire-nat-pmp-03 (work in progress), April 2008.

   [IGD]      UPnP Forum, "Internet Gateway Device (IGD) V 1.0",
              November 2001.

   [PORTREG]  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Service Name
              and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry",

              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Protocol and
              Service Names Registry",

   [RFC0959]  Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol",
              STD 9, RFC 959, October 1985.

   [RFC1078]  Lottor, M., "TCP port service Multiplexer (TCPMUX)",
              RFC 1078, November 1988.

   [RFC1700]  Reynolds, J. and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", RFC 1700,
              October 1994.

   [RFC2782]  Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for
              specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782,
              February 2000.

   [RFC2957]  Daigle, L. and P. Faltstrom, "The application/
              whoispp-query Content-Type", RFC 2957, October 2000.

   [RFC3232]  Reynolds, J., "Assigned Numbers: RFC 1700 is Replaced by
              an On-line Database", RFC 3232, January 2002.

   [RFC3692]  Narten, T., "Assigning Experimental and Testing Numbers
              Considered Useful", BCP 82, RFC 3692, January 2004.

   [RFC4342]  Floyd, S., Kohler, E., and J. Padhye, "Profile for
              Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) Congestion
              Control ID 3: TCP-Friendly Rate Control (TFRC)", RFC 4342,
              March 2006.

   [RFC4960]  Stewart, R., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol",
              RFC 4960, September 2007.

   [RFC5237]  Arkko, J. and S. Bradner, "IANA Allocation Guidelines for
              the Protocol Field", BCP 37, RFC 5237, February 2008.

   [RFC5389]  Rosenberg, J., Mahy, R., Matthews, P., and D. Wing,
              "Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)", RFC 5389,
              October 2008.

   [RFC5595]  Fairhurst, G., "The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
              (DCCP) Service Codes", RFC 5595, September 2009.

   [RFC5766]  Mahy, R., Matthews, P., and J. Rosenberg, "Traversal Using
              Relays around NAT (TURN): Relay Extensions to Session
              Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)", RFC 5766, April 2010.

   [SRVREG]   "DNS SRV Service Types Registry",

   [SYSFORM]  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Application
              for System (Well Known) Port Number",

   [TRILOGY]  "Trilogy Project",

   [USRFORM]  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Application
              for User (Registered) Port Number",

Authors' Addresses

   Michelle Cotton
   Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
   4676 Admiralty Way, Suite 330
   Marina del Rey, CA  90292

   Phone: +1 310 823 9358
   Lars Eggert
   Nokia Research Center
   P.O. Box 407
   Nokia Group  00045

   Phone: +358 50 48 24461

   Joe Touch
   4676 Admiralty Way
   Marina del Rey, CA  90292

   Phone: +1 310 448 9151

   Magnus Westerlund
   Farogatan 6
   Stockholm  164 80

   Phone: +46 8 719 0000

   Stuart Cheshire
   Apple Inc.
   1 Infinite Loop
   Cupertino, CA  95014

   Phone: +1 408 974 3207