Softwire                                                        S. Jiang
Internet-Draft                                                     Y. Fu
Intended status: Standards Track                                  B. Liu
Expires: December 21, 2014 June 22, 2015                      Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
                                                               P. Deacon
                                                      IEA Software, Inc.
                                                           June
                                                       December 19, 2014

                        RADIUS Attribute for MAP
                   draft-ietf-softwire-map-radius-02
                   draft-ietf-softwire-map-radius-03

Abstract

   Mapping of Address and Port (MAP) is a stateless mechanism for
   running IPv4 over IPv6-only infrastructure.  It provides both IPv4
   and IPv6 connectivity services simultaneously during the IPv4/IPv6
   co-existing period.  The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
   (DHCPv6) MAP options has been defined to configure MAP Customer Edge
   (CE).  However, in many networks, the configuration information may
   be stored in Authentication Authorization and Accounting (AAA)
   servers while user configuration is mainly from Broadband Network
   Gateway (BNG) through DHCPv6 protocol.  This document defines a
   Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) attribute that
   carries MAP configuration information from AAA server to BNG.  The
   MAP RADIUS attribute are designed following the simplify principle.
   It provides just enough information to form the correspondent DHCPv6
   MAP option.

Status of This Memo

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  MAP Configuration process with RADIUS . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.1.  MAP-Configuration Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  MAP Rule Options  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.3.  Sub Options for MAP Rule Option . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       4.3.1.  Rule-IPv6-Prefix Sub Option . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       4.3.2.  Rule-IPv4-Prefix Sub Option . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.3.3.  EA Length Sub Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.3.4.  BR-IPv6-Address Sub Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.3.5.  PSID Sub Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.3.6.  PSID Length Sub Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.3.7.  PSID Offset Sub Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.4.  Table of attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Diameter Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   Recently providers start to deploy IPv6 and consider how to transit
   to IPv6.  Mapping of Address and Port (MAP)[I-D.ietf-softwire-map] is
   a stateless mechanism for running IPv4 over IPv6-only infrastructure.
   It provides both IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity services simultaneously
   during the IPv4/IPv6 co-existing period.  MAP has adopted Dynamic
   Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) [RFC3315] as auto-
   configuring protocol.  The MAP Customer Edge (CE) uses the DHCPv6
   extension options [I-D.ietf-softwire-map-dhcp] to discover MAP Border
   Relay (in tunnel model only) and to configure relevant MAP rules.

   In many networks, user configuration information may be managed by
   AAA (Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting) servers.  Current
   AAA servers communicate using the Remote Authentication Dial In User
   Service (RADIUS) [RFC2865] protocol.  In a fixed line broadband
   network, the Broadband Network Gateways (BNGs) act as the access
   gateway of users.  The BNGs are assumed to embed a DHCPv6 server
   function that allows them to locally handle any DHCPv6 requests
   initiated by hosts.

   Since the MAP configuration information is stored in AAA servers and
   user configuration is mainly through DHCPv6 protocol between BNGs and
   hosts/CEs, new RADIUS attributes are needed to propagate the
   information from AAA servers to BNGs.  The MAP RADIUS attributes
   designed in this document are especially for the MAP encapsulation
   mode, while providing enough information to form the correspondent
   DHCPv6 MAP option [I-D.ietf-softwire-map-dhcp].

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   The terms MAP CE and MAP Border Relay are defined in
   [I-D.ietf-softwire-map].

3.  MAP Configuration process with RADIUS

   The below Figure 1 illustrates how the RADIUS protocol and DHCPv6
   cooperate to provide MAP CE with MAP configuration information.

      MAP CE                       BNG                       AAA Server
         |                          |                             |
         |------DHCPv6 Solicit----->|                             |
         |(Option Request w/ MAP option)                          |
         |                          |--Access-Request(MAP Attr)-->|
         |                          |                             |
         |                          |<--Access-Accept(MAP Attr)---|
         |<---DHCPv6 Advertisement--|                             |
         |                          |                             |
         |------DHCPv6  Request---->|                             |
         |      (MAP Option)        |                             |
         |<---- -DHCPv6 Reply-------|                             |
         |      (MAP option)        |                             |
         |                          |                             |
                   DHCPv6                        RADIUS

    Figure 1: the cooperation between DHCPv6 and RADIUS combining with
                           RADIUS authentication

   BNGs act as a RADIUS client and as a DHCPv6 server.  First, the MAP
   CE MAY initiate a DHCPv6 Solicit message that includes an Option
   Request option (6) [RFC3315] with the MAP option
   [I-D.ietf-softwire-map-dhcp] from the MAP CE.  But note that the ORO
   (Option Request option) with the MAP option could be optional if the
   network was planned as MAP-enabled as default.  When BNG receives the
   SOLICIT, it SHOULD initiates radius Access-Request message, in which
   the User-Name attribute (1) SHOULD be filled by the MAP CE MAC
   address, to the RADIUS server and the User-password attribute (2)
   SHOULD be filled by the shared MAP password that has been
   preconfigured on the DHCPv6 server, requesting authentication as
   defined in [RFC2865] with MAP-Configuration attribute, defined in the
   next Section.  If the authentication request is approved by the AAA
   server, an Access-Accept message MUST be acknowledged with the IPv6-
   MAP-Configuration Attribute.  After receiving the Access-Accept
   message with MAP-Configuration Attribute, the BNG SHOULD respond the
   user an Advertisement message.  Then the user can requests for a MAP
   Option, the BNG SHOULD reply the user with the message containing the
   MAP option.  The recommended format of the MAC address is as defined
   in Calling-Station-Id (Section 3.20 in [RFC3580] without the SSID
   (Service Set Identifier) portion.

   Figure 2 describes another scenario, in which the authorization
   operation is not coupled with authentication.  Authorization relevant
   to MAP is done independently after the authentication process.  As
   similar to above scenario, the ORO with the MAP option in the initial
   DHCPv6 request could be optional if the network was planned as MAP-
   enabled as default.

      MAP CE                       BNG                       AAA Server
         |                          |                             |
         |------DHCPv6  Request---->|                             |
         |(Option Request w/ MAP option)                          |
         |                          |--Access-Request(MAP Attr)-->|
         |                          |                             |
         |                          |<--Access-Accept(MAP Attr)---|
         |                          |                             |
         |<-----DHCPv6 Reply--------|                             |
         |      (MAP option)        |                             |
         |                          |                             |
                  DHCPv6                         RADIUS

    Figure 2: the cooperation between DHCPv6 and RADIUS decoupled with
                           RADIUS authentication

   In the abovementioned scenario, the Access-Request packet SHOULD
   contain a Service-Type attribute (6) with the value Authorize Only
   (17); thus, according to [RFC5080], the Access-Request packet MUST
   contain a State attribute that obtained from the previous
   authentication process.

   In both above-mentioned scenarios, Message-authenticator (type 80)
   [RFC2869] SHOULD be used to protect both Access-Request and Access-
   Accept messages.

   After receiving the MAP-Configuration Attribute in the initial
   Access-Accept, the BNG SHOULD store the received MAP configuration
   parameters locally.  When the MAP CE sends a DHCPv6 Request message
   to request an extension of the lifetimes for the assigned address,
   the BNG does not have to initiate a new Access-Request towards the
   AAA server to request the MAP configuration parameters.  The BNG
   could retrieve the previously stored MAP configuration parameters and
   use them in its reply.

   If the BNG does not receive the MAP-Configuration Attribute in the
   Access-Accept it MAY fallback to a pre-configured default MAP
   configuration, if any.  If the BNG does not have any pre-configured
   default MAP configuration or if the BNG receives an Access-Reject,
   the tunnel cannot be established.

   As specified in [RFC3315], section 18.1.4, "Creation and Transmission
   of Rebind Messages ", if the DHCPv6 server to which the DHCPv6 Renew
   message was sent at time T1 has not responded by time T2, the MAP CE
   (DHCPv6 client) SHOULD enters the Rebind state and attempt to contact
   any available server.  In this situation, the secondary BNG receiving
   the DHCPv6 message MUST initiate a new Access-Request towards the AAA
   server.  The secondary BNG MAY include the MAP-Configuration
   Attribute in its Access-Request.

4.  Attributes

   This section defines MAP-Rule Attribute which is used in the MAP
   scenario.  The attribute design follows [RFC6158] and referring
   to[RFC6929].

   The MAP RADIUS attribute are designed following the simplify
   principle.  The sub options are organized into two categories: the
   necessary and the optional.

4.1.  MAP-Configuration Attribute

   The MAP-Configuration Attribute is structured as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Type     |    Length     |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                       MAP Rule Option(s)                      +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Type
       TBD
     Length
       2 + the length of the Rule option(s)
     MAP Rule Option (s)
       A variable field that may contains one or more Rule option(s),
      defined in Section 4.2.

4.2.  MAP Rule Options

   Depending on deployment scenario, one Default Mapping rule and zero
   or more other type Mapping Rules MUST be included in one MAP-
   Configuration Attribute.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Type     |    Length     |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                         Sub Options                           +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      Type
        1 Basic Mapping Rule (Not Forwarding Mapping Rule)
        2 Forwarding Mapping Rule (Not Basic Mapping Rule)
        3 Default Mapping Rule
        4 Basic & Forwarding Mapping Rule
      Length
        2 + the length of the sub options
      Sub Option
        A variable field that contains necessary sub options defined in
        Section 4.3 and zero or several optional sub options, defined
        in Section 4.4.

4.3.  Sub Options for MAP Rule Option

4.3.1.  Rule-IPv6-Prefix Sub Option

   The Rule-IPv6-Prefix Sub Option is necessary for every MAP Rule
   option.  It should appear for once and only once.

   The IPv6 Prefix sub option is followed the framed IPv6 prefix
   designed in [RFC3162].

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |   Reserved    |  prefix6-len  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                        rule-ipv6-prefix                       |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      SubType
         1 (SubType number, for the Rule-IPv6-Prefix6 sub option)
      SubLen
         20 (the length of the Rule-IPv6-Prefix6 sub option)
      Reserved
         Reserved for future usage. It should be set to all zero.
      prefix6-len
         length of the IPv6 prefix, specified in the rule-ipv6-prefix
         field, expressed in bits
      rule-ipv6-prefix
         a 128-bits field that specifies an IPv6 prefix that appears in
         a MAP rule

4.3.2.  Rule-IPv4-Prefix Sub Option

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |   Reserved    |  prefix4-len  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       rule-ipv4-prefix                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      SubType
         2 (SubType number, for the Rule-IPv4-Prefix6 sub option)
      SubLen
         8 (the length of the Rule-IPv4-Prefix6 sub option)
      Reserved
         Reserved for future usage. It should be set to all zero.
      Prefix4-len
         length of the IPv6 prefix, specified in the rule-ipv6-prefix
         field, expressed in bits
      rule-ipv4-prefix
         a 32-bits field that specifies an IPv4 prefix that appears in
         a MAP rule

4.3.3.  EA Length Sub Option

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |             EA-len            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      SubType
         3 (SubType number, for the EA Length sub option)
      SubLen
         4 (the length of the EA Length sub option)
      EA-len
         16 bits long field that specifies the Embedded-Address (EA)
         bit length.  Allowed values range from 0 to 48.

4.3.4.  BR-IPv6-Address Sub Option

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |             Reserved          |         BR-ipv6-address
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                              BR-ipv6-address
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |
                              BR-ipv6-address                        |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                              BR-ipv6-address
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          BR-ipv6-address          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      SubType
         4 (SubType number, for the BR-ipv6-address sub option)
      SubLen
         20 (the length of the BR-ipv6-address sub option)
      Reserved
         Reserved for future usage. It should be set to all zero.
      BR-ipv6-address
         a 128-bits field that specifies the IPv6 address for the BR.

4.3.5.  PSID Sub Option
   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |    SubType    |    SubLen     |              PSID             |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     SubType
        5 (SubType number, for the PSID Sub Option sub option)
     SubLen
        4 (the length of the PSID Sub Option sub option)
     PSID (Port-set ID)
        Explicit 16-bit (unsigned word) PSID value.  The PSID value
        algorithmically identifies a set of ports assigned to a CE. The
        first k-bits on the left of this 2-octets field is the PSID
        value. The remaining (16-k) bits on the right are padding zeros.

4.3.6.  PSID Length Sub Option

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |            PSID-len           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      SubType
         6 (SubType number, for the PSID Length sub option)
      SubLen
         4 (the length of the PSID Length sub option)
      PSID-len
         Bit length value of the number of significant bits in the PSID
         field. (also known as 'k'). When set to 0, the PSID field is to
         be ignored. After the first 'a' bits, there are k bits in the
         port number representing valid of PSID. Subsequently, the
         address sharing ratio would be 2 ^k.

4.3.7.  PSID Offset Sub Option
    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    SubType    |    SubLen     |           PSID Offset         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      SubType
         7 (SubType number, for the PSID Offset sub option)
      SubLen
         4 (the length of the PSID Offset sub option)
      PSID Offset
         4 bits long field that specifies the numeric value for the MAP
         algorithm's excluded port range/offset bits (A-bits), as per
         section 5.1.1 in [I-D.ietf-softwire-map]. Default must be set
         to 4.

4.4.  Table of attributes

   The following table provides a guide to which attributes may be found
   in which kinds of packets, and in what quantity.

   Request Accept Reject Challenge Accounting  #  Attribute
                                    Request
    0-1     0-1     0      0         0-1      TBD1 MAP-
                                                   Configuration
    0-1     0-1     0      0         0-1      1    User-Name
    0-1     0       0      0         0        2    User-Password
    0-1     0-1     0      0         0-1      6    Service-Type
    0-1     0-1     0-1    0-1       0-1      80   Message-Authenticator

   The following table defines the meaning of the above table entries.

   0     This attribute MUST NOT be present in packet.
   0+    Zero or more instances of this attribute MAY be present in
         packet.
   0-1   Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present in
         packet.
   1     Exactly one instance of this attribute MUST be present in
         packet.

5.  Diameter Considerations

   This attribute is usable within either RADIUS or Diameter [RFC6733].
   Since the Attributes defined in this document will be allocated from
   the standard RADIUS type space, no special handling is required by
   Diameter entities.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document requires the assignment of two new RADIUS Attributes
   Types in the "Radius Types" registry (currently located at
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/radius-types for the following
   attributes:

   o  MAP-Configuration TBD1

   IANA should allocate the numbers from the standard RADIUS Attributes
   space using the "IETF Review" policy [RFC5226].

7.  Security Considerations

   In MAP scenarios, both CE and BNG are within a provider network,
   which can be considered as a closed network and a lower security
   threat environment.  A similar consideration can be applied to the
   RADIUS message exchange between BNG and the AAA server.

   Known security vulnerabilities of the RADIUS protocol are discussed
   in [RFC2607], [RFC2865], and[RFC2869].  Use of IPsec [RFC4301] for
   providing security when RADIUS is carried in IPv6 is discussed in
   [RFC3162].

   A malicious user may use MAC address proofing and/or dictionary
   attack on the shared MAP password that has been preconfigured on the
   DHCPv6 server to get unauthorized MAP configuration information.

   Security considerations for MAP specific between MAP CE and BNG are
   discussed in [I-D.ietf-softwire-map].  Furthermore, generic DHCPv6
   security mechanisms can be applied DHCPv6 intercommunication between
   MAP CE and BNG.

   Security considerations for the Diameter protocol are discussed in
   [RFC6733].

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank the valuable comments made by Peter
   Lothberg, Wojciech Dec, and Suresh Krishnan for this document.

   This document was produced using the xml2rfc tool [RFC2629].

9.  References
9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2865]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
              "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC
              2865, June 2000.

   [RFC3162]  Aboba, B., Zorn, G., and D. Mitton, "RADIUS and IPv6", RFC
              3162, August 2001.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3580]  Congdon, P., Aboba, B., Smith, A., Zorn, G., and J. Roese,
              "IEEE 802.1X Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
              (RADIUS) Usage Guidelines", RFC 3580, September 2003.

   [RFC5080]  Nelson, D. and A. DeKok, "Common Remote Authentication
              Dial In User Service (RADIUS) Implementation Issues and
              Suggested Fixes", RFC 5080, December 2007.

   [RFC6158]  DeKok, A. and G. Weber, "RADIUS Design Guidelines", BCP
              158, RFC 6158, March 2011.

   [RFC6929]  DeKok, A. and A. Lior, "Remote Authentication Dial In User
              Service (RADIUS) Protocol Extensions", RFC 6929, April
              2013.

9.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-softwire-map]
              Troan, O., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S.,
              Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, "Mapping of Address and Port
              with Encapsulation (MAP)", draft-ietf-softwire-map-10 draft-ietf-softwire-map-12
              (work in progress), January November 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-softwire-map-dhcp]
              Mrugalski, T., Troan, O., Farrer, I., Perreault, S., Dec,
              W., Bao, C., leaf.yeh.sdo@gmail.com, l., Yeh, L., and X. Deng, "DHCPv6 Options for
              configuration of Softwire Address and Port Mapped
              Clients", draft-ietf-softwire-map-dhcp-07 draft-ietf-softwire-map-dhcp-11 (work in
              progress), March November 2014.

   [RFC2607]  Aboba, B. and J. Vollbrecht, "Proxy Chaining and Policy
              Implementation in Roaming", RFC 2607, June 1999.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.

   [RFC2869]  Rigney, C., Willats, W., and P. Calhoun, "RADIUS
              Extensions", RFC 2869, June 2000.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC6733]  Fajardo, V., Arkko, J., Loughney, J., and G. Zorn,
              "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 6733, October 2012.

Authors' Addresses

   Sheng Jiang
   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
   Q14, Huawei Campus, No.156 Beiqing Road
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing, 100095
   P.R. China

   Email: jiangsheng@huawei.com

   Yu Fu
   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
   Q14, Huawei Campus, No.156 Beiqing Road
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing, 100095
   P.R. China

   Email: eleven.fuyu@huawei.com

   Bing Liu
   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
   Q14, Huawei Campus, No.156 Beiqing Road
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing, 100095
   P.R. China

   Email: leo.liubing@huawei.com
   Peter Deacon
   IEA Software, Inc.
   P.O. Box 1170
   Veradale, WA  99037
   USA

   Email: peterd@iea-software.com