draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast-18.txt   rfc8114.txt 
Softwire WG M. Boucadair Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Boucadair
Internet-Draft Orange Request for Comments: 8114 Orange
Intended status: Standards Track C. Qin Category: Standards Track C. Qin
Expires: August 6, 2017 Cisco ISSN: 2070-1721 Cisco
C. Jacquenet C. Jacquenet
Orange Orange
Y. Lee Y. Lee
Comcast Comcast
Q. Wang Q. Wang
China Telecom China Telecom
February 2, 2017 March 2017
Delivery of IPv4 Multicast Services to IPv4 Clients over an IPv6 Delivery of IPv4 Multicast Services to IPv4 Clients over
Multicast Network an IPv6 Multicast Network
draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast-18
Abstract Abstract
This document specifies a solution for the delivery of IPv4 multicast This document specifies a solution for the delivery of IPv4 multicast
services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast network. The services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast network. The
solution relies upon a stateless IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulation scheme solution relies upon a stateless IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulation scheme
and uses an IPv6 multicast distribution tree to deliver IPv4 and uses an IPv6 multicast distribution tree to deliver IPv4
multicast traffic. The solution is particularly useful for the multicast traffic. The solution is particularly useful for the
delivery of multicast service offerings to DS-Lite serviced delivery of multicast service offerings to customers serviced by
customers. Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite).
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This is an Internet Standards Track document.
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 6, 2017. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8114.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Solution Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Solution Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1. IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1. IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. Multicast Distribution Tree Computation . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2. Multicast Distribution Tree Computation . . . . . . . . . 8
4.3. Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.3. Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5. IPv4/IPv6 Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. IPv4/IPv6 Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.1. Prefix Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.1. Prefix Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.2. Multicast Address Translation Algorithm . . . . . . . . . 9 5.2. Multicast Address Translation Algorithm . . . . . . . . . 10
5.3. Textual Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.3. Textual Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.4. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.4. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. Multicast B4 (mB4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Multicast B4 (mB4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.1. IGMP-MLD Interworking Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.1. IGMP-MLD Interworking Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.2. Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.2. Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.3. Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.3. Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.4. Host Built-in mB4 Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.4. Host Built-In mB4 Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.5. Preserve the Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.5. Preserve the Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7. Multicast AFTR (mAFTR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. Multicast AFTR (mAFTR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7.1. Routing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.1. Routing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7.2. Processing PIM Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7.2. Processing PIM Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.3. Switching from Shared Tree to Shortest Path Tree . . . . 14 7.3. Switching from Shared Tree to Shortest Path Tree . . . . 15
7.4. Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7.4. Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7.5. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7.5. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8. Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8. Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8.1. Other Operational Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.1. Other Operational Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8.1.1. The IPv6 DR is Co-Located with the mAFTR . . . . . . 15 8.1.1. The IPv6 DR is Co-located with the mAFTR . . . . . . 16
8.1.2. The IPv4 DR is Co-Located with the mAFTR . . . . . . 15 8.1.2. The IPv4 DR is Co-located with the mAFTR . . . . . . 16
8.2. Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.2. Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8.3. mAFTR Policy Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.3. mAFTR Policy Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8.4. Static vs. Dynamic PIM Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.4. Static vs. Dynamic PIM Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
9.1. Firewall Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9.1. Firewall Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Appendix A. Use Case: IPTV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix A. Use Case: IPTV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Appendix B. Older Versions of Group Membership Management Appendix B. Older Versions of Group Membership Management
Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
DS-Lite [RFC6333] is an IPv4 address-sharing technique that enables DS-Lite [RFC6333] is an IPv4 address-sharing technique that enables
operators to multiplex public IPv4 addresses while provisioning only operators to multiplex public IPv4 addresses while provisioning only
IPv6 to users. A typical DS-Lite scenario is the delivery of an IPv4 IPv6 to users. A typical DS-Lite scenario is the delivery of an IPv4
service to an IPv4 user over an IPv6 network (denoted as a 4-6-4 service to an IPv4 user over an IPv6 network (denoted as a 4-6-4
scenario). [RFC6333] covers unicast services exclusively. scenario). [RFC6333] covers unicast services exclusively.
This document specifies a generic solution for the delivery of IPv4 This document specifies a generic solution for the delivery of IPv4
multicast services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast network. multicast services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast network.
The solution was developed with DS-Lite in mind (see more discussion The solution was developed with DS-Lite in mind (see more discussion
below). The solution is however not limited to DS-Lite; it can be below). However, the solution is not limited to DS-Lite; it can also
applied in other deployment contexts, such as [RFC7596][RFC7597]. be applied in other deployment contexts, such as the ones described
in [RFC7596] and [RFC7597].
If customers have to access IPv4 multicast-based services through a If customers have to access IPv4 multicast-based services through a
DS-Lite environment, Address Family Transition Router (AFTR) devices DS-Lite environment, Address Family Transition Router (AFTR) devices
will have to process all the Internet Group Management Protocol will have to process all the Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP) Report messages [RFC2236] [RFC3376] that have been forwarded (IGMP) Report messages [RFC2236] [RFC3376] that have been forwarded
by the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) into the IPv4-in-IPv6 by the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) into the IPv4-in-IPv6
tunnels. From that standpoint, AFTR devices are likely to behave as tunnels. From that standpoint, AFTR devices are likely to behave as
a replication point for downstream multicast traffic, and the a replication point for downstream multicast traffic, and the
multicast packets will be replicated for each tunnel endpoint that multicast packets will be replicated for each tunnel endpoint that
IPv4 receivers are connected to. IPv4 receivers are connected to.
This kind of DS-Lite environment raises two major issues: This kind of DS-Lite environment raises two major issues:
1. The IPv6 network loses the benefits of the multicast traffic 1. The IPv6 network loses the benefits of efficient multicast
forwarding efficiency because it is unable to deterministically traffic forwarding because it is unable to deterministically
replicate the data as close to the receivers as possible. As a replicate the data as close to the receivers as possible. As a
consequence, the downstream bandwidth in the IPv6 network will be consequence, the downstream bandwidth in the IPv6 network will be
vastly consumed by sending multicast data over a unicast vastly consumed by sending multicast data over a unicast
infrastructure. infrastructure.
2. The AFTR is responsible for replicating multicast traffic and 2. The AFTR is responsible for replicating multicast traffic and
forwarding it into each tunnel endpoint connecting IPv4 receivers forwarding it into each tunnel endpoint connecting IPv4 receivers
that have explicitly asked for the corresponding contents. This that have explicitly asked for the corresponding content. This
process may significantly consume the AFTR's resources and process may significantly consume the AFTR's resources and
overload the AFTR. overload the AFTR.
This document specifies an extension to the DS-Lite model to deliver This document specifies an extension to the DS-Lite model to deliver
IPv4 multicast services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast- IPv4 multicast services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast-
enabled network. enabled network.
This document describes a stateless translation mechanism that This document describes a stateless translation mechanism that
supports either Source Specific Multicast (SSM) or Any Source supports either Source-Specific Multicast (SSM) or Any-Source
Multicast (ASM) operation. The recommendation in Section 1 of Multicast (ASM) operation. The recommendation in Section 1 of
[RFC4607] is that multicast services use SSM where possible; the [RFC4607] is that multicast services use SSM where possible; the
operation of the translation mechanism is also simplified when SSM is operation of the translation mechanism is also simplified when SSM is
used, e.g., considerations for placement of the IPv6 the Rendezvous used, e.g., considerations for placement of the IPv6 Rendezvous Point
Point (RP) are no longer relevant. (RP) are no longer relevant.
1.1. Requirements Language 1.1. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
This document makes use of the following terms: This document makes use of the following terms:
IPv4-embedded IPv6 address: an IPv6 address which embeds a 32-bit- IPv4-embedded IPv6 address: an IPv6 address that embeds a 32-bit-
encoded IPv4 address. An IPv4-embedded IPv6 address can be encoded IPv4 address. An IPv4-embedded IPv6 address can be
unicast or multicast. unicast or multicast.
mPrefix64: a dedicated multicast IPv6 prefix for constructing mPrefix64: a dedicated multicast IPv6 prefix for constructing
IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast addresses. mPrefix64 can be of two IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast addresses. mPrefix64 can be of two
types: ASM_mPrefix64 used in Any Source Multicast (ASM) mode or types: ASM_mPrefix64 used in Any-Source Multicast (ASM) mode or
SSM_mPrefix64 used in Source Specific Multicast (SSM) mode SSM_mPrefix64 used in Source-Specific Multicast (SSM) mode
[RFC4607]. The size of this prefix is /96. [RFC4607]. The size of this prefix is /96.
Note: "64" is used as an abbreviation for IPv6-IPv4 Note: "64" is used as an abbreviation for IPv6-IPv4
interconnection. interconnection.
uPrefix64: a dedicated IPv6 unicast prefix for constructing uPrefix64: a dedicated IPv6 unicast prefix for constructing
IPv4-embedded IPv6 unicast addresses [RFC6052]. This prefix may IPv4-embedded IPv6 unicast addresses [RFC6052]. This prefix may
be either the Well-Known Prefix (i.e., 64:ff9b::/96) or a Network- be either the Well-Known Prefix (i.e., 64:ff9b::/96) or a Network-
Specific Prefix (NSP). Specific Prefix (NSP).
Multicast AFTR (mAFTR): a functional entity which supports an Multicast AFTR (mAFTR): a functional entity that supports an
IPv4-IPv6 multicast interworking function (refer to Figure 3). It IPv4-IPv6 multicast interworking function (refer to Figure 3). It
receives and encapsulates the IPv4 multicast packets into IPv4-in- receives and encapsulates the IPv4 multicast packets into IPv4-in-
IPv6 packets. Also, it behaves as the corresponding IPv6 IPv6 packets. Also, it behaves as the corresponding IPv6
multicast source for the encapsulated IPv4-in-IPv6 packets. multicast source for the encapsulated IPv4-in-IPv6 packets.
Multicast Basic Bridging BroadBand (mB4): a functional entity which Multicast Basic Bridging BroadBand (mB4): a functional entity that
supports an IGMP-MLD interworking function (refer to Section 6.1) supports an IGMP-MLD Interworking function (refer to Section 6.1)
that translates the IGMP messages into the corresponding Multicast that translates the IGMP messages into the corresponding Multicast
Listener Discovery (MLD) messages, and sends the MLD messages to Listener Discovery (MLD) messages and sends the MLD messages to
the IPv6 network. In addition, the mB4 decapsulates IPv4-in-IPv6 the IPv6 network. In addition, the mB4 decapsulates IPv4-in-IPv6
multicast packets. multicast packets.
PIMv4: refers to Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) when deployed PIMv4: refers to Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) when deployed
in an IPv4 infrastructure (i.e., IPv4 transport capabilities are in an IPv4 infrastructure (i.e., IPv4 transport capabilities are
used to exchange PIM messages). used to exchange PIM messages).
PIMv6: refers to PIM when deployed in an IPv6 infrastructure (i.e., PIMv6: refers to PIM when deployed in an IPv6 infrastructure (i.e.,
IPv6 transport capabilities are used to exchange PIM messages). IPv6 transport capabilities are used to exchange PIM messages).
Host portion of the MLD protocol: refers to the part of MLD that Host portion of the MLD protocol: refers to the part of MLD that
applies to all multicast address listeners (Section 6 of applies to all multicast address listeners (Section 6 of
[RFC3810]). As a reminder, MLD specifies separate behaviors for [RFC3810]). As a reminder, MLD specifies separate behaviors for
multicast address listeners (i.e., hosts or routers that listen to multicast address listeners (i.e., hosts or routers that listen to
multicast packets) and multicast routers. multicast packets) and multicast routers.
Router portion of the IGMP protocol: refers to the part of IGMP that Router portion of IGMP: refers to the part of IGMP that is performed
is performed by multicast routers (Section 6 of [RFC3376]). by multicast routers (Section 6 of [RFC3376]).
DR: refers to the Designated Router as defined in [RFC7761]. DR: refers to the Designated Router as defined in [RFC7761].
3. Scope 3. Scope
This document focuses only on the subscription to IPv4 multicast This document focuses only on the subscription to IPv4 multicast
groups and the delivery of IPv4-formatted content to IPv4 receivers groups and the delivery of IPv4-formatted content to IPv4 receivers
over an IPv6-only network. In particular, only the following case is over an IPv6-only network. In particular, only the following case is
covered: covered:
IPv4 receivers access IPv4 multicast contents over IPv6-only IPv4 receivers access IPv4 multicast content over IPv6-only
multicast-enabled networks. multicast-enabled networks.
This document does not cover the source/receiver heuristics, where This document does not cover the source/receiver heuristics, where
IPv4 receivers can also behave as IPv4 multicast sources. This IPv4 receivers can also behave as IPv4 multicast sources. This
document assumes that hosts behind the mB4 are IPv4 multicast document assumes that hosts behind the mB4 are IPv4 multicast
receivers only. Also, the document covers host built-in mB4 receivers only. Also, the document covers the host built-in mB4
function. function.
4. Solution Overview 4. Solution Overview
In the DS-Lite specification [RFC6333], an IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel is In the DS-Lite specification [RFC6333], an IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel is
used to carry bidirectional IPv4 unicast traffic between a B4 and an used to carry bidirectional IPv4 unicast traffic between a B4 and an
AFTR. The solution specified in this document provides an IPv4-in- AFTR. The solution specified in this document provides an IPv4-in-
IPv6 encapsulation scheme to deliver unidirectional IPv4 multicast IPv6 encapsulation scheme to deliver unidirectional IPv4 multicast
traffic from an mAFTR to an mB4. traffic from an mAFTR to an mB4.
An overview of the solution is provided in this section which is An overview of the solution is provided in this section; it is
intended as an introduction to how it works, but is not normative. intended as an introduction to how it works but is not normative.
For the normative specifications of the two new functional elements: For the normative specifications of the two new functional elements,
mB4 and mAFTR (Figure 1), refer to Sections 6 and 7. mB4 and mAFTR (Figure 1), refer to Sections 6 and 7.
------------ ------------
/ \ / \
| IPv4 network | | IPv4 network |
\ / \ /
------------ ------------
IPv4 multicast : | ^ PIMv4 Join IPv4 multicast : | ^ PIMv4 Join
v | : v | :
+-------------+ +-------------+
skipping to change at page 7, line 19 skipping to change at page 7, line 50
unicast prefix (uPrefix64) are provided to the mAFTR and the mB4 unicast prefix (uPrefix64) are provided to the mAFTR and the mB4
elements, both of which contribute to the computation and the elements, both of which contribute to the computation and the
maintenance of the IPv6 multicast distribution tree that extends the maintenance of the IPv6 multicast distribution tree that extends the
IPv4 multicast distribution tree into the IPv6 multicast network. IPv4 multicast distribution tree into the IPv6 multicast network.
The IPv4/IPv6 address mapping is stateless. The IPv4/IPv6 address mapping is stateless.
The mAFTR and the mB4 use mPrefix64 to convert an IPv4 multicast The mAFTR and the mB4 use mPrefix64 to convert an IPv4 multicast
address (G4) into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address (G6). The address (G4) into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address (G6). The
mAFTR and the mB4 use uPrefix64 to convert an IPv4 source address mAFTR and the mB4 use uPrefix64 to convert an IPv4 source address
(S4) into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 address (S6). The mAFTR and the mB4 (S4) into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 address (S6). The mAFTR and the mB4
must use the same mPrefix64 and uPrefix64, and also run the same must use the same mPrefix64 and uPrefix64; they also run the same
algorithm for building IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses. Refer to algorithm for building IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses. Refer to
Section 5 for more details about the address mapping. Section 5 for more details about the address mapping.
4.2. Multicast Distribution Tree Computation 4.2. Multicast Distribution Tree Computation
When an IPv4 receiver connected to the device that embeds the mB4 When an IPv4 receiver connected to the device that embeds the mB4
capability wants to subscribe to an IPv4 multicast group, it sends an capability wants to subscribe to an IPv4 multicast group, it sends an
IGMP Report message towards the mB4. The mB4 creates the IPv6 IGMP Report message towards the mB4. The mB4 creates the IPv6
multicast group (G6) address using mPrefix64 and the original IPv4 multicast group (G6) address using mPrefix64 and the original IPv4
multicast group address. If the receiver sends a source-specific multicast group address. If the receiver sends a source-specific
IGMPv3 Report message, the mB4 will create the IPv6 source address IGMPv3 Report message, the mB4 will create the IPv6 source address
(S6) using uPrefix64 and the original IPv4 source address. (S6) using uPrefix64 and the original IPv4 source address.
The mB4 uses the G6 (and both S6 and G6 in SSM) to create the The mB4 uses the G6 (and both S6 and G6 in SSM) to create the
corresponding MLD Report message. The mB4 sends the Report message corresponding MLD Report message. The mB4 sends the Report message
towards the IPv6 network. The PIMv6 Designated Router receives the towards the IPv6 network. The PIMv6 DR receives the MLD Report
MLD Report message and sends the PIMv6 Join message to join the IPv6 message and sends the PIMv6 Join message to join the IPv6 multicast
multicast distribution tree. It can send either PIMv6 Join (*,G6) in distribution tree. It can send either PIMv6 Join (*,G6) in ASM or
ASM or PIMv6 Join (S6,G6) in SSM to the mAFTR. PIMv6 Join (S6,G6) in SSM to the mAFTR.
The mAFTR acts as the IPv6 DR to which the uPrefix64-derived S6 is The mAFTR acts as the IPv6 DR to which the uPrefix64-derived S6 is
connected. The mAFTR will receive the source-specific PIMv6 Join connected. The mAFTR will receive the source-specific PIMv6 Join
message (S6,G6) from the IPv6 multicast network. If the mAFTR is the message (S6,G6) from the IPv6 multicast network. If the mAFTR is the
Rendezvous Point (RP) of G6, it will receive the any-source PIMv6 Rendezvous Point (RP) of G6, it will receive the any-source PIMv6
Join message (*,G6) from the IPv6 multicast network. If the mAFTR is Join message (*,G6) from the IPv6 multicast network. If the mAFTR is
not the RP of G6, it will send the PIM Register message to the RP of not the RP of G6, it will send the PIM Register message to the RP of
G6 located in the IPv6 multicast network. For the sake of G6 located in the IPv6 multicast network. For the sake of
simplicity, it is recommended to configure the mAFTR as the RP for simplicity, it is recommended to configure the mAFTR as the RP for
the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast groups it manages; no registration the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast groups it manages; no registration
skipping to change at page 8, line 21 skipping to change at page 8, line 52
extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4) and IPv4 source address extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4) and IPv4 source address
(S4) and send the corresponding (S4,G4) PIMv4 Join message directly (S4) and send the corresponding (S4,G4) PIMv4 Join message directly
to the IPv4 source. to the IPv4 source.
A branch of the multicast distribution tree is thus constructed, A branch of the multicast distribution tree is thus constructed,
comprising both an IPv4 part (from the mAFTR upstream) and an IPv6 comprising both an IPv4 part (from the mAFTR upstream) and an IPv6
part (from mAFTR downstream towards the mB4). part (from mAFTR downstream towards the mB4).
The mAFTR advertises the route of uPrefix64 with an IPv6 Interior The mAFTR advertises the route of uPrefix64 with an IPv6 Interior
Gateway Protocol (IGP), so as to represent the IPv4-embedded IPv6 Gateway Protocol (IGP), so as to represent the IPv4-embedded IPv6
source in the IPv6 multicast network, and to allow IPv6 routers to source in the IPv6 multicast network and to allow IPv6 routers to run
run the Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) check procedure on incoming the Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) check procedure on incoming
multicast traffic. Injecting internal /96 routes is not problematic multicast traffic. Injecting internal /96 routes is not problematic
given the recommendation in [RFC7608] that requires that forwarding given the recommendation in [RFC7608] that requires that forwarding
processes must be designed to process prefixes of any length up to processes must be designed to process prefixes of any length up to
/128. /128.
4.3. Multicast Data Forwarding 4.3. Multicast Data Forwarding
When the mAFTR receives an IPv4 multicast packet, it will encapsulate When the mAFTR receives an IPv4 multicast packet, it will encapsulate
the packet into an IPv6 multicast packet using the IPv4-embedded IPv6 the packet into an IPv6 multicast packet using the IPv4-embedded IPv6
multicast address as the destination address and an IPv4-embedded multicast address as the destination address and an IPv4-embedded
IPv6 unicast address as the source address. The encapsulated IPv6 IPv6 unicast address as the source address. The encapsulated IPv6
multicast packet will be forwarded down the IPv6 multicast multicast packet will be forwarded down the IPv6 multicast
distribution tree and the mB4 will eventually receive the packet. distribution tree, and the mB4 will eventually receive the packet.
The IPv6 multicast network treats the IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulated The IPv6 multicast network treats the IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulated
multicast packets as native IPv6 multicast packets. The IPv6 multicast packets as native IPv6 multicast packets. The IPv6
multicast routers use the outer IPv6 header to make their forwarding multicast routers use the outer IPv6 header to make their forwarding
decisions. decisions.
When the mB4 receives the IPv6 multicast packet (to G6) derived by When the mB4 receives the IPv6 multicast packet (to G6) derived by
mPrefix64, it decapsulates it and forwards the original IPv4 mPrefix64, it decapsulates it and forwards the original IPv4
multicast packet towards the receivers subscribing to G4. multicast packet towards the receivers subscribing to G4.
Note: At this point, only IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulation is defined; Note: At this point, only IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulation is defined;
however, other types of encapsulation could be defined in the future. however, other types of encapsulation could be defined in the future.
5. IPv4/IPv6 Address Mapping 5. IPv4/IPv6 Address Mapping
5.1. Prefix Assignment 5.1. Prefix Assignment
A dedicated IPv6 multicast prefix (mPrefix64) is provisioned to the A dedicated IPv6 multicast prefix (mPrefix64) is provisioned to the
mAFTR and the mB4. The mAFTR and the mB4 use the mPrefix64 to form mAFTR and the mB4. The mAFTR and the mB4 use the mPrefix64 to form
an IPv6 multicast group address from an IPv4 multicast group address. an IPv6 multicast group address from an IPv4 multicast group address.
The mPrefix64 can be of two types: ASM_mPrefix64 (a mPrefix64 used in The mPrefix64 can be of two types: ASM_mPrefix64 (an mPrefix64 used
ASM mode) or SSM_mPrefix64 (a mPrefix64 used in SSM mode). The in ASM mode) or SSM_mPrefix64 (an mPrefix64 used in SSM mode). The
mPrefix64 MUST be derived from the corresponding IPv6 multicast mPrefix64 MUST be derived from the corresponding IPv6 multicast
address space (e.g., the SSM_mPrefix64 must be in the range of address space (e.g., the SSM_mPrefix64 must be in the range of the
multicast address space specified in [RFC4607]). multicast address space specified in [RFC4607]).
The IPv6 part of the multicast distribution tree can be seen as an The IPv6 part of the multicast distribution tree can be seen as an
extension of the IPv4 part of the multicast distribution tree. The extension of the IPv4 part of the multicast distribution tree. The
IPv4 source address MUST be mapped to an IPv6 source address. An IPv4 source address MUST be mapped to an IPv6 source address. An
IPv6 unicast prefix (uPrefix64) is provisioned to the mAFTR and the IPv6 unicast prefix (uPrefix64) is provisioned to the mAFTR and the
mB4. The mAFTR and the mB4 use the uPrefix64 to form an IPv6 source mB4. The mAFTR and the mB4 use the uPrefix64 to form an IPv6 source
address from an IPv4 source address as specified in [RFC6052]. The address from an IPv4 source address as specified in [RFC6052]. The
uPrefix-formed IPv6 source address will represent the original IPv4 uPrefix-formed IPv6 source address will represent the original IPv4
source in the IPv6 multicast network. The uPrefix64 MUST be derived source in the IPv6 multicast network. The uPrefix64 MUST be derived
from the IPv6 unicast address space. from the IPv6 unicast address space.
The multicast address translation MUST follow the algorithm defined The multicast address translation MUST follow the algorithm defined
in Section 5.2. in Section 5.2.
The mPrefix64 and uPrefix64 can be configured in the mB4 using a The mPrefix64 and uPrefix64 can be configured in the mB4 using a
variety of methods, including an out-of-band mechanism, manual variety of methods, including an out-of-band mechanism, manual
configuration, or a dedicated provisioning protocol (e.g., using configuration, or a dedicated provisioning protocol (e.g., using
DHCPv6 [I-D.ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option]). DHCPv6 [RFC8115]).
The stateless translation mechanism described in Section 5 does not The stateless translation mechanism described in Section 5 does not
preclude use of Embedded-RP [RFC3956][RFC7371]. preclude use of Embedded-RP [RFC3956] [RFC7371].
5.2. Multicast Address Translation Algorithm 5.2. Multicast Address Translation Algorithm
IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast addresses are composed according to the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast addresses are composed according to the
following algorithm: following algorithm:
o Concatenate the mPrefix64 96 bits and the 32 bits of the IPv4 o Concatenate the 96 bits of the mPrefix64 and the 32 bits of the
address to obtain a 128-bit address. IPv4 address to obtain a 128-bit address.
The IPv4 multicast addresses are extracted from the IPv4-embedded The IPv4 multicast addresses are extracted from the IPv4-embedded
IPv6 multicast addresses according to the following algorithm: IPv6 multicast addresses according to the following algorithm:
o If the multicast address has a pre-configured mPrefix64, extract o If the multicast address has a pre-configured mPrefix64, extract
the last 32 bits of the IPv6 multicast address. the last 32 bits of the IPv6 multicast address.
An IPv4 source is represented in the IPv6 realm with its An IPv4 source is represented in the IPv6 realm with its
IPv4-converted IPv6 address [RFC6052]. IPv4-converted IPv6 address [RFC6052].
skipping to change at page 10, line 40 skipping to change at page 11, line 21
IPv4 and IPv6 addresses used in this example are derived from the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses used in this example are derived from the
IPv4 and IPv6 blocks reserved for documentation, as per [RFC6676]. IPv4 and IPv6 blocks reserved for documentation, as per [RFC6676].
The unicast IPv4 address of the above example is derived from the The unicast IPv4 address of the above example is derived from the
documentation address block defined in [RFC6890]. documentation address block defined in [RFC6890].
6. Multicast B4 (mB4) 6. Multicast B4 (mB4)
6.1. IGMP-MLD Interworking Function 6.1. IGMP-MLD Interworking Function
The IGMP-MLD Interworking Function combines the IGMP/MLD Proxying The IGMP-MLD Interworking function combines the IGMP/MLD Proxying
function and the address synthesizing operations. The IGMP/MLD function and the address-synthesizing operations. The IGMP/MLD
Proxying function is specified in [RFC4605]. The address translation Proxying function is specified in [RFC4605]. The address translation
is stateless and MUST follow the address mapping specified in is stateless and MUST follow the address mapping specified in
Section 5. Section 5.
The mB4 performs the host portion of the MLD protocol on the upstream The mB4 performs the host portion of the MLD protocol on the upstream
interface. The composition of IPv6 membership in this context is interface. The composition of IPv6 membership in this context is
constructed through address synthesizing operations and MUST constructed through address-synthesizing operations and MUST
synchronize with the membership database maintained in the IGMP synchronize with the membership database maintained in the IGMP
domain. MLD messages are sent natively to the directly connected domain. MLD messages are sent natively to the direct-connected IPv6
IPv6 multicast routers (it will be processed by the PIM DR). The mB4 multicast routers (they will be processed by the PIM DR). The mB4
also performs the router portion of the IGMP protocol on the also performs the router portion of IGMP on the downstream
downstream interface(s). Refer to [RFC4605] for more details. interface(s). Refer to [RFC4605] for more details.
+----------+ IGMP +-------+ MLD +---------+ +----------+ IGMP +-------+ MLD +---------+
| IPv4 |---------| mB4 |---------| PIM | | IPv4 |---------| mB4 |---------| PIM |
| Receiver | | | | DR | | Receiver | | | | DR |
+----------+ +-------+ +---------+ +----------+ +-------+ +---------+
Figure 2: IGMP-MLD Interworking Figure 2: IGMP-MLD Interworking
If SSM is deployed, the mB4 MUST construct the IPv6 source address If SSM is deployed, the mB4 MUST construct the IPv6 source address
(or retrieve the IPv4 source address) using the uPrefix64. The mB4 (or retrieve the IPv4 source address) using the uPrefix64. The mB4
MAY create a membership database which associates the IPv4-IPv6 MAY create a membership database that associates the IPv4-IPv6
multicast groups with the interfaces (e.g., WLAN and Wired Ethernet) multicast groups with the interfaces (e.g., WLAN and Wired Ethernet)
facing IPv4 multicast receivers. facing IPv4 multicast receivers.
6.2. Multicast Data Forwarding 6.2. Multicast Data Forwarding
When the mB4 receives an IPv6 multicast packet, it MUST check the When the mB4 receives an IPv6 multicast packet, it MUST check the
group address and the source address. If the IPv6 multicast group group address and the source address. If the IPv6 multicast group
prefix is mPrefix64 and the IPv6 source prefix is uPrefix64, the mB4 prefix is mPrefix64 and the IPv6 source prefix is uPrefix64, the mB4
MUST decapsulate the IPv6 header [RFC2473]; the decapsulated IPv4 MUST decapsulate the IPv6 header [RFC2473]; the decapsulated IPv4
multicast packet will be forwarded through each relevant interface multicast packet will be forwarded through each relevant interface
following standard IPv4 multicast forwarding procedure. Otherwise, following standard IPv4 multicast forwarding procedures. Otherwise,
the mB4 MUST silently drop the packet. the mB4 MUST silently drop the packet.
As an illustration, if a packet is received from source As an illustration, if a packet is received from source
2001:db8::192.0.2.33 and needs to be forwarded to group 2001:db8::192.0.2.33 and needs to be forwarded to group
ff3x:20:2001:db8::233.252.0.1, the mB4 decapsulates it into an IPv4 ff3x:20:2001:db8::233.252.0.1, the mB4 decapsulates it into an IPv4
multicast packet using 192.0.2.33 as the IPv4 source address and multicast packet using 192.0.2.33 as the IPv4 source address and
using 233.252.0.1 as the IPv4 destination multicast group. This using 233.252.0.1 as the IPv4 destination multicast group. This
example assumes that the mB4 is provisioned with uPrefix64 example assumes that the mB4 is provisioned with uPrefix64
(2001:db8::/96) and mPrefix64 (ff3x:20:2001:db8::/96). (2001:db8::/96) and mPrefix64 (ff3x:20:2001:db8::/96).
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multicast distribution tree reduces the effective MTU size by the multicast distribution tree reduces the effective MTU size by the
size of an IPv6 header. In this specification, the data flow is size of an IPv6 header. In this specification, the data flow is
unidirectional from the mAFTR to the mB4. The mAFTR MUST fragment unidirectional from the mAFTR to the mB4. The mAFTR MUST fragment
the oversized IPv6 packet after the encapsulation into two IPv6 the oversized IPv6 packet after the encapsulation into two IPv6
packets. The mB4 MUST reassemble the IPv6 packets, decapsulate the packets. The mB4 MUST reassemble the IPv6 packets, decapsulate the
IPv6 header, and forward the IPv4 packet to the hosts that have IPv6 header, and forward the IPv4 packet to the hosts that have
subscribed to the corresponding multicast group. Further subscribed to the corresponding multicast group. Further
considerations about fragmentation issues are documented in Sections considerations about fragmentation issues are documented in Sections
5.3 and 6.3 of [RFC6333]. 5.3 and 6.3 of [RFC6333].
6.4. Host Built-in mB4 Function 6.4. Host Built-In mB4 Function
If the mB4 function is implemented in the host which is directly If the mB4 function is implemented in the host that is directly
connected to an IPv6-only network, the host MUST implement the connected to an IPv6-only network, the host MUST implement the
behaviors specified in Sections 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3. The host MAY behaviors specified in Sections 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3. The host MAY
optimize the implementation to provide an Application Programming optimize the implementation to provide an Application Programming
Interface (API) or kernel module to skip the IGMP-MLD Interworking Interface (API) or kernel module to skip the IGMP-MLD Interworking
Function. Optimization considerations are out of scope of this function. Optimization considerations are out of scope of this
specification. specification.
6.5. Preserve the Scope 6.5. Preserve the Scope
When several mPrefix64s are available, if each enclosed IPv4-embedded When several mPrefix64s are available, if each enclosed IPv4-embedded
IPv6 multicast prefix has a distinct scope, the mB4 MUST select the IPv6 multicast prefix has a distinct scope, the mB4 MUST select the
appropriate IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast prefix whose scope matches appropriate IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast prefix whose scope matches
the IPv4 multicast address used to synthesize an IPv4-embedded IPv6 the IPv4 multicast address used to synthesize an IPv4-embedded IPv6
multicast address (specific mappings are listed in Section 8 of multicast address (specific mappings are listed in Section 8 of
[RFC2365]). Mapping is achieved such that the scope of the selected [RFC2365]). Mapping is achieved such that the scope of the selected
IPv6 multicast prefix does not exceed the original IPv4 multicast IPv6 multicast prefix does not exceed the original IPv4 multicast
scope. If the mB4 is instructed to preserve the scope but no IPv6 scope. If the mB4 is instructed to preserve the scope but no IPv6
multicast prefix that matches the IPv4 multicast scope is found, IPv6 multicast prefix that matches the IPv4 multicast scope is found, IPv6
multicast address mapping SHOULD fail. multicast address mapping SHOULD fail.
The mB4 MAY be configured to not preserve the scope when enforcing The mB4 MAY be configured to not preserve the scope when enforcing
the address translation algorithm. the address translation algorithm.
Consider that an mB4 is configured with two mPrefix64s Consider that an mB4 is configured with two mPrefix64s,
ff0e::db8:0:0/96 (Global scope) and ff08::db8:0:0/96 (Organization ff0e::db8:0:0/96 (global scope) and ff08::db8:0:0/96 (organization
scope). If the mB4 receives an IGMP report from an IPv4 receiver to scope). If the mB4 receives an IGMP Report message from an IPv4
subscribe to 233.252.0.1, it checks which mPrefix64 to use in order receiver to subscribe to 233.252.0.1, it checks which mPrefix64 to
to preserve the scope of the requested IPv4 multicast group. In this use in order to preserve the scope of the requested IPv4 multicast
example, given that 233.252.0.1 is intended for global use, the mB4 group. In this example, given that 233.252.0.1 is intended for
creates the IPv6 multicast group (G6) address using ff0e::db8:0:0/96 global use, the mB4 creates the IPv6 multicast group (G6) address
and the original IPv4 multicast group address (233.252.0.1): using ff0e::db8:0:0/96 and the original IPv4 multicast group address
ff0e::db8:233.252.0.1. (233.252.0.1): ff0e::db8:233.252.0.1.
7. Multicast AFTR (mAFTR) 7. Multicast AFTR (mAFTR)
7.1. Routing Considerations 7.1. Routing Considerations
The mAFTR is responsible for interconnecting the IPv4 multicast The mAFTR is responsible for interconnecting the IPv4 multicast
distribution tree with the corresponding IPv6 multicast distribution distribution tree with the corresponding IPv6 multicast distribution
tree. The mAFTR MUST use the uPrefix64 to build the IPv6 source tree. The mAFTR MUST use the uPrefix64 to build the IPv6 source
addresses of the multicast group address derived from mPrefix64. In addresses of the multicast group address derived from mPrefix64. In
other words, the mAFTR MUST be the multicast source whose address is other words, the mAFTR MUST be the multicast source whose address is
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When an mAFTR receives a PIMv6 Join message (*,G6) with an IPv6 When an mAFTR receives a PIMv6 Join message (*,G6) with an IPv6
multicast group address (G6) that is derived from the mPrefix64, it multicast group address (G6) that is derived from the mPrefix64, it
MUST check its IPv6 Tree Information Base (TIB6). If there is an MUST check its IPv6 Tree Information Base (TIB6). If there is an
entry for this G6 address, it MUST check whether the interface entry for this G6 address, it MUST check whether the interface
through which the PIMv6 Join message has been received is in the through which the PIMv6 Join message has been received is in the
outgoing interface (oif) list. If not, the mAFTR MUST add the outgoing interface (oif) list. If not, the mAFTR MUST add the
interface to the oif list. If there is no entry in the TIB6, the interface to the oif list. If there is no entry in the TIB6, the
mAFTR MUST create a new entry (*,G6) for the multicast group. mAFTR MUST create a new entry (*,G6) for the multicast group.
Whether or not the IPv4-in-IPv6 virtual interface is set as the Whether or not the IPv4-in-IPv6 virtual interface is set as the
incoming interface of the newly created entry is up to the incoming interface of the newly created entry is up to the
implementation but it should comply with the mAFTR's multicast data implementation, but it should comply with the mAFTR's multicast data
forwarding behavior, see Section 7.4. forwarding behavior (see Section 7.4).
The mAFTR MUST extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4) from the The mAFTR MUST extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4) from the
IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address (G6) contained in the PIMv6 Join IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address (G6) contained in the PIMv6 Join
message. The mAFTR MUST check its IPv4 Tree Information Base (TIB4). message. The mAFTR MUST check its IPv4 Tree Information Base (TIB4).
If there is an entry for G4, it MUST check whether the IPv4-in-IPv6 If there is an entry for G4, it MUST check whether the IPv4-in-IPv6
virtual interface is in the outgoing interface list. If not, the virtual interface is in the outgoing interface list. If not, the
mAFTR MUST add the interface to the oif list. If there is no entry mAFTR MUST add the interface to the oif list. If there is no entry
for G4, the mAFTR MUST create a new (*,G4) entry in its TIB4 and for G4, the mAFTR MUST create a new (*,G4) entry in its TIB4 and
initiate the procedure for building the shared tree in the IPv4 initiate the procedure for building the shared tree in the IPv4
multicast network without any additional requirement. multicast network without any additional requirement.
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7.4. Multicast Data Forwarding 7.4. Multicast Data Forwarding
When the mAFTR receives an IPv4 multicast packet, it checks its TIB4 When the mAFTR receives an IPv4 multicast packet, it checks its TIB4
to find a matching entry and then forwards the packet to the to find a matching entry and then forwards the packet to the
interface(s) listed in the outgoing interface list. If the IPv4-in- interface(s) listed in the outgoing interface list. If the IPv4-in-
IPv6 virtual interface also belongs to this list, the packet is IPv6 virtual interface also belongs to this list, the packet is
encapsulated with the mPrefix64-derived and uPrefix64-derived encapsulated with the mPrefix64-derived and uPrefix64-derived
IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses to form an IPv6 multicast packet IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses to form an IPv6 multicast packet
[RFC2473]. Then another lookup is made by the mAFTR to find a [RFC2473]. Then another lookup is made by the mAFTR to find a
matching entry in the TIB6. Whether the RPF check for the second matching entry in the TIB6. Whether or not the RPF check for the
lookup is performed or not is up to the implementation and is out of second lookup is performed is up to the implementation and is out of
the scope of this document. The IPv6 multicast packet is then the scope of this document. The IPv6 multicast packet is then
forwarded along the IPv6 multicast distribution tree, based upon the forwarded along the IPv6 multicast distribution tree, based upon the
outgoing interface list of the matching entry in the TIB6. outgoing interface list of the matching entry in the TIB6.
As an illustration, if a packet is received from source 192.0.2.33 As an illustration, if a packet is received from source 192.0.2.33
and needs to be forwarded to group 233.252.0.1, the mAFTR and needs to be forwarded to group 233.252.0.1, the mAFTR
encapsulates it into an IPv6 multicast packet using encapsulates it into an IPv6 multicast packet using
ff3x:20:2001:db8::233.252.0.1 as the IPv6 destination multicast group ff3x:20:2001:db8::233.252.0.1 as the IPv6 destination multicast group
and using 2001:db8::192.0.2.33 as the IPv6 source address. and using 2001:db8::192.0.2.33 as the IPv6 source address.
7.5. Scope 7.5. Scope
The Scope field of IPv4-in-IPv6 multicast addresses should be valued The Scope field of IPv4-in-IPv6 multicast addresses should be valued
accordingly (e.g, to "E" for Global scope) in the deployment accordingly (e.g., to "E" for global scope) in the deployment
environment. This specification does not discuss the scope value environment. This specification does not discuss the scope value
that should be used. that should be used.
The considerations in Section 6.5 are to be followed by the mAFTR. The considerations in Section 6.5 are to be followed by the mAFTR.
8. Deployment Considerations 8. Deployment Considerations
8.1. Other Operational Modes 8.1. Other Operational Modes
8.1.1. The IPv6 DR is Co-Located with the mAFTR 8.1.1. The IPv6 DR is Co-located with the mAFTR
The mAFTR can embed the MLD Querier function (as well as the PIMv6 The mAFTR can embed the MLD Querier function (as well as the PIMv6
DR) for optimization purposes. When the mB4 sends a MLD Report DR) for optimization purposes. When the mB4 sends an MLD Report
message to this mAFTR, the mAFTR should process the MLD Report message to this mAFTR, the mAFTR should process the MLD Report
message that contains the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast group address message that contains the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast group address
and then send the corresponding PIMv4 Join message (Figure 4). and then send the corresponding PIMv4 Join message (Figure 4).
+---------+ +---------+
---------| mAFTR |--------- ---------| mAFTR |---------
MLD |uPrefix64| PIMv4 MLD |uPrefix64| PIMv4
|mPrefix64| |mPrefix64|
+---------+ +---------+
Figure 4: MLD-PIMv4 Interworking Function Figure 4: MLD-PIMv4 Interworking Function
Discussions about the location of the mAFTR capability and related Discussions about the location of the mAFTR capability and related
ASM or SSM multicast design considerations are out of the scope of ASM or SSM multicast design considerations are out of the scope of
this document. this document.
8.1.2. The IPv4 DR is Co-Located with the mAFTR 8.1.2. The IPv4 DR is Co-located with the mAFTR
If the mAFTR is co-located with the IPv4 DR connected to the original If the mAFTR is co-located with the IPv4 DR connected to the original
IPv4 source, it may simply use the uPrefix64 and mPrefix64 prefixes IPv4 source, it may simply use the uPrefix64 and mPrefix64 prefixes
to build the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast packets, and the sending of to build the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast packets, and the sending of
PIMv4 Join messages becomes unnecessary. PIMv4 Join messages becomes unnecessary.
8.2. Load Balancing 8.2. Load Balancing
For robustness and load distribution purposes, several nodes in the For robustness and load distribution purposes, several nodes in the
network can embed the mAFTR function. In such case, the same IPv6 network can embed the mAFTR function. In such case, the same IPv6
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8.4. Static vs. Dynamic PIM Triggering 8.4. Static vs. Dynamic PIM Triggering
To optimize the usage of network resources in current deployments, To optimize the usage of network resources in current deployments,
all multicast streams are conveyed in the core network while only the all multicast streams are conveyed in the core network while only the
most popular ones are forwarded in the aggregation/access networks most popular ones are forwarded in the aggregation/access networks
(static mode). Less popular streams are forwarded in the access (static mode). Less popular streams are forwarded in the access
network upon request (dynamic mode). Depending on the location of network upon request (dynamic mode). Depending on the location of
the mAFTR in the network, two modes can be envisaged: static and the mAFTR in the network, two modes can be envisaged: static and
dynamic. dynamic.
Static Mode: the mAFTR is configured to instantiate permanent Static Mode: The mAFTR is configured to instantiate permanent
(S6,G6) and (*,G6) entries in its TIB6 using a pre-configured (S6,G6) and (*,G6) entries in its TIB6 using a pre-configured
(S4,G4) list. (S4,G4) list.
Dynamic Mode: the instantiation or withdrawal of (S6,G6) or (*,G6) Dynamic Mode: The instantiation or withdrawal of (S6,G6) or (*,G6)
entries is triggered by the receipt of PIMv6 messages. entries is triggered by the receipt of PIMv6 messages.
9. Security Considerations 9. Security Considerations
Besides multicast scoping considerations (see Section 6.5 and Besides multicast scoping considerations (see Sections 6.5 and 7.5),
Section 7.5), this document does not introduce any new security this document does not introduce any new security concerns in
concern in addition to what is discussed in Section 5 of [RFC6052], addition to those discussed in Section 5 of [RFC6052], Section 10 of
Section 10 of [RFC3810] and Section 6 of [RFC7761]. [RFC3810], and Section 6 of [RFC7761].
Unlike solutions that map IPv4 multicast flows to IPv6 unicast flows, Unlike solutions that map IPv4 multicast flows to IPv6 unicast flows,
this document does not exacerbate Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. this document does not exacerbate Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks.
An mB4 SHOULD be provided with appropriate configuration information An mB4 SHOULD be provided with appropriate configuration information
to preserve the scope of a multicast message when mapping an IPv4 to preserve the scope of a multicast message when mapping an IPv4
multicast address into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address and multicast address into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address and
vice versa. vice versa.
9.1. Firewall Configuration 9.1. Firewall Configuration
The CPE that embeds the mB4 function SHOULD be configured to accept The CPE that embeds the mB4 function SHOULD be configured to accept
incoming MLD messages and traffic forwarded to multicast groups incoming MLD messages and traffic forwarded to multicast groups
subscribed by receivers located in the customer premises. subscribed to by receivers located in the customer premises.
10. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Dan Wing for his guidance in the
early discussions which initiated this work. We also thank Peng Sun,
Jie Hu, Qiong Sun, Lizhong Jin, Alain Durand, Dean Cheng, Behcet
Sarikaya, Tina Tsou, Rajiv Asati, Xiaohong Deng, and Stig Venaas for
their valuable comments.
Many thanks to Ian Farrer for the review.
Thanks to Zhen Cao, Tim Chown, Francis Dupont, Jouni Korhonen, and
Stig Venaas for the directorates review.
11. IANA Considerations 10. IANA Considerations
This document includes no request to IANA. This document does not require any IANA actions.
12. References 11. References
12.1. Normative References 11.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2365] Meyer, D., "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", BCP 23, [RFC2365] Meyer, D., "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", BCP 23,
RFC 2365, DOI 10.17487/RFC2365, July 1998, RFC 2365, DOI 10.17487/RFC2365, July 1998,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2365>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2365>.
skipping to change at page 18, line 21 skipping to change at page 19, line 16
Length Recommendation for Forwarding", BCP 198, RFC 7608, Length Recommendation for Forwarding", BCP 198, RFC 7608,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7608, July 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7608, July 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7608>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7608>.
[RFC7761] Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., Kouvelas, I., [RFC7761] Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., Kouvelas, I.,
Parekh, R., Zhang, Z., and L. Zheng, "Protocol Independent Parekh, R., Zhang, Z., and L. Zheng, "Protocol Independent
Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Specification Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Specification
(Revised)", STD 83, RFC 7761, DOI 10.17487/RFC7761, March (Revised)", STD 83, RFC 7761, DOI 10.17487/RFC7761, March
2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7761>. 2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7761>.
12.2. Informative References 11.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option]
Boucadair, M., Qin, J., Tsou, T., and X. Deng, "DHCPv6
Option for IPv4-Embedded Multicast and Unicast IPv6
Prefixes", draft-ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option-13
(work in progress), February 2017.
[RFC2236] Fenner, W., "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version [RFC2236] Fenner, W., "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
2", RFC 2236, DOI 10.17487/RFC2236, November 1997, 2", RFC 2236, DOI 10.17487/RFC2236, November 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2236>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2236>.
[RFC3956] Savola, P. and B. Haberman, "Embedding the Rendezvous [RFC3956] Savola, P. and B. Haberman, "Embedding the Rendezvous
Point (RP) Address in an IPv6 Multicast Address", Point (RP) Address in an IPv6 Multicast Address",
RFC 3956, DOI 10.17487/RFC3956, November 2004, RFC 3956, DOI 10.17487/RFC3956, November 2004,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3956>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3956>.
skipping to change at page 19, line 16 skipping to change at page 20, line 5
Farrer, "Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the Dual- Farrer, "Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the Dual-
Stack Lite Architecture", RFC 7596, DOI 10.17487/RFC7596, Stack Lite Architecture", RFC 7596, DOI 10.17487/RFC7596,
July 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7596>. July 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7596>.
[RFC7597] Troan, O., Ed., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S., [RFC7597] Troan, O., Ed., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S.,
Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, Ed., "Mapping of Address and Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, Ed., "Mapping of Address and
Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)", RFC 7597, Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)", RFC 7597,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7597, July 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7597, July 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7597>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7597>.
[RFC8115] Boucadair, M., Qin, J., Tsou, T., and X. Deng, "DHCPv6
Option for IPv4-Embedded Multicast and Unicast IPv6
Prefixes", RFC 8115, DOI 10.17487/RFC8115, March 2017,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8115>.
Appendix A. Use Case: IPTV Appendix A. Use Case: IPTV
IPTV generally includes two categories of service offerings: IPTV generally includes two categories of service offerings:
o Video on Demand (VoD) that unicast video content to receivers. o Video on Demand (VoD) that streams unicast video content to
receivers.
o Multicast live TV broadcast services. o Multicast live TV broadcast services.
Two types of provider are involved in the delivery of this service: Two types of provider are involved in the delivery of this service:
o Content Providers, who usually own the contents that is multicast o Content Providers, who usually own the content that is multicast
to receivers. Content providers may contractually define an to receivers. Content providers may contractually define an
agreement with network providers to deliver contents to receivers. agreement with network providers to deliver content to receivers.
o Network Providers, who provide network connectivity services o Network Providers, who provide network connectivity services
(e.g., network providers are responsible for carrying multicast (e.g., network providers are responsible for carrying multicast
flows from head-ends to receivers). flows from head-ends to receivers).
Note that some contract agreements prevent a network provider from Note that some contract agreements prevent a network provider from
altering the content as sent by the content provider for various altering the content as sent by the content provider for various
reasons. Depending on these contract agreements, multicast streams reasons. Depending on these contract agreements, multicast streams
should be delivered unaltered to the requesting users. should be delivered unaltered to the requesting users.
Many current IPTV contents are likely to remain IPv4-formatted and Most current IPTV content is likely to remain IPv4-formatted and out
out of control of the network providers. Additionally, there are of the control of network providers. Additionally, there are
numerous legacy receivers (e.g., IPv4-only Set Top Boxes (STB)) that numerous legacy receivers (e.g., IPv4-only Set-Top Boxes (STBs)) that
can't be upgraded or be easily replaced to support IPv6. As a can't be upgraded or easily replaced to support IPv6. As a
consequence, IPv4 service continuity must be guaranteed during the consequence, IPv4 service continuity must be guaranteed during the
transition period, including the delivery of multicast services such transition period, including the delivery of multicast services such
as Live TV Broadcasting to users. as Live TV Broadcasting to users.
Appendix B. Older Versions of Group Membership Management Protocols Appendix B. Older Versions of Group Membership Management Protocols
Given the multiple versions of group membership management protocols, Given the multiple versions of group membership management protocols,
mismatch issues may arise at the mB4 (refer to Section 6.1). mismatch issues may arise at the mB4 (refer to Section 6.1).
If IGMPv2 operates on the IPv4 receivers while MLDv2 operates on the If IGMPv2 operates on the IPv4 receivers while MLDv2 operates on the
MLD Querier, or if IGMPv3 operates on the IPv4 receivers while MLDv1 MLD Querier, or if IGMPv3 operates on the IPv4 receivers while MLDv1
operates on the MLD Querier, the version mismatch issue will be operates on the MLD Querier, a version mismatch issue will be
encountered. To solve this problem, the mB4 should perform the encountered. To solve this problem, the mB4 should perform the
router portion of IGMP which is similar to the corresponding MLD router portion of IGMP, which is similar to the corresponding MLD
version (IGMPv2 as of MLDv1, or IGMPv3 as of MLDv2) operating in the version (IGMPv2 for MLDv1 or IGMPv3 for MLDv2) operating in the IPv6
IPv6 domain. Then, the protocol interaction approach specified in domain. Then, the protocol interaction approach specified in
Section 7 of [RFC3376] can be applied to exchange signaling messages Section 7 of [RFC3376] can be applied to exchange signaling messages
with the IPv4 receivers on which the different version of IGMP is with the IPv4 receivers on which the different version of IGMP is
operating. operating.
Note that the support of IPv4 SSM requires MLDv2 to be enabled in the Note that the support of IPv4 SSM requires MLDv2 to be enabled in the
IPv6 network. IPv6 network.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Dan Wing for his guidance in the
early discussions that initiated this work. We also thank Peng Sun,
Jie Hu, Qiong Sun, Lizhong Jin, Alain Durand, Dean Cheng, Behcet
Sarikaya, Tina Tsou, Rajiv Asati, Xiaohong Deng, and Stig Venaas for
their valuable comments.
Many thanks to Ian Farrer for the review.
Thanks to Zhen Cao, Tim Chown, Francis Dupont, Jouni Korhonen, and
Stig Venaas for the directorates review.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Mohamed Boucadair Mohamed Boucadair
Orange Orange
Rennes 35000 Rennes 35000
France France
Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com
Chao Qin Chao Qin
Cisco Cisco
Shanghai Shanghai
P.R. China China
Email: jacni@jacni.com Email: jacni@jacni.com
Christian Jacquenet Christian Jacquenet
Orange Orange
Rennes 35000 Rennes 35000
France France
Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com
skipping to change at page 21, line 4 skipping to change at page 23, line 34
France France
Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com
Yiu L. Lee Yiu L. Lee
Comcast Comcast
United States of America United States of America
Email: yiu_lee@cable.comcast.com Email: yiu_lee@cable.comcast.com
URI: http://www.comcast.com URI: http://www.comcast.com
Qian Wang Qian Wang
China Telecom China Telecom
P.R. China China
Phone: +86 10 58502462 Phone: +86 10 58502462
Email: 13301168516@189.cn Email: 13301168516@189.cn
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