draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast-14.txt   draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast-15.txt 
Softwire WG M. Boucadair Softwire WG M. Boucadair
Internet-Draft Orange Internet-Draft Orange
Intended status: Standards Track J. Qin Intended status: Standards Track J. Qin
Expires: June 18, 2017 Cisco Expires: July 16, 2017 Cisco
C. Jacquenet C. Jacquenet
Orange Orange
Y. Lee Y. Lee
Comcast Comcast
Q. Wang Q. Wang
China Telecom China Telecom
December 15, 2016 January 12, 2017
Delivery of IPv4 Multicast Services to IPv4 Clients over an IPv6 Delivery of IPv4 Multicast Services to IPv4 Clients over an IPv6
Multicast Network Multicast Network
draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast-14 draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast-15
Abstract Abstract
This document specifies a solution for the delivery of IPv4 multicast This document specifies a solution for the delivery of IPv4 multicast
services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast network. The services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast network. The
solution relies upon a stateless IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulation scheme solution relies upon a stateless IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulation scheme
and uses the IPv6 multicast distribution tree to deliver IPv4 and uses an IPv6 multicast distribution tree to deliver IPv4
multicast traffic. The solution is particularly useful for the multicast traffic. The solution is particularly useful for the
delivery of multicast service offerings to DS-Lite serviced delivery of multicast service offerings to DS-Lite serviced
customers. customers.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on June 18, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on July 16, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
skipping to change at page 2, line 46 skipping to change at page 2, line 46
6.1. IGMP-MLD Interworking Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.1. IGMP-MLD Interworking Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.2. Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.2. Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.3. Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.3. Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.4. Host Built-in mB4 Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.4. Host Built-in mB4 Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.5. Preserve the Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.5. Preserve the Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7. Multicast AFTR (mAFTR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. Multicast AFTR (mAFTR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.1. Routing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.1. Routing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.2. Processing PIM Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.2. Processing PIM Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.3. Switching from Shared Tree to Shortest Path Tree . . . . 14 7.3. Switching from Shared Tree to Shortest Path Tree . . . . 14
7.4. Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7.4. Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.5. TTL/Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7.5. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8. Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8. Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.1. Other Operational Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.1. Other Operational Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.1.1. The MLD Querier is Co-Located with the mAFTR . . . . 15 8.1.1. The MLD Querier is Co-Located with the mAFTR . . . . 15
8.1.2. The DR is Co-Located with the mAFTR . . . . . . . . . 15 8.1.2. The DR is Co-Located with the mAFTR . . . . . . . . . 15
8.2. Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.2. Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.3. mAFTR Policy Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.3. mAFTR Policy Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.4. Static vs. Dynamic PIM Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.4. Static vs. Dynamic PIM Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9.1. Firewall Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9.1. Firewall Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 10. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Appendix A. Use Case: IPTV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix A. Use Case: IPTV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Appendix B. Older Versions of Group Membership Management Appendix B. Older Versions of Group Membership Management
Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
DS-Lite [RFC6333] is a technique that rationalizes the usage of the DS-Lite [RFC6333] is an IPv4 address-sharing technique that enables
remaining global IPv4 addresses during the transition period by operators to multiplex public IPv4 addresses while provisioning only
sharing a single IPv4 address with multiple users. A typical DS-Lite IPv6 to users. A typical DS-Lite scenario is the delivery of an IPv4
scenario is the delivery of an IPv4 service to an IPv4 user over an service to an IPv4 user over an IPv6 network (denoted as a 4-6-4
IPv6 network (denoted as a 4-6-4 scenario). [RFC6333] covers unicast scenario). [RFC6333] covers unicast services exclusively.
services exclusively.
This document specifies a generic solution for the delivery of IPv4 This document specifies a generic solution for the delivery of IPv4
multicast services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast network. multicast services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast network.
The solution was developed with DS-Lite in mind (see more discussion The solution was developed with DS-Lite in mind (see more discussion
below). The solution is however not limited to DS-Lite; it can be below). The solution is however not limited to DS-Lite; it can be
applied in other deployment contexts such as [RFC7596][RFC7597]. applied in other deployment contexts, such as [RFC7596][RFC7597].
If customers have to access IPv4 multicast-based services through a If customers have to access IPv4 multicast-based services through a
DS-Lite environment, Address Family Transition Router (AFTR) devices DS-Lite environment, Address Family Transition Router (AFTR) devices
will have to process all the Internet Group Management Protocol will have to process all the Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP) Report messages [RFC2236] [RFC3376] that have been forwarded (IGMP) Report messages [RFC2236] [RFC3376] that have been forwarded
by the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) into the IPv4-in-IPv6 by the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) into the IPv4-in-IPv6
tunnels. From that standpoint, AFTR devices are likely to behave as tunnels. From that standpoint, AFTR devices are likely to behave as
a replication point for downstream multicast traffic, and the a replication point for downstream multicast traffic, and the
multicast packets will be replicated for each tunnel endpoint that multicast packets will be replicated for each tunnel endpoint that
IPv4 receivers are connected to. IPv4 receivers are connected to.
skipping to change at page 5, line 5 skipping to change at page 5, line 4
interconnection. interconnection.
uPrefix64: a dedicated IPv6 unicast prefix for constructing uPrefix64: a dedicated IPv6 unicast prefix for constructing
IPv4-embedded IPv6 unicast addresses [RFC6052]. This prefix may IPv4-embedded IPv6 unicast addresses [RFC6052]. This prefix may
be either the Well-Known Prefix (i.e., 64:ff9b::/96) or a Network- be either the Well-Known Prefix (i.e., 64:ff9b::/96) or a Network-
Specific Prefix (NSP). Specific Prefix (NSP).
Multicast AFTR (mAFTR): a functional entity which supports an Multicast AFTR (mAFTR): a functional entity which supports an
IPv4-IPv6 multicast interworking function (refer to Figure 3). It IPv4-IPv6 multicast interworking function (refer to Figure 3). It
receives and encapsulates the IPv4 multicast packets into IPv4-in- receives and encapsulates the IPv4 multicast packets into IPv4-in-
IPv6 packets and behaves as the corresponding IPv6 multicast IPv6 packets. Also, it behaves as the corresponding IPv6
source for the encapsulated IPv4-in-IPv6 packets. multicast source for the encapsulated IPv4-in-IPv6 packets.
Multicast B4 (mB4): a functional entity which supports an IGMP-MLD Multicast Basic Bridging BroadBand (mB4): a functional entity which
interworking function (refer to Section 6.1) that relays supports an IGMP-MLD interworking function (refer to Section 6.1)
information conveyed in IGMP messages by forwarding the that relays information conveyed in IGMP messages by forwarding
corresponding Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) messages towards the corresponding Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) messages
the MLD Querier in the IPv6 network. In addition, the mB4 towards the IPv6 network. In addition, the mB4 decapsulates IPv4-
decapsulates IPv4-in-IPv6 multicast packets. in-IPv6 multicast packets.
PIMv4: refers to Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) when deployed PIMv4: refers to Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) when deployed
in an IPv4 infrastructure (i.e., IPv4 transport capabilities are in an IPv4 infrastructure (i.e., IPv4 transport capabilities are
used to exchange PIM messages). used to exchange PIM messages).
PIMv6: refers to PIM when deployed in an IPv6 infrastructure (i.e., PIMv6: refers to PIM when deployed in an IPv6 infrastructure (i.e.,
IPv6 transport capabilities are used to exchange PIM messages). IPv6 transport capabilities are used to exchange PIM messages).
Host portion of the MLD protocol: refers to the part of MLD that Host portion of the MLD protocol: refers to the part of MLD that
applies to all multicast address listeners (Section 6 of applies to all multicast address listeners (Section 6 of
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In the DS-Lite specification [RFC6333], an IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel is In the DS-Lite specification [RFC6333], an IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel is
used to carry bidirectional IPv4 unicast traffic between a B4 and an used to carry bidirectional IPv4 unicast traffic between a B4 and an
AFTR. The solution specified in this document provides an IPv4-in- AFTR. The solution specified in this document provides an IPv4-in-
IPv6 encapsulation scheme to deliver unidirectional IPv4 multicast IPv6 encapsulation scheme to deliver unidirectional IPv4 multicast
traffic from an mAFTR to an mB4. traffic from an mAFTR to an mB4.
An overview of the solution is provided in this section which is An overview of the solution is provided in this section which is
intended as an introduction to how it works, but is not normative. intended as an introduction to how it works, but is not normative.
For the normative specifications of the two new functional elements: For the normative specifications of the two new functional elements:
mB4 and mAFTR (Figure 1), refer to Section 6 and Section 7. mB4 and mAFTR (Figure 1), refer to Sections 6 and 7.
------------ ------------
/ \ / \
| IPv4 network | | IPv4 network |
\ / \ /
------------ ------------
IPv4 multicast : | ^ PIMv4 Join IPv4 multicast : | ^ PIMv4 Join
v | : v | :
+-------------+ +-------------+
| mAFTR | | mAFTR |
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In order to map the addresses of IPv4 multicast traffic with IPv6 In order to map the addresses of IPv4 multicast traffic with IPv6
multicast addresses, an IPv6 multicast prefix (mPrefix64) and an IPv6 multicast addresses, an IPv6 multicast prefix (mPrefix64) and an IPv6
unicast prefix (uPrefix64) are provided to the mAFTR and the mB4 unicast prefix (uPrefix64) are provided to the mAFTR and the mB4
elements, both of which contribute to the computation and the elements, both of which contribute to the computation and the
maintenance of the IPv6 multicast distribution tree that extends the maintenance of the IPv6 multicast distribution tree that extends the
IPv4 multicast distribution tree into the IPv6 multicast network. IPv4 multicast distribution tree into the IPv6 multicast network.
The IPv4/IPv6 address mapping is stateless. The IPv4/IPv6 address mapping is stateless.
The mAFTR and the mB4 use mPrefix64 to convert an IPv4 multicast The mAFTR and the mB4 use mPrefix64 to convert an IPv4 multicast
address (G4) into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address (G6). The address (G4) into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address (G6). The
mAFTR and the mB4 use uPrefix64 to convert an IPv4 multicast source mAFTR and the mB4 use uPrefix64 to convert an IPv4 source address
address (S4) into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 address (S6). The mAFTR and (S4) into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 address (S6). The mAFTR and the mB4
the mB4 must use the same mPrefix64 and uPrefix64, and also run the must use the same mPrefix64 and uPrefix64, and also run the same
same algorithm for building IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses. Refer to algorithm for building IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses. Refer to
Section 5 for more details about the address mapping. Section 5 for more details about the address mapping.
4.2. Multicast Distribution Tree Computation 4.2. Multicast Distribution Tree Computation
When an IPv4 receiver connected to the device that embeds the mB4 When an IPv4 receiver connected to the device that embeds the mB4
capability wants to subscribe to an IPv4 multicast group, it sends an capability wants to subscribe to an IPv4 multicast group, it sends an
IGMP Report message towards the mB4. The mB4 creates the IPv6 IGMP Report message towards the mB4. The mB4 creates the IPv6
multicast group (G6) address using mPrefix64 and the original IPv4 multicast group (G6) address using mPrefix64 and the original IPv4
multicast group address. If the receiver sends a source-specific multicast group address. If the receiver sends a source-specific
IGMPv3 Report message, the mB4 will create the IPv6 source address IGMPv3 Report message, the mB4 will create the IPv6 source address
(S6) using uPrefix64 and the original IPv4 source address. (S6) using uPrefix64 and the original IPv4 source address.
The mB4 uses the G6 (and both S6 and G6 in SSM) to create the The mB4 uses the G6 (and both S6 and G6 in SSM) to create the
corresponding MLD Report message. The mB4 sends the Report message corresponding MLD Report message. The mB4 sends the Report message
towards the MLD Querier in the IPv6 network. The MLD Querier (which towards the IPv6 network. The MLD Querier, which usually acts as the
usually acts as the PIMv6 Designated Router too) receives the MLD PIMv6 Designated Router too, receives the MLD Report message and
Report message and sends the PIMv6 Join to join the IPv6 multicast sends the PIMv6 Join message to join the IPv6 multicast distribution
distribution tree. The MLD Querier can send either PIMv6 Join (*,G6) tree. It can send either PIMv6 Join (*,G6) in ASM or PIMv6 Join
in ASM or PIMv6 Join (S6,G6) in SSM to the mAFTR. (S6,G6) in SSM to the mAFTR.
The mAFTR acts as the IPv4 DR to which the uPrefix64-derived S6 is The mAFTR acts as the IPv6 DR to which the uPrefix64-derived S6 is
connected. The mAFTR will receive the source-specific PIMv6 Join connected. The mAFTR will receive the source-specific PIMv6 Join
message (S6,G6) from the IPv6 multicast network. If the mAFTR is the message (S6,G6) from the IPv6 multicast network. If the mAFTR is the
Rendezvous Point (RP) of G6, it will receive the any-source PIMv6 Rendezvous Point (RP) of G6, it will receive the any-source PIMv6
Join message (*,G6) from the IPv6 multicast network. If the mAFTR is Join message (*,G6) from the IPv6 multicast network. If the mAFTR is
not the RP of G6, it will send the PIM Register message to the RP of not the RP of G6, it will send the PIM Register message to the RP of
G6 located in the IPv6 multicast network. For the sake of G6 located in the IPv6 multicast network. For the sake of
simplicity, it is RECOMMENDED to configure the mAFTR as the RP for simplicity, it is recommended to configure the mAFTR as the RP for
the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast groups it manages; no registration the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast groups it manages; no registration
procedure is required under this configuration. procedure is required under this configuration.
When the mAFTR receives the PIMv6 Join message (*,G6), it will When the mAFTR receives the PIMv6 Join message (*,G6), it will
extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4). If the mAFTR is the extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4). If the mAFTR is the
RP of G4 in the IPv4 multicast network, it will create a (*,G4) entry RP of G4 in the IPv4 multicast network, it will create a (*,G4) entry
(if such entry does not already exist) in its own IPv4 multicast (if such entry does not already exist) in its own IPv4 multicast
routing table. If the mAFTR is not the RP of G4, it will send the routing table. If the mAFTR is not the RP of G4, it will send the
corresponding PIMv4 Join message (*,G4) towards the RP of G4 in the corresponding PIMv4 Join message (*,G4) towards the RP of G4 in the
IPv4 multicast network. IPv4 multicast network.
skipping to change at page 8, line 13 skipping to change at page 8, line 13
extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4) and IPv4 source address extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4) and IPv4 source address
(S4) and send the corresponding (S4,G4) PIMv4 Join message directly (S4) and send the corresponding (S4,G4) PIMv4 Join message directly
to the IPv4 source. to the IPv4 source.
A branch of the multicast distribution tree is thus constructed, A branch of the multicast distribution tree is thus constructed,
comprising both an IPv4 part (from the mAFTR upstream) and an IPv6 comprising both an IPv4 part (from the mAFTR upstream) and an IPv6
part (from mAFTR downstream towards the mB4). part (from mAFTR downstream towards the mB4).
The mAFTR advertises the route of uPrefix64 with an IPv6 Interior The mAFTR advertises the route of uPrefix64 with an IPv6 Interior
Gateway Protocol (IGP), so as to represent the IPv4-embedded IPv6 Gateway Protocol (IGP), so as to represent the IPv4-embedded IPv6
source in the IPv6 multicast network, and to run the Reverse Path source in the IPv6 multicast network, and to allow IPv6 routers to
Forwarding (RPF) check procedure on incoming multicast traffic. run the Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) check procedure on incoming
Injecting internal /96 routes is not problematic given the multicast traffic. Injecting internal /96 routes is not problematic
recommendation in [RFC7608] that requires that forwarding processes given the recommendation in [RFC7608] that requires that forwarding
must be designed to process prefixes of any length up to /128. processes must be designed to process prefixes of any length up to
/128.
4.3. Multicast Data Forwarding 4.3. Multicast Data Forwarding
When the mAFTR receives an IPv4 multicast packet, it will encapsulate When the mAFTR receives an IPv4 multicast packet, it will encapsulate
the packet into an IPv6 multicast packet using the IPv4-embedded IPv6 the packet into an IPv6 multicast packet using the IPv4-embedded IPv6
multicast address as the destination address and an IPv4-embedded multicast address as the destination address and an IPv4-embedded
IPv6 unicast address as the source address. The encapsulated IPv6 IPv6 unicast address as the source address. The encapsulated IPv6
multicast packet will be forwarded down the IPv6 multicast multicast packet will be forwarded down the IPv6 multicast
distribution tree and the mB4 will eventually receive the packet. distribution tree and the mB4 will eventually receive the packet.
skipping to change at page 9, line 7 skipping to change at page 9, line 9
mAFTR and the mB4. The mAFTR and the mB4 use the mPrefix64 to form mAFTR and the mB4. The mAFTR and the mB4 use the mPrefix64 to form
an IPv6 multicast group address from an IPv4 multicast group address. an IPv6 multicast group address from an IPv4 multicast group address.
The mPrefix64 can be of two types: ASM_mPrefix64 (a mPrefix64 used in The mPrefix64 can be of two types: ASM_mPrefix64 (a mPrefix64 used in
ASM mode) or SSM_mPrefix64 (a mPrefix64 used in SSM mode). The ASM mode) or SSM_mPrefix64 (a mPrefix64 used in SSM mode). The
mPrefix64 MUST be derived from the corresponding IPv6 multicast mPrefix64 MUST be derived from the corresponding IPv6 multicast
address space (e.g., the SSM_mPrefix64 must be in the range of address space (e.g., the SSM_mPrefix64 must be in the range of
multicast address space specified in [RFC4607]). multicast address space specified in [RFC4607]).
The IPv6 part of the multicast distribution tree can be seen as an The IPv6 part of the multicast distribution tree can be seen as an
extension of the IPv4 part of the multicast distribution tree. The extension of the IPv4 part of the multicast distribution tree. The
IPv4 multicast source address MUST be mapped to an IPv6 multicast IPv4 source address MUST be mapped to an IPv6 source address. An
source address. An IPv6 unicast prefix (uPrefix64) is provisioned to IPv6 unicast prefix (uPrefix64) is provisioned to the mAFTR and the
the mAFTR and the mB4. The mAFTR and the mB4 use the uPrefix64 to mB4. The mAFTR and the mB4 use the uPrefix64 to form an IPv6 source
form an IPv6 multicast source address from an IPv4 multicast source address from an IPv4 source address as specified in [RFC6052]. The
address as specified in [RFC6052]. The uPrefix-formed IPv6 multicast uPrefix-formed IPv6 source address will represent the original IPv4
source address will represent the original IPv4 multicast source in source in the IPv6 multicast network. The uPrefix64 MUST be derived
the IPv6 multicast network. The uPrefix64 MUST be derived from the from the IPv6 unicast address space.
IPv6 unicast address space.
The multicast address translation MUST follow the algorithm defined The multicast address translation MUST follow the algorithm defined
in Section 5.2. in Section 5.2.
The mPrefix64 and uPrefix64 can be configured in the mB4 using a The mPrefix64 and uPrefix64 can be configured in the mB4 using a
variety of methods, including an out-of-band mechanism, manual variety of methods, including an out-of-band mechanism, manual
configuration, or a dedicated provisioning protocol (e.g., using configuration, or a dedicated provisioning protocol (e.g., using
DHCPv6 [I-D.ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option]). DHCPv6 [I-D.ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option]).
The stateless translation mechanism described in Section 5 does not The stateless translation mechanism described in Section 5 does not
preclude use of Embedded-RP [RFC3956]. preclude use of Embedded-RP [RFC3956][RFC7371].
5.2. Multicast Address Translation Algorithm 5.2. Multicast Address Translation Algorithm
IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast addresses are composed according to the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast addresses are composed according to the
following algorithm: following algorithm:
o Concatenate the mPrefix64 96 bits and the 32 bits of the IPv4 o Concatenate the mPrefix64 96 bits and the 32 bits of the IPv4
address to obtain a 128-bit address. address to obtain a 128-bit address.
The IPv4 multicast addresses are extracted from the IPv4-embedded The IPv4 multicast addresses are extracted from the IPv4-embedded
skipping to change at page 10, line 12 skipping to change at page 10, line 12
The embedded IPv4 address in an IPv6 multicast address is included in The embedded IPv4 address in an IPv6 multicast address is included in
the last 32 bits; therefore, dotted decimal notation can be used. the last 32 bits; therefore, dotted decimal notation can be used.
5.4. Examples 5.4. Examples
Group address mapping example: Group address mapping example:
+---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+ +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
| mPrefix64 | IPv4 address | IPv4-Embedded IPv6 address | | mPrefix64 | IPv4 address | IPv4-Embedded IPv6 address |
+---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+ +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
| ff0x::db8:0:0/96 | 233.252.0.1 | ff0x::db8::233.252.0.1 | | ff0x::db8:0:0/96 | 233.252.0.1 | ff0x::db8:233.252.0.1 |
+---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+ +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
Source address mapping example when a /96 is used: Source address mapping example when a /96 is used:
+---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+ +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
| uPrefix64 | IPv4 address | IPv4-Embedded IPv6 address | | uPrefix64 | IPv4 address | IPv4-Embedded IPv6 address |
+---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+ +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
| 2001:db8::/96 | 192.0.2.33 | 2001:db8::192.0.2.33 | | 2001:db8::/96 | 192.0.2.33 | 2001:db8::192.0.2.33 |
+---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+ +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
skipping to change at page 11, line 14 skipping to change at page 11, line 14
+----------+ IGMP +-------+ MLD +---------+ +----------+ IGMP +-------+ MLD +---------+
| IPv4 |---------| mB4 |---------| MLD | | IPv4 |---------| mB4 |---------| MLD |
| Receiver | | | | Querier | | Receiver | | | | Querier |
+----------+ +-------+ +---------+ +----------+ +-------+ +---------+
Figure 2: IGMP-MLD Interworking Figure 2: IGMP-MLD Interworking
If SSM is deployed, the mB4 MUST construct the IPv6 source address If SSM is deployed, the mB4 MUST construct the IPv6 source address
(or retrieve the IPv4 source address) using the uPrefix64. The mB4 (or retrieve the IPv4 source address) using the uPrefix64. The mB4
may create a membership database which associates the IPv4-IPv6 MAY create a membership database which associates the IPv4-IPv6
multicast groups with the interfaces (e.g., WLAN and Wired Ethernet) multicast groups with the interfaces (e.g., WLAN and Wired Ethernet)
facing IPv4 multicast receivers. facing IPv4 multicast receivers.
6.2. Multicast Data Forwarding 6.2. Multicast Data Forwarding
When the mB4 receives an IPv6 multicast packet, it MUST check the When the mB4 receives an IPv6 multicast packet, it MUST check the
group address and the source address. If the IPv6 multicast group group address and the source address. If the IPv6 multicast group
prefix is mPrefix64 and the IPv6 source prefix is uPrefix64, the mB4 prefix is mPrefix64 and the IPv6 source prefix is uPrefix64, the mB4
MUST decapsulate the IPv6 header; the decapsulated IPv4 multicast MUST decapsulate the IPv6 header [RFC2473]; the decapsulated IPv4
packet will be forwarded through each relevant interface following multicast packet will be forwarded through each relevant interface
standard IPv4 multicast forwarding procedure. Otherwise, the mB4 following standard IPv4 multicast forwarding procedure. Otherwise,
MUST silently drop the packet. the mB4 MUST silently drop the packet.
As an illustration, if a packet is received from source As an illustration, if a packet is received from source
2001:db8::192.0.2.33 and needs to be forwarded to group 2001:db8::192.0.2.33 and needs to be forwarded to group
ff3x:1000::233.252.0.1, the mB4 decapsulates it into an IPv4 ff3x:20:2001:db8::233.252.0.1, the mB4 decapsulates it into an IPv4
multicast packet using 192.0.2.33 as the IPv4 source address and multicast packet using 192.0.2.33 as the IPv4 source address and
using 233.252.0.1 as the IPv4 destination multicast group. using 233.252.0.1 as the IPv4 destination multicast group.
6.3. Fragmentation 6.3. Fragmentation
Encapsulating IPv4 multicast packets into IPv6 multicast packets that Encapsulating IPv4 multicast packets into IPv6 multicast packets that
will be forwarded by the mAFTR towards the mB4 along the IPv6 will be forwarded by the mAFTR towards the mB4 along the IPv6
multicast distribution tree reduces the effective MTU size by the multicast distribution tree reduces the effective MTU size by the
size of an IPv6 header. In this specification, the data flow is size of an IPv6 header. In this specification, the data flow is
unidirectional from the mAFTR to the mB4. The mAFTR MUST fragment unidirectional from the mAFTR to the mB4. The mAFTR MUST fragment
the oversized IPv6 packet after the encapsulation into two IPv6 the oversized IPv6 packet after the encapsulation into two IPv6
packets. The mB4 MUST reassemble the IPv6 packets, decapsulate the packets. The mB4 MUST reassemble the IPv6 packets, decapsulate the
IPv6 packet, and forward the IPv4 packet to the hosts that have IPv6 header, and forward the IPv4 packet to the hosts that have
subscribed to the corresponding multicast group. Further subscribed to the corresponding multicast group. Further
considerations about fragmentation issues are documented in considerations about fragmentation issues are documented in
[RFC6333]. [RFC6333].
6.4. Host Built-in mB4 Function 6.4. Host Built-in mB4 Function
If the mB4 function is implemented in the host which is directly If the mB4 function is implemented in the host which is directly
connected to an IPv6-only network, the host MUST implement connected to an IPv6-only network, the host MUST implement the
Section 6.1, Section 6.2, and Section 6.3. The host MAY optimize the behaviors specified in Sections 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3. The host MAY
implementation to provide an Application Programming Interface (API) optimize the implementation to provide an Application Programming
or kernel module to skip the IGMP-MLD Interworking Function. Interface (API) or kernel module to skip the IGMP-MLD Interworking
Optimization considerations are out of scope of this specification. Function. Optimization considerations are out of scope of this
specification.
6.5. Preserve the Scope 6.5. Preserve the Scope
When several mPrefix64s are available, if each enclosed IPv4-embedded When several mPrefix64s are available, if each enclosed IPv4-embedded
IPv6 multicast prefix has a distinct scope, the mB4 MUST select the IPv6 multicast prefix has a distinct scope, the mB4 MUST select the
appropriate IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast prefix whose scope matches appropriate IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast prefix whose scope matches
the IPv4 multicast address used to synthesize an IPv4-embedded IPv6 the IPv4 multicast address used to synthesize an IPv4-embedded IPv6
multicast address (Section 8 of [RFC2365]). multicast address (Section 8 of [RFC2365]).
The mB4 MAY be configured to not preserve the scope when enforcing The mB4 MAY be configured to not preserve the scope when enforcing
the address translation algorithm. the address translation algorithm.
Consider that an mB4 is configured with two mPrefix64s Consider that an mB4 is configured with two mPrefix64s
ff0e::db8:0:0/96 (Global scope) and ff08::db8:0:0/96 (Organization ff0e::db8:0:0/96 (Global scope) and ff08::db8:0:0/96 (Organization
scope). If the mB4 receives an IGMP report from an IPv4 receiver to scope). If the mB4 receives an IGMP report from an IPv4 receiver to
subscribe to 233.252.0.1, it checks which mPrefix64 to use in order subscribe to 233.252.0.1, it checks which mPrefix64 to use in order
to preserve the scope of the requested IPv4 multicast group. In this to preserve the scope of the requested IPv4 multicast group. In this
example, given that 233.252.0.1 is intended for global use, the mB4 example, given that 233.252.0.1 is intended for global use, the mB4
creates the IPv6 multicast group (G6) address using ff0e::db8:0:0/96 creates the IPv6 multicast group (G6) address using ff0e::db8:0:0/96
and the original IPv4 multicast group address (233.252.0.1): and the original IPv4 multicast group address (233.252.0.1):
ff0e::db8::233.252.0.1. ff0e::db8:233.252.0.1.
7. Multicast AFTR (mAFTR) 7. Multicast AFTR (mAFTR)
7.1. Routing Considerations 7.1. Routing Considerations
The mAFTR is responsible for interconnecting the IPv4 multicast The mAFTR is responsible for interconnecting the IPv4 multicast
distribution tree with the corresponding IPv6 multicast distribution distribution tree with the corresponding IPv6 multicast distribution
tree. The mAFTR MUST use the uPrefix64 to build the IPv6 source tree. The mAFTR MUST use the uPrefix64 to build the IPv6 source
addresses of the multicast group address derived from mPrefix64. In addresses of the multicast group address derived from mPrefix64. In
other words, the mAFTR MUST be the multicast source whose address is other words, the mAFTR MUST be the multicast source whose address is
derived from uPrefix64. derived from uPrefix64.
The mAFTR MUST advertise the route towards uPrefix64 with the IPv6 The mAFTR MUST advertise the route towards uPrefix64 with the IPv6
IGP. This is needed by the IPv6 multicast routers so that they IGP. This is needed by the IPv6 multicast routers so that they
acquire the routing information to discover the source. acquire the routing information to discover the source.
7.2. Processing PIM Messages 7.2. Processing PIM Messages
The mAFTR MUST interwork PIM Join/Prune messages for (*, G6) and (S6, The mAFTR MUST interwork PIM Join/Prune messages for (*,G6) and
G6) on their corresponding (*, G4) and (S4, G4). The following text (S6,G6) on their corresponding (*,G4) and (S4,G4). The following
specifies the expected behavior of the mAFTR for PIM Join messages. text specifies the expected behavior of the mAFTR for PIM Join
messages.
+---------+ +---------+
---------| mAFTR |--------- ---------| mAFTR |---------
PIMv6 |uPrefix64| PIMv4 PIMv6 |uPrefix64| PIMv4
|mPreifx64| |mPrefix64|
+---------+ +---------+
Figure 3: PIMv6-PIMv4 Interworking Function Figure 3: PIMv6-PIMv4 Interworking Function
The mAFTR contains two separate Tree Information Bases (TIBs): the The mAFTR contains two separate Tree Information Bases (TIBs): the
IPv4 Tree Information Base (TIB4) and the IPv6 Tree Information Base IPv4 Tree Information Base (TIB4) and the IPv6 Tree Information Base
(TIB6), which are bridged by one IPv4-in-IPv6 virtual interface. It (TIB6), which are bridged by one IPv4-in-IPv6 virtual interface. It
should be noted that TIB implementations may vary (e.g., some may should be noted that TIB implementations may vary (e.g., some may
rely upon a single integrated TIB without any virtual interface), but rely upon a single integrated TIB without any virtual interface), but
they should follow this specification for the sake of global and they should follow this specification for the sake of global and
skipping to change at page 13, line 44 skipping to change at page 13, line 44
The mAFTR MUST extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4) from the The mAFTR MUST extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4) from the
IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address (G6) contained in the PIMv6 Join IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address (G6) contained in the PIMv6 Join
message. The mAFTR MUST check its IPv4 Tree Information Base (TIB4). message. The mAFTR MUST check its IPv4 Tree Information Base (TIB4).
If there is an entry for G4, it MUST check whether the IPv4-in-IPv6 If there is an entry for G4, it MUST check whether the IPv4-in-IPv6
virtual interface is in the outgoing interface list. If not, the virtual interface is in the outgoing interface list. If not, the
mAFTR MUST add the interface to the oif list. If there is no entry mAFTR MUST add the interface to the oif list. If there is no entry
for G4, the mAFTR MUST create a new (*,G4) entry in its TIB4 and for G4, the mAFTR MUST create a new (*,G4) entry in its TIB4 and
initiate the procedure for building the shared tree in the IPv4 initiate the procedure for building the shared tree in the IPv4
multicast network without any additional requirement. multicast network without any additional requirement.
If the mAFTR receives a source-specific Join message, the (S6, G6) is If the mAFTR receives a source-specific Join message, the (S6,G6) is
processed rather than (*,G6). The procedures of processing (S6,G6) processed rather than (*,G6). The procedures of processing (S6,G6)
and (*,G6) are almost the same. Differences have been detailed in and (*,G6) are almost the same. Differences have been detailed in
[RFC7761]. [RFC7761].
7.3. Switching from Shared Tree to Shortest Path Tree 7.3. Switching from Shared Tree to Shortest Path Tree
When the mAFTR receives the first IPv4 multicast packet, it may When the mAFTR receives the first IPv4 multicast packet, it may
extract the multicast source address (S4) from the packet and send an extract the source address (S4) from the packet and send an Explicit
Explicit PIMv4 (S4,G4) Join message directly to S4. The mAFTR PIMv4 (S4,G4) Join message directly to S4. The mAFTR switches from
switches from the shared Rendezvous Point Tree (RPT) to the Shortest the shared Rendezvous Point Tree (RPT) to the Shortest Path Tree
Path Tree (SPT) for G4. (SPT) for G4.
For IPv6 multicast routers to switch to the SPT, there is no new For IPv6 multicast routers to switch to the SPT, there is no new
requirement. IPv6 multicast routers may send an Explicit PIMv6 Join requirement. IPv6 multicast routers may send an Explicit PIMv6 Join
to the mAFTR once the first (S6,G6) multicast packet arrives from to the mAFTR once the first (S6,G6) multicast packet arrives from
upstream multicast routers. upstream multicast routers.
7.4. Multicast Data Forwarding 7.4. Multicast Data Forwarding
When the mAFTR receives an IPv4 multicast packet, it checks its TIB4 When the mAFTR receives an IPv4 multicast packet, it checks its TIB4
to find a matching entry and then forwards the packet to the to find a matching entry and then forwards the packet to the
interface(s) listed in the outgoing interface list. If the IPv4-in- interface(s) listed in the outgoing interface list. If the IPv4-in-
IPv6 virtual interface also belongs to this list, the packet is IPv6 virtual interface also belongs to this list, the packet is
encapsulated with the mPrefix64-derived and uPrefix64-derived encapsulated with the mPrefix64-derived and uPrefix64-derived
IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses to form an IPv6 multicast packet. Then IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses to form an IPv6 multicast packet
another lookup is made by the mAFTR to find a matching entry in the [RFC2473]. Then another lookup is made by the mAFTR to find a
TIB6. Whether the RPF check for the second lookup is performed or matching entry in the TIB6. Whether the RPF check for the second
not is up to the implementation and is out of the scope of this lookup is performed or not is up to the implementation and is out of
document. The IPv6 multicast packet is then forwarded along the IPv6 the scope of this document. The IPv6 multicast packet is then
multicast distribution tree, based upon the outgoing interface list forwarded along the IPv6 multicast distribution tree, based upon the
of the matching entry in the TIB6. outgoing interface list of the matching entry in the TIB6.
As an illustration, if a packet is received from source 192.0.2.33 As an illustration, if a packet is received from source 192.0.2.33
and needs to be forwarded to group 233.252.0.1, the mAFTR and needs to be forwarded to group 233.252.0.1, the mAFTR
encapsulates it into an IPv6 multicast packet using encapsulates it into an IPv6 multicast packet using
ff3x:1000::233.252.0.1 as the IPv6 destination multicast group and ff3x:20:2001:db8::233.252.0.1 as the IPv6 destination multicast group
using 2001:db8::192.0.2.33 as the IPv6 source address. and using 2001:db8::192.0.2.33 as the IPv6 source address.
7.5. TTL/Scope 7.5. Scope
The Scope field of IPv4-in-IPv6 multicast addresses should be valued The Scope field of IPv4-in-IPv6 multicast addresses should be valued
accordingly (e.g, to "E", Global scope;) in the deployment accordingly (e.g, to "E" for Global scope) in the deployment
environment. This specification does not discuss the scope value environment. This specification does not discuss the scope value
that should be used. that should be used.
Nevertheless, when several mPrefix64s are available, if each enclosed Nevertheless, when several mPrefix64s are available, if each enclosed
IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast prefix has a distinct scope, the mAFTR IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast prefix has a distinct scope, the mAFTR
MUST select the appropriate IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast prefix whose MUST select the appropriate IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast prefix whose
scope matches the IPv4 multicast address used to synthesize an scope matches the IPv4 multicast address used to synthesize an
IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address. IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address.
An mAFTR MAY be configured to not preserve the scope when enforcing An mAFTR MAY be configured to not preserve the scope when enforcing
skipping to change at page 15, line 23 skipping to change at page 15, line 23
The mAFTR can embed the MLD Querier function (as well as the PIMv6 The mAFTR can embed the MLD Querier function (as well as the PIMv6
DR) for optimization purposes. When the mB4 sends a MLD Report DR) for optimization purposes. When the mB4 sends a MLD Report
message to this mAFTR, the mAFTR should process the MLD Report message to this mAFTR, the mAFTR should process the MLD Report
message that contains the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast group address message that contains the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast group address
and then send the corresponding PIMv4 Join message. (Figure 4) and then send the corresponding PIMv4 Join message. (Figure 4)
+---------+ +---------+
---------| mAFTR |--------- ---------| mAFTR |---------
MLD |uPrefix64| PIMv4 MLD |uPrefix64| PIMv4
|mPreifx64| |mPrefix64|
+---------+ +---------+
Figure 4: MLD-PIMv4 Interworking Function Figure 4: MLD-PIMv4 Interworking Function
Discussions about the location of the mAFTR capability and related Discussions about the location of the mAFTR capability and related
ASM or SSM multicast design considerations are out of the scope of ASM or SSM multicast design considerations are out of the scope of
this document. this document.
8.1.2. The DR is Co-Located with the mAFTR 8.1.2. The DR is Co-Located with the mAFTR
skipping to change at page 16, line 15 skipping to change at page 16, line 15
8.4. Static vs. Dynamic PIM Triggering 8.4. Static vs. Dynamic PIM Triggering
To optimize the usage of network resources in current deployments, To optimize the usage of network resources in current deployments,
all multicast streams are conveyed in the core network while only the all multicast streams are conveyed in the core network while only the
most popular ones are forwarded in the aggregation/access networks most popular ones are forwarded in the aggregation/access networks
(static mode). Less popular streams are forwarded in the access (static mode). Less popular streams are forwarded in the access
network upon request (dynamic mode). Depending on the location of network upon request (dynamic mode). Depending on the location of
the mAFTR in the network, two modes can be envisaged: static and the mAFTR in the network, two modes can be envisaged: static and
dynamic. dynamic.
Static Mode: the mAFTR is configured to instantiate permanent (S6, Static Mode: the mAFTR is configured to instantiate permanent
G6) and (*, G6) entries in its TIB6 using a pre-configured (S4, (S6,G6) and (*,G6) entries in its TIB6 using a pre-configured
G4) list. (S4,G4) list.
Dynamic Mode: the instantiation or withdrawal of (S6, G6) or (*, G6) Dynamic Mode: the instantiation or withdrawal of (S6,G6) or (*,G6)
entries is triggered by the receipt of PIMv6 messages. entries is triggered by the receipt of PIMv6 messages.
9. Security Considerations 9. Security Considerations
Besides multicast scoping considerations (see Section 6.5 and Besides multicast scoping considerations (see Section 6.5 and
Section 7.5), this document does not introduce any new security Section 7.5), this document does not introduce any new security
concern in addition to what is discussed in Section 5 of [RFC6052], concern in addition to what is discussed in Section 5 of [RFC6052],
Section 10 of [RFC3810] and Section 6 of [RFC7761]. Section 10 of [RFC3810] and Section 6 of [RFC7761].
An mB4 SHOULD be provided with appropriate configuration information An mB4 SHOULD be provided with appropriate configuration information
to preserve the scope of a multicast message when mapping an IPv4 to preserve the scope of a multicast message when mapping an IPv4
multicast address into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address and multicast address into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address and
vice versa. vice versa.
9.1. Firewall Configuration 9.1. Firewall Configuration
The CPE that embeds the mB4 function SHOULD be configured to accept The CPE that embeds the mB4 function SHOULD be configured to accept
incoming MLD messages and traffic forwarded to multicast groups incoming MLD messages and traffic forwarded to multicast groups
subscribed by receivers located in the customer premises. subscribed by receivers located in the customer premises.
10. Acknowledgements 10. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Dan Wing for his guidance in the The authors would like to thank Dan Wing for his guidance in the
early discussions which initiated this work. We also thank Peng Sun, early discussions which initiated this work. We also thank Peng Sun,
Jie Hu, Qiong Sun, Lizhong Jin, Alain Durand, Dean Cheng, Behcet Jie Hu, Qiong Sun, Lizhong Jin, Alain Durand, Dean Cheng, Behcet
Sarikaya, Tina Tsou, Rajiv Asati, Xiaohong Deng, and Stig Venaas for Sarikaya, Tina Tsou, Rajiv Asati, Xiaohong Deng, and Stig Venaas for
their valuable comments. their valuable comments.
Many thanks to Ian Farrer for the review. Many thanks to Ian Farrer for the review.
Thanks to Zhen Cao and Tim Chown for the INT directorate review. Thanks to Zhen Cao, Tim Chown, Francis Dupont, Jouni Korhonen, and
Stig Venaas for the directorates review.
11. IANA Considerations 11. IANA Considerations
This document includes no request to IANA. This document includes no request to IANA.
12. References 12. References
12.1. Normative References 12.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2365] Meyer, D., "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", BCP 23, [RFC2365] Meyer, D., "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", BCP 23,
RFC 2365, DOI 10.17487/RFC2365, July 1998, RFC 2365, DOI 10.17487/RFC2365, July 1998,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2365>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2365>.
[RFC2473] Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in
IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473, DOI 10.17487/RFC2473,
December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2473>.
[RFC3376] Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A. [RFC3376] Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
3", RFC 3376, DOI 10.17487/RFC3376, October 2002, 3", RFC 3376, DOI 10.17487/RFC3376, October 2002,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3376>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3376>.
[RFC3810] Vida, R., Ed. and L. Costa, Ed., "Multicast Listener [RFC3810] Vida, R., Ed. and L. Costa, Ed., "Multicast Listener
Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3810, June 2004, DOI 10.17487/RFC3810, June 2004,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3810>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3810>.
skipping to change at page 18, line 43 skipping to change at page 18, line 48
[RFC6676] Venaas, S., Parekh, R., Van de Velde, G., Chown, T., and [RFC6676] Venaas, S., Parekh, R., Van de Velde, G., Chown, T., and
M. Eubanks, "Multicast Addresses for Documentation", M. Eubanks, "Multicast Addresses for Documentation",
RFC 6676, DOI 10.17487/RFC6676, August 2012, RFC 6676, DOI 10.17487/RFC6676, August 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6676>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6676>.
[RFC6890] Cotton, M., Vegoda, L., Bonica, R., Ed., and B. Haberman, [RFC6890] Cotton, M., Vegoda, L., Bonica, R., Ed., and B. Haberman,
"Special-Purpose IP Address Registries", BCP 153, "Special-Purpose IP Address Registries", BCP 153,
RFC 6890, DOI 10.17487/RFC6890, April 2013, RFC 6890, DOI 10.17487/RFC6890, April 2013,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6890>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6890>.
[RFC7371] Boucadair, M. and S. Venaas, "Updates to the IPv6
Multicast Addressing Architecture", RFC 7371,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7371, September 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7371>.
[RFC7596] Cui, Y., Sun, Q., Boucadair, M., Tsou, T., Lee, Y., and I. [RFC7596] Cui, Y., Sun, Q., Boucadair, M., Tsou, T., Lee, Y., and I.
Farrer, "Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the Dual- Farrer, "Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the Dual-
Stack Lite Architecture", RFC 7596, DOI 10.17487/RFC7596, Stack Lite Architecture", RFC 7596, DOI 10.17487/RFC7596,
July 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7596>. July 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7596>.
[RFC7597] Troan, O., Ed., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S., [RFC7597] Troan, O., Ed., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S.,
Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, Ed., "Mapping of Address and Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, Ed., "Mapping of Address and
Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)", RFC 7597, Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)", RFC 7597,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7597, July 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7597, July 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7597>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7597>.
skipping to change at page 20, line 17 skipping to change at page 20, line 28
Mohamed Boucadair Mohamed Boucadair
Orange Orange
Rennes 35000 Rennes 35000
France France
Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com
Jacni Qin Jacni Qin
Cisco Cisco
Shanghai Shanghai
China P.R. China
Email: jacni@jacni.com Email: jacni@jacni.com
Christian Jacquenet Christian Jacquenet
Orange Orange
Rennes 35000 Rennes 35000
France France
Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com
Yiu L. Lee Yiu L. Lee
Comcast Comcast
U.S.A. United States of America
Email: yiu_lee@cable.comcast.com Email: yiu_lee@cable.comcast.com
URI: http://www.comcast.com URI: http://www.comcast.com
Qian Wang Qian Wang
China Telecom China Telecom
China P.R. China
Phone: +86 10 58502462 Phone: +86 10 58502462
Email: 13301168516@189.cn Email: 13301168516@189.cn
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