Softwire WG                                                 M. Boucadair
Internet-Draft                                                    Orange
Intended status: Standards Track                                  J. Qin
Expires: June 18, 2017                                             Cisco
                                                            C. Jacquenet
                                                                  Orange
                                                                  Y. Lee
                                                                 Comcast
                                                                 Q. Wang
                                                           China Telecom
                                                       December 15, 2016

    Delivery of IPv4 Multicast Services to IPv4 Clients over an IPv6
                           Multicast Network
                draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast-13
                draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast-14

Abstract

   This document specifies a solution for the delivery of IPv4 multicast
   services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast network.  The
   solution relies upon a stateless IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulation scheme
   and uses the IPv6 multicast distribution tree to deliver IPv4
   multicast traffic.  The solution is particularly useful for the
   delivery of multicast service offerings to DS-Lite serviced
   customers.

Status of This Memo

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   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 18, 2017.

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   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Solution Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Multicast Distribution Tree Computation . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.3.  Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   5.  IPv4/IPv6 Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.1.  Prefix Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.2.  Multicast Address Translation Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.3.  Textual Representation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.4.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9  10
   6.  Multicast B4 (mB4)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     6.1.  IGMP-MLD Interworking Function  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     6.2.  Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.3.  Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.4.  Host Built-in mB4 Function  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.5.  Preserve the Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Multicast AFTR (mAFTR)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     7.1.  Routing Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     7.2.  Processing PIM Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     7.3.  Switching from Shared Tree to Shortest Path Tree  . . . .  14
     7.4.  Multicast Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     7.5.  TTL/Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   8.  Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     8.1.  Other Operational Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       8.1.1.  The MLD Querier is Co-Located with the mAFTR  . . . .  15
       8.1.2.  The DR is Co-Located with the mAFTR . . . . . . . . .  15
     8.2.  Load Balancing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     8.3.  mAFTR Policy Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     8.4.  Static vs. Dynamic PIM Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     9.1.  Firewall Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   Appendix A.  Use Case: IPTV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   Appendix B.  Older Versions of Group Membership Management
                Protocols  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20

1.  Introduction

   DS-Lite [RFC6333] is a technique that rationalizes the usage of the
   remaining global IPv4 addresses during the transition period by
   sharing a single IPv4 address with multiple users.  A typical DS-Lite
   scenario is the delivery of an IPv4 service to an IPv4 user over an
   IPv6 network (denoted as a 4-6-4 scenario).  [RFC6333] covers unicast
   services exclusively.

   This document specifies a generic solution for the delivery of IPv4
   multicast services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast network.
   The solution was developed with DS-Lite in mind (see more discussion
   below).  The solution is however not limited to DS-Lite; it can be
   applied in other deployment contexts such as [RFC7596][RFC7597].

   If customers have to access IPv4 multicast-based services through a
   DS-Lite environment, Address Family Transition Router (AFTR) devices
   will have to process all the Internet Group Management Protocol
   (IGMP) Report messages [RFC2236] [RFC3376] that have been forwarded
   by the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) into the IPv4-in-IPv6
   tunnels.  From that standpoint, AFTR devices are likely to behave as
   a replication point for downstream multicast traffic, and the
   multicast packets will be replicated for each tunnel endpoint that
   IPv4 receivers are connected to.

   This kind of DS-Lite environment raises two major issues:

   1.  The IPv6 network loses the benefits of the multicast traffic
       forwarding efficiency because it is unable to deterministically
       replicate the data as close to the receivers as possible.  As a
       consequence, the downstream bandwidth in the IPv6 network will be
       vastly consumed by sending multicast data over a unicast
       infrastructure.

   2.  The AFTR is responsible for replicating multicast traffic and
       forwarding it into each tunnel endpoint connecting IPv4 receivers
       that have explicitly asked for the corresponding contents.  This
       process may significantly consume the AFTR's resources and
       overload the AFTR.

   This document specifies an extension to the DS-Lite model to deliver
   IPv4 multicast services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 multicast-
   enabled network.

   This document describes a stateless translation mechanism that
   supports either Source Specific Multicast (SSM) or Any Source
   Multicast (ASM) operation.  The recommendation in Section 1 of
   [RFC4607] is that multicast services use SSM where possible; the
   operation of the translation mechanism is also simplified when SSM is
   used, e.g., considerations for placement of the IPv6 the Rendezvous
   Point (RP) are no longer relevant.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  Terminology

   This document makes use of the following terms:

   IPv4-embedded IPv6 address:  an IPv6 address which embeds a 32-bit-
      encoded IPv4 address.  An IPv4-embedded IPv6 address can be
      unicast or multicast.

   mPrefix64:  a dedicated multicast IPv6 prefix for constructing
      IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast addresses. mPrefix64 can be of two
      types: ASM_mPrefix64 used in Any Source Multicast (ASM) mode or
      SSM_mPrefix64 used in Source Specific Multicast (SSM) mode
      [RFC4607].  The size of this prefix is /96.

         Note: "64" is used as an abbreviation for IPv6-IPv4
         interconnection.

   uPrefix64:  a dedicated IPv6 unicast prefix for constructing
      IPv4-embedded IPv6 unicast addresses [RFC6052].  This prefix may
      be either the Well-Known Prefix (i.e., 64:ff9b::/96) or a Network-
      Specific Prefix (NSP).

   Multicast AFTR (mAFTR):  a functional entity which supports an
      IPv4-IPv6 multicast interworking function (refer to Figure 3).  It
      receives and encapsulates the IPv4 multicast packets into IPv4-in-
      IPv6 packets and behaves as the corresponding IPv6 multicast
      source for the encapsulated IPv4-in-IPv6 packets.

   Multicast B4 (mB4):  a functional entity which supports an IGMP-MLD
      interworking function (refer to Section 6.1) that relays
      information conveyed in IGMP messages by forwarding the
      corresponding Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) messages towards
      the MLD Querier in the IPv6 network.  In addition, the mB4
      decapsulates IPv4-in-IPv6 multicast packets.

   PIMv4:  refers to Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) when deployed
      in an IPv4 infrastructure (i.e., IPv4 transport capabilities are
      used to exchange PIM messages).

   PIMv6:  refers to PIM when deployed in an IPv6 infrastructure (i.e.,
      IPv6 transport capabilities are used to exchange PIM messages).

   Host portion of the MLD protocol:  refers to the part of MLD that
      applies to all multicast address listeners (Section 6 of
      [RFC3810]).  As a reminder, MLD specifies separate behaviors for
      multicast address listeners (i.e., hosts or routers that listen to
      multicast packets) and multicast routers.

   Router portion of the IGMP protocol:  refers to the part of IGMP that
      is performed by multicast routers (Section 6 of [RFC3376]).

3.  Scope

   This document focuses only on the subscription to IPv4 multicast
   groups and the delivery of IPv4-formatted content to IPv4 receivers
   over an IPv6-only network.  In particular, only the following case is
   covered:

      IPv4 receivers access IPv4 multicast contents over IPv6-only
      multicast-enabled networks.

   This document does not cover the source/receiver heuristics, where
   IPv4 receivers can also behave as IPv4 multicast sources.  This
   document assumes that hosts behind the mB4 are IPv4 multicast
   receivers only.  Also, the document covers host built-in mB4
   function.

4.  Solution Overview

   In the DS-Lite specification [RFC6333], an IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel is
   used to carry bidirectional IPv4 unicast traffic between a B4 and an
   AFTR.  The solution specified in this document provides an IPv4-in-
   IPv6 encapsulation scheme to deliver unidirectional IPv4 multicast
   traffic from an mAFTR to an mB4.

   An overview of the solution is provided in this section which is
   intended as an introduction to how it works, but is not normative.
   For the normative specifications of the two new functional elements:
   mB4 and mAFTR (Figure 1), refer to Section 6 and Section 7.

                            ------------
                          /              \
                         |  IPv4 network  |
                          \              /
                            ------------
              IPv4 multicast  :   |   ^  PIMv4 Join
                              v   |   :
                           +-------------+
                           |    mAFTR    |
                           +-------------+
             IPv6 multicast  |:|  |   ^  PIMv6 Join (PIMv6
             (IPv4 embedded) |:|  |   :   routers in between)
                            ------------
                          /              \
                         |  IPv6 network  |
                          \              /
                            ------------
                             |:|  |   ^  MLD Report
                             |v|  |   :
                            +-----------+
                            |    mB4    |
                            +-----------+
              IPv4 multicast  :   |   ^  IGMP Report
                              v   |   :
                            +-----------+
                            |   IPv4    |
                            | receiver  |
                            +-----------+

                     Figure 1: Functional Architecture

4.1.  IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Prefixes

   In order to map the addresses of IPv4 multicast traffic with IPv6
   multicast addresses, an IPv6 multicast prefix (mPrefix64) and an IPv6
   unicast prefix (uPrefix64) are provided to the mAFTR and the mB4
   elements, both of which contribute to the computation and the
   maintenance of the IPv6 multicast distribution tree that extends the
   IPv4 multicast distribution tree into the IPv6 multicast network.
   The IPv4/IPv6 address mapping is stateless.

   The mAFTR and the mB4 use mPrefix64 to convert an IPv4 multicast
   address (G4) into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address (G6).  The
   mAFTR and the mB4 use uPrefix64 to convert an IPv4 multicast source
   address (S4) into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 address (S6).  The mAFTR and
   the mB4 must use the same mPrefix64 and uPrefix64, and also run the
   same algorithm for building IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses.  Refer to
   Section 5 for more details about the address mapping.

4.2.  Multicast Distribution Tree Computation

   When an IPv4 receiver connected to the device that embeds the mB4
   capability wants to subscribe to an IPv4 multicast group, it sends an
   IGMP Report message towards the mB4.  The mB4 creates the IPv6
   multicast group (G6) address using mPrefix64 and the original IPv4
   multicast group address.  If the receiver sends a source-specific
   IGMPv3 Report message, the mB4 will create the IPv6 source address
   (S6) using uPrefix64 and the original IPv4 source address.

   The mB4 uses the G6 (and both S6 and G6 in SSM) to create the
   corresponding MLD Report message.  The mB4 sends the Report message
   towards the MLD Querier in the IPv6 network.  The MLD Querier (which
   usually acts as the PIMv6 Designated Router too) receives the MLD
   Report message and sends the PIMv6 Join to join the IPv6 multicast
   distribution tree.  The MLD Querier can send either PIMv6 Join (*,G6)
   in ASM or PIMv6 Join (S6,G6) in SSM to the mAFTR.

   The mAFTR acts as the IPv4 DR to which the uPrefix64-derived S6 is
   connected.  The mAFTR will receive the source-specific PIMv6 Join
   message (S6,G6) from the IPv6 multicast network.  If the mAFTR is the
   Rendezvous Point (RP) of G6, it will receive the any-source PIMv6
   Join message (*,G6) from the IPv6 multicast network.  If the mAFTR is
   not the RP of G6, it will send the PIM Register message to the RP of
   G6 located in the IPv6 multicast network.  For the sake of
   simplicity, it is RECOMMENDED to configure the mAFTR as the RP for
   the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast groups it manages; no registration
   procedure is required under this configuration.

   When the mAFTR receives the PIMv6 Join message (*,G6), it will
   extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4).  If the mAFTR is the
   RP of G4 in the IPv4 multicast network, it will create a (*,G4) entry
   (if such entry does not already exist) in its own IPv4 multicast
   routing table.  If the mAFTR is not the RP of G4, it will send the
   corresponding PIMv4 Join message (*,G4) towards the RP of G4 in the
   IPv4 multicast network.

   When the mAFTR receives the PIMv6 Join message (S6,G6), it will
   extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4) and IPv4 source address
   (S4) and send the corresponding (S4,G4) PIMv4 Join message directly
   to the IPv4 source.

   A branch of the multicast distribution tree is thus constructed,
   comprising both an IPv4 part (from the mAFTR upstream) and an IPv6
   part (from mAFTR downstream towards the mB4).

   The mAFTR advertises the route of uPrefix64 with an IPv6 Interior
   Gateway Protocol (IGP), so as to represent the IPv4-embedded IPv6
   source in the IPv6 multicast network, and to run the Reverse Path
   Forwarding (RPF) check procedure on incoming multicast traffic.
   Injecting internal /96 routes is not problematic given the
   recommendation in [RFC7608] that requires that forwarding processes
   must be designed to process prefixes of any length up to /128.

4.3.  Multicast Data Forwarding

   When the mAFTR receives an IPv4 multicast packet, it will encapsulate
   the packet into an IPv6 multicast packet using the IPv4-embedded IPv6
   multicast address as the destination address and an IPv4-embedded
   IPv6 unicast address as the source address.  The encapsulated IPv6
   multicast packet will be forwarded down the IPv6 multicast
   distribution tree and the mB4 will eventually receive the packet.

   The IPv6 multicast network treats the IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulated
   multicast packets as native IPv6 multicast packets.  The IPv6
   multicast routers use the outer IPv6 header to make their forwarding
   decisions.

   When the mB4 receives the IPv6 multicast packet (to G6) derived by
   mPrefix64, it decapsulates it and forwards the original IPv4
   multicast packet to the receivers subscribing to G4.

   Note: At this point, only IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulation is defined;
   however, other types of encapsulation could be defined in the future.

5.  IPv4/IPv6 Address Mapping

5.1.  Prefix Assignment

   A dedicated IPv6 multicast prefix (mPrefix64) is provisioned to the
   mAFTR and the mB4.  The mAFTR and the mB4 use the mPrefix64 to form
   an IPv6 multicast group address from an IPv4 multicast group address.
   The mPrefix64 can be of two types: ASM_mPrefix64 (a mPrefix64 used in
   ASM mode) or SSM_mPrefix64 (a mPrefix64 used in SSM mode).  The
   mPrefix64 MUST be derived from the corresponding IPv6 multicast
   address space (e.g., the SSM_mPrefix64 must be in the range of
   multicast address space specified in [RFC4607]).

   The IPv6 part of the multicast distribution tree can be seen as an
   extension of the IPv4 part of the multicast distribution tree.  The
   IPv4 multicast source address MUST be mapped to an IPv6 multicast
   source address.  An IPv6 unicast prefix (uPrefix64) is provisioned to
   the mAFTR and the mB4.  The mAFTR and the mB4 use the uPrefix64 to
   form an IPv6 multicast source address from an IPv4 multicast source
   address.
   address as specified in [RFC6052].  The uPrefix-formed IPv6 multicast
   source address will represent the original IPv4 multicast source in
   the IPv6 multicast network.  The uPrefix64 MUST be derived from the
   IPv6 unicast address space.

   The multicast address translation MUST follow the algorithm defined
   in Section 5.2.

   The mPrefix64 and uPrefix64 can be configured in the mB4 using a
   variety of methods, including an out-of-band mechanism, manual
   configuration, or a dedicated provisioning protocol (e.g., using
   DHCPv6 [I-D.ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option]).

   The stateless translation mechanism described in Section 5 does not
   preclude use of Embedded-RP [RFC3956].

5.2.  Multicast Address Translation Algorithm

   IPv4-Embedded

   IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast addresses are composed according to the
   following algorithm:

   o  Concatenate the mPrefix64 96 bits and the 32 bits of the IPv4
      address to obtain a 128-bit address.

   The IPv4 multicast addresses are extracted from the IPv4-Embedded IPv4-embedded
   IPv6 Multicast Addresses multicast addresses according to the following algorithm:

   o  If the multicast address has a pre-configured mPrefix64, extract
      the last 32 bits of the IPv6 multicast address.

   An IPv4 source is represented in the IPv6 realm with its
   IPv4-converted IPv6 address [RFC6052].

5.3.  Textual Representation

   The embedded IPv4 address in an IPv6 multicast address is included in
   the last 32 bits; therefore, dotted decimal notation can be used.

5.4.  Examples

    Group address mapping example:

    +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
    |      mPrefix64      | IPv4 address | IPv4-Embedded IPv6 address |
    +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
    |  ff0x::db8:0:0/96   |  233.252.0.1 |   ff0x::db8::233.252.0.1   |
    +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+

    Source address mapping example when a /96 is used:

    +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
    |      uPrefix64      | IPv4 address | IPv4-Embedded IPv6 address |
    +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
    |    2001:db8::/96    |  192.0.2.33  |     2001:db8::192.0.2.33   |
    +---------------------+--------------+----------------------------+

   IPv4 and IPv6 addresses used in this example are derived from the
   IPv4 and IPv6 blocks reserved for documentation, as per [RFC6676].
   The unicast IPv4 address of the above example is derived from the
   documentation address block defined in [RFC6890].

6.  Multicast B4 (mB4)

6.1.  IGMP-MLD Interworking Function

   The IGMP-MLD Interworking Function combines the IGMP/MLD Proxying
   function and the address synthesizing operations.  The IGMP/MLD
   Proxying function is specified in [RFC4605].  The address translation
   is stateless and MUST follow the address mapping specified in
   Section 5.

   The mB4 performs the host portion of the MLD protocol on the upstream
   interface.  The composition of IPv6 membership in this context is
   constructed through address synthesizing operations and MUST
   synchronize with the membership database maintained in the IGMP
   domain.  MLD messages are forwarded natively towards the MLD Querier
   located upstream in the IPv6 network (i.e., the first hop IPv6
   router).  The mB4 also performs the router portion of the IGMP
   protocol on the downstream interface(s).  Refer to [RFC4605] for more
   details.

            +----------+   IGMP  +-------+   MLD   +---------+
            |   IPv4   |---------|  mB4  |---------|   MLD   |
            | Receiver |         |       |         | Querier |
            +----------+         +-------+         +---------+

                      Figure 2: IGMP-MLD Interworking

   If SSM is deployed, the mB4 MUST construct the IPv6 source address
   (or retrieve the IPv4 source address) using the uPrefix64.  The mB4
   may create a membership database which associates the IPv4-IPv6
   multicast groups with the interfaces (e.g., WLAN and Wired Ethernet)
   facing IPv4 multicast receivers.

6.2.  Multicast Data Forwarding

   When the mB4 receives an IPv6 multicast packet, it MUST check the
   group address and the source address.  If the IPv6 multicast group
   prefix is mPrefix64 and the IPv6 source prefix is uPrefix64, the mB4
   MUST decapsulate the IPv6 header; the decapsulated IPv4 multicast
   packet will be forwarded through each relevant interface following
   standard IPv4 multicast forwarding procedure.  Otherwise, the mB4
   MUST silently drop the packet.

   As an illustration, if a packet is received from source
   2001:db8::192.0.2.33 and needs to be forwarded to group
   ff3x:1000::233.252.0.1, the mB4 decapsulates it into an IPv4
   multicast packet using 192.0.2.33 as the IPv4 source address and
   using 233.252.0.1 as the IPv4 destination multicast group.

6.3.  Fragmentation

   Encapsulating IPv4 multicast packets into IPv6 multicast packets that
   will be forwarded by the mAFTR towards the mB4 along the IPv6
   multicast distribution tree reduces the effective MTU size by the
   size of an IPv6 header.  In this specification, the data flow is
   unidirectional from the mAFTR to the mB4.  The mAFTR MUST fragment
   the oversized IPv6 packet after the encapsulation into two IPv6
   packets.  The mB4 MUST reassemble the IPv6 packets, decapsulate the
   IPv6 packet, and forward the IPv4 packet to the hosts that have
   subscribed to the corresponding multicast group.  Further
   considerations about fragmentation issues are documented in
   [RFC6333].

6.4.  Host Built-in mB4 Function

   If the mB4 function is implemented in the host which is directly
   connected to an IPv6-only network, the host MUST implement
   Section 6.1, Section 6.2, and Section 6.3.  The host MAY optimize the
   implementation to provide an Application Programming Interface (API)
   or kernel module to skip the IGMP-MLD Interworking Function.
   Optimization considerations are out of scope of this specification.

6.5.  Preserve the Scope

   When several mPrefix64s are available, if each enclosed IPv4-embedded
   IPv6 multicast prefix has a distinct scope, the mB4 MUST select the
   appropriate IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast prefix whose scope matches
   the IPv4 multicast address used to synthesize an IPv4-embedded IPv6
   multicast address (Section 8 of [RFC2365]).

   The mB4 MAY be configured to not preserve the scope when enforcing
   the address translation algorithm.

   Consider that an mB4 is configured with two mPrefix64s
   ff0e::db8:0:0/96 (Global scope) and ff08::db8:0:0/96 (Organization
   scope).  If the mB4 receives an IGMP report from an IPv4 receiver to
   subscribe to 233.252.0.1, it checks which mPrefix64 to use in order
   to preserve the scope of the requested IPv4 multicast group.  In this
   example, given that 233.252.0.1 is intended for global use, the mB4
   creates the IPv6 multicast group (G6) address using ff0e::db8:0:0/96
   and the original IPv4 multicast group address (233.252.0.1):
   ff0e::db8::233.252.0.1.

7.  Multicast AFTR (mAFTR)

7.1.  Routing Considerations

   The mAFTR is responsible for interconnecting the IPv4 multicast
   distribution tree with the corresponding IPv6 multicast distribution
   tree.  The mAFTR MUST use the uPrefix64 to build the IPv6 source
   addresses of the multicast group address derived from mPrefix64.  In
   other words, the mAFTR MUST be the multicast source whose address is
   derived from uPrefix64.

   The mAFTR MUST advertise the route towards uPrefix64 with the IPv6
   IGP.  This is needed by the IPv6 multicast routers so that they
   acquire the routing information to discover the source.

7.2.  Processing PIM Messages

   The mAFTR MUST interwork PIM Join/Prune messages for (*, G6) and (S6,
   G6) on their corresponding (*, G4) and (S4, G4).  The following text
   specifies the expected behavior of the mAFTR for PIM Join messages.

                                +---------+
                       ---------|  mAFTR  |---------
                         PIMv6  |uPrefix64|  PIMv4
                                |mPreifx64|
                                +---------+

                Figure 3: PIMv6-PIMv4 Interworking Function

   The mAFTR contains two separate Tree Information Bases (TIBs): the
   IPv4 Tree Information Base (TIB4) and the IPv6 Tree Information Base
   (TIB6), which are bridged by one IPv4-in-IPv6 virtual interface.  It
   should be noted that TIB implementations may vary (e.g., some may
   rely upon a single integrated TIB without any virtual interface), but
   they should follow this specification for the sake of global and
   functional consistency.

   When a mAFTR receives a PIMv6 Join message (*,G6) with an IPv6
   multicast group address (G6) that is derived from the mPrefix64, it
   MUST check its IPv6 Tree Information Base (TIB6).  If there is an
   entry for this G6 address, it MUST check whether the interface
   through which the PIMv6 Join message has been received is in the
   outgoing interface (oif) list.  If not, the mAFTR MUST add the
   interface to the oif list.  If there is no entry in the TIB6, the
   mAFTR MUST create a new entry (*,G6) for the multicast group.
   Whether or not the IPv4-in-IPv6 virtual interface is set as the
   incoming interface of the newly created entry is up to the
   implementation but it should comply with the mAFTR's multicast data
   forwarding behavior, see Section 7.4.

   The mAFTR MUST extract the IPv4 multicast group address (G4) from the
   IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address (G6) contained in the PIMv6 Join
   message.  The mAFTR MUST check its IPv4 Tree Information Base (TIB4).
   If there is an entry for G4, it MUST check whether the IPv4-in-IPv6
   virtual interface is in the outgoing interface list.  If not, the
   mAFTR MUST add the interface to the oif list.  If there is no entry
   for G4, the mAFTR MUST create a new (*,G4) entry in its TIB4 and
   initiate the procedure for building the shared tree in the IPv4
   multicast network without any additional requirement.

   If the mAFTR receives a source-specific Join message, the (S6, G6) is
   processed rather than (*,G6).  The procedures of processing (S6,G6)
   and (*,G6) are almost the same.  Differences have been detailed in
   [RFC7761].

7.3.  Switching from Shared Tree to Shortest Path Tree

   When the mAFTR receives the first IPv4 multicast packet, it may
   extract the multicast source address (S4) from the packet and send an
   Explicit PIMv4 (S4,G4) Join message directly to S4.  The mAFTR
   switches from the shared Rendezvous Point Tree (RPT) to the Shortest
   Path Tree (SPT) for G4.

   For IPv6 multicast routers to switch to the SPT, there is no new
   requirement.  IPv6 multicast routers may send an Explicit PIMv6 Join
   to the mAFTR once the first (S6,G6) multicast packet arrives from
   upstream multicast routers.

7.4.  Multicast Data Forwarding

   When the mAFTR receives an IPv4 multicast packet, it checks its TIB4
   to find a matching entry and then forwards the packet to the
   interface(s) listed in the outgoing interface list.  If the IPv4-in-
   IPv6 virtual interface also belongs to this list, the packet is
   encapsulated with the mPrefix64-derived and uPrefix64-derived
   IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses to form an IPv6 multicast packet.  Then
   another lookup is made by the mAFTR to find a matching entry in the
   TIB6.  Whether the RPF check for the second lookup is performed or
   not is up to the implementation and is out of the scope of this
   document.  The IPv6 multicast packet is then forwarded along the IPv6
   multicast distribution tree, based upon the outgoing interface list
   of the matching entry in the TIB6.

   As an illustration, if a packet is received from source 192.0.2.33
   and needs to be forwarded to group 233.252.0.1, the mAFTR
   encapsulates it into an IPv6 multicast packet using
   ff3x:1000::233.252.0.1 as the IPv6 destination multicast group and
   using 2001:db8::192.0.2.33 as the IPv6 source address.

7.5.  TTL/Scope

   The Scope field of IPv4-in-IPv6 multicast addresses should be valued
   accordingly (e.g, to "E", Global scope;) in the deployment
   environment.  This specification does not discuss the scope value
   that should be used.

   Nevertheless, when several mPrefix64s are available, if each enclosed
   IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast prefix has a distinct scope, the mAFTR
   MUST select the appropriate IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast prefix whose
   scope matches the IPv4 multicast address used to synthesize an
   IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address.

   An mAFTR MAY be configured to not preserve the scope when enforcing
   the address translation algorithm.

8.  Deployment Considerations

8.1.  Other Operational Modes

8.1.1.  The MLD Querier is Co-Located with the mAFTR

   The mAFTR can embed the MLD Querier function (as well as the PIMv6
   DR) for optimization purposes.  When the mB4 sends a MLD Report
   message to this mAFTR, the mAFTR should process the MLD Report
   message that contains the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast group address
   and then send the corresponding PIMv4 Join message.  (Figure 4)

                                +---------+
                       ---------|  mAFTR  |---------
                          MLD   |uPrefix64|  PIMv4
                                |mPreifx64|
                                +---------+

                 Figure 4: MLD-PIMv4 Interworking Function

   Discussions about the location of the mAFTR capability and related
   ASM or SSM multicast design considerations are out of the scope of
   this document.

8.1.2.  The DR is Co-Located with the mAFTR

   If the mAFTR is co-located with the DR connected to the original IPv4
   source, it may simply use the uPrefix64 and mPrefix64 prefixes to
   build the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast packets, and the sending of
   PIMv4 Join messages becomes unnecessary.

8.2.  Load Balancing

   For robustness and load distribution purposes, several nodes in the
   network can embed the mAFTR function.  In such case, the same IPv6
   prefixes (i.e., mPrefix64 and uPrefix64) and algorithm to build
   IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses must be configured on those nodes.

8.3.  mAFTR Policy Configuration

   The mAFTR may be configured with a list of IPv4 multicast groups and
   sources.  Only multicast flows bound to the configured addresses
   should be handled by the mAFTR.  Otherwise, packets are silently
   dropped.

8.4.  Static vs. Dynamic PIM Triggering

   To optimize the usage of network resources in current deployments,
   all multicast streams are conveyed in the core network while only the
   most popular ones are forwarded in the aggregation/access networks
   (static mode).  Less popular streams are forwarded in the access
   network upon request (dynamic mode).  Depending on the location of
   the mAFTR in the network, two modes can be envisaged: static and
   dynamic.

   Static Mode:  the mAFTR is configured to instantiate permanent (S6,
      G6) and (*, G6) entries in its TIB6 using a pre-configured (S4,
      G4) list.

   Dynamic Mode:  the instantiation or withdrawal of (S6, G6) or (*, G6)
      entries is triggered by the receipt of PIMv6 messages.

9.  Security Considerations

   Besides multicast scoping considerations (see Section 6.5 and
   Section 7.5), this document does not introduce any new security
   concern in addition to what is discussed in Section 5 of [RFC6052],
   Section 10 of [RFC3810] and Section 6 of [RFC7761].

   An mB4 SHOULD be provided with appropriate configuration information
   to preserve the scope of a multicast message when mapping an IPv4
   multicast address into an IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address and
   vice versa.

9.1.  Firewall Configuration

   The CPE that embeds the mB4 function SHOULD be configured to accept
   incoming MLD messages and traffic forwarded to multicast groups
   subscribed by receivers located in the customer premises.

10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Dan Wing for his guidance in the
   early discussions which initiated this work.  We also thank Peng Sun,
   Jie Hu, Qiong Sun, Lizhong Jin, Alain Durand, Dean Cheng, Behcet
   Sarikaya, Tina Tsou, Rajiv Asati, Xiaohong Deng, and Stig Venaas for
   their valuable comments.

   Many thanks to Ian Farrer for the review.

   Thanks to Zhen Cao and Tim Chown for the INT directorate review.

11.  IANA Considerations

   This document includes no request to IANA.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2365]  Meyer, D., "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", BCP 23,
              RFC 2365, DOI 10.17487/RFC2365, July 1998,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2365>.

   [RFC3376]  Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
              Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              3", RFC 3376, DOI 10.17487/RFC3376, October 2002,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3376>.

   [RFC3810]  Vida, R., Ed. and L. Costa, Ed., "Multicast Listener
              Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3810, June 2004,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3810>.

   [RFC4605]  Fenner, B., He, H., Haberman, B., and H. Sandick,
              "Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) / Multicast
              Listener Discovery (MLD)-Based Multicast Forwarding
              ("IGMP/MLD Proxying")", RFC 4605, DOI 10.17487/RFC4605,
              August 2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4605>.

   [RFC4607]  Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for
              IP", RFC 4607, DOI 10.17487/RFC4607, August 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4607>.

   [RFC6052]  Bao, C., Huitema, C., Bagnulo, M., Boucadair, M., and X.
              Li, "IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators", RFC 6052,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6052, October 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6052>.

   [RFC6333]  Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee, "Dual-
              Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4
              Exhaustion", RFC 6333, DOI 10.17487/RFC6333, August 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6333>.

   [RFC7608]  Boucadair, M., Petrescu, A., and F. Baker, "IPv6 Prefix
              Length Recommendation for Forwarding", BCP 198, RFC 7608,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7608, July 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7608>.

   [RFC7761]  Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., Kouvelas, I.,
              Parekh, R., Zhang, Z., and L. Zheng, "Protocol Independent
              Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Specification
              (Revised)", STD 83, RFC 7761, DOI 10.17487/RFC7761, March
              2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7761>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option]
              Boucadair, M., Qin, J., Tsou, T., and X. Deng, "DHCPv6
              Option for IPv4-Embedded Multicast and Unicast IPv6
              Prefixes", draft-ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option-11
              (work in progress), June 2016.

   [RFC2236]  Fenner, W., "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              2", RFC 2236, DOI 10.17487/RFC2236, November 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2236>.

   [RFC3956]  Savola, P. and B. Haberman, "Embedding the Rendezvous
              Point (RP) Address in an IPv6 Multicast Address",
              RFC 3956, DOI 10.17487/RFC3956, November 2004,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3956>.

   [RFC6676]  Venaas, S., Parekh, R., Van de Velde, G., Chown, T., and
              M. Eubanks, "Multicast Addresses for Documentation",
              RFC 6676, DOI 10.17487/RFC6676, August 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6676>.

   [RFC6890]  Cotton, M., Vegoda, L., Bonica, R., Ed., and B. Haberman,
              "Special-Purpose IP Address Registries", BCP 153,
              RFC 6890, DOI 10.17487/RFC6890, April 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6890>.

   [RFC7596]  Cui, Y., Sun, Q., Boucadair, M., Tsou, T., Lee, Y., and I.
              Farrer, "Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the Dual-
              Stack Lite Architecture", RFC 7596, DOI 10.17487/RFC7596,
              July 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7596>.

   [RFC7597]  Troan, O., Ed., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S.,
              Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, Ed., "Mapping of Address and
              Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)", RFC 7597,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7597, July 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7597>.

Appendix A.  Use Case: IPTV

   IPTV generally includes two categories of service offerings:

   o  Video on Demand (VoD) that unicast video content to receivers.

   o  Multicast live TV broadcast services.

   Two types of provider are involved in the delivery of this service:

   o  Content Providers, who usually own the contents that is multicast
      to receivers.  Content providers may contractually define an
      agreement with network providers to deliver contents to receivers.

   o  Network Providers, who provide network connectivity services
      (e.g., network providers are responsible for carrying multicast
      flows from head-ends to receivers).

   Note that some contract agreements prevent a network provider from
   altering the content as sent by the content provider for various
   reasons.  Depending on these contract agreements, multicast streams
   should be delivered unaltered to the requesting users.

   Many current IPTV contents are likely to remain IPv4-formatted and
   out of control of the network providers.  Additionally, there are
   numerous legacy receivers (e.g., IPv4-only Set Top Boxes (STB)) that
   can't be upgraded or be easily replaced to support IPv6.  As a
   consequence, IPv4 service continuity must be guaranteed during the
   transition period, including the delivery of multicast services such
   as Live TV Broadcasting to users.

Appendix B.  Older Versions of Group Membership Management Protocols

   Given the multiple versions of group membership management protocols,
   mismatch issues may arise at the mB4 (refer to Section 6.1).

   If IGMPv2 operates on the IPv4 receivers while MLDv2 operates on the
   MLD Querier, or if IGMPv3 operates on the IPv4 receivers while MLDv1
   operates on the MLD Querier, the version mismatch issue will be
   encountered.  To solve this problem, the mB4 should perform the
   router portion of IGMP which is similar to the corresponding MLD
   version (IGMPv2 as of MLDv1, or IGMPv3 as of MLDv2) operating in the
   IPv6 domain.  Then, the protocol interaction approach specified in
   Section 7 of [RFC3376] can be applied to exchange signaling messages
   with the IPv4 receivers on which the different version of IGMP is
   operating.

Authors' Addresses

   Mohamed Boucadair
   Orange
   Rennes  35000
   France

   Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com

   Jacni Qin
   Cisco
   Shanghai
   China

   Email: jacni@jacni.com

   Christian Jacquenet
   Orange
   Rennes  35000
   France

   Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com

   Yiu L. Lee
   Comcast
   U.S.A.

   Email: yiu_lee@cable.comcast.com
   URI:   http://www.comcast.com

   Qian Wang
   China Telecom
   China

   Phone: +86 10 58502462
   Email: 13301168516@189.cn