SACM Working Group                                           H. Birkholz
Internet-Draft                                            Fraunhofer SIT
Intended status: Standards Track                     J. Fitzgerald-McKay
Expires: July 8, September 6, 2018                         Department of Defense
                                                              C. Schmidt
                                                   The MITRE Corporation
                                                           D. Waltermire
                                                                    NIST
                                                        January 04,
                                                          March 05, 2018

                      Concise Software Identifiers
                       draft-ietf-sacm-coswid-03
                       draft-ietf-sacm-coswid-04

Abstract

   This document defines a concise representation of ISO ISO/IEC
   19770-2:2015 Software Identifiers (SWID tags) that is interoperable
   with the XML schema definition of ISO ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015 and augmented
   for application in Constrained-Node Networks.  Next to the inherent
   capability of SWID tags to express arbitrary context information,
   CoSWID support the definition of additional semantics via well-defined well-
   defined data definitions incorporated by extension points.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 8, September 6, 2018.

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   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2   3
     1.1.  The SWID Tag Lifecycle  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Concise SWID Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.2.   6
     1.3.  Requirements Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4   6
   2.  Concise SWID Data Definition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Description of   7
     2.1.  The concise-software-identity Object  . . . . . . . . . .   7
       2.1.1.  Determining the SWID Attribute Vocabulary Definition tag type  . . .   9
   4.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       2.1.2.  concise-software-identity Co-constraints  . . . . . .  12
     2.2.  The global-attributes Group . . . .   9
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     2.3.  The any-element-entry . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . .  13
     2.4.  The entity Object . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  Change Log . . . . . . .  13
     2.5.  The link Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8.  Contributors . . .  15
     2.6.  The software-meta Object  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     2.7.  The Resource Collection Definition  . . . . .  12
   9.  References . . . . . .  19
       2.7.1.  The hash-entry Array  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       2.7.2.  The resource-collection Group . . .  12
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.7.3.  The payload Object  . . . . . . . . .  12
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . .  22
       2.7.4.  The evidence Object . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix A.  Explicit file-hash Type Used in Concise SWID Tags
                (label 56) . . . . . . . .  23
     2.8.  Full CDDL Definition  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Appendix B. . . . . .  23
   3.  CoSWID Attributes for Firmware (label 57) Indexed Label Values . . . . .  14
   Appendix C.  Signed Concise SWID Tags using COSE . . . . . . . .  16
   Appendix D.  CoSWID used as Reference Integrity Measurements
                (CoSWID RIM) . . . .  28
     3.1.  Version Scheme  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Appendix E.  CBOR Web Token for Concise SWID Tags . . . . .  28
     3.2.  Entity Role Values  . . .  18
   Appendix F.  Group Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   4.  IANA Considerations .  18
   Appendix G.  Item Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   Authors' Addresses . .  29
     4.1.  SWID/CoSWID Version Schema Values Registry  . . . . . . .  29
     4.2.  SWID/CoSWID Entity Role Values Registry . . . . . . . . .  30
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . .  26

1.  Introduction

   SWID tags have several use-applications including but not limited to:

   o  Software Inventory Management, a part of the Software Asset
      Management [SAM] process, which requires an accurate list of
      discernible deployed software components.

   o  Vulnerability Assessment, which requires a semantic link between
      standardized vulnerability descriptions and IT-assets [X.1520].

   o  Remote Attestation, which requires a link between reference
      integrity measurements (RIM) and security logs of measured
      software components [I-D.birkholz-tuda].

   SWID tags, as defined in ISO-19770-2:2015 [SWID], provide a
   standardized format . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   6.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   7.  Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   8.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
   Appendix A.  CoSWID Attributes for a record that identifies and describes a
   specific release of a software product.  Different software products,
   and even different releases of a particular software product, each
   have a different SWID tag record associated with them.  In addition
   to defining the format of these records, ISO-19770-2:2015 defines
   requirements concerning the SWID tag life-cycle.  Specifically, when
   a software product is installed on an endpoint, that product's Firmware (label 60)  . . . . .  35
   Appendix B.  Signed Concise SWID
   tag is also installed.  Likewise, when the product is uninstalled or
   replaced, Tags using COSE  . . . . . . . .  38
   Appendix C.  CoSWID used as Reference Integrity Measurements
                (CoSWID RIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   Appendix D.  CBOR Web Token for Concise SWID Tags . . . . . . . .  40
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40

1.  Introduction

   SWID tags have several use-applications including but not limited to:

   o  Software Inventory Management, a part of the Software Asset
      Management [SAM] process, which requires an accurate list of
      discernible deployed software components.

   o  Vulnerability Assessment, which requires a semantic link between
      standardized vulnerability descriptions and IT-assets [X.1520].

   o  Remote Attestation, which requires a link between reference
      integrity measurements (RIM) and security logs of measured
      software components [I-D.birkholz-tuda].

   SWID tag is deleted or replaced, tags, as appropriate.  As a
   result, defined in ISO-19770-2:2015 describes [SWID], provide a system wherein there is
   standardized format for a
   correspondence between the set record that identifies and describes a
   specific release of installed a software products on an
   endpoint, component.  Different software
   components, and the presence on that endpoint even different releases of the a particular software
   component, each have a different SWID tags
   corresponding to those products. tag record associated with
   them.  SWID tags are meant to be flexible and able to express a broad
   set of metadata about a software product.  Moreover, there are multiple
   types component.

   Real-world instances of SWID tags, each providing different types of information.
   For example, a "corpus tag" is used to describe an application's
   installation image on an installation media, while a "patch tag" is
   meant to describe a patch that modifies some other application.
   While there are very few required fields in SWID tags, there are many
   optional fields that support different uses of these different types
   of tags.  While a SWID tag that consisted only of required fields
   could be a few hundred bytes in size, a tag containing many of the
   optional fields could be many orders of magnitude larger.

   This document defines a more concise representation of SWID tags in
   the Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) [RFC7049].  This is
   described via the Concise Data Definition Language (CDDL)
   [I-D.ietf-cbor-cddl].  The resulting Concise SWID data definition is
   interoperable with the XML schema definition of ISO-19770-2:2015
   [SWID].  The vocabulary, i.e., the CDDL names of the types and
   members used in the CoSWID data definition, is mapped to more concise
   labels represented as small integers.  The names used in the CDDL
   data definition and the mapping to the CBOR representation using
   integer labels is based on the vocabulary of the XML attribute and
   element names defined in ISO-19770-2:2015.

   Real-world instances of SWID tags can be fairly large, and the
   communication tags can be fairly large, and the
   communication of SWID tags in use-applications such as those
   described earlier can cause a large amount of data to be transported.
   This can be larger than acceptable for constrained devices and
   networks.  CoSWID tags significantly reduce the amount of data
   transported as compared to a typical SWID tag.  This reduction is
   enable through the use of CBOR, which maps human-readable labels of
   that content to more concise integer labels (indices).  This allows
   SWID tags to be part of an enterprise security solution for a wider
   range of endpoints and environments.

1.1.  Concise  The SWID Extensions

   This document specifies a standard equivalent Tag Lifecycle

   In addition to defining the ISO-19770-2:2015
   standard.  The corresponding CoSWID data definition includes two
   kinds of augmentation.

   o  the explicit definition format of types for attributes that are typically
      stored in these records, ISO/IEC
   19770-2:2015 defines requirements concerning the "any attribute" of SWID tag life-cycle.
   Specifically, when a software component is installed on an ISO-19770-2:2015 in XML
      representation.  These are covered in endpoint,
   that product's SWID tag is also installed.  Likewise, when the main body of this
      document.

   o
   product is uninstalled or replaced, the inclusion SWID tag is deleted or
   replaced, as appropriate.  As a result, ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015
   describes a system wherein there is a correspondence between the set
   of extension points in installed software products on an endpoint, and the CoSWID data definition presence on
   that allow for additional uses endpoint of CoSWID tags that go beyond the
      original scope of ISO-19770-2:2015 tags.  These are covered in
      appendices to this document.

1.2.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC
   2119, BCP 14 [RFC2119].

2.  Concise SWID Data Definition tags corresponding to those products.

   The following is a CDDL representation an excerpt (with some modifications and reordering)
   from NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 8060: Guidelines for the
   Creation of Interoperable SWID Tags [SWID-GUIDANCE], which describes
   the ISO-19770-2:2015 [SWID]
   XML schema definition tag types used within the lifecycle defined in ISO-19770-2:2015.

      The SWID specification defines four types of SWID tags.  This representation includes
   every tags: primary,
      patch, corpus, and supplemental.

      1.  Primary Tag - A SWID tag fields and attribute that identifies and thus supports all describes a
          software component is installed on a computing device.

      2.  Patch Tag - A SWID tag
   use cases.  The CamelCase notation used in the XML schema definition
   is changed that identifies and describes an
          installed patch which has made incremental changes to a hyphen-separated notation (e.g.  ResourceCollection
   is named resource-collection
          software component installed on a computing device.

      3.  Corpus Tag - A SWID tag that identifies and describes an
          installable software component in the CoSWID data definition).  This
   deviation from the original notation used in the XML representation
   reduces ambiguity when referencing certain attributes in
   corresponding textual descriptions.  An attribute referred by its
   name in CamelCase notation explicitly relates pre-installation state.
          A corpus tag can be used to XML SWID tags, represent metadata about an
   attribute referred by its name in hyphen-separated notation
   explicitly relates
          installation package or installer for a software component, a
          software update, or a patch.

      4.  Supplemental Tag - A SWID tag that allows additional
          information to CoSWID tags. be associated with a referenced SWID tag.  This approach simplifies the
   composition of further work
          helps to ensure that reference both XML SWID Primary and CoSWID
   documents.

   Human-readable names of members in the CDDL data definition Patch Tags provided by a
          software provider are
   mapped not modified by software management
          tools, while allowing these tools to integer indices via a block of rules at provide their own
          software metadata.

      Corpus, primary, and patch tags have similar functions in that
      they describe the bottom existence and/or presence of the
   definition.  The 66 character strings different types of
      software (e.g., software installers, software installations,
      software patches), and, potentially, different states of software
      components.  In contrast, supplemental tags furnish additional
      information not contained in corpus, primary, or patch tags.  All
      four tag types come into play at various points in the SWID vocabulary software
      lifecycle, and support software management processes that
   would have depend
      on the ability to be stored or transported accurately determine where each software
      component is in full if using its lifecycle.

  Installation     Product       Product      Product       Product
    Media      -> Installed  ->  Patched   -> Upgraded   -> Removed
   Deployed

   Corpus         Primary        Primary      xPrimary      xPrimary
                  Supplemental   Supplemental xSupplemental xSuplemental
                                 Patch        xPatch
                                              Primary
                                              Supplemental

      The figure above illustrates the original
   vocabulary are replaced.

   Concise Software Identifiers are tailored to be used steps in the domain of
   constrained-node networks.  A typical endpoint is capable of storing software lifecycle
      and the CoSWID tag relationships among those lifecycle events supported by
      the four types of installed software, a constrained-node might lack
   that capability.  CoSWID address these constraints SWID tags, as follows: - Software Deployment.
      Before the software component is installed (i.e., pre-
      installation), and while the
   corresponding specification product is augmented being deployed, a corpus
      tag provides information about the installation files and
      distribution media (e.g., CD/DVD, distribution package).  -
      Software Installation.  A primary tag will be installed with the
      software component (or subsequently created) to retain their usefulness
   in uniquely identify
      and describe the thing-2-thing domain.  Specific examples include, but software component.  Supplemental tags are
      created to augment primary tags with additional site-specific or
      extended information.  While not
   limited illustrated in the figure, patch
      tags may also be installed during software installation to limiting provide
      information about software fixes deployed along with the scope of hash algorithms base
      software installation.  - Software Patching.  When a new patch is
      applied to the IANA Named
   Information tables or including firmware attributes addressing
   devices that do software component, a new patch tag is provided,
      supplying details about the patch and its dependencies.  While not necessarily
      illustrated in the figure, a corpus tag can also provide
      information about the patch installer, and patching dependencies
      that need to be installed before the patch.  - Software Upgrading.
      As a file-system software component is upgraded to store a
   CoSWID tag in.

   In order new version, new primary
      and supplemental tags replace existing tags, enabling timely and
      accurate tracking of updates to create software inventory.  While not
      illustrated in the figure, a valid CoSWID document corpus tag can also provide
      information about the structure upgrade installer, and dependencies that
      need to be installed before the upgrade.  - Software Removal.
      Upon removal of the
   corresponding CBOR message MUST adhere software component, relevant SWID tags are
      removed.  This removal event can trigger timely updates to
      software inventory reflecting the following CDDL data
   definition.

   <CODE BEGINS>
   concise-software-identity = {
     global-attributes,
     ? entity-entry,
     ? payload-xor-evidence-entry,
     ? link-entry,
     ? software-meta-entry,
   ;  ? payload-entry,
     ? any-element-entry,
     ? corpus,
     ? patch,
     ? media,
     swid-name,
     ? supplemental,
     tag-id,
     ? tag-version,
     ? software-version,
     ? version-scheme,
   }

   any-uri = text
   label = text / int

   any-attribute = (
     label => text / int / [ 2* text ] / [ 2* int ]
   )

   any-element-map = {
     global-attributes,
     * label => any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ],
   }

   global-attributes = (
     ? lang,
     * any-attribute,
   )

   resource-collection = (
     ? directory-entry,
     ? file-entry,
     ? process-entry,
     ? resource-entry
     * $$resource-extension
   )

   file = {
     filesystem-item,
     ? size,
     ? file-version,
     ? file-hash,
   }

   filesystem-item = (
     global-attributes,
     ? key,
     ? location,
     fs-name,
     ? root,
   )

   directory = {
     filesystem-item,
     path-elements,
   }

   process = {
     global-attributes,
     process-name,
     ? pid,
   }

   resource = {
     global-attributes,
     type,
   }

   entity = {
     global-attributes,
     extended-data,
     entity-name,
     ? reg-id,
     role,
     ? thumbprint,
   }

   evidence = {
     global-attributes,
     resource-collection,
     ? date,
     ? device-id,
   }

   link = {
     global-attributes,
     ? artifact,
     href,
     ? media-type,
     ? ownership,
     rel,
     ? type,
     ? use,
   }

   software-meta = {
     global-attributes,
     ? activation-status,
     ? channel-type,
     ? colloquial-version,
     ? description,
     ? edition,
     ? entitlement-data-required,
     ? entitlement-key,
     ? generator,
     ? persistent-id,
     ? product,
     ? product-family,
     ? revision,
     ? summary,
     ? unspsc-code,
     ? unspsc-version,
   }

   payload = {
     global-attributes,
     resource-collection,
   }

   payload-xor-evidence-entry = ((3: evidence) // (6: payload))
   tag-id = (0: text)
   swid-name = (1: text)
   entity-entry = (2: entity / [ 2* entity ])
   evidence-entry = (3: evidence)
   link-entry = (4: link / [ 2* link ])
   software-meta-entry = (5: software-meta / [ 2* software-meta ])
   payload-entry = (6: payload)
   any-element-entry = (7: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ])
   corpus = (8: bool) removal of the product and any
      associated patch = (9: bool)
   media = (10: text) or supplemental = (11: bool)
   tag-version = (12: integer)
   software-version = (13: text)
   version-scheme = (14: text)
   lang = (15: text)
   directory-entry = (16: directory / [ 2* directory ])
   file-entry = (17: file / [ 2* file ])
   process-entry = (18: process / [ 2* process ])
   resource-entry = (19: resource / [ 2* resource ])
   size = (20: integer)
   file-version = (21: text)
   key = (22: bool)
   location = (23: text)
   fs-name = (24: text)
   root = (25: text)
   path-elements = (26: { * file-entry,
                          * directory-entry,
                        }
                   )
   process-name = (27: text)
   pid = (28: integer)
   type = (29: text)
   extended-data = (30: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ])
   entity-name = (31: text)
   reg-id = (32: any-uri)
   role = (33: text / [2* text])
   thumbprint = (34: text)
   date = (35: time)
   device-id = (36: text)
   artifact = (37: text)
   href = (38: any-uri)
   ownership = (39: "shared" / "private" / "abandon")
   rel = (40: text)
   media-type = (41: text)
   use = (42: "optional" / "required" / "recommended")
   activation-status = (43: text)
   channel-type = (44: text)
   colloquial-version = (45: text)
   description = (46: text)
   edition = (47: text)
   entitlement-data-required = (48: bool)
   entitlement-key = (49: text)
   generator = (50: text)
   persistent-id = (51: text)
   product = (52: text)
   product-family = (53: text)
   revision = (54: text)
   summary = (55: text)
   unspsc-code = (56: text)
   unspsc-version = (57: text)
   file-hash = (58: [ hash-alg-id: int,
                      hash-value: bstr,
                    ]
               )
   <CODE ENDS>

3.  Description of tags.

   Note: While not fully illustrated in the SWID Attribute Vocabulary Definition

   Yet to figure, supplemental tags
   can be written still...

4.  IANA Considerations

   This document will include requests associated with any corpus, primary, or patch tag to IANA:

   o  Integer indices for provide
   additional metadata about an installer, installed software, or
   installed patch respectively.

   Each of the different SWID content attributes and information
      elements.

   o  Content-Type for CoAP to be used in COSE.

5.  Security Considerations tag types of SWID tags contain public information about software products and, as
   such, do not need provide different
   types of information.  For example, a "corpus tag" is used to be protected against disclosure
   describe an application's installation image on an endpoint.
   Similarly, installation
   media, while a "patch tag" is meant to describe a patch that modifies
   some other application.  While there are very few required fields in
   SWID tags tags, there are intended to many optional fields that support different uses
   of these different types of tags.  While a SWID tag that consisted
   only of required fields could be easily discoverable by
   applications and users on an endpoint a few hundred bytes in order to make it easy to
   identify and collect all size, a tag
   containing many of an endpoint's the optional fields could be many orders of
   magnitude larger.

1.2.  Concise SWID tags.  As such, any
   security considerations regarding Extensions

   This document defines a more concise representation of SWID tags focus on in
   the application
   of Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) [RFC7049].  This is
   described via the Concise Data Definition Language (CDDL)
   [I-D.greevenbosch-appsawg-cbor-cddl].  The resulting Concise SWID tags to address security challenges, and
   data definition is interoperable with the possible
   disclosure XML schema definition of
   ISO-19770-2:2015 [SWID].  The vocabulary, i.e., the results CDDL names of those applications.

   A signed SWID tag whose signature the
   types and members used in the CoSWID data definition, is intact can be relied upon mapped to be
   unchanged since it was signed.  If the SWID tag was created by
   more concise labels represented as small integers.  The names used in
   the
   software author, this generally means that it has undergone no change
   since CDDL data definition and the software application with which mapping to the tag CBOR representation
   using integer labels is associated was
   installed.  By implication, this means that based on the signed tag reflects vocabulary of the software author's understanding XML attribute
   and element names defined in ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015.

   This document specifies a standardized equivalent to the ISO-
   19770-2:2015 standard.  The corresponding CoSWID data definition
   includes two kinds of augmentation.

   o  the details explicit definition of types for attributes that software
   product.  This can be useful assurance when the information are typically
      stored in the
   tag needs to be trusted, such as when the tag is being used to convey
   golden measurements.  By contrast, the data contained "any attribute" of an ISO-19770-2:2015 in unsigned
   tags cannot be trusted to be unmodified.

   SWID tags XML
      representation.  These are designed to be easily added and removed from an
   endpoint along with covered in the installation or removal main body of software products.
   On endpoints where addition or removal this
      document.

   o  the inclusion of software products is
   tightly controlled, extension points in the addition or removal CoSWID data definition
      that allow for additional uses of SWID CoSWID tags can be
   similarly controlled.  On more open systems, where many users can
   manage that go beyond the software inventory, SWID tags may be easier to add or
   remove.  On such systems, it may be possible
      original scope of ISO-19770-2:2015 tags.  These are covered in
      appendices to add or remove SWID
   tags this document.

1.3.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC
   2119, BCP 14 [RFC2119].

2.  Concise SWID Data Definition

   The following is a way that does not reflect CDDL representation of the actual presence or absence ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015
   [SWID] XML schema definition of
   corresponding software products.  Similarly, not all software
   products automatically install SWID tags, so products may be present
   on an endpoint without providing a corresponding tags.  This representation
   includes every SWID tag.  As such,
   any collection of tag field and attribute and thus supports all
   SWID tags cannot automatically be assumed tag use cases.  The CamelCase notation used in the XML schema
   definition is changed to
   represent either a complete or fully accurate representation of hyphen-separated notation (e.g.
   ResourceCollection is named resource-collection in the
   software inventory of CoSWID data
   definition).  This deviation from the endpoint.  However, especially on devices
   that more strictly control original notation used in the ability
   XML representation reduces ambiguity when referencing certain
   attributes in corresponding textual descriptions.  An attribute
   referred by its name in CamelCase notation explicitly relates to add or remove applications, XML
   SWID tags are tags, an easy way attribute referred by its name in hyphen-separated
   notation explicitly relates to provide an preliminary understanding CoSWID tags.  This approach simplifies
   the composition of further work that endpoint's software inventory.

   Any report of an endpoint's reference both XML SWID tag collection provides information
   about the software inventory of that endpoint.  If such a report is
   exposed to an attacker, this can tell them which software products and versions thereof are present on the endpoint.  By examining this
   list, the attacker might learn
   CoSWID documents.

   Human-readable names of members in the presence of applications that CDDL data definition are vulnerable
   mapped to certain types integer indices via a block of attacks.  As noted earlier, rules at the bottom of the
   definition.  The 67 character strings of the SWID
   tags are designed to be easily discoverable by an endpoint, but this
   does not present a significant risk since an attacker vocabulary that
   would already
   need to have access to be stored or transported in full if using the endpoint original
   vocabulary are replaced.

   Concise Software Identifiers are tailored to view that information.
   However, when be used in the domain of
   constrained-node networks.  A typical endpoint transmits its software inventory to
   another party, or that inventory is stored on capable of storing
   the CoSWID tag of installed software, a server for later
   analysis, this can potentially expose this information constrained-node might lack
   that capability.  CoSWID address these constraints and the
   corresponding specification is augmented to attackers
   who do retain their usefulness
   in the thing-2-thing domain.  Specific examples include, but are not yet have access
   limited to limiting the endpoint.  As such, it is important scope of hash algorithms to protect the confidentiality of SWID tag information IANA Named
   Information tables or including firmware attributes addressing
   devices that has been
   collected from an endpoint, do not because those tags individually
   contain sensitive information, but because necessarily provide a file-system to store a
   CoSWID tag in.

   The following subsections describe the collection different parts of SWID
   tags and their association with an endpoint reveals information about
   that endpoint's attack surface.

   Finally, both the ISO-19770-2:2015 XML schema definition and the
   Concise SWID data definition allow CoSWID
   model.

2.1.  The concise-software-identity Object

   The CDDL for the construction of "infinite"
   SWID tags or SWID tags that contain malicious content with the intend
   if creating non-deterministic states during validation or processing
   of SWID tags.  While software product vendors main concise-software-identity object is as follows:

   <CODE BEGINS>
   concise-software-identity = {
     global-attributes,
     tag-id,
     tag-version,
     ? corpus,
     ? patch,
     ? supplemental,
     swid-name,
     ? software-version,
     ? version-scheme,
     ? media,
     ? software-meta-entry,
     ? entity-entry,
     ? link-entry,
     ? ( payload-entry / evidence-entry ),
     ? any-element-entry,
   }
   tag-id = (0: text)
   swid-name = (1: text)
   entity-entry = (2: entity / [ 2* entity ])
   evidence-entry = (3: evidence)
   link-entry = (4: link / [ 2* link ])
   software-meta-entry = (5: software-meta / [ 2* software-meta ])
   payload-entry = (6: payload)
   any-element-entry = (7: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ])
   corpus = (8: bool)
   patch = (9: bool)
   media = (10: text)
   supplemental = (11: bool)
   tag-version = (12: integer)
   software-version = (13: text)
   version-scheme = (14: text)
   <CODE ENDS>

   The items are unlikely to do
   this, SWID tags can be created ordered ensure that tag metadata appears first,
   followed by any party general software metadata, entity information, link
   relations, and finally payload or evidence data.  This ordering
   attempts to provide the SWID tags
   collected from an endpoint could contain most significant metadata that a mixture of vendor and non-
   vendor created tags.  For this reason, tools parser may
   need first, followed by metadata that consume SWID tags
   ought to treat the tag contents as potentially malicious and should
   employ input sanitizing on may support more specific use-
   applications.  The following describes each child item of the tags they ingest.

6.  Acknowledgements

7.  Change Log

   Changes from version 00 to version 01:

   o  Added CWT usage for absolute SWID paths on a device
   concise-software-identity model.

   o  Fixed cardinality  global-attributes: A list of type-choices items including arrays

   o  Included first iteration of firmware resource-collection

   Changes since adopted as a WG I-D -00:

   o  Removed redundant any-attributes originating from the ISO-
      19770-2:2015 XML schema an optional language
      definition

   o  Fixed broken multi-map members

   o  Introduced a more restrictive item (any-element-map) to represent
      custom maps, increased restriction on types for support the any-attribute,
      accordingly

   o  Fixed X.1520 reference

   o  Minor type changes of some attributes (e.g.  NMTOKENS)

   o  Added semantic differentiation processing of various name types (e,g. fs-
      name)

   Changes from version 00 to version 01:

   o  Ambiguity between evidence text-string values and payload eliminated by introducing
      explicit members (while still

   o  allowing for "empty" SWID tags) an
      unbounded set of any-attribute items.  Described in Section 2.2.

   o  Added  tag-id (label 0): An textual identifier uniquely referencing a relatively restrictive COSE envelope using cose_sign1
      (composite) software component.  The tag identifier is intended to
      define signed CoSWID (single signer only, at the moment)
      be globally unique.  There are no strict guidelines on how this
      identifier is structured, but examples include a 16 byte GUID
      (e.g.  class 4 UUID).

   o  Added  tag-version (label 12): An integer value that indicates if a definition how to encode hashes
      specific release of a software component has more than one tag
      that can represent that specific release.  A typical use of this
      field may be stored in the
      any-member using existing IANA tables to reference hash-algorithms

   Changes from version 01 set an initial value to version 02:

   o  Enforced a more strict separation between 0 and to monotonically
      increase the core value for subsequent tags produced for the specific
      release.  A change in the value of this field may be the case if a
      CoSWID
      definition tag producer creates and additional usage by moving content releases an incorrect tag that
      they subsequently want to corresponding
      appendices.

   o  Removed artifacts inherited from fix, but with no underlying changes to
      the product the CoSWID tag represents.  This could happen if, for
      example, a patch is distributed that has a link reference schema provided by
      ISO (e.g.  NMTOKEN(S))

   o  Simplified that
      does not cover all the core data definition by removing group various software releases it can patch.  A
      newer CoSWID tag for that patch can be generated and type
      choices where possible

   o  Minor reordering of map members

   o  Added a first extension point the tag-
      version value incremented to address requested flexibility for
      extensions beyond indicate that the any-element

8.  Contributors

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-ace-cbor-web-token]
              Jones, M., Wahlstroem, E., Erdtman, S., data is updated.

   o  corpus (label 8): A boolean value that indicates if the tag
      identifies and H. Tschofenig,
              "CBOR Web Token (CWT)", draft-ietf-ace-cbor-web-token-10
              (work describes an installable software component in progress), December 2017.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words its
      pre-installation state.  Installable software includes a
      installation package or installer for use in RFCs a software component, a
      software update, or a patch.  If the Concise SWID tag represents
      installable software, the corpus item MUST be set to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC4108]  Housley, R., "Using Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) to
              Protect Firmware Packages", RFC 4108,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4108, August 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4108>.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.

   [RFC7049]  Bormann, C. "true".  If
      not provided the default value MUST be considered "false".

   o  patch (label 9): A boolean value that indicates if the tag
      identifies and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object
              Representation (CBOR)", RFC 7049, DOI 10.17487/RFC7049,
              October 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7049>.

   [RFC7228]  Bormann, C., Ersue, M., describes an installed patch which has made
      incremental changes to a software component installed on a
      computing device.  Typically, an installed patch has made a set of
      file modifications to pre-installed software, and A. Keranen, "Terminology does not alter
      the version number or the descriptive metadata of an installed
      software product.  If a Concise SWID tag is for
              Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>.

   [RFC8152]  Schaad, J., "CBOR Object Signing a patch, it MUST
      contain the patch item and Encryption (COSE)",
              RFC 8152, DOI 10.17487/RFC8152, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8152>.

   [SAM]      "Information technology - Software asset management - Part
              5: Overview its value MUST be set to "true".  If
      not provided the default value MUST be considered "false".

   o  supplemental (label 11): A boolean value that indicates if the tag
      is providing additional information to be associated with another
      referenced SWID tag.  Tags using this item help to ensure that
      primary and vocabulary", ISO/IEC 19770-5:2013,
              November 2013.

   [SWID]     "Information technology - Software asset patch tags provided by a software provider are not
      modified by software management - Part
              2: Software identification tag'", ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015,
              October 2015.

   [X.1520]   "Recommendation ITU-T X.1520 (2014), Common
              vulnerabilities and exposures", April 2011.

9.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.banghart-sacm-rolie-softwaredescriptor]
              Waltermire, D. and S. Banghart, "Definition of the ROLIE
              Software Descriptor Extension", draft-banghart-sacm-rolie-
              softwaredescriptor-01 (work in progress), May 2017.

   [I-D.birkholz-tuda]
              Fuchs, A., Birkholz, H., McDonald, I., and C. Bormann,
              "Time-Based Uni-Directional Attestation", draft-birkholz-
              tuda-04 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-cbor-cddl]
              Birkholz, H., Vigano, C., and C. Bormann, "Concise data
              definition language (CDDL): a notational convention tools, while allowing these tools
      to
              express CBOR data structures", draft-ietf-cbor-cddl-00
              (work in progress), July 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]
              Birkholz, H., Lu, J., Strassner, J., Cam-Winget, N., and
              A. Montville, "Security Automation and Continuous
              Monitoring (SACM) Terminology", draft-ietf-sacm-
              terminology-14 (work in progress), December 2017.

Appendix A.  Explicit file-hash Type Used in provide their own software metadata for a software component.
      If a Concise SWID Tags (label
             56)

   CoSWID add explicit support for the representation of file-hashes
   using algorithms that are registered at the Named Information Hash
   Algorithm Registry via the file-hash member (label 56).

   file-hash = (56: [ hash-alg-id: int, hash-value: bstr ] )

   The number used as tag is a value for hash-alg-id supplemntal tag, it MUST refer the ID in contain the
   Named Information Hash Algorithm table; other hash algorithms
      supplemental item and its value MUST
   NOT be used.  The hash-value MUST represent set to "true".  If not
      provided the raw hash default value of MUST be considered "false".

   o  swid-name (label 1): This textual item provides the
   file-entry software
      component name as it would typically be referenced.  For example,
      what would be seen in the file-hash type add/remove software dialog in an
      operating system, or what is included in.

Appendix B.  CoSWID Attributes for Firmware (label 57)

   The ISO-19770-2:2015 specification of SWID tags assumes specified as the existence name of a file system a packaged
      software component is installed and stored in.  In
   the case of constrained-node networks [RFC7228] or network equipment
   this assumption might not apply.  Concise software instances in the
   form of (modular) firmware are often stored directly on a block
   device that is a hardware component of patch identifier name.

   o  software-version (label 13): A textual value representing the constrained-node or
   network equipment.  Multiple differentiable block devices
      specific underlying release or
   segmented block devices that contain parts development version of modular firmware
   components (potentially each with their own instance version) are
   already common at the time of this writing.

   The optional attributes that annotate software
      component.

   o  version-scheme (label 14): An 8-bit integer or textual value
      representing the versioning scheme used for the software-version
      item.  If an integer value is used it MUST be a firmware package address
   specific characteristics of pieces of firmware stored directly on value from the
      registry (see section Section 4.1 or a
   block-device value in contrast the private use
      range: 32768-65,535.

   o  media (label 10): This text value is a hint to software deployed the tag consumer to
      understand what this SWID tag applies to.  This item can also be
      included in the link item to represent a file-system.  In
   essence, trees of relative path-elements expressed attributes defined by the directory
   and file structure in CoSWID tags are typically unable
      W3C Media Queries Recommendation (see http://www.w3.org/TR/
      css3-mediaqueries/).  A hint to represent the location of a firmware on a constrained-node (small thing).  The
   composite nature consumer of firmware and also the actual composition of small
   things require a set of attributes link to address what
      the identification target item is applicable for.

   o  software-meta-entry (label 5): An open-ended collection of
   the correct component key/
      value data related to this CoSWID.  The attributes included in
      this Element are predefined attributes to ensure common usage
      across the industry.  The schema allows for any additional
      attribute to be included in a composite thing for each individual piece
   of firmware.  A single component also potentially requires a number
   of distinct firmware parts CoSWID tag, though it is recommended
      that might depend on each other
   (versions).  These dependencies can be limited industry norms for new attributes are defined and followed to
      the scope of degree possible.  Described in Section 2.6.

   o  entity-entry (label 2): Specifies the
   component itself or extend organizations related to the scope of a larger composite device.
   In addition, it might not be possible (or feasible)
      software component referenced by this CoSWID tag.  Described in
      Section 2.4.

   o  link-entry (label 4): A reference to store a any another item (can include
      details that are related to the CoSWID tag document (permanently) such as details on a small thing along with the
   corresponding piece of firmware.

   To address the
      where specific characteristics of firmware, the extension
   point "$$resource-extension" resources can be found, e.g.  vulnerability
      database associations, ROLIE feeds, MUD files, etc).  This is used
      modeled directly to allow for an additional type
   of resource description--firmware-entry--thereby increasing match the self-
   descriptiveness and flexibility of CoSWID. HTML "link" element; it is critical
      for streamlining software discovery scenarios to ensure their
      consistency.  Described in Section 2.5.

   o  payload-entry (label 6): The optional use items that may be installed on a
      system entity when the software component is installed.  Note that
      payload may be a superset of the
   extension point "$$resource-extension" items installed and - depending
      on optimization mechanisms in respect to firmware MUST
   adhere to that system entity - may
      or may not include every item that could be created or executed on
      the following CDDL data definition.

<CODE BEGINS>
$$resource-extension //= (firmware-entry,)

firmware = {
  firmware-name,                  ; inherited from RFC4108
  ? firmware-version,
  ? firmware-package-identifier,  ; inherited from RFC4108
  ? dependency,                   ; inherited from RFC4108
  ? component-index,              ; equivalent to RFC4108 fwPkgType
  ? block-device-identifier,
  ? target-hardware-identifier,   ; an RFC4108 alternative corresponding system entitiy when software components are
      installed.  In general, payload will be used to model-label
  model-label,
  ? firmware-hash,                ; indicate the files
      that may be installed with a hash for software component.  Therefore
      payload will often be a single, incl. NI hash-algo index
  ? firmware-package,         ; RCF4108, experimental, this is an actual firmware blob!
}

firmware-entry = (57: firmware / [ 2* firmware ])
firmware-hash = (58: [ hash-alg-id: int,
                      hash-value: bstr,
                     ]
                )
firmware-name = (59 : text)
firmware-version = (60 : text / int)
component-index = (61 : int)
model-label = (62: text / int)
block-device-identifier = (63 : text / int)
firmware-package = (64: bstr)
firmware-package-identifier = (65: text)
target-hardware-identifier = (66: text)
dependency = (67: { ? firmware-name,
                    ? firmware-version,
                    ? firmware-package-identifier,
                  }
             )
<CODE ENDS>

   The members superset of those files (i.e. if a
      particular optional sub-component is not installed, the firmware group files
      associated with that constitutes the content of the
   firmware-entry is based on software component may be included in
      payload, but not installed in the metadata about firmware defined system entity).  Described in
   [RFC4108].  As with every semantic differentiation
      Section 2.7.3.

   o  evidence-entry (label 3): This item is used to provide results
      from a scan of a system where software that does not have a CoSWID
      tag is supported discovered.  This information is not provided by the resource-collection type, the use of firmware-entry
      software-creator, and is
   optional.  It instead created when a system is REQUIRED not being
      scanned and the evidence for why software is believed to instantiate more than one firmware-
   entry, as be
      installed on the firmware group device is used provided in a the evidence item.
      Described in Section 2.7.4.

   o  any-element-entry (label 7): A default map that can contain
      arbitrary map members and therefore only
   allows for unique labels.

   The optional cms-firmware-package member even nested maps (which would be also
      any-elements).  In essence, the any-element allows items not
      defined in this CDDL data definition to include the actual
   firmware be included in a Concise
      Software Identifier.  Described in Section 2.3.

2.1.1.  Determining the CoSWID tag that also expresses its metadata as a
   byte-string.  This option enables a type

   o  Primary Tag: A CoSWID tag to MUST be used as considered a
   container or wrapper that composes both firmware primary tag if the
      corpus, patch, and its metadata in
   a single document (which again can supplemental items are "false".

   o  Patch Tag: A CoSWID tag MUST be signed, encrypted and/or
   compressed).  In consequence, considered a patch tag if the
      patch item is "true".

   o  Corpus Tag: A CoSWID tag about firmware can MUST be
   conveyed as an identifying document across endpoints or used as considered a
   reference integrity measurement as usual.  Alternatively, it can also
   convey an actual piece of firmware, serve its intended purpose as corpus tag if the
      corpus item is "true".

   o  Supplemental Tag: A CoSWID tag MUST be considered a
   SWID supplemental
      tag if the supplemental item is set to "true".

   If multiple of the corpus, patch, and supplemental items are "true",
   then - due to the lack containing tag MUST be considered an unsupported tag type.

   If the patch does modify the version number or the descriptive
   metadata of the software, then a location to store it - new tag representing these details
   SHOULD be
   discarded.

Appendix C.  Signed Concise SWID Tags using COSE

   SWID tags, as defined in installed, and the ISO-19770-2:2015 XML schema, can include
   cryptographic signatures to protect old tag SHOULD be removed.

2.1.2.  concise-software-identity Co-constraints

   o  Only one of the integrity corpus, patch, and supplemental items MUST be set
      to "true", or all of the SWID tag.
   In general, tags are signed by corpus, patch, and supplemental items
      MUST be set to "false" or be omitted.

   o  If the patch item is set to "true", the the tag creator (typically, although
   not exclusively, SHOULD contain at
      least one link with the vendor rel(ation) item value of "patches" and an
      href item specifying an association with the software product that was
      patched.

   o  If the supplemental item is set to "true", the SWID tag
   identifies).  Cryptographic signatures can make any modification of the tag detectable, which is especially important if SHOULD
      contain at least one link with the integrity rel(ation) item value of
      "suplements" and an href item specifying an association with the tag
      software that is important, such as when supplemented.

   o  If all of the tag corpus, patch, and supplemental items are "false",
      or if the corpus item is providing reference
   integrity measurments for files.

   The ISO-19770-2:2015 XML schema uses XML DSIG set to support
   cryptographic signatures.  CoSWID tags require "true", then a different signature
   scheme than this.  COSE (CBOR Object Signing and Encryption) provides
   the required mechanism [RFC8152].  Concise SWID can software-version
      item MUST be wrapped in included with a
   COSE Single Signer Data Object (cose-sign1) value set to the version of the
      software component.  This ensure that contains a single
   signature. primary and corpus tags have
      an identifiable software version.

2.2.  The following CDDL defines global-attributes Group

   The global-attributes group provides a more restrictive subset list of
   header attributes allowed by COSE tailored to suit items including an
   optional language definition to support the requirements processing of Concise SWID. text-string
   values and an unbounded set of any-attribute items allowing for
   additional items to be provided as a general point of extension in
   the model.

   The CDDL for the global-attributes is as follows:

   <CODE BEGINS>
signed-coswid
   global-attributes = (
     ? lang,
     * any-attribute,
   )

   label = text / int

   any-attribute = (
     label => text / int / [ 2* text ] / [ 2* int ]
   )

   lang = (15: text)
   <CODE ENDS>

   The following describes each child item of this object.

   o  lang (index 15): A language tag or corresponding IANA index
      integer that conforms with IANA Language Subtag Registry
      [RFC5646].

   o  any-attribute: This sub-group provides a means to include
      arbitrary information via label (key) item value pairs where both
      keys and values can be either a single integer or text string, or
      an array of integers or text strings.

2.3.  The any-element-entry

   The CDDL for the any-element-entry object is as follows:

   <CODE BEGINS>
   any-element-map = {
     global-attributes,
     * label => any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ],
   }
   any-element-entry = (7: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ])
   <CODE ENDS>

   The following describes each child item of this object.

   o  global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
      Section 2.2.

   o  label: a single or multiple

2.4.  The entity Object

   The CDDL for the entity object is as follows:

   <CODE BEGINS>
   entity = {
     global-attributes,
     entity-name,
     ? reg-id,
     role,
     ? thumbprint,
     extended-data,
   }

   any-uri = text

   extended-data = (30: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ])
   entity-name = (31: text)
   reg-id = (32: any-uri)
   role = (33: text / [2* text])
   thumbprint = (34: text)
   <CODE ENDS>

   The following describes each child item of this object.

   o  global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
      Section 2.2.

   o  entity-name (index 32): The text-string name of the organization
      claiming a particular role in the CoSWID tag.

   o  reg-id (index 32): The registration id is intended to uniquely
      identify a naming authority in a given scope (e.g. global,
      organization, vendor, customer, administrative domain, etc.) that
      is implied by the referenced naming authority.  The value of an
      registration ID MUST be a RFC 3986 URI.  The scope SHOULD be the
      scope of an organization.  In a given scope, the registration id
      MUST be used consistently.

   o  role (index 33): The relationship(s) between this organization and
      this tag.  The role of tag creator is required for every CoSWID
      tag.  The role of an entity may include any role value, but the
      per-defined roles include: "aggregator", "distributor",
      "licensor", "software-creator", "tag-creator".  The enumerations
      of this will include a request to IANA in order to be reference-
      able via an integer index.

   o  thumbprint (index 34): This value provides a hexadecimal string
      that contains a hash (i.e. the thumbprint) of the signing entities
      certificate(s). .

   o  extended-data (index 30): An open-ended collection of elements
      that can be used to attach arbitrary metadata to an entity item.

2.5.  The link Object

   The CDDL for the link object is as follows:

   <CODE BEGINS>
   link = {
     global-attributes,
     ? artifact,
     href,
     ? media
     ? ownership,
     rel,
     ? media-type,
     ? use,
   }
   artifact = (37: text)
   href = (38: any-uri)
   media = (10: any-uri)
   ownership = (39: "shared" / "private" / "abandon")
   rel = (40: text)
   media-type = (41: text)
   use = (42: "optional" / "required" / "recommended")
   <CODE ENDS>

   The following describes each child item of this object.

   o  global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
      Section 2.2.

   o  artifact (index: 37): For installation media (rel="installation-
      media") - dictates the canonical name for the file.  Items with
      the same artifact name should be considered mirrors of each other
      (so download from wherever works).

   o  href (index 38): The link to the item being referenced.  The href
      can point to several different things, and can be any of the
      following:

      *  a relative uri (no scheme), which is interpreted depending on
         context (for example, "./folder/supplemental.coswid")

      *  a physical file location with any system-acceptable URI scheme
         (e.g., file:// http:// https:// ftp://)

      *  an URI with "coswid:" as the scheme, which refers to another
         CoSWID by tag-id.  This URI would need to be resolved in the
         context of the system by software that can lookup other CoSWID
         tags (for example,

      *  "coswid:2df9de35-0aff-4a86-ace6-f7dddd1ade4c").  an URI with
         "swidpath:" as the scheme, which refers to another CoSIWD via
         an XPATH query.  This URI would need to be resolved in the
         context of the system entity via dedicated software components
         that can lookup other CoSWID tags and select the appropriate
         tag based on an XPATH query.  Examples include:

      *  swidpath://SoftwareIdentity[Entity/@regid='http://contoso.com']
         would retrieve all CoSWID tags that include an entity where the
         regid was "Contoso".

      *  swidpath://SoftwareIdentity[Meta/@persistentId='b0c55172-38e9-4
         e36-be86-92206ad8eddb'] would retrieve CoSWID tags that matched
         the persistent-id.

      *  See XPATH query standard : http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath20/

   o  media (index 10): See media defined in Section 2.1.

   o  ownership (index 39): Determines the relative strength of
      ownership of the software components.  Valid enumerations are:
      abandon, private, shared

   o  rel (index 40): The relationship between this CoSWID and the
      target file.  Relationships can be identified by referencing the
      IANA registration library: https://www.iana.org/assignments/link-
      relations/link-relations.xhtml.

   o  media-type (index 41): The IANA MediaType for the target file;
      this provides the consumer with intelligence of what to expect.
      See http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/media-types.xhtml
      for more details on link type.

   o  use (index 42): Determines if the target software is a hard
      requirement or not.  Valid enumerations are: required,
      recommended, optional.

2.6.  The software-meta Object

   The CDDL for the software-meta object is as follows:

   <CODE BEGINS>

   software-meta = {
     global-attributes,
     ? activation-status,
     ? channel-type,
     ? colloquial-version,
     ? description,
     ? edition,
     ? entitlement-data-required,
     ? entitlement-key,
     ? generator,
     ? persistent-id,
     ? product,
     ? product-family,
     ? revision,
     ? summary,
     ? unspsc-code,
     ? unspsc-version,
   }
   activation-status = (43: text)
   channel-type = (44: text)
   colloquial-version = (45: text)
   description = (46: text)
   edition = (47: text)
   entitlement-data-required = (48: bool)
   entitlement-key = (49: text)
   generator = (50: text)
   persistent-id = (51: text)
   product = (52: text)
   product-family = (53: text)
   revision = (54: text)
   summary = (55: text)
   unspsc-code = (56: text)
   unspsc-version = (57: text)
   <CODE ENDS>

   The following describes each child item of this object.

   o  global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
      Section 2.2.

   o  activation-status (index 43): Identification of the activation
      status of this software title (e.g.  Trial, Serialized, Licensed,
      Unlicensed, etc).  Typically, this is used in supplemental tags.

   o  channel-type (index 44): Provides information on which channel
      this particular software was targeted for (e.g.  Volume, Retail,
      OEM, Academic, etc).  Typically used in supplemental tags.

   o  colloquial-version (index 45): The informal or colloquial version
      of the product (i.e. 2013).  Note that this version may be the
      same through multiple releases of a software component where the
      version specified in entity is much more specific and will change
      for each software release.  Note that this representation of
      version is typically used to identify a group of specific software
      releases that are part of the same release/support infrastructure
      (i.e.  Fabrikam Office 2013).  This version is used for string
      comparisons only and is not compared to be an earlier or later
      release (that is done via the entity version).

   o  description (index 46): A longer, detailed description of the
      software.  This description can be multiple sentences
      (differentiated from summary, which is a very short, one-sentence
      description).

   o  edition (index 47): The variation of the product (Extended,
      Enterprise, Professional, Standard etc).

   o  entitlement-data-required (index 48): An indicator to determine if
      there should be accompanying proof of entitlement when a software
      license reconciliation is completed.

   o  entitlement-key (index 49): A vendor-specific textual key that can
      be used to reconcile the validity of an entitlement. (e.g. serial
      number, product or license key).

   o  generator (index 50): The name of the software tool that created a
      CoSWID tag.  This item is typically used if tags are created on
      the fly or via a catalog-based analysis for data found on a
      computing device.

   o  persistent-id (index 51): A GUID used to represent products
      installed where the product are related, but may be different
      versions.  For example, an "upgradeCode" (see
      http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa372375(v=vs.85).aspx as
      an reference for this example).

   o  product (index 52): The base name of the product (e.g. ).

   o  product-family (index 53): The overall product family this
      software belongs to.  Product family is not used to identify that
      a product is part of a suite, but is instead used when a set of
      products that are all related may be installed on multiple
      different devices.  For example, an enterprise backup system may
      consist of a backup services, multiple different backup services
      that support mail services, databases and ERP systems, as well as
      individual software components that backup client system entities.
      In such an usage scenario, all software components that are part
      of the backup system would have the same product-family name so
      they can be grouped together in respect to reporting systems.

   o  revision (index 54): The informal or colloquial representation of
      the sub-version of the given product (ie, SP1, R2, RC1, Beta 2,
      etc).  Note that the version will provide very exact version
      details, the revision is intended for use in environments where
      reporting on the informal or colloquial representation of the
      software is important (for example, if for a certain business
      process, an organization recognizes that it must have, for example
      "ServicePack 1" or later of a specific product installed on all
      devices, they can use the revision data value to quickly identify
      any devices that do not meet this requirement).  Depending on how
      a software organizations distributes revisions, this value could
      be specified in a primary (if distributed as an upgrade) or
      supplemental (if distributed as a patch) CoSWID tag.

   o  summary (index 55): A short (one-sentence) description of the
      software.

   o  unspsc-code (index 56): An 8 digit code that provides UNSPSC
      classification of the software component this SWID tag identifies.
      For more information see, http://www.unspsc.org/.

   o  unspsc-version (index 57): The version of the UNSPSC code used to
      define the UNSPSC code value.  For more information see,
      http://www.unspsc.org/.

2.7.  The Resource Collection Definition

2.7.1.  The hash-entry Array

   CoSWID add explicit support for the representation of hash entries
   using algorithms that are registered at the Named Information Hash
   Algorithm Registry via the hash-entry member (label 58).

   hash-entry = (58: [ hash-alg-id: int, hash-value: bstr ] )

   The number used as a value for hash-alg-id MUST refer the ID in the
   Named Information Hash Algorithm table; other hash algorithms MUST
   NOT be used.  The hash-value MUST represent the raw hash value of the
   hashed resource generated using the hash algorithm indicated by the
   hash-alg-id.

2.7.2.  The resource-collection Group

   A list of items both used in evidence (discovered by an inventory
   process) and payload (installed in a system entity) content of a
   CoSWID tag document to structure and differentiate the content of
   specific CoSWID tag types.  Potential content includes directories,
   files, processes, resources or firmwares.

   The CDDL for the resource-collection group is as follows:

   <CODE BEGINS>
   resource-collection = (
     ? directory-entry,
     ? file-entry,
     ? process-entry,
     ? resource-entry
   )

   directory = {
     filesystem-item,
     path-elements,
   }

   file = {
     filesystem-item,
     ? size,
     ? file-version,
     ? hash-entry,
   }

   process = {
     global-attributes,
     process-name,
     ? pid,
   }

   resource = {
     global-attributes,
     type,
   }

   filesystem-item = (
     global-attributes,
     ? key,
     ? location,
     fs-name,
     ? root,
   )
   directory-entry = (16: directory / [ 2* directory ])
   file-entry = (17: file / [ 2* file ])
   process-entry = (18: process / [ 2* process ])
   resource-entry = (19: resource / [ 2* resource ])
   size = (20: integer)
   file-version = (21: text)
   key = (22: bool)
   location = (23: text)
   fs-name = (24: text)
   root = (25: text)
   path-elements = (26: { * file-entry,
                          * directory-entry,
                        }
                   )
   process-name = (27: text)
   pid = (28: integer)
   type = (29: text)
   <CODE ENDS>

   The following describes each child item or group for these groups.

   o  filesystem-item: A list of items both used in representing the
      nodes of a file-system hierarchy, i.e. directory items that allow
      one or more directories to be defined in the file structure, and
      file items that allow one or more files to be specified for a
      given location.

   o  global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
      Section 2.2.

   o  directory-entry (index 16): A directory item allows one or more
      directories to be defined in the file structure.

   o  file-entry (index 17): A file element that allows one or more
      files to be specified for a given location.

   o  process-entry (index 18): Provides process (software component in
      execution) information for data that will show up in a devices
      process table.

   o  resource-entry (index 19): A set of items that can be used to
      provide arbitrary resource information about an application
      installed on a system entity, or evidence collected from a system
      entity.

   o  size (index 20): The file size in bytes of the file.

   o  file-version (index 21): The version of the file.

   o  key (index 22): Files that are considered important or required
      for the use of a software component.  Typical key files would be
      those which, if not available on a system entity, would cause the
      software component not to execute or function properly.  Key files
      will typically be used to validate that a software component
      referenced by the CoSWID tag document is actually installed on a
      specific system entity.

   o  location (index 23): The directory or location where a file was
      found or can expected to be located.  This text-string is intended
      to include the filename itself.  This SHOULD be the relative path
      from the location represented by the root item.

   o  fs-name (index 24): The file name or directory name without any
      path characters.

   o  root (index 25): A system-specific root folder that the location
      item is an offset from.  If this is not specified the assumption
      is the root is the same folder as the location of the CoSWID tag.
      The text-string value represents a path expression relative to the
      CoSWID tag document location in the (composite) file-system
      hierarchy.

   o  path-elements (index 26): Provides the ability to apply a
      directory structure to the path expressions for files defined in a
      payload or evidence item.

   o  process-name (index 27): The process name as it will be found in
      the system entity's process table.

   o  pid (index 28): The process ID for the process in execution that
      can be included in the process item as part of an evidence tag.

   o  type (index 29): The type of resource represented via a text-
      string (typically, registry-key, port or root-uri).

2.7.3.  The payload Object

   The CDDL for the payload object is as follows:

   payload = {
     global-attributes,
     resource-collection,
     * $$payload-extension
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

   The following describes each child item of this object.

   o  global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
      Section 2.2.

   o  resource-collection: The resource-collection group described in
      Section 2.7.2.

   o  $$payload-extension:

2.7.4.  The evidence Object

   The CDDL for the evidence object is as follows:

   <CODE BEGINS>
   evidence = {
     global-attributes,
     resource-collection,
     ? date,
     ? device-id,
     * $$evidence-extension
   }
   date = (35: time)
   device-id = (36: text)
   <CODE ENDS>

   The following describes each child item of this object.

   o  global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
      Section 2.2.

   o  resource-collection: The resource-collection group described in
      Section 2.7.2.

   o  date (index 35): The date and time evidence represented by an
      evidence item was gathered.

   o  device-id (index 36): A text-string identifier for a device
      evidence was gathered from.

   o  $$evidence-extension:

2.8.  Full CDDL Definition

   In order to create a valid CoSWID document the structure of the
   corresponding CBOR message MUST adhere to the following CDDL data
   definition.

   <CODE BEGINS>
   concise-software-identity = {
     global-attributes,
     tag-id,
     tag-version,
     ? corpus,
     ? patch,
     ? supplemental,
     swid-name,
     ? software-version,
     ? version-scheme,
     ? media,
     ? software-meta-entry,
     ? entity-entry,
     ? link-entry,
     ? ( payload-entry / evidence-entry ),
     ? any-element-entry,
   }

   any-uri = text
   label = text / int

   any-attribute = (
     label => text / int / [ 2* text ] / [ 2* int ]
   )

   any-element-map = {
     global-attributes,
     * label => any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ],
   }

   global-attributes = (
     ? lang,
     * any-attribute,
   )

   resource-collection = (
     ? directory-entry,
     ? file-entry,
     ? process-entry,
     ? resource-entry
   )

   file = {
     filesystem-item,
     ? size,
     ? file-version,
     ? hash-entry,
   }
   filesystem-item = (
     global-attributes,
     ? key,
     ? location,
     fs-name,
     ? root,
   )

   directory = {
     filesystem-item,
     path-elements,
   }

   process = {
     global-attributes,
     process-name,
     ? pid,
   }

   resource = {
     global-attributes,
     type,
   }

   entity = {
     global-attributes,
     entity-name,
     ? reg-id,
     role,
     ? thumbprint,
     extended-data,
   }

   evidence = {
     global-attributes,
     resource-collection,
     ? date,
     ? device-id,
     * $$evidence-extension
   }

   link = {
     global-attributes,
     ? artifact,
     href,
     ? media
     ? ownership,
     rel,
     ? media-type,
     ? use,
   }

   software-meta = {
     global-attributes,
     ? activation-status,
     ? channel-type,
     ? colloquial-version,
     ? description,
     ? edition,
     ? entitlement-data-required,
     ? entitlement-key,
     ? generator,
     ? persistent-id,
     ? product,
     ? product-family,
     ? revision,
     ? summary,
     ? unspsc-code,
     ? unspsc-version,
   }

   payload = {
     global-attributes,
     resource-collection,
     * $$payload-extension
   }

   tag-id = (0: text)
   swid-name = (1: text)
   entity-entry = (2: entity / [ 2* entity ])
   evidence-entry = (3: evidence)
   link-entry = (4: link / [ 2* link ])
   software-meta-entry = (5: software-meta / [ 2* software-meta ])
   payload-entry = (6: payload)
   any-element-entry = (7: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ])
   corpus = (8: bool)
   patch = #6.997(COSE-Sign1-coswid) ; see TBS7 in current COSE I-D

label (9: bool)
   media = int / tstr  ; see COSE I-D 1.4.
values (10: text)
   supplemental = any        ; see COSE I-D 1.4.

unprotected-signed-coswid-header (11: bool)
   tag-version = {
    1 => int,                   ; algorithm identifier
    3 => "application/coswid",  ; request for CoAP IANA registry to become an int
    * label => values,
}

protected-signed-coswid-header (12: integer)
   software-version = {
    4 => bstr,                  ; key identifier
    * label => values,
}

COSE-Sign1-coswid (13: text)
   version-scheme = [
    protected: bstr .cbor protected-signed-coswid-header,
    unprotected: unprotected-signed-coswid-header,
    payload: bstr .cbor concise-software-identity,
    signature: bstr,
]
<CODE ENDS>

Appendix D.  CoSWID used as Reference Integrity Measurements (CoSWID
             RIM)

   A vendor supplied signed CoSWID tag that includes hash-values for the
   files that compose a software component can be used as a RIM
   (reference integrity measurement).  A RIM is a type of declarative
   guidance that can be used to assert the compliance of an endpoint by
   assessing the installed software.  In the context of remote
   attestation based on an attestation via hardware rooted trust, a
   verifier can appraise the integrity of the conveyed measurements of
   software components using a CoSWID RIM provided by a source, such as
   [I-D.banghart-sacm-rolie-softwaredescriptor].

   RIM Manifests (RIMM):  A group of SWID tags about the same
      (sub-)system, system entity, or (sub-)component (compare
      [RFC4949]).  A RIMM manifest is a distinct document that is
      typically conveyed en-block and constitutes declarative guidance
      in respect to a specific (target) endpoint (compare
      [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]).

   If multiple CoSWID compose a RIMM, the following CDDL data definition
   SHOULD be used.

   RIMM (14: text / int)
   lang = (15: text)
   directory-entry = (16: directory / [ + concise-software-identity 2* directory ])
   file-entry = (17: file / signed-coswid ]

Appendix E.  CBOR Web Token for Concise SWID Tags

   A typical requirement regarding specific instantiations of endpoints
   - and, as a result, specific instantiations of software components -
   is a representation of the absolute path of a CoSWID tag document in
   a [ 2* file system in order to derive absolute paths of files represented
   in the corresponding ])
   process-entry = (18: process / [ 2* process ])
   resource-entry = (19: resource / [ 2* resource ])
   size = (20: integer)
   file-version = (21: text)
   key = (22: bool)
   location = (23: text)
   fs-name = (24: text)
   root = (25: text)
   path-elements = (26: { * file-entry,
                          * directory-entry,
                        }
                   )
   process-name = (27: text)
   pid = (28: integer)
   type = (29: text)
   extended-data = (30: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ])
   entity-name = (31: text)
   reg-id = (32: any-uri)
   role = (33: text / [2* text])
   thumbprint = (34: text)
   date = (35: time)
   device-id = (36: text)
   artifact = (37: text)
   href = (38: any-uri)
   ownership = (39: "shared" / "private" / "abandon")
   rel = (40: text)
   media-type = (41: text)
   use = (42: "optional" / "required" / "recommended")
   activation-status = (43: text)
   channel-type = (44: text)
   colloquial-version = (45: text)
   description = (46: text)
   edition = (47: text)
   entitlement-data-required = (48: bool)
   entitlement-key = (49: text)
   generator = (50: text)
   persistent-id = (51: text)
   product = (52: text)
   product-family = (53: text)
   revision = (54: text)
   summary = (55: text)
   unspsc-code = (56: text)
   unspsc-version = (57: text)
   hash-entry = (58: [ hash-alg-id: int,
                      hash-value: bstr,
                    ]
               )
   <CODE ENDS>

3.  CoSWID tag. Indexed Label Values

3.1.  Version Scheme

   The absolute path of following are an evidence
   CoSWID tag can be included as a claim in the header of a CBOR Web
   Token [I-D.ietf-ace-cbor-web-token].  Depending on the source initial set of values for use in the
   token, version-
   scheme item for the claim can be version schemes defined in the protected or unprotected header
   portion.

   <CODE BEGINS>
    CDDL TBD
   <CODE ENDS>

Appendix F.  Group Definitions

   These groups are intermediate CDDL data definitions that are reused ISO/IEC
   19770-2:2015 [SWID] specification.  Index value in several items parens indicates
   the index value to use in the CoSWID CDDL data definition. version-scheme item.

   o  resource-collection group: A list of items both used in evidence
      (discovered  multipartnumeric (index 0): Numbers separated by dots, where the
      numbers are interpreted as integers (e.g.,1.2.3, 1.4.5,
      1.2.3.4.5.6.7)

   o  multipartnumeric+suffix (index 1): Numbers separated by dots,
      where the numbers are interpreted as integers with an inventory process) and payload (installed in a
      system entity) content of additional
      string suffix(e.g., 1.2.3a)

   o  alphanumeric (index 2): Strictly a CoSWID tag document to structure and
      differentiate the content of specific CoSWID tag types.  Potential
      content includes directories, files, processes, resources or
      firmwares. string, sorting is done
      alphanumerically

   o  filesystem group:  decimal (index 3): A list of items both used floating point number (e.g., 1.25 is less
      than 1.3)

   o  semver (index 4): Follows the [SEMVER] specification

   The values above are registered in representing the
      nodes of a file-system hierarchy, i.e. directory items that allow
      one or more directories to "SWID/CoSWID Version Schema
   Values" registry defined in section Section 4.1.  Additional valid
   values will likely be registered over time in this registry.

3.2.  Entity Role Values

   The following table indicates the index value to use for the entity
   roles defined in the ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015 [SWID] specification.

   | Index | Role Name                |
   |-------+--------------------------+
   | 0     | tagCreator               |
   | 1     | softwareCreator          |
   | 2     | aggregator               |
   | 3     | distributor              |
   | 4     | licensor                 |

   The values above are registered in the "SWID/CoSWID Entity Role
   Values" registry defined in section Section 4.2.  Additional valid
   values will likely be registered over time.  Additionally, the file structure, index
   values 226 through 255 have been reserved for private use.

4.  IANA Considerations

   This document will include requests to IANA:

   o  Integer indices for SWID content attributes and
      file items that allow one or more files information
      elements.

   o  Content-Type for CoAP to be specified for used in COSE.

   This document has a
      given location.

   o  global-attributes: A list number of items including an optional language
      definition to support IANA considerations, as described in
   the processing of text-string following subsections.

4.1.  SWID/CoSWID Version Schema Values Registry

   This document uses unsigned 16-bit index values and an
      unbounded to version-scheme
   item values.  The initial set of any-attribute items.

   o  any-attribute: A specific rule providing a restricted frame to
      include arbitrary information via members that constitute key
      value(s) pairs where both keys and version-scheme values can be integers or text-
      strings.

Appendix G.  Item Definitions

   This Appendix includes are derived
   from the description of every primitive and non-
   primitive type textual version scheme names defined in the concise-software-identifier is composed of.  Every
   integer label included at ISO/IEC
   19770-2:2015 specification [SWID].

   This document defines a new a new registry entitled "SWID/CoSWID
   Version Schema Values".  Future registrations for this registry are
   to be made based on [RFC8126] as follows:

   | Range        | Registration Procedures  |
   |--------------+--------------------------+
   | 0-16383      | Standards Action         |
   | 16384-32767  | Specification Required   |
   | 32768-65535  | Reserved for Private Use |

   Initial registrations for the end SWID/CoSWID Version Schema Values
   registry are provided below.

   | Index       | Role Name                | Specification   |
   |-------------+--------------------------+-----------------|
   | 0           | multipartnumeric         | See section 3.1 |
   | 1           | multipartnumeric+suffix  | See section 3.1 |
   | 2           | alphanumeric             | See section 3.1 |
   | 3           | decimal                  | See section 3.1 |
   | 4-16383     | Unassigned               |                 |
   | 16384       | semver                   | {{SEMVER}}      |
   | 16385-32767 | Unassigned               |                 |
   | 32768-65535 | Reserved for Private Use |                 |

4.2.  SWID/CoSWID Entity Role Values Registry

   This document uses unsigned 8-bit index values to represent entity-
   role values.  The initial set of Entity roles are derived from the CDDL data definition is
   addressed
   textual role names defined in this section.

   1.   tag-id: An identifier uniquely referencing the ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015 specification
   [SWID].

   This document defines a (composite)
        software component.  The tag identifier is intended new a new registry entitled "SWID/CoSWID
   Entity Role Values".  Future registrations for this registry are to
   be
        globally unique.  There are no strict guidelines made based on how this
        identifier is structured, but examples include a 16 byte GUID
        (e.g.  class [RFC8126] as follows:

   | Range   | Registration Procedures    |
   |---------+----------------------------+
   | 0-31    | Standards Action           |
   | 32-127  | Specification Required     |
   | 128-255 | Reserved for Private Use   |

   Initial registrations for the SWID/CoSWID Entity Role Values registry
   are provided below.

   | Index   | Role Name                | Specification   |
   |---------+--------------------------+-----------------|
   | 0       | tagCreator               | See section 3.2 |
   | 1       | softwareCreator          | See section 3.2 |
   | 2       | aggregator               | See section 3.2 |
   | 3       | distributor              | See section 3.2 |
   | 4 UUID).

   2.   swid-name: This item provides the       | licensor                 | See section 3.2 |
   | 5-49    | Unassigned               |                 |
   | 50-225  | Unassigned               |                 |
   | 225-255 | Reserved for Private Use |                 |

5.  Security Considerations

   SWID tags contain public information about software component name components and,
   as it
        would typically such, do not need to be referenced.  For example, what would protected against disclosure on an
   endpoint.  Similarly, SWID tags are intended to be seen
        in the add/remove dialog easily
   discoverable by applications and users on a Windows device, or what is
        specified as the name an endpoint in order to
   make it easy to identify and collect all of a packaged software product or a patch
        identifier name an endpoint's SWID tags.
   As such, any security considerations regarding SWID tags focus on a Linux device.

   3.   entity: Specifies the organizations related
   application of SWID tags to address security challenges, and the
   possible disclosure of the software
        component referenced by this CoSWID tag.

   4.   evidence: This item is used to provide results from a scan of a
        system where software that does not have a CoSWID those applications.

   A signed SWID tag whose signature is
        discovered.  This information is not provided by intact can be relied upon to be
   unchanged since it was signed.  If the software-
        creator, and is instead SWID tag was created when a system is being scanned
        and by the evidence for why
   software is believed to be installed on author, this generally means that it has undergone no change
   since the device is provided in software application with which the evidence item.

   5.   link: A reference to any another item (can include details tag is associated was
   installed.  By implication, this means that
        are related to the CoSWID signed tag such as reflects
   the software author's understanding of the details on where specific
        resources of that software
   product.  This can be found, e.g.  vulnerability database
        associations, ROLIE feeds, MUD files, etc).  This is modeled
        directly useful assurance when the information in the
   tag needs to match be trusted, such as when the HTML [LINK] element; it tag is critical for
        streamlining software discovery scenarios being used to ensure their
        consistency.

   6.   software-meta: An open-ended collection of key/value convey
   golden measurements.  By contrast, the data
        related to this CoSWID.  The attributes included contained in this Element unsigned
   tags cannot be trusted to be unmodified.

   SWID tags are predefined attributes designed to ensure common usage across be easily added and removed from an
   endpoint along with the
        industry.  The schema allows for any additional attribute installation or removal of software
   components.  On endpoints where addition or removal of software
   components is tightly controlled, the addition or removal of SWID
   tags can be similarly controlled.  On more open systems, where many
   users can manage the software inventory, SWID tags may be easier to
   add or remove.  On such systems, it may be
        included possible to add or remove
   SWID tags in a CoSWID tag, though it is recommended way that industry
        norms for new attributes are defined and followed to does not reflect the degree
        possible.

   7.   payload: The items that actual presence or
   absence of corresponding software components.  Similarly, not all
   software products automatically install SWID tags, so products may be installed
   present on an endpoint without providing a system entity when
        the software component is installed.  Note that payload may corresponding SWID tag.
   As such, any collection of SWID tags cannot automatically be assumed
   to represent either a
        superset complete or fully accurate representation of
   the items installed and - depending software inventory of the endpoint.  However, especially on optimization
        mechanisms in respect to that system entity - may or may not
        include every item
   devices that could be created or executed on more strictly control the
        corresponding system entitiy when software components ability to add or remove
   applications, SWID tags are
        installed.  In general, payload will be used an easy way to indicate the
        files provide an preliminary
   understanding of that may be installed with a endpoint's software component.
        Therefore payload will often be a superset inventory.

   Any report of those files (i.e.
        if an endpoint's SWID tag collection provides information
   about the software inventory of that endpoint.  If such a particular optional sub-component report is not installed,
   exposed to an attacker, this can tell them which software products
   and versions thereof are present on the
        files associated with endpoint.  By examining this
   list, the attacker might learn of the presence of applications that software component may
   are vulnerable to certain types of attacks.  As noted earlier, SWID
   tags are designed to be included in
        payload, easily discoverable by an endpoint, but this
   does not installed in present a significant risk since an attacker would already
   need to have access to the system entity).

   8.   any-element: A default map endpoint to view that can contain arbitrary map
        members and even nested maps (which would be also any-elements).
        In essence, information.
   However, when the any-element allows items not defined in this
        CDDL data definition endpoint transmits its software inventory to be included in
   another party, or that inventory is stored on a Concise Software
        Identifier.

   9.   corpus: Set to true, if server for later
   analysis, this attribute specifies that can potentially expose this information to attackers
   who do not yet have access to the endpoint.  As such, it is important
   to protect the confidentiality of SWID tag is a information that has been
   collected from an endpoint, not because those tags individually
   contain sensitive information, but because the collection of SWID
   tags and their association with an endpoint reveals information about
   that describes endpoint's attack surface.

   Finally, both the pre-
        installation ISO-19770-2:2015 XML schema definition and the
   Concise SWID data definition allow for the construction of software component.

   10.  patch: A set of files "infinite"
   SWID tags or SWID tags that is intended contain malicious content with the intend
   if creating non-deterministic states during validation or processing
   of SWID tags.  While software product vendors are unlikely to modify do
   this, SWID tags can be created by any party and the SWID tags
   collected from an existing set endpoint could contain a mixture of files (including configuration files, scripts vendor and
        corresponding environment variables non-
   vendor created tags.  For this reason, tools that are create by the OS
        for consume SWID tags
   ought to treat the runtime environment) that composes a software component.
        A software component patch does neither alter tag contents as potentially malicious and should
   employ input sanitizing on the tags they ingest.

6.  Acknowledgments

7.  Change Log

   Changes from version number
        (see 13) nor 03 to version 04:

   o  Re-index label values in the release details (descriptive english text, see
        44) of a software components. [revision 52?].  If a Concise SWID
        tag is CDDL.

   o  Added a patch, it MUST contain section describing the patch item CoSWID model in detail.

   o  Created IANA registries for entity-role and its value
        MUST be set version-scheme

   Changes from version 02 to true.  It is recommended but not required version 03:

   o  Updated CDDL to
        include a rel(ation) item in allow for a patch CoSWID.  If choice between a payload or evidence

   o  Re-index label values in the CDDL.

   o  Added item definitions

   o  Updated references for COSE, CBOR Web Token, and CDDL.

   Changes from version 01 to version 02:

   o  Added extensions for Firmware and CoSWID
        includes a patch member, but not a rel member, it is implied
        that it SHOULD be installed independently use as Reference
      Integrity Measurements (CoSWID RIM)

   o  Changes meta handling in CDDL from use of any other CoSWID
        tag document - even if an effective but not explicit
        relationship exists.

   11.  media: This text value is a hint use of items
      to the tag consumer a more flexible unconstrained collection of items.

   o  Added sections discussing use of COSE Signatures and CBOR Web
      Tokens

   Changes from version 00 to
        understand what this version 01:

   o  Added CWT usage for absolute SWID tag applies to.  This item can also be
        included in the link item to represent paths on a attributes defined by
        the W3C Media Queries Recommendation (see http://www.w3.org/TR/
        css3-mediaqueries/).  A hint to the consumer device

   o  Fixed cardinality of type-choices including arrays

   o  Included first iteration of firmware resource-collection
   Changes since adopted as a WG I-D -00:

   o  Removed redundant any-attributes originating from the link to what
        the target ISO-
      19770-2:2015 XML schema definition

   o  Fixed broken multi-map members

   o  Introduced a more restrictive item is applicable for.

   12.  supplemental: Specifies that this tag provides supplemental tag
        data that can be merged with primary tag data (any-element-map) to create a
        complete record of represent
      custom maps, increased restriction on types for the software information.  Supplemental tags
        will often be provided at install time any-attribute,
      accordingly

   o  Fixed X.1520 reference

   o  Minor type changes of some attributes (e.g.  NMTOKENS)

   o  Added semantic differentiation of various name types (e,g. fs-
      name)

   Changes from version 00 to version 01:

   o  Ambiguity between evidence and may be provided payload eliminated by
        different entities (such as the tag consumer, or a Value introducing
      explicit members (while still

   o  allowing for "empty" SWID tags)

   o  Added
        Reseller).

   13.  tag-version: This item indicates if a specific release of relatively restrictive COSE envelope using cose_sign1 to
      define signed CoSWID (single signer only, at the moment)

   o  Added a
        software component has more than one tag definition how to encode hashes that can represent that
        specific release.  This may be stored in the case if
      any-member using existing IANA tables to reference hash-algorithms

   Changes from version 01 to version 02:

   o  Enforced a more strict separation between the core CoSWID tag producer
        creates
      definition and releases an incorrect tag that they subsequently
        want to fix, but with no underlying changes additional usage by moving content to corresponding
      appendices.

   o  Removed artifacts inherited from the product the
        CoSWID tag represents.  This could happen if, for example, a
        patch is distributed that has a link reference that does not
        cover all schema provided by
      ISO (e.g.  NMTOKEN(S))

   o  Simplified the various software releases it can patch.  A newer
        CoSWID tag for that patch can be generated core data definition by removing group and type
      choices where possible

   o  Minor reordering of map members

   o  Added a first extension point to address requested flexibility for
      extensions beyond the tag-version
        value incremented any-element

8.  Contributors

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-ace-cbor-web-token]
              Jones, M., Wahlstroem, E., Erdtman, S., and H. Tschofenig,
              "CBOR Web Token (CWT)", draft-ietf-ace-cbor-web-token-12
              (work in progress), February 2018.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to indicate that the data is updated.

   14.  software-version: Underlying development version Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC4108]  Housley, R., "Using Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) to
              Protect Firmware Packages", RFC 4108,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4108, August 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4108>.

   [RFC5646]  Phillips, A., Ed. and M. Davis, Ed., "Tags for the
        software component.

   15.  version-scheme: Scheme used Identifying
              Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, DOI 10.17487/RFC5646,
              September 2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5646>.

   [RFC7049]  Bormann, C. and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object
              Representation (CBOR)", RFC 7049, DOI 10.17487/RFC7049,
              October 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7049>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for the version number.  Valid
        enumerations are : * alphanumeric: strictly a string, sorting
        alphanumerically * decimal: a floating point number (i.e., 1.25
        is less than 1.3 ) * multipartnumeric: numbers separated via
        dots, where the numbers are * interpreted as integers (ie, 1.2.3
        , 1.4.5.6 , 1.2.3.4.5.6.7).  This string * convention is similar
        to OIDs.  * multipartnumeric+suffix: numbers separated via dots,
        where the numbers are * interpreted as integers with
              Writing an
        additional string suffix (e.g., 1.2.3a).  * semver: a string as
        defined by IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

   [RFC8152]  Schaad, J., "CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE)",
              RFC 8152, DOI 10.17487/RFC8152, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8152>.

   [SAM]      "Information technology - Software asset management - Part
              5: Overview and vocabulary", ISO/IEC 19770-5:2013,
              November 2013.

   [SEMVER]   Preston-Werner, T., "Semantic Versioning 2.0.0", n.d.,
              <https://semver.org/spec/v2.0.0.html>.

   [SWID]     "Information technology - Software asset management - Part
              2: Software identification tag", ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015,
              October 2015.

   [SWID-GUIDANCE]
              Waltermire, D., Cheikes, B., Feldman, L., and G. Witte,
              "Guidelines for the semver.org spec [FiXME: reference] * unknown: Creation of Interoperable Software
              Identification (SWID) Tags", NISTIR 8060, April 2016,
              <https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.8060>.

   [X.1520]   "Recommendation ITU-T X.1520 (2014), Common
              vulnerabilities and exposures", April 2011.

9.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.banghart-sacm-rolie-softwaredescriptor]
              Waltermire, D. and S. Banghart, "Definition of the
        last resort choice, no attempt should be made to order these

   16.  lang: An RFC5646 conferment language tag or corresponding IANA
        index integer.

   17.  directory: A directory item allows one or more directories to be
        defined ROLIE
              Software Descriptor Extension", draft-banghart-sacm-rolie-
              softwaredescriptor-01 (work in the file structure.

   18.  file: A file element that allows one or more files to be
        specified for a given location.

   19.  process: Provides process (software component progress), May 2017.

   [I-D.birkholz-tuda]
              Fuchs, A., Birkholz, H., McDonald, I., and C. Bormann,
              "Time-Based Uni-Directional Attestation", draft-birkholz-
              tuda-04 (work in execution)
        information for progress), March 2017.

   [I-D.greevenbosch-appsawg-cbor-cddl]
              Birkholz, H., Vigano, C., and C. Bormann, "Concise data that will show up in
              definition language (CDDL): a devices process
        table.

   20.  resource: A set of items that can be used notational convention to provide arbitrary
        resource information about an application installed on a system
        entity, or evidence collected from a system entity.

   21.  size: The file size
              express CBOR data structures", draft-greevenbosch-appsawg-
              cbor-cddl-11 (work in bytes of the file.

   22.  file-version The file version.

   23.  key: Files that are considered important or required progress), July 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]
              Birkholz, H., Lu, J., Strassner, J., Cam-Winget, N., and
              A. Montville, "Security Automation and Continuous
              Monitoring (SACM) Terminology", draft-ietf-sacm-
              terminology-14 (work in progress), December 2017.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.

   [RFC7228]  Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for the use
        of a software component.  Typical key files would be those
        which, if not available on a system entity, would cause the
        software component not to execute or function properly.  Key
        files will typically be used to validate that a software
        component referenced by the
              Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>.

Appendix A.  CoSWID tag document is actually
        installed on a specific system entity.

   24.  location: Attributes for Firmware (label 60)

   The directory or location where ISO-19770-2:2015 specification of SWID tags assumes the existence
   of a file was found or
        can expected to be located.  This text-string system a software component is intended to
        include the filename itself.  This SHOULD be the relative path
        represented by installed and stored in.  In
   the root item.

   25.  fs-name: The file name case of constrained-node networks [RFC7228] or directory name without any path
        characters.

   26.  root: A system-specific root folder that the location item is an
        offset from.  If network equipment
   this is not specified the assumption is the
        root is the same folder as might not apply.  Concise software instances in the location
   form of the CoSWID tag.  The
        text-string value represents (modular) firmware are often stored directly on a path expression relative to the
        CoSWID tag document location in the (composite) file-system
        hierarchy.

   27.  path-elements: Provides the ability to apply block
   device that is a directory
        structure to hardware component of the path expressions for files defined in a payload constrained-node or evidence item.

   28.  process-name: The process name as it will be found in the system
        entity's process table.

   29.  pid: The process ID for the process in execution
   network equipment.  Multiple differentiable block devices or
   segmented block devices that can be
        included in contain parts of modular firmware
   components (potentially each with their own instance version) are
   already common at the process item as part time of an evidence tag.

   30.  type: this writing.

   The type of resource represented via optional attributes that annotate a text-string
        (typically, registry-key, port or root-uri)

   31.  extended-data: An open-ended collection firmware package address
   specific characteristics of elements that can be
        used to attach arbitrary metadata to an entity item.

   32.  entity-name: The text-string name pieces of the organization claiming a
        particular role firmware stored directly on a
   block-device in the CoSWID tag.

   33.  reg-id: The registration id is intended contrast to uniquely identify a
        naming authority software deployed in a given scope (e.g. global, organization,
        vendor, customer, administrative domain, etc.) that is implied file-system.  In
   essence, trees of relative path-elements expressed by the referenced naming authority.  The value of an
        registration ID MUST be a RFC 3986 URI.  The scope SHOULD be directory
   and file structure in CoSWID tags are typically unable to represent
   the
        scope location of an organization.  In a given scope, the registration id
        MUST be used consistently.

   34.  role: The relationship between this organization and this tag.
        The role of tag creator is required for every CoSWID tag. firmware on a constrained-node (small thing).  The
        role
   composite nature of an entity may include any role value, but firmware and also the per-
        defined roles include: "aggregator", "distributor", "licensor",
        "software-creator", "tag-creator".  The enumerations actual composition of this
        will include small
   things require a request to IANA in order set of attributes to be reference-able via
        an integer index.

   35.  thumbprint: This value provides a hexadecimal string that
        contains a hash (i.e. address the thumbprint) identification of
   the signing entities
        certificate [s] [FIXME: this requires the same structure as
        file-hash?].

   36.  date: The sate and time evidence represented by an evidence item
        was gathered.

   37.  device-id: A text-string identifier for correct component in a device evidence was
        gathered from.

   38.  artifact: For installation media (rel="installation-media") -
        dictates the canonical name composite thing for the file.  Items with the same
        artifact name should be considered mirrors of each other (so
        download from wherever works).

   39.  href: The link to the item being referenced.  The href can point
        to several different things, and individual piece
   of firmware.  A single component also potentially requires a number
   of distinct firmware parts that might depend on each other
   (versions).  These dependencies can be any limited to the scope of the following: *
   component itself or extend to the scope of a relative uri (no scheme), which is interpreted depending larger composite device.
   In addition, it might not be possible (or feasible) to store a CoSWID
   tag document (permanently) on
        context (for example, "./folder/supplemental.coswid") * a
        physical file location small thing along with any system-acceptable URI scheme
        (e.g., file:// http:// https:// ftp://) * the
   corresponding piece of firmware.

   To address the specific characteristics of firmware, the extension
   points "$$payload-extension" and "$$evidence-extension" are used to
   allow for an URI with "coswid:"
        as additional type of resource description--firmware-
   entry--thereby increasing the scheme, which refers self-descriptiveness and flexibility of
   CoSWID.  The optional use of the extension points "$$payload-
   extension" and "$$evidence-extension" in respect to another CoSWID by tag-id.  This
        URI would need firmware MUST
   adhere to be resolved in the context following CDDL data definition.

<CODE BEGINS>
$$payload-extension  //= (firmware-entry,)
$$evidence-extension  //= (firmware-entry,)

firmware = {
  firmware-name,                  ; inherited from RFC4108
  ? firmware-version,
  ? firmware-package-identifier,  ; inherited from RFC4108
  ? dependency,                   ; inherited from RFC4108
  ? component-index,              ; equivalent to RFC4108 fwPkgType
  ? block-device-identifier,
  ? target-hardware-identifier,   ; an RFC4108 alternative to model-label
  model-label,
  ? hash-entry,                   ; a hash for a single, incl. NI hash-algo index
  ? cms-firmware-package,         ; RCF4108, experimental, this is an actual firmware blob!
}

firmware-entry = (60: firmware / [ 2* firmware ])
firmware-name = (61 : text)
firmware-version = (62 : text / int)
component-index = (63 : int)
model-label = (64 text / int)
block-device-identifier = (65 : text / int)
cms-firmware-package = (66: bstr)
firmware-package-identifier = (67: text)
target-hardware-identifier = (68: text)
dependency = (69: { ? firmware-name,
                    ? firmware-version,
                    ? firmware-package-identifier,
                  }
             )
<CODE ENDS>

   The members of the system by
        software firmware group that can lookup other CoSWID tags (for example, *
        "coswid:2df9de35-0aff-4a86-ace6-f7dddd1ade4c").  an URI with
        "swidpath:" as the scheme, which refers to another CoSIWD via an
        XPATH query.  This URI would need to be resolved in constitutes the context content of the system entity via dedicated software components that can
        lookup other CoSWID tags and select the appropriate tag
   firmware-entry is based on
        an XPATH query.  Examples include: *
        swidpath://SoftwareIdentity[Entity/@regid='http://contoso.com']
        would * retrieve all CoSWID tags that include an entity where the regid was * "Contoso".  * swidpath://SoftwareIdentity[Meta/@
        persistentId='b0c55172-38e9-4e36-be86-92206ad8eddb'] * would
        retrieve CoSWID tags metadata about firmware Described in
   [RFC4108].  As with every semantic differentiation that matched the persistent-id.  See XPATH
        query standard : http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath20/ [FIXME: Concise
        XPATH representation is covered in the YANG-CBOR I-D]

   40.  ownership: Determines the relative strength of ownership of the
        software components.  Valid enumerations are: abandon, private,
        shared

   41.  rel: The relationship between this CoSWID and the target file.
        Relationships can be identified supported
   by referencing the IANA
        registration library: https://www.iana.org/assignments/link-
        relations/link-relations.xhtml.

   42.  media-type: The IANA MediaType for the target file; this
        provides resource-collection type, the consumer with intelligence use of what to expect.  See
        http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/media-types.xhtml
        for more details on link type.

   43.  use: Determines if the target software firmware-entry is a hard requirement or
        not.  Valid enumerations are: required, recommended, optional,

   44.  activation-status: Identification of the activation status of
        this software title (e.g.  Trial, Serialized, Licensed,
        Unlicensed, etc).  Typically, this
   optional.  It is REQUIRED not to instantiate more than one firmware-
   entry, as the firmware group is used in supplemental tags.

   45.  channel-type: Provides information on which channel this
        particular software was targeted for (e.g.  Volume, Retail, OEM,
        Academic, etc).  Typically used in supplemental tags.

   46.  colloquial-version: a map and therefore only
   allows for unique labels.

   The informal or colloquial version of optional cms-firmware-package member allows to include the
        product (i.e. 2013).  Note actual
   firmware in the CoSWID tag that this version may also expresses its metadata as a
   byte-string.  This option enables a CoSWID tag to be the same
        through multiple releases of used as a software product where the
        version specified in entity is much more specific and will
        change for each software release.  Note
   container or wrapper that this representation
        of version is typically composes both firmware and its metadata in
   a single document (which again can be signed, encrypted and/or
   compressed).  In consequence, a CoSWID tag about firmware can be
   conveyed as an identifying document across endpoints or used as a
   reference integrity measurement as usual.  Alternatively, it can also
   convey an actual piece of firmware, serve its intended purpose as a
   SWID tag and then - due to identify the lack of a group location to store it - be
   discarded.

Appendix B.  Signed Concise SWID Tags using COSE

   SWID tags, as defined in the ISO-19770-2:2015 XML schema, can include
   cryptographic signatures to protect the integrity of specific the SWID tag.
   In general, tags are signed by the tag creator (typically, although
   not exclusively, the vendor of the software releases component that are part the SWID
   tag identifies).  Cryptographic signatures can make any modification
   of the same release/support
        infrastructure (i.e.  Fabrikam Office 2013).  This version is
        used for string comparisons only and is not compared to be an
        earlier or later release (that tag detectable, which is done via especially important if the entity version
        [FIXME: consistency).

   47.  description: A longer, detailed description integrity
   of the software.
        This description tag is important, such as when the tag is providing reference
   integrity measurements for files.

   The ISO-19770-2:2015 XML schema uses XML DSIG to support
   cryptographic signatures.  CoSWID tags require a different signature
   scheme than this.  COSE (CBOR Object Signing and Encryption) provides
   the required mechanism [RFC8152].  Concise SWID can be multiple sentences (differentiated from
        summary, which is wrapped in a very short, one-sentence description).

   48.  edition:
   COSE Single Signer Data Object (cose-sign1) that contains a single
   signature.  The variation following CDDL defines a more restrictive subset of the product (Extended, Enterprise,
        Professional, Standard etc).

   49.  entitlement-data-required: An indicator
   header attributes allowed by COSE tailored to determine if there
        should be accompanying proof suit the requirements
   of entitlement when Concise SWID.

<CODE BEGINS>
signed-coswid = #6.997(COSE-Sign1-coswid) ; see TBS7 in current COSE I-D

label = int / tstr  ; see COSE I-D 1.4.
values = any        ; see COSE I-D 1.4.

unprotected-signed-coswid-header = {
    1 => int,                   ; algorithm identifier
    3 => "application/coswid",  ; request for CoAP IANA registry to become an int
    * label => values,
}

protected-signed-coswid-header = {
    4 => bstr,                  ; key identifier
    * label => values,
}

COSE-Sign1-coswid = [
    protected: bstr .cbor protected-signed-coswid-header,
    unprotected: unprotected-signed-coswid-header,
    payload: bstr .cbor concise-software-identity,
    signature: bstr,
]
<CODE ENDS>

Appendix C.  CoSWID used as Reference Integrity Measurements (CoSWID
             RIM)

   A vendor supplied signed CoSWID tag that includes hash-values for the
   files that compose a software
        license reconciliation is completed.

   50.  entitlement-key: A vendor-specific textual key component can be used as a RIM
   (reference integrity measurement).  A RIM is a type of declarative
   guidance that can be used to reconcile assert the validity compliance of an entitlement. (e.g. serial
        number, product or license key).

   51.  generator: The name endpoint by
   assessing the installed software.  In the context of remote
   attestation based on an attestation via hardware rooted trust, a
   verifier can appraise the integrity of the conveyed measurements of
   software tool that created components using a CoSWID
        tag.  This item is typically used if tags are created on the fly
        or via a catalog-based analysis for data found on RIM provided by a computing
        device.

   52.  persistent-id: A GUID used to represent products installed where
        the product are related, but may be different versions.  For
        example, an "upgradeCode" (see http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-
        us/library/aa372375(v=vs.85).aspx source, such as an reference for this
        example).

   53.  product: The base name
   [I-D.banghart-sacm-rolie-softwaredescriptor].

   RIM Manifests (RIMM):  A group of SWID tags about the product (e.g.  [FIXME: what are
        appropriate examples?].

   54.  product-family: The overall product family this software belongs
        to.  Product family same
      (sub-)system, system entity, or (sub-)component (compare
      [RFC4949]).  A RIMM manifest is not used to identify that a product distinct document that is
        part of
      typically conveyed en-block and constitutes declarative guidance
      in respect to a suite, but is instead used when specific (target) endpoint (compare
      [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]).

   If multiple CoSWID compose a set of products that
        are all related may RIMM, the following CDDL data definition
   SHOULD be installed on multiple different devices.
        For example, an enterprise backup system may consist used.

   RIMM = [ + concise-software-identity / signed-coswid ]

Appendix D.  CBOR Web Token for Concise SWID Tags

   A typical requirement regarding specific instantiations of a backup
        services, multiple different backup services that support mail
        services, databases and ERP systems, as well endpoints
   - and, as individual
        software components that backup client system entities.  In such
        an usage scenario, all a result, specific instantiations of software components that are part -
   is a representation of the
        backup absolute path of a CoSWID tag document in
   a file system would have the same product-family name so they
        can be grouped together in respect order to reporting systems.

   55.  revision: The informal or colloquial representation of the sub-
        version derive absolute paths of the given product (ie, SP1, R2, RC1, Beta 2, etc).
        Note that the version will provide very exact version details,
        the revision is intended for use files represented
   in environments where reporting
        on the informal or colloquial representation corresponding CoSWID tag.  The absolute path of the software is
        important (for example, if for a certain business process, an
        organization recognizes that it must have, for example
        "ServicePack 1" or later of a specific product installed on all
        devices, they evidence
   CoSWID tag can use the revision data value to quickly
        identify any devices that do not meet this requirement).
        Depending on how a software organizations distributes revisions,
        this value could be specified in a primary (if distributed as an
        upgrade) or supplemental (if distributed included as a patch) CoSWID tag.

   56.  summary: A short (one-sentence) description of claim in the software.

   57.  unspsc-code: An 8 digit code that provides UNSPSC classification header of a CBOR Web
   Token [I-D.ietf-ace-cbor-web-token].  Depending on the software product this SWID tag identifies.  For more
        information see, http://www.unspsc.org/.

   58.  unspsc-version: The version source of the UNSPSC code used to define
   token, the UNSPSC code value.  For more information see,
        http://www.unspsc.org/. claim can be in the protected or unprotected header
   portion.

   <CODE BEGINS>
    CDDL TBD
   <CODE ENDS>

Authors' Addresses

   Henk Birkholz
   Fraunhofer SIT
   Rheinstrasse 75
   Darmstadt  64295
   Germany

   Email: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de

   Jessica Fitzgerald-McKay
   Department of Defense
   9800 Savage Road
   Ft. Meade, Maryland
   USA

   Email: jmfitz2@nsa.gov

   Charles Schmidt
   The MITRE Corporation
   202 Burlington Road
   Bedford, Maryland  01730
   USA

   Email: cmschmidt@mitre.org
   David Waltermire
   National Institute of Standards and Technology
   100 Bureau Drive
   Gaithersburg, Maryland  20877
   USA

   Email: david.waltermire@nist.gov