draft-ietf-sacm-coswid-03.txt   draft-ietf-sacm-coswid-04.txt 
SACM Working Group H. Birkholz SACM Working Group H. Birkholz
Internet-Draft Fraunhofer SIT Internet-Draft Fraunhofer SIT
Intended status: Standards Track J. Fitzgerald-McKay Intended status: Standards Track J. Fitzgerald-McKay
Expires: July 8, 2018 Department of Defense Expires: September 6, 2018 Department of Defense
C. Schmidt C. Schmidt
The MITRE Corporation The MITRE Corporation
D. Waltermire D. Waltermire
NIST NIST
January 04, 2018 March 05, 2018
Concise Software Identifiers Concise Software Identifiers
draft-ietf-sacm-coswid-03 draft-ietf-sacm-coswid-04
Abstract Abstract
This document defines a concise representation of ISO 19770-2:2015 This document defines a concise representation of ISO/IEC
Software Identifiers (SWID tags) that is interoperable with the XML 19770-2:2015 Software Identifiers (SWID tags) that is interoperable
schema definition of ISO 19770-2:2015 and augmented for application with the XML schema definition of ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015 and augmented
in Constrained-Node Networks. Next to the inherent capability of for application in Constrained-Node Networks. Next to the inherent
SWID tags to express arbitrary context information, CoSWID support capability of SWID tags to express arbitrary context information,
the definition of additional semantics via well-defined data CoSWID support the definition of additional semantics via well-
definitions incorporated by extension points. defined data definitions incorporated by extension points.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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This Internet-Draft will expire on July 8, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 6, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Concise SWID Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. The SWID Tag Lifecycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Requirements Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Concise SWID Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2. Concise SWID Data Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3. Requirements Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. Description of the SWID Attribute Vocabulary Definition . . . 9 2. Concise SWID Data Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1. The concise-software-identity Object . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.1. Determining the tag type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1.2. concise-software-identity Co-constraints . . . . . . 12
7. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2. The global-attributes Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3. The any-element-entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.4. The entity Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.5. The link Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.6. The software-meta Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Appendix A. Explicit file-hash Type Used in Concise SWID Tags 2.7. The Resource Collection Definition . . . . . . . . . . . 19
(label 56) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.7.1. The hash-entry Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Appendix B. CoSWID Attributes for Firmware (label 57) . . . . . 14 2.7.2. The resource-collection Group . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix C. Signed Concise SWID Tags using COSE . . . . . . . . 16 2.7.3. The payload Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Appendix D. CoSWID used as Reference Integrity Measurements 2.7.4. The evidence Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
(CoSWID RIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.8. Full CDDL Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Appendix E. CBOR Web Token for Concise SWID Tags . . . . . . . . 18 3. CoSWID Indexed Label Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Appendix F. Group Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.1. Version Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Appendix G. Item Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.2. Entity Role Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.1. SWID/CoSWID Version Schema Values Registry . . . . . . . 29
4.2. SWID/CoSWID Entity Role Values Registry . . . . . . . . . 30
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Appendix A. CoSWID Attributes for Firmware (label 60) . . . . . 35
Appendix B. Signed Concise SWID Tags using COSE . . . . . . . . 38
Appendix C. CoSWID used as Reference Integrity Measurements
(CoSWID RIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Appendix D. CBOR Web Token for Concise SWID Tags . . . . . . . . 40
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
SWID tags have several use-applications including but not limited to: SWID tags have several use-applications including but not limited to:
o Software Inventory Management, a part of the Software Asset o Software Inventory Management, a part of the Software Asset
Management [SAM] process, which requires an accurate list of Management [SAM] process, which requires an accurate list of
discernible deployed software components. discernible deployed software components.
o Vulnerability Assessment, which requires a semantic link between o Vulnerability Assessment, which requires a semantic link between
standardized vulnerability descriptions and IT-assets [X.1520]. standardized vulnerability descriptions and IT-assets [X.1520].
o Remote Attestation, which requires a link between reference o Remote Attestation, which requires a link between reference
integrity measurements (RIM) and security logs of measured integrity measurements (RIM) and security logs of measured
software components [I-D.birkholz-tuda]. software components [I-D.birkholz-tuda].
SWID tags, as defined in ISO-19770-2:2015 [SWID], provide a SWID tags, as defined in ISO-19770-2:2015 [SWID], provide a
standardized format for a record that identifies and describes a standardized format for a record that identifies and describes a
specific release of a software product. Different software products, specific release of a software component. Different software
and even different releases of a particular software product, each components, and even different releases of a particular software
have a different SWID tag record associated with them. In addition component, each have a different SWID tag record associated with
to defining the format of these records, ISO-19770-2:2015 defines them. SWID tags are meant to be flexible and able to express a broad
requirements concerning the SWID tag life-cycle. Specifically, when set of metadata about a software component.
a software product is installed on an endpoint, that product's SWID
tag is also installed. Likewise, when the product is uninstalled or
replaced, the SWID tag is deleted or replaced, as appropriate. As a
result, ISO-19770-2:2015 describes a system wherein there is a
correspondence between the set of installed software products on an
endpoint, and the presence on that endpoint of the SWID tags
corresponding to those products.
SWID tags are meant to be flexible and able to express a broad set of
metadata about a software product. Moreover, there are multiple
types of SWID tags, each providing different types of information.
For example, a "corpus tag" is used to describe an application's
installation image on an installation media, while a "patch tag" is
meant to describe a patch that modifies some other application.
While there are very few required fields in SWID tags, there are many
optional fields that support different uses of these different types
of tags. While a SWID tag that consisted only of required fields
could be a few hundred bytes in size, a tag containing many of the
optional fields could be many orders of magnitude larger.
This document defines a more concise representation of SWID tags in
the Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) [RFC7049]. This is
described via the Concise Data Definition Language (CDDL)
[I-D.ietf-cbor-cddl]. The resulting Concise SWID data definition is
interoperable with the XML schema definition of ISO-19770-2:2015
[SWID]. The vocabulary, i.e., the CDDL names of the types and
members used in the CoSWID data definition, is mapped to more concise
labels represented as small integers. The names used in the CDDL
data definition and the mapping to the CBOR representation using
integer labels is based on the vocabulary of the XML attribute and
element names defined in ISO-19770-2:2015.
Real-world instances of SWID tags can be fairly large, and the Real-world instances of SWID tags can be fairly large, and the
communication of SWID tags in use-applications such as those communication of SWID tags in use-applications such as those
described earlier can cause a large amount of data to be transported. described earlier can cause a large amount of data to be transported.
This can be larger than acceptable for constrained devices and This can be larger than acceptable for constrained devices and
networks. CoSWID tags significantly reduce the amount of data networks. CoSWID tags significantly reduce the amount of data
transported as compared to a typical SWID tag. This reduction is transported as compared to a typical SWID tag. This reduction is
enable through the use of CBOR, which maps human-readable labels of enable through the use of CBOR, which maps human-readable labels of
that content to more concise integer labels (indices). This allows that content to more concise integer labels (indices). This allows
SWID tags to be part of an enterprise security solution for a wider SWID tags to be part of an enterprise security solution for a wider
range of endpoints and environments. range of endpoints and environments.
1.1. Concise SWID Extensions 1.1. The SWID Tag Lifecycle
This document specifies a standard equivalent to the ISO-19770-2:2015 In addition to defining the format of these records, ISO/IEC
standard. The corresponding CoSWID data definition includes two 19770-2:2015 defines requirements concerning the SWID tag life-cycle.
kinds of augmentation. Specifically, when a software component is installed on an endpoint,
that product's SWID tag is also installed. Likewise, when the
product is uninstalled or replaced, the SWID tag is deleted or
replaced, as appropriate. As a result, ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015
describes a system wherein there is a correspondence between the set
of installed software products on an endpoint, and the presence on
that endpoint of the SWID tags corresponding to those products.
The following is an excerpt (with some modifications and reordering)
from NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 8060: Guidelines for the
Creation of Interoperable SWID Tags [SWID-GUIDANCE], which describes
the tag types used within the lifecycle defined in ISO-19770-2:2015.
The SWID specification defines four types of SWID tags: primary,
patch, corpus, and supplemental.
1. Primary Tag - A SWID tag that identifies and describes a
software component is installed on a computing device.
2. Patch Tag - A SWID tag that identifies and describes an
installed patch which has made incremental changes to a
software component installed on a computing device.
3. Corpus Tag - A SWID tag that identifies and describes an
installable software component in its pre-installation state.
A corpus tag can be used to represent metadata about an
installation package or installer for a software component, a
software update, or a patch.
4. Supplemental Tag - A SWID tag that allows additional
information to be associated with a referenced SWID tag. This
helps to ensure that SWID Primary and Patch Tags provided by a
software provider are not modified by software management
tools, while allowing these tools to provide their own
software metadata.
Corpus, primary, and patch tags have similar functions in that
they describe the existence and/or presence of different types of
software (e.g., software installers, software installations,
software patches), and, potentially, different states of software
components. In contrast, supplemental tags furnish additional
information not contained in corpus, primary, or patch tags. All
four tag types come into play at various points in the software
lifecycle, and support software management processes that depend
on the ability to accurately determine where each software
component is in its lifecycle.
Installation Product Product Product Product
Media -> Installed -> Patched -> Upgraded -> Removed
Deployed
Corpus Primary Primary xPrimary xPrimary
Supplemental Supplemental xSupplemental xSuplemental
Patch xPatch
Primary
Supplemental
The figure above illustrates the steps in the software lifecycle
and the relationships among those lifecycle events supported by
the four types of SWID tags, as follows: - Software Deployment.
Before the software component is installed (i.e., pre-
installation), and while the product is being deployed, a corpus
tag provides information about the installation files and
distribution media (e.g., CD/DVD, distribution package). -
Software Installation. A primary tag will be installed with the
software component (or subsequently created) to uniquely identify
and describe the software component. Supplemental tags are
created to augment primary tags with additional site-specific or
extended information. While not illustrated in the figure, patch
tags may also be installed during software installation to provide
information about software fixes deployed along with the base
software installation. - Software Patching. When a new patch is
applied to the software component, a new patch tag is provided,
supplying details about the patch and its dependencies. While not
illustrated in the figure, a corpus tag can also provide
information about the patch installer, and patching dependencies
that need to be installed before the patch. - Software Upgrading.
As a software component is upgraded to a new version, new primary
and supplemental tags replace existing tags, enabling timely and
accurate tracking of updates to software inventory. While not
illustrated in the figure, a corpus tag can also provide
information about the upgrade installer, and dependencies that
need to be installed before the upgrade. - Software Removal.
Upon removal of the software component, relevant SWID tags are
removed. This removal event can trigger timely updates to
software inventory reflecting the removal of the product and any
associated patch or supplemental tags.
Note: While not fully illustrated in the figure, supplemental tags
can be associated with any corpus, primary, or patch tag to provide
additional metadata about an installer, installed software, or
installed patch respectively.
Each of the different SWID tag types of SWID tags provide different
types of information. For example, a "corpus tag" is used to
describe an application's installation image on an installation
media, while a "patch tag" is meant to describe a patch that modifies
some other application. While there are very few required fields in
SWID tags, there are many optional fields that support different uses
of these different types of tags. While a SWID tag that consisted
only of required fields could be a few hundred bytes in size, a tag
containing many of the optional fields could be many orders of
magnitude larger.
1.2. Concise SWID Extensions
This document defines a more concise representation of SWID tags in
the Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) [RFC7049]. This is
described via the Concise Data Definition Language (CDDL)
[I-D.greevenbosch-appsawg-cbor-cddl]. The resulting Concise SWID
data definition is interoperable with the XML schema definition of
ISO-19770-2:2015 [SWID]. The vocabulary, i.e., the CDDL names of the
types and members used in the CoSWID data definition, is mapped to
more concise labels represented as small integers. The names used in
the CDDL data definition and the mapping to the CBOR representation
using integer labels is based on the vocabulary of the XML attribute
and element names defined in ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015.
This document specifies a standardized equivalent to the ISO-
19770-2:2015 standard. The corresponding CoSWID data definition
includes two kinds of augmentation.
o the explicit definition of types for attributes that are typically o the explicit definition of types for attributes that are typically
stored in the "any attribute" of an ISO-19770-2:2015 in XML stored in the "any attribute" of an ISO-19770-2:2015 in XML
representation. These are covered in the main body of this representation. These are covered in the main body of this
document. document.
o the inclusion of extension points in the CoSWID data definition o the inclusion of extension points in the CoSWID data definition
that allow for additional uses of CoSWID tags that go beyond the that allow for additional uses of CoSWID tags that go beyond the
original scope of ISO-19770-2:2015 tags. These are covered in original scope of ISO-19770-2:2015 tags. These are covered in
appendices to this document. appendices to this document.
1.2. Requirements Notation 1.3. Requirements Notation
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC
2119, BCP 14 [RFC2119]. 2119, BCP 14 [RFC2119].
2. Concise SWID Data Definition 2. Concise SWID Data Definition
The following is a CDDL representation of the ISO-19770-2:2015 [SWID] The following is a CDDL representation of the ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015
XML schema definition of SWID tags. This representation includes [SWID] XML schema definition of SWID tags. This representation
every SWID tag fields and attribute and thus supports all SWID tag includes every SWID tag field and attribute and thus supports all
use cases. The CamelCase notation used in the XML schema definition SWID tag use cases. The CamelCase notation used in the XML schema
is changed to a hyphen-separated notation (e.g. ResourceCollection definition is changed to a hyphen-separated notation (e.g.
is named resource-collection in the CoSWID data definition). This ResourceCollection is named resource-collection in the CoSWID data
deviation from the original notation used in the XML representation definition). This deviation from the original notation used in the
reduces ambiguity when referencing certain attributes in XML representation reduces ambiguity when referencing certain
corresponding textual descriptions. An attribute referred by its attributes in corresponding textual descriptions. An attribute
name in CamelCase notation explicitly relates to XML SWID tags, an referred by its name in CamelCase notation explicitly relates to XML
attribute referred by its name in hyphen-separated notation SWID tags, an attribute referred by its name in hyphen-separated
explicitly relates to CoSWID tags. This approach simplifies the notation explicitly relates to CoSWID tags. This approach simplifies
composition of further work that reference both XML SWID and CoSWID the composition of further work that reference both XML SWID and
documents. CoSWID documents.
Human-readable names of members in the CDDL data definition are Human-readable names of members in the CDDL data definition are
mapped to integer indices via a block of rules at the bottom of the mapped to integer indices via a block of rules at the bottom of the
definition. The 66 character strings of the SWID vocabulary that definition. The 67 character strings of the SWID vocabulary that
would have to be stored or transported in full if using the original would have to be stored or transported in full if using the original
vocabulary are replaced. vocabulary are replaced.
Concise Software Identifiers are tailored to be used in the domain of Concise Software Identifiers are tailored to be used in the domain of
constrained-node networks. A typical endpoint is capable of storing constrained-node networks. A typical endpoint is capable of storing
the CoSWID tag of installed software, a constrained-node might lack the CoSWID tag of installed software, a constrained-node might lack
that capability. CoSWID address these constraints and the that capability. CoSWID address these constraints and the
corresponding specification is augmented to retain their usefulness corresponding specification is augmented to retain their usefulness
in the thing-2-thing domain. Specific examples include, but are not in the thing-2-thing domain. Specific examples include, but are not
limited to limiting the scope of hash algorithms to the IANA Named limited to limiting the scope of hash algorithms to the IANA Named
Information tables or including firmware attributes addressing Information tables or including firmware attributes addressing
devices that do not necessarily provide a file-system to store a devices that do not necessarily provide a file-system to store a
CoSWID tag in. CoSWID tag in.
In order to create a valid CoSWID document the structure of the The following subsections describe the different parts of the CoSWID
corresponding CBOR message MUST adhere to the following CDDL data model.
definition.
2.1. The concise-software-identity Object
The CDDL for the main concise-software-identity object is as follows:
<CODE BEGINS> <CODE BEGINS>
concise-software-identity = { concise-software-identity = {
global-attributes, global-attributes,
tag-id,
tag-version,
? corpus,
? patch,
? supplemental,
swid-name,
? software-version,
? version-scheme,
? media,
? software-meta-entry,
? entity-entry, ? entity-entry,
? payload-xor-evidence-entry,
? link-entry, ? link-entry,
? software-meta-entry, ? ( payload-entry / evidence-entry ),
; ? payload-entry,
? any-element-entry, ? any-element-entry,
}
tag-id = (0: text)
swid-name = (1: text)
entity-entry = (2: entity / [ 2* entity ])
evidence-entry = (3: evidence)
link-entry = (4: link / [ 2* link ])
software-meta-entry = (5: software-meta / [ 2* software-meta ])
payload-entry = (6: payload)
any-element-entry = (7: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ])
corpus = (8: bool)
patch = (9: bool)
media = (10: text)
supplemental = (11: bool)
tag-version = (12: integer)
software-version = (13: text)
version-scheme = (14: text)
<CODE ENDS>
The items are ordered ensure that tag metadata appears first,
followed by general software metadata, entity information, link
relations, and finally payload or evidence data. This ordering
attempts to provide the most significant metadata that a parser may
need first, followed by metadata that may support more specific use-
applications. The following describes each child item of the
concise-software-identity model.
o global-attributes: A list of items including an optional language
definition to support the processing of text-string values and an
unbounded set of any-attribute items. Described in Section 2.2.
o tag-id (label 0): An textual identifier uniquely referencing a
(composite) software component. The tag identifier is intended to
be globally unique. There are no strict guidelines on how this
identifier is structured, but examples include a 16 byte GUID
(e.g. class 4 UUID).
o tag-version (label 12): An integer value that indicates if a
specific release of a software component has more than one tag
that can represent that specific release. A typical use of this
field may be to set an initial value to 0 and to monotonically
increase the value for subsequent tags produced for the specific
release. A change in the value of this field may be the case if a
CoSWID tag producer creates and releases an incorrect tag that
they subsequently want to fix, but with no underlying changes to
the product the CoSWID tag represents. This could happen if, for
example, a patch is distributed that has a link reference that
does not cover all the various software releases it can patch. A
newer CoSWID tag for that patch can be generated and the tag-
version value incremented to indicate that the data is updated.
o corpus (label 8): A boolean value that indicates if the tag
identifies and describes an installable software component in its
pre-installation state. Installable software includes a
installation package or installer for a software component, a
software update, or a patch. If the Concise SWID tag represents
installable software, the corpus item MUST be set to "true". If
not provided the default value MUST be considered "false".
o patch (label 9): A boolean value that indicates if the tag
identifies and describes an installed patch which has made
incremental changes to a software component installed on a
computing device. Typically, an installed patch has made a set of
file modifications to pre-installed software, and does not alter
the version number or the descriptive metadata of an installed
software product. If a Concise SWID tag is for a patch, it MUST
contain the patch item and its value MUST be set to "true". If
not provided the default value MUST be considered "false".
o supplemental (label 11): A boolean value that indicates if the tag
is providing additional information to be associated with another
referenced SWID tag. Tags using this item help to ensure that
primary and patch tags provided by a software provider are not
modified by software management tools, while allowing these tools
to provide their own software metadata for a software component.
If a Concise SWID tag is a supplemntal tag, it MUST contain the
supplemental item and its value MUST be set to "true". If not
provided the default value MUST be considered "false".
o swid-name (label 1): This textual item provides the software
component name as it would typically be referenced. For example,
what would be seen in the add/remove software dialog in an
operating system, or what is specified as the name of a packaged
software component or a patch identifier name.
o software-version (label 13): A textual value representing the
specific underlying release or development version of the software
component.
o version-scheme (label 14): An 8-bit integer or textual value
representing the versioning scheme used for the software-version
item. If an integer value is used it MUST be a value from the
registry (see section Section 4.1 or a value in the private use
range: 32768-65,535.
o media (label 10): This text value is a hint to the tag consumer to
understand what this SWID tag applies to. This item can also be
included in the link item to represent a attributes defined by the
W3C Media Queries Recommendation (see http://www.w3.org/TR/
css3-mediaqueries/). A hint to the consumer of the link to what
the target item is applicable for.
o software-meta-entry (label 5): An open-ended collection of key/
value data related to this CoSWID. The attributes included in
this Element are predefined attributes to ensure common usage
across the industry. The schema allows for any additional
attribute to be included in a CoSWID tag, though it is recommended
that industry norms for new attributes are defined and followed to
the degree possible. Described in Section 2.6.
o entity-entry (label 2): Specifies the organizations related to the
software component referenced by this CoSWID tag. Described in
Section 2.4.
o link-entry (label 4): A reference to any another item (can include
details that are related to the CoSWID tag such as details on
where specific resources can be found, e.g. vulnerability
database associations, ROLIE feeds, MUD files, etc). This is
modeled directly to match the HTML "link" element; it is critical
for streamlining software discovery scenarios to ensure their
consistency. Described in Section 2.5.
o payload-entry (label 6): The items that may be installed on a
system entity when the software component is installed. Note that
payload may be a superset of the items installed and - depending
on optimization mechanisms in respect to that system entity - may
or may not include every item that could be created or executed on
the corresponding system entitiy when software components are
installed. In general, payload will be used to indicate the files
that may be installed with a software component. Therefore
payload will often be a superset of those files (i.e. if a
particular optional sub-component is not installed, the files
associated with that software component may be included in
payload, but not installed in the system entity). Described in
Section 2.7.3.
o evidence-entry (label 3): This item is used to provide results
from a scan of a system where software that does not have a CoSWID
tag is discovered. This information is not provided by the
software-creator, and is instead created when a system is being
scanned and the evidence for why software is believed to be
installed on the device is provided in the evidence item.
Described in Section 2.7.4.
o any-element-entry (label 7): A default map that can contain
arbitrary map members and even nested maps (which would be also
any-elements). In essence, the any-element allows items not
defined in this CDDL data definition to be included in a Concise
Software Identifier. Described in Section 2.3.
2.1.1. Determining the tag type
o Primary Tag: A CoSWID tag MUST be considered a primary tag if the
corpus, patch, and supplemental items are "false".
o Patch Tag: A CoSWID tag MUST be considered a patch tag if the
patch item is "true".
o Corpus Tag: A CoSWID tag MUST be considered a corpus tag if the
corpus item is "true".
o Supplemental Tag: A CoSWID tag MUST be considered a supplemental
tag if the supplemental item is set to "true".
If multiple of the corpus, patch, and supplemental items are "true",
then the containing tag MUST be considered an unsupported tag type.
If the patch does modify the version number or the descriptive
metadata of the software, then a new tag representing these details
SHOULD be installed, and the old tag SHOULD be removed.
2.1.2. concise-software-identity Co-constraints
o Only one of the corpus, patch, and supplemental items MUST be set
to "true", or all of the corpus, patch, and supplemental items
MUST be set to "false" or be omitted.
o If the patch item is set to "true", the the tag SHOULD contain at
least one link with the rel(ation) item value of "patches" and an
href item specifying an association with the software that was
patched.
o If the supplemental item is set to "true", the the tag SHOULD
contain at least one link with the rel(ation) item value of
"suplements" and an href item specifying an association with the
software that is supplemented.
o If all of the corpus, patch, and supplemental items are "false",
or if the corpus item is set to "true", then a software-version
item MUST be included with a value set to the version of the
software component. This ensure that primary and corpus tags have
an identifiable software version.
2.2. The global-attributes Group
The global-attributes group provides a list of items including an
optional language definition to support the processing of text-string
values and an unbounded set of any-attribute items allowing for
additional items to be provided as a general point of extension in
the model.
The CDDL for the global-attributes is as follows:
<CODE BEGINS>
global-attributes = (
? lang,
* any-attribute,
)
label = text / int
any-attribute = (
label => text / int / [ 2* text ] / [ 2* int ]
)
lang = (15: text)
<CODE ENDS>
The following describes each child item of this object.
o lang (index 15): A language tag or corresponding IANA index
integer that conforms with IANA Language Subtag Registry
[RFC5646].
o any-attribute: This sub-group provides a means to include
arbitrary information via label (key) item value pairs where both
keys and values can be either a single integer or text string, or
an array of integers or text strings.
2.3. The any-element-entry
The CDDL for the any-element-entry object is as follows:
<CODE BEGINS>
any-element-map = {
global-attributes,
* label => any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ],
}
any-element-entry = (7: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ])
<CODE ENDS>
The following describes each child item of this object.
o global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
Section 2.2.
o label: a single or multiple
2.4. The entity Object
The CDDL for the entity object is as follows:
<CODE BEGINS>
entity = {
global-attributes,
entity-name,
? reg-id,
role,
? thumbprint,
extended-data,
}
any-uri = text
extended-data = (30: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ])
entity-name = (31: text)
reg-id = (32: any-uri)
role = (33: text / [2* text])
thumbprint = (34: text)
<CODE ENDS>
The following describes each child item of this object.
o global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
Section 2.2.
o entity-name (index 32): The text-string name of the organization
claiming a particular role in the CoSWID tag.
o reg-id (index 32): The registration id is intended to uniquely
identify a naming authority in a given scope (e.g. global,
organization, vendor, customer, administrative domain, etc.) that
is implied by the referenced naming authority. The value of an
registration ID MUST be a RFC 3986 URI. The scope SHOULD be the
scope of an organization. In a given scope, the registration id
MUST be used consistently.
o role (index 33): The relationship(s) between this organization and
this tag. The role of tag creator is required for every CoSWID
tag. The role of an entity may include any role value, but the
per-defined roles include: "aggregator", "distributor",
"licensor", "software-creator", "tag-creator". The enumerations
of this will include a request to IANA in order to be reference-
able via an integer index.
o thumbprint (index 34): This value provides a hexadecimal string
that contains a hash (i.e. the thumbprint) of the signing entities
certificate(s). .
o extended-data (index 30): An open-ended collection of elements
that can be used to attach arbitrary metadata to an entity item.
2.5. The link Object
The CDDL for the link object is as follows:
<CODE BEGINS>
link = {
global-attributes,
? artifact,
href,
? media
? ownership,
rel,
? media-type,
? use,
}
artifact = (37: text)
href = (38: any-uri)
media = (10: any-uri)
ownership = (39: "shared" / "private" / "abandon")
rel = (40: text)
media-type = (41: text)
use = (42: "optional" / "required" / "recommended")
<CODE ENDS>
The following describes each child item of this object.
o global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
Section 2.2.
o artifact (index: 37): For installation media (rel="installation-
media") - dictates the canonical name for the file. Items with
the same artifact name should be considered mirrors of each other
(so download from wherever works).
o href (index 38): The link to the item being referenced. The href
can point to several different things, and can be any of the
following:
* a relative uri (no scheme), which is interpreted depending on
context (for example, "./folder/supplemental.coswid")
* a physical file location with any system-acceptable URI scheme
(e.g., file:// http:// https:// ftp://)
* an URI with "coswid:" as the scheme, which refers to another
CoSWID by tag-id. This URI would need to be resolved in the
context of the system by software that can lookup other CoSWID
tags (for example,
* "coswid:2df9de35-0aff-4a86-ace6-f7dddd1ade4c"). an URI with
"swidpath:" as the scheme, which refers to another CoSIWD via
an XPATH query. This URI would need to be resolved in the
context of the system entity via dedicated software components
that can lookup other CoSWID tags and select the appropriate
tag based on an XPATH query. Examples include:
* swidpath://SoftwareIdentity[Entity/@regid='http://contoso.com']
would retrieve all CoSWID tags that include an entity where the
regid was "Contoso".
* swidpath://SoftwareIdentity[Meta/@persistentId='b0c55172-38e9-4
e36-be86-92206ad8eddb'] would retrieve CoSWID tags that matched
the persistent-id.
* See XPATH query standard : http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath20/
o media (index 10): See media defined in Section 2.1.
o ownership (index 39): Determines the relative strength of
ownership of the software components. Valid enumerations are:
abandon, private, shared
o rel (index 40): The relationship between this CoSWID and the
target file. Relationships can be identified by referencing the
IANA registration library: https://www.iana.org/assignments/link-
relations/link-relations.xhtml.
o media-type (index 41): The IANA MediaType for the target file;
this provides the consumer with intelligence of what to expect.
See http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/media-types.xhtml
for more details on link type.
o use (index 42): Determines if the target software is a hard
requirement or not. Valid enumerations are: required,
recommended, optional.
2.6. The software-meta Object
The CDDL for the software-meta object is as follows:
<CODE BEGINS>
software-meta = {
global-attributes,
? activation-status,
? channel-type,
? colloquial-version,
? description,
? edition,
? entitlement-data-required,
? entitlement-key,
? generator,
? persistent-id,
? product,
? product-family,
? revision,
? summary,
? unspsc-code,
? unspsc-version,
}
activation-status = (43: text)
channel-type = (44: text)
colloquial-version = (45: text)
description = (46: text)
edition = (47: text)
entitlement-data-required = (48: bool)
entitlement-key = (49: text)
generator = (50: text)
persistent-id = (51: text)
product = (52: text)
product-family = (53: text)
revision = (54: text)
summary = (55: text)
unspsc-code = (56: text)
unspsc-version = (57: text)
<CODE ENDS>
The following describes each child item of this object.
o global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
Section 2.2.
o activation-status (index 43): Identification of the activation
status of this software title (e.g. Trial, Serialized, Licensed,
Unlicensed, etc). Typically, this is used in supplemental tags.
o channel-type (index 44): Provides information on which channel
this particular software was targeted for (e.g. Volume, Retail,
OEM, Academic, etc). Typically used in supplemental tags.
o colloquial-version (index 45): The informal or colloquial version
of the product (i.e. 2013). Note that this version may be the
same through multiple releases of a software component where the
version specified in entity is much more specific and will change
for each software release. Note that this representation of
version is typically used to identify a group of specific software
releases that are part of the same release/support infrastructure
(i.e. Fabrikam Office 2013). This version is used for string
comparisons only and is not compared to be an earlier or later
release (that is done via the entity version).
o description (index 46): A longer, detailed description of the
software. This description can be multiple sentences
(differentiated from summary, which is a very short, one-sentence
description).
o edition (index 47): The variation of the product (Extended,
Enterprise, Professional, Standard etc).
o entitlement-data-required (index 48): An indicator to determine if
there should be accompanying proof of entitlement when a software
license reconciliation is completed.
o entitlement-key (index 49): A vendor-specific textual key that can
be used to reconcile the validity of an entitlement. (e.g. serial
number, product or license key).
o generator (index 50): The name of the software tool that created a
CoSWID tag. This item is typically used if tags are created on
the fly or via a catalog-based analysis for data found on a
computing device.
o persistent-id (index 51): A GUID used to represent products
installed where the product are related, but may be different
versions. For example, an "upgradeCode" (see
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa372375(v=vs.85).aspx as
an reference for this example).
o product (index 52): The base name of the product (e.g. ).
o product-family (index 53): The overall product family this
software belongs to. Product family is not used to identify that
a product is part of a suite, but is instead used when a set of
products that are all related may be installed on multiple
different devices. For example, an enterprise backup system may
consist of a backup services, multiple different backup services
that support mail services, databases and ERP systems, as well as
individual software components that backup client system entities.
In such an usage scenario, all software components that are part
of the backup system would have the same product-family name so
they can be grouped together in respect to reporting systems.
o revision (index 54): The informal or colloquial representation of
the sub-version of the given product (ie, SP1, R2, RC1, Beta 2,
etc). Note that the version will provide very exact version
details, the revision is intended for use in environments where
reporting on the informal or colloquial representation of the
software is important (for example, if for a certain business
process, an organization recognizes that it must have, for example
"ServicePack 1" or later of a specific product installed on all
devices, they can use the revision data value to quickly identify
any devices that do not meet this requirement). Depending on how
a software organizations distributes revisions, this value could
be specified in a primary (if distributed as an upgrade) or
supplemental (if distributed as a patch) CoSWID tag.
o summary (index 55): A short (one-sentence) description of the
software.
o unspsc-code (index 56): An 8 digit code that provides UNSPSC
classification of the software component this SWID tag identifies.
For more information see, http://www.unspsc.org/.
o unspsc-version (index 57): The version of the UNSPSC code used to
define the UNSPSC code value. For more information see,
http://www.unspsc.org/.
2.7. The Resource Collection Definition
2.7.1. The hash-entry Array
CoSWID add explicit support for the representation of hash entries
using algorithms that are registered at the Named Information Hash
Algorithm Registry via the hash-entry member (label 58).
hash-entry = (58: [ hash-alg-id: int, hash-value: bstr ] )
The number used as a value for hash-alg-id MUST refer the ID in the
Named Information Hash Algorithm table; other hash algorithms MUST
NOT be used. The hash-value MUST represent the raw hash value of the
hashed resource generated using the hash algorithm indicated by the
hash-alg-id.
2.7.2. The resource-collection Group
A list of items both used in evidence (discovered by an inventory
process) and payload (installed in a system entity) content of a
CoSWID tag document to structure and differentiate the content of
specific CoSWID tag types. Potential content includes directories,
files, processes, resources or firmwares.
The CDDL for the resource-collection group is as follows:
<CODE BEGINS>
resource-collection = (
? directory-entry,
? file-entry,
? process-entry,
? resource-entry
)
directory = {
filesystem-item,
path-elements,
}
file = {
filesystem-item,
? size,
? file-version,
? hash-entry,
}
process = {
global-attributes,
process-name,
? pid,
}
resource = {
global-attributes,
type,
}
filesystem-item = (
global-attributes,
? key,
? location,
fs-name,
? root,
)
directory-entry = (16: directory / [ 2* directory ])
file-entry = (17: file / [ 2* file ])
process-entry = (18: process / [ 2* process ])
resource-entry = (19: resource / [ 2* resource ])
size = (20: integer)
file-version = (21: text)
key = (22: bool)
location = (23: text)
fs-name = (24: text)
root = (25: text)
path-elements = (26: { * file-entry,
* directory-entry,
}
)
process-name = (27: text)
pid = (28: integer)
type = (29: text)
<CODE ENDS>
The following describes each child item or group for these groups.
o filesystem-item: A list of items both used in representing the
nodes of a file-system hierarchy, i.e. directory items that allow
one or more directories to be defined in the file structure, and
file items that allow one or more files to be specified for a
given location.
o global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
Section 2.2.
o directory-entry (index 16): A directory item allows one or more
directories to be defined in the file structure.
o file-entry (index 17): A file element that allows one or more
files to be specified for a given location.
o process-entry (index 18): Provides process (software component in
execution) information for data that will show up in a devices
process table.
o resource-entry (index 19): A set of items that can be used to
provide arbitrary resource information about an application
installed on a system entity, or evidence collected from a system
entity.
o size (index 20): The file size in bytes of the file.
o file-version (index 21): The version of the file.
o key (index 22): Files that are considered important or required
for the use of a software component. Typical key files would be
those which, if not available on a system entity, would cause the
software component not to execute or function properly. Key files
will typically be used to validate that a software component
referenced by the CoSWID tag document is actually installed on a
specific system entity.
o location (index 23): The directory or location where a file was
found or can expected to be located. This text-string is intended
to include the filename itself. This SHOULD be the relative path
from the location represented by the root item.
o fs-name (index 24): The file name or directory name without any
path characters.
o root (index 25): A system-specific root folder that the location
item is an offset from. If this is not specified the assumption
is the root is the same folder as the location of the CoSWID tag.
The text-string value represents a path expression relative to the
CoSWID tag document location in the (composite) file-system
hierarchy.
o path-elements (index 26): Provides the ability to apply a
directory structure to the path expressions for files defined in a
payload or evidence item.
o process-name (index 27): The process name as it will be found in
the system entity's process table.
o pid (index 28): The process ID for the process in execution that
can be included in the process item as part of an evidence tag.
o type (index 29): The type of resource represented via a text-
string (typically, registry-key, port or root-uri).
2.7.3. The payload Object
The CDDL for the payload object is as follows:
payload = {
global-attributes,
resource-collection,
* $$payload-extension
}
<CODE ENDS>
The following describes each child item of this object.
o global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
Section 2.2.
o resource-collection: The resource-collection group described in
Section 2.7.2.
o $$payload-extension:
2.7.4. The evidence Object
The CDDL for the evidence object is as follows:
<CODE BEGINS>
evidence = {
global-attributes,
resource-collection,
? date,
? device-id,
* $$evidence-extension
}
date = (35: time)
device-id = (36: text)
<CODE ENDS>
The following describes each child item of this object.
o global-attributes: The global-attributes group described in
Section 2.2.
o resource-collection: The resource-collection group described in
Section 2.7.2.
o date (index 35): The date and time evidence represented by an
evidence item was gathered.
o device-id (index 36): A text-string identifier for a device
evidence was gathered from.
o $$evidence-extension:
2.8. Full CDDL Definition
In order to create a valid CoSWID document the structure of the
corresponding CBOR message MUST adhere to the following CDDL data
definition.
<CODE BEGINS>
concise-software-identity = {
global-attributes,
tag-id,
tag-version,
? corpus, ? corpus,
? patch, ? patch,
? media,
swid-name,
? supplemental, ? supplemental,
tag-id, swid-name,
? tag-version,
? software-version, ? software-version,
? version-scheme, ? version-scheme,
? media,
? software-meta-entry,
? entity-entry,
? link-entry,
? ( payload-entry / evidence-entry ),
? any-element-entry,
} }
any-uri = text any-uri = text
label = text / int label = text / int
any-attribute = ( any-attribute = (
label => text / int / [ 2* text ] / [ 2* int ] label => text / int / [ 2* text ] / [ 2* int ]
) )
any-element-map = { any-element-map = {
skipping to change at page 6, line 13 skipping to change at page 24, line 43
global-attributes = ( global-attributes = (
? lang, ? lang,
* any-attribute, * any-attribute,
) )
resource-collection = ( resource-collection = (
? directory-entry, ? directory-entry,
? file-entry, ? file-entry,
? process-entry, ? process-entry,
? resource-entry ? resource-entry
* $$resource-extension
) )
file = { file = {
filesystem-item, filesystem-item,
? size, ? size,
? file-version, ? file-version,
? file-hash, ? hash-entry,
} }
filesystem-item = ( filesystem-item = (
global-attributes, global-attributes,
? key, ? key,
? location, ? location,
fs-name, fs-name,
? root, ? root,
) )
directory = { directory = {
filesystem-item, filesystem-item,
skipping to change at page 6, line 49 skipping to change at page 25, line 30
? pid, ? pid,
} }
resource = { resource = {
global-attributes, global-attributes,
type, type,
} }
entity = { entity = {
global-attributes, global-attributes,
extended-data,
entity-name, entity-name,
? reg-id, ? reg-id,
role, role,
? thumbprint, ? thumbprint,
extended-data,
} }
evidence = { evidence = {
global-attributes, global-attributes,
resource-collection, resource-collection,
? date, ? date,
? device-id, ? device-id,
* $$evidence-extension
} }
link = { link = {
global-attributes, global-attributes,
? artifact, ? artifact,
href, href,
? media-type, ? media
? ownership, ? ownership,
rel, rel,
? type, ? media-type,
? use, ? use,
} }
software-meta = { software-meta = {
global-attributes, global-attributes,
? activation-status, ? activation-status,
? channel-type, ? channel-type,
? colloquial-version, ? colloquial-version,
? description, ? description,
? edition, ? edition,
skipping to change at page 7, line 48 skipping to change at page 26, line 30
? product-family, ? product-family,
? revision, ? revision,
? summary, ? summary,
? unspsc-code, ? unspsc-code,
? unspsc-version, ? unspsc-version,
} }
payload = { payload = {
global-attributes, global-attributes,
resource-collection, resource-collection,
* $$payload-extension
} }
payload-xor-evidence-entry = ((3: evidence) // (6: payload))
tag-id = (0: text) tag-id = (0: text)
swid-name = (1: text) swid-name = (1: text)
entity-entry = (2: entity / [ 2* entity ]) entity-entry = (2: entity / [ 2* entity ])
evidence-entry = (3: evidence) evidence-entry = (3: evidence)
link-entry = (4: link / [ 2* link ]) link-entry = (4: link / [ 2* link ])
software-meta-entry = (5: software-meta / [ 2* software-meta ]) software-meta-entry = (5: software-meta / [ 2* software-meta ])
payload-entry = (6: payload) payload-entry = (6: payload)
any-element-entry = (7: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ]) any-element-entry = (7: any-element-map / [ 2* any-element-map ])
corpus = (8: bool) corpus = (8: bool)
patch = (9: bool) patch = (9: bool)
media = (10: text) media = (10: text)
supplemental = (11: bool) supplemental = (11: bool)
tag-version = (12: integer) tag-version = (12: integer)
software-version = (13: text) software-version = (13: text)
version-scheme = (14: text) version-scheme = (14: text / int)
lang = (15: text) lang = (15: text)
directory-entry = (16: directory / [ 2* directory ]) directory-entry = (16: directory / [ 2* directory ])
file-entry = (17: file / [ 2* file ]) file-entry = (17: file / [ 2* file ])
process-entry = (18: process / [ 2* process ]) process-entry = (18: process / [ 2* process ])
resource-entry = (19: resource / [ 2* resource ]) resource-entry = (19: resource / [ 2* resource ])
size = (20: integer) size = (20: integer)
file-version = (21: text) file-version = (21: text)
key = (22: bool) key = (22: bool)
location = (23: text) location = (23: text)
fs-name = (24: text) fs-name = (24: text)
skipping to change at page 9, line 16 skipping to change at page 27, line 46
entitlement-data-required = (48: bool) entitlement-data-required = (48: bool)
entitlement-key = (49: text) entitlement-key = (49: text)
generator = (50: text) generator = (50: text)
persistent-id = (51: text) persistent-id = (51: text)
product = (52: text) product = (52: text)
product-family = (53: text) product-family = (53: text)
revision = (54: text) revision = (54: text)
summary = (55: text) summary = (55: text)
unspsc-code = (56: text) unspsc-code = (56: text)
unspsc-version = (57: text) unspsc-version = (57: text)
file-hash = (58: [ hash-alg-id: int, hash-entry = (58: [ hash-alg-id: int,
hash-value: bstr, hash-value: bstr,
] ]
) )
<CODE ENDS> <CODE ENDS>
3. Description of the SWID Attribute Vocabulary Definition 3. CoSWID Indexed Label Values
Yet to be written still... 3.1. Version Scheme
The following are an initial set of values for use in the version-
scheme item for the version schemes defined in the ISO/IEC
19770-2:2015 [SWID] specification. Index value in parens indicates
the index value to use in the version-scheme item.
o multipartnumeric (index 0): Numbers separated by dots, where the
numbers are interpreted as integers (e.g.,1.2.3, 1.4.5,
1.2.3.4.5.6.7)
o multipartnumeric+suffix (index 1): Numbers separated by dots,
where the numbers are interpreted as integers with an additional
string suffix(e.g., 1.2.3a)
o alphanumeric (index 2): Strictly a string, sorting is done
alphanumerically
o decimal (index 3): A floating point number (e.g., 1.25 is less
than 1.3)
o semver (index 4): Follows the [SEMVER] specification
The values above are registered in the "SWID/CoSWID Version Schema
Values" registry defined in section Section 4.1. Additional valid
values will likely be registered over time in this registry.
3.2. Entity Role Values
The following table indicates the index value to use for the entity
roles defined in the ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015 [SWID] specification.
| Index | Role Name |
|-------+--------------------------+
| 0 | tagCreator |
| 1 | softwareCreator |
| 2 | aggregator |
| 3 | distributor |
| 4 | licensor |
The values above are registered in the "SWID/CoSWID Entity Role
Values" registry defined in section Section 4.2. Additional valid
values will likely be registered over time. Additionally, the index
values 226 through 255 have been reserved for private use.
4. IANA Considerations 4. IANA Considerations
This document will include requests to IANA: This document will include requests to IANA:
o Integer indices for SWID content attributes and information o Integer indices for SWID content attributes and information
elements. elements.
o Content-Type for CoAP to be used in COSE. o Content-Type for CoAP to be used in COSE.
This document has a number of IANA considerations, as described in
the following subsections.
4.1. SWID/CoSWID Version Schema Values Registry
This document uses unsigned 16-bit index values to version-scheme
item values. The initial set of version-scheme values are derived
from the textual version scheme names defined in the ISO/IEC
19770-2:2015 specification [SWID].
This document defines a new a new registry entitled "SWID/CoSWID
Version Schema Values". Future registrations for this registry are
to be made based on [RFC8126] as follows:
| Range | Registration Procedures |
|--------------+--------------------------+
| 0-16383 | Standards Action |
| 16384-32767 | Specification Required |
| 32768-65535 | Reserved for Private Use |
Initial registrations for the SWID/CoSWID Version Schema Values
registry are provided below.
| Index | Role Name | Specification |
|-------------+--------------------------+-----------------|
| 0 | multipartnumeric | See section 3.1 |
| 1 | multipartnumeric+suffix | See section 3.1 |
| 2 | alphanumeric | See section 3.1 |
| 3 | decimal | See section 3.1 |
| 4-16383 | Unassigned | |
| 16384 | semver | {{SEMVER}} |
| 16385-32767 | Unassigned | |
| 32768-65535 | Reserved for Private Use | |
4.2. SWID/CoSWID Entity Role Values Registry
This document uses unsigned 8-bit index values to represent entity-
role values. The initial set of Entity roles are derived from the
textual role names defined in the ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015 specification
[SWID].
This document defines a new a new registry entitled "SWID/CoSWID
Entity Role Values". Future registrations for this registry are to
be made based on [RFC8126] as follows:
| Range | Registration Procedures |
|---------+----------------------------+
| 0-31 | Standards Action |
| 32-127 | Specification Required |
| 128-255 | Reserved for Private Use |
Initial registrations for the SWID/CoSWID Entity Role Values registry
are provided below.
| Index | Role Name | Specification |
|---------+--------------------------+-----------------|
| 0 | tagCreator | See section 3.2 |
| 1 | softwareCreator | See section 3.2 |
| 2 | aggregator | See section 3.2 |
| 3 | distributor | See section 3.2 |
| 4 | licensor | See section 3.2 |
| 5-49 | Unassigned | |
| 50-225 | Unassigned | |
| 225-255 | Reserved for Private Use | |
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
SWID tags contain public information about software products and, as SWID tags contain public information about software components and,
such, do not need to be protected against disclosure on an endpoint. as such, do not need to be protected against disclosure on an
Similarly, SWID tags are intended to be easily discoverable by endpoint. Similarly, SWID tags are intended to be easily
applications and users on an endpoint in order to make it easy to discoverable by applications and users on an endpoint in order to
identify and collect all of an endpoint's SWID tags. As such, any make it easy to identify and collect all of an endpoint's SWID tags.
security considerations regarding SWID tags focus on the application As such, any security considerations regarding SWID tags focus on the
of SWID tags to address security challenges, and the possible application of SWID tags to address security challenges, and the
disclosure of the results of those applications. possible disclosure of the results of those applications.
A signed SWID tag whose signature is intact can be relied upon to be A signed SWID tag whose signature is intact can be relied upon to be
unchanged since it was signed. If the SWID tag was created by the unchanged since it was signed. If the SWID tag was created by the
software author, this generally means that it has undergone no change software author, this generally means that it has undergone no change
since the software application with which the tag is associated was since the software application with which the tag is associated was
installed. By implication, this means that the signed tag reflects installed. By implication, this means that the signed tag reflects
the software author's understanding of the details of that software the software author's understanding of the details of that software
product. This can be useful assurance when the information in the product. This can be useful assurance when the information in the
tag needs to be trusted, such as when the tag is being used to convey tag needs to be trusted, such as when the tag is being used to convey
golden measurements. By contrast, the data contained in unsigned golden measurements. By contrast, the data contained in unsigned
tags cannot be trusted to be unmodified. tags cannot be trusted to be unmodified.
SWID tags are designed to be easily added and removed from an SWID tags are designed to be easily added and removed from an
endpoint along with the installation or removal of software products. endpoint along with the installation or removal of software
On endpoints where addition or removal of software products is components. On endpoints where addition or removal of software
tightly controlled, the addition or removal of SWID tags can be components is tightly controlled, the addition or removal of SWID
similarly controlled. On more open systems, where many users can tags can be similarly controlled. On more open systems, where many
manage the software inventory, SWID tags may be easier to add or users can manage the software inventory, SWID tags may be easier to
remove. On such systems, it may be possible to add or remove SWID add or remove. On such systems, it may be possible to add or remove
tags in a way that does not reflect the actual presence or absence of SWID tags in a way that does not reflect the actual presence or
corresponding software products. Similarly, not all software absence of corresponding software components. Similarly, not all
products automatically install SWID tags, so products may be present software products automatically install SWID tags, so products may be
on an endpoint without providing a corresponding SWID tag. As such, present on an endpoint without providing a corresponding SWID tag.
any collection of SWID tags cannot automatically be assumed to As such, any collection of SWID tags cannot automatically be assumed
represent either a complete or fully accurate representation of the to represent either a complete or fully accurate representation of
software inventory of the endpoint. However, especially on devices the software inventory of the endpoint. However, especially on
that more strictly control the ability to add or remove applications, devices that more strictly control the ability to add or remove
SWID tags are an easy way to provide an preliminary understanding of applications, SWID tags are an easy way to provide an preliminary
that endpoint's software inventory. understanding of that endpoint's software inventory.
Any report of an endpoint's SWID tag collection provides information Any report of an endpoint's SWID tag collection provides information
about the software inventory of that endpoint. If such a report is about the software inventory of that endpoint. If such a report is
exposed to an attacker, this can tell them which software products exposed to an attacker, this can tell them which software products
and versions thereof are present on the endpoint. By examining this and versions thereof are present on the endpoint. By examining this
list, the attacker might learn of the presence of applications that list, the attacker might learn of the presence of applications that
are vulnerable to certain types of attacks. As noted earlier, SWID are vulnerable to certain types of attacks. As noted earlier, SWID
tags are designed to be easily discoverable by an endpoint, but this tags are designed to be easily discoverable by an endpoint, but this
does not present a significant risk since an attacker would already does not present a significant risk since an attacker would already
need to have access to the endpoint to view that information. need to have access to the endpoint to view that information.
skipping to change at page 11, line 9 skipping to change at page 32, line 11
Concise SWID data definition allow for the construction of "infinite" Concise SWID data definition allow for the construction of "infinite"
SWID tags or SWID tags that contain malicious content with the intend SWID tags or SWID tags that contain malicious content with the intend
if creating non-deterministic states during validation or processing if creating non-deterministic states during validation or processing
of SWID tags. While software product vendors are unlikely to do of SWID tags. While software product vendors are unlikely to do
this, SWID tags can be created by any party and the SWID tags this, SWID tags can be created by any party and the SWID tags
collected from an endpoint could contain a mixture of vendor and non- collected from an endpoint could contain a mixture of vendor and non-
vendor created tags. For this reason, tools that consume SWID tags vendor created tags. For this reason, tools that consume SWID tags
ought to treat the tag contents as potentially malicious and should ought to treat the tag contents as potentially malicious and should
employ input sanitizing on the tags they ingest. employ input sanitizing on the tags they ingest.
6. Acknowledgements 6. Acknowledgments
7. Change Log 7. Change Log
Changes from version 03 to version 04:
o Re-index label values in the CDDL.
o Added a section describing the CoSWID model in detail.
o Created IANA registries for entity-role and version-scheme
Changes from version 02 to version 03:
o Updated CDDL to allow for a choice between a payload or evidence
o Re-index label values in the CDDL.
o Added item definitions
o Updated references for COSE, CBOR Web Token, and CDDL.
Changes from version 01 to version 02:
o Added extensions for Firmware and CoSWID use as Reference
Integrity Measurements (CoSWID RIM)
o Changes meta handling in CDDL from use of an explicit use of items
to a more flexible unconstrained collection of items.
o Added sections discussing use of COSE Signatures and CBOR Web
Tokens
Changes from version 00 to version 01: Changes from version 00 to version 01:
o Added CWT usage for absolute SWID paths on a device o Added CWT usage for absolute SWID paths on a device
o Fixed cardinality of type-choices including arrays o Fixed cardinality of type-choices including arrays
o Included first iteration of firmware resource-collection o Included first iteration of firmware resource-collection
Changes since adopted as a WG I-D -00: Changes since adopted as a WG I-D -00:
o Removed redundant any-attributes originating from the ISO- o Removed redundant any-attributes originating from the ISO-
19770-2:2015 XML schema definition 19770-2:2015 XML schema definition
o Fixed broken multi-map members o Fixed broken multi-map members
o Introduced a more restrictive item (any-element-map) to represent o Introduced a more restrictive item (any-element-map) to represent
custom maps, increased restriction on types for the any-attribute, custom maps, increased restriction on types for the any-attribute,
accordingly accordingly
skipping to change at page 12, line 30 skipping to change at page 34, line 13
extensions beyond the any-element extensions beyond the any-element
8. Contributors 8. Contributors
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-ace-cbor-web-token] [I-D.ietf-ace-cbor-web-token]
Jones, M., Wahlstroem, E., Erdtman, S., and H. Tschofenig, Jones, M., Wahlstroem, E., Erdtman, S., and H. Tschofenig,
"CBOR Web Token (CWT)", draft-ietf-ace-cbor-web-token-10 "CBOR Web Token (CWT)", draft-ietf-ace-cbor-web-token-12
(work in progress), December 2017. (work in progress), February 2018.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC4108] Housley, R., "Using Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) to [RFC4108] Housley, R., "Using Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) to
Protect Firmware Packages", RFC 4108, Protect Firmware Packages", RFC 4108,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4108, August 2005, DOI 10.17487/RFC4108, August 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4108>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4108>.
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", [RFC5646] Phillips, A., Ed. and M. Davis, Ed., "Tags for Identifying
FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007, Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, DOI 10.17487/RFC5646,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>. September 2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5646>.
[RFC7049] Bormann, C. and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object [RFC7049] Bormann, C. and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object
Representation (CBOR)", RFC 7049, DOI 10.17487/RFC7049, Representation (CBOR)", RFC 7049, DOI 10.17487/RFC7049,
October 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7049>. October 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7049>.
[RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for [RFC8126] Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228, Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014, RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.
[RFC8152] Schaad, J., "CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE)", [RFC8152] Schaad, J., "CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE)",
RFC 8152, DOI 10.17487/RFC8152, July 2017, RFC 8152, DOI 10.17487/RFC8152, July 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8152>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8152>.
[SAM] "Information technology - Software asset management - Part [SAM] "Information technology - Software asset management - Part
5: Overview and vocabulary", ISO/IEC 19770-5:2013, 5: Overview and vocabulary", ISO/IEC 19770-5:2013,
November 2013. November 2013.
[SEMVER] Preston-Werner, T., "Semantic Versioning 2.0.0", n.d.,
<https://semver.org/spec/v2.0.0.html>.
[SWID] "Information technology - Software asset management - Part [SWID] "Information technology - Software asset management - Part
2: Software identification tag'", ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015, 2: Software identification tag", ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015,
October 2015. October 2015.
[SWID-GUIDANCE]
Waltermire, D., Cheikes, B., Feldman, L., and G. Witte,
"Guidelines for the Creation of Interoperable Software
Identification (SWID) Tags", NISTIR 8060, April 2016,
<https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.8060>.
[X.1520] "Recommendation ITU-T X.1520 (2014), Common [X.1520] "Recommendation ITU-T X.1520 (2014), Common
vulnerabilities and exposures", April 2011. vulnerabilities and exposures", April 2011.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[I-D.banghart-sacm-rolie-softwaredescriptor] [I-D.banghart-sacm-rolie-softwaredescriptor]
Waltermire, D. and S. Banghart, "Definition of the ROLIE Waltermire, D. and S. Banghart, "Definition of the ROLIE
Software Descriptor Extension", draft-banghart-sacm-rolie- Software Descriptor Extension", draft-banghart-sacm-rolie-
softwaredescriptor-01 (work in progress), May 2017. softwaredescriptor-01 (work in progress), May 2017.
[I-D.birkholz-tuda] [I-D.birkholz-tuda]
Fuchs, A., Birkholz, H., McDonald, I., and C. Bormann, Fuchs, A., Birkholz, H., McDonald, I., and C. Bormann,
"Time-Based Uni-Directional Attestation", draft-birkholz- "Time-Based Uni-Directional Attestation", draft-birkholz-
tuda-04 (work in progress), March 2017. tuda-04 (work in progress), March 2017.
[I-D.ietf-cbor-cddl] [I-D.greevenbosch-appsawg-cbor-cddl]
Birkholz, H., Vigano, C., and C. Bormann, "Concise data Birkholz, H., Vigano, C., and C. Bormann, "Concise data
definition language (CDDL): a notational convention to definition language (CDDL): a notational convention to
express CBOR data structures", draft-ietf-cbor-cddl-00 express CBOR data structures", draft-greevenbosch-appsawg-
(work in progress), July 2017. cbor-cddl-11 (work in progress), July 2017.
[I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology] [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]
Birkholz, H., Lu, J., Strassner, J., Cam-Winget, N., and Birkholz, H., Lu, J., Strassner, J., Cam-Winget, N., and
A. Montville, "Security Automation and Continuous A. Montville, "Security Automation and Continuous
Monitoring (SACM) Terminology", draft-ietf-sacm- Monitoring (SACM) Terminology", draft-ietf-sacm-
terminology-14 (work in progress), December 2017. terminology-14 (work in progress), December 2017.
Appendix A. Explicit file-hash Type Used in Concise SWID Tags (label [RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
56) FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.
CoSWID add explicit support for the representation of file-hashes
using algorithms that are registered at the Named Information Hash
Algorithm Registry via the file-hash member (label 56).
file-hash = (56: [ hash-alg-id: int, hash-value: bstr ] )
The number used as a value for hash-alg-id MUST refer the ID in the [RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
Named Information Hash Algorithm table; other hash algorithms MUST Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228,
NOT be used. The hash-value MUST represent the raw hash value of the DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014,
file-entry the file-hash type is included in. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>.
Appendix B. CoSWID Attributes for Firmware (label 57) Appendix A. CoSWID Attributes for Firmware (label 60)
The ISO-19770-2:2015 specification of SWID tags assumes the existence The ISO-19770-2:2015 specification of SWID tags assumes the existence
of a file system a software component is installed and stored in. In of a file system a software component is installed and stored in. In
the case of constrained-node networks [RFC7228] or network equipment the case of constrained-node networks [RFC7228] or network equipment
this assumption might not apply. Concise software instances in the this assumption might not apply. Concise software instances in the
form of (modular) firmware are often stored directly on a block form of (modular) firmware are often stored directly on a block
device that is a hardware component of the constrained-node or device that is a hardware component of the constrained-node or
network equipment. Multiple differentiable block devices or network equipment. Multiple differentiable block devices or
segmented block devices that contain parts of modular firmware segmented block devices that contain parts of modular firmware
components (potentially each with their own instance version) are components (potentially each with their own instance version) are
skipping to change at page 14, line 50 skipping to change at page 36, line 29
the correct component in a composite thing for each individual piece the correct component in a composite thing for each individual piece
of firmware. A single component also potentially requires a number of firmware. A single component also potentially requires a number
of distinct firmware parts that might depend on each other of distinct firmware parts that might depend on each other
(versions). These dependencies can be limited to the scope of the (versions). These dependencies can be limited to the scope of the
component itself or extend to the scope of a larger composite device. component itself or extend to the scope of a larger composite device.
In addition, it might not be possible (or feasible) to store a CoSWID In addition, it might not be possible (or feasible) to store a CoSWID
tag document (permanently) on a small thing along with the tag document (permanently) on a small thing along with the
corresponding piece of firmware. corresponding piece of firmware.
To address the specific characteristics of firmware, the extension To address the specific characteristics of firmware, the extension
point "$$resource-extension" is used to allow for an additional type points "$$payload-extension" and "$$evidence-extension" are used to
of resource description--firmware-entry--thereby increasing the self- allow for an additional type of resource description--firmware-
descriptiveness and flexibility of CoSWID. The optional use of the entry--thereby increasing the self-descriptiveness and flexibility of
extension point "$$resource-extension" in respect to firmware MUST CoSWID. The optional use of the extension points "$$payload-
extension" and "$$evidence-extension" in respect to firmware MUST
adhere to the following CDDL data definition. adhere to the following CDDL data definition.
<CODE BEGINS> <CODE BEGINS>
$$resource-extension //= (firmware-entry,) $$payload-extension //= (firmware-entry,)
$$evidence-extension //= (firmware-entry,)
firmware = { firmware = {
firmware-name, ; inherited from RFC4108 firmware-name, ; inherited from RFC4108
? firmware-version, ? firmware-version,
? firmware-package-identifier, ; inherited from RFC4108 ? firmware-package-identifier, ; inherited from RFC4108
? dependency, ; inherited from RFC4108 ? dependency, ; inherited from RFC4108
? component-index, ; equivalent to RFC4108 fwPkgType ? component-index, ; equivalent to RFC4108 fwPkgType
? block-device-identifier, ? block-device-identifier,
? target-hardware-identifier, ; an RFC4108 alternative to model-label ? target-hardware-identifier, ; an RFC4108 alternative to model-label
model-label, model-label,
? firmware-hash, ; a hash for a single, incl. NI hash-algo index ? hash-entry, ; a hash for a single, incl. NI hash-algo index
? firmware-package, ; RCF4108, experimental, this is an actual firmware blob! ? cms-firmware-package, ; RCF4108, experimental, this is an actual firmware blob!
} }
firmware-entry = (57: firmware / [ 2* firmware ]) firmware-entry = (60: firmware / [ 2* firmware ])
firmware-hash = (58: [ hash-alg-id: int, firmware-name = (61 : text)
hash-value: bstr, firmware-version = (62 : text / int)
] component-index = (63 : int)
) model-label = (64 text / int)
firmware-name = (59 : text) block-device-identifier = (65 : text / int)
firmware-version = (60 : text / int) cms-firmware-package = (66: bstr)
component-index = (61 : int) firmware-package-identifier = (67: text)
model-label = (62: text / int) target-hardware-identifier = (68: text)
block-device-identifier = (63 : text / int) dependency = (69: { ? firmware-name,
firmware-package = (64: bstr)
firmware-package-identifier = (65: text)
target-hardware-identifier = (66: text)
dependency = (67: { ? firmware-name,
? firmware-version, ? firmware-version,
? firmware-package-identifier, ? firmware-package-identifier,
} }
) )
<CODE ENDS> <CODE ENDS>
The members of the firmware group that constitutes the content of the The members of the firmware group that constitutes the content of the
firmware-entry is based on the metadata about firmware defined in firmware-entry is based on the metadata about firmware Described in
[RFC4108]. As with every semantic differentiation that is supported [RFC4108]. As with every semantic differentiation that is supported
by the resource-collection type, the use of firmware-entry is by the resource-collection type, the use of firmware-entry is
optional. It is REQUIRED not to instantiate more than one firmware- optional. It is REQUIRED not to instantiate more than one firmware-
entry, as the firmware group is used in a map and therefore only entry, as the firmware group is used in a map and therefore only
allows for unique labels. allows for unique labels.
The optional cms-firmware-package member allows to include the actual The optional cms-firmware-package member allows to include the actual
firmware in the CoSWID tag that also expresses its metadata as a firmware in the CoSWID tag that also expresses its metadata as a
byte-string. This option enables a CoSWID tag to be used as a byte-string. This option enables a CoSWID tag to be used as a
container or wrapper that composes both firmware and its metadata in container or wrapper that composes both firmware and its metadata in
a single document (which again can be signed, encrypted and/or a single document (which again can be signed, encrypted and/or
compressed). In consequence, a CoSWID tag about firmware can be compressed). In consequence, a CoSWID tag about firmware can be
conveyed as an identifying document across endpoints or used as a conveyed as an identifying document across endpoints or used as a
reference integrity measurement as usual. Alternatively, it can also reference integrity measurement as usual. Alternatively, it can also
convey an actual piece of firmware, serve its intended purpose as a convey an actual piece of firmware, serve its intended purpose as a
SWID tag and then - due to the lack of a location to store it - be SWID tag and then - due to the lack of a location to store it - be
discarded. discarded.
Appendix C. Signed Concise SWID Tags using COSE Appendix B. Signed Concise SWID Tags using COSE
SWID tags, as defined in the ISO-19770-2:2015 XML schema, can include SWID tags, as defined in the ISO-19770-2:2015 XML schema, can include
cryptographic signatures to protect the integrity of the SWID tag. cryptographic signatures to protect the integrity of the SWID tag.
In general, tags are signed by the tag creator (typically, although In general, tags are signed by the tag creator (typically, although
not exclusively, the vendor of the software product that the SWID tag not exclusively, the vendor of the software component that the SWID
identifies). Cryptographic signatures can make any modification of tag identifies). Cryptographic signatures can make any modification
the tag detectable, which is especially important if the integrity of of the tag detectable, which is especially important if the integrity
the tag is important, such as when the tag is providing reference of the tag is important, such as when the tag is providing reference
integrity measurments for files. integrity measurements for files.
The ISO-19770-2:2015 XML schema uses XML DSIG to support The ISO-19770-2:2015 XML schema uses XML DSIG to support
cryptographic signatures. CoSWID tags require a different signature cryptographic signatures. CoSWID tags require a different signature
scheme than this. COSE (CBOR Object Signing and Encryption) provides scheme than this. COSE (CBOR Object Signing and Encryption) provides
the required mechanism [RFC8152]. Concise SWID can be wrapped in a the required mechanism [RFC8152]. Concise SWID can be wrapped in a
COSE Single Signer Data Object (cose-sign1) that contains a single COSE Single Signer Data Object (cose-sign1) that contains a single
signature. The following CDDL defines a more restrictive subset of signature. The following CDDL defines a more restrictive subset of
header attributes allowed by COSE tailored to suit the requirements header attributes allowed by COSE tailored to suit the requirements
of Concise SWID. of Concise SWID.
skipping to change at page 17, line 30 skipping to change at page 39, line 30
} }
COSE-Sign1-coswid = [ COSE-Sign1-coswid = [
protected: bstr .cbor protected-signed-coswid-header, protected: bstr .cbor protected-signed-coswid-header,
unprotected: unprotected-signed-coswid-header, unprotected: unprotected-signed-coswid-header,
payload: bstr .cbor concise-software-identity, payload: bstr .cbor concise-software-identity,
signature: bstr, signature: bstr,
] ]
<CODE ENDS> <CODE ENDS>
Appendix D. CoSWID used as Reference Integrity Measurements (CoSWID Appendix C. CoSWID used as Reference Integrity Measurements (CoSWID
RIM) RIM)
A vendor supplied signed CoSWID tag that includes hash-values for the A vendor supplied signed CoSWID tag that includes hash-values for the
files that compose a software component can be used as a RIM files that compose a software component can be used as a RIM
(reference integrity measurement). A RIM is a type of declarative (reference integrity measurement). A RIM is a type of declarative
guidance that can be used to assert the compliance of an endpoint by guidance that can be used to assert the compliance of an endpoint by
assessing the installed software. In the context of remote assessing the installed software. In the context of remote
attestation based on an attestation via hardware rooted trust, a attestation based on an attestation via hardware rooted trust, a
verifier can appraise the integrity of the conveyed measurements of verifier can appraise the integrity of the conveyed measurements of
software components using a CoSWID RIM provided by a source, such as software components using a CoSWID RIM provided by a source, such as
skipping to change at page 18, line 7 skipping to change at page 40, line 7
[RFC4949]). A RIMM manifest is a distinct document that is [RFC4949]). A RIMM manifest is a distinct document that is
typically conveyed en-block and constitutes declarative guidance typically conveyed en-block and constitutes declarative guidance
in respect to a specific (target) endpoint (compare in respect to a specific (target) endpoint (compare
[I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]). [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]).
If multiple CoSWID compose a RIMM, the following CDDL data definition If multiple CoSWID compose a RIMM, the following CDDL data definition
SHOULD be used. SHOULD be used.
RIMM = [ + concise-software-identity / signed-coswid ] RIMM = [ + concise-software-identity / signed-coswid ]
Appendix E. CBOR Web Token for Concise SWID Tags Appendix D. CBOR Web Token for Concise SWID Tags
A typical requirement regarding specific instantiations of endpoints A typical requirement regarding specific instantiations of endpoints
- and, as a result, specific instantiations of software components - - and, as a result, specific instantiations of software components -
is a representation of the absolute path of a CoSWID tag document in is a representation of the absolute path of a CoSWID tag document in
a file system in order to derive absolute paths of files represented a file system in order to derive absolute paths of files represented
in the corresponding CoSWID tag. The absolute path of an evidence in the corresponding CoSWID tag. The absolute path of an evidence
CoSWID tag can be included as a claim in the header of a CBOR Web CoSWID tag can be included as a claim in the header of a CBOR Web
Token [I-D.ietf-ace-cbor-web-token]. Depending on the source of the Token [I-D.ietf-ace-cbor-web-token]. Depending on the source of the
token, the claim can be in the protected or unprotected header token, the claim can be in the protected or unprotected header
portion. portion.
<CODE BEGINS> <CODE BEGINS>
CDDL TBD CDDL TBD
<CODE ENDS> <CODE ENDS>
Appendix F. Group Definitions
These groups are intermediate CDDL data definitions that are reused
in several items in the CoSWID CDDL data definition.
o resource-collection group: A list of items both used in evidence
(discovered by an inventory process) and payload (installed in a
system entity) content of a CoSWID tag document to structure and
differentiate the content of specific CoSWID tag types. Potential
content includes directories, files, processes, resources or
firmwares.
o filesystem group: A list of items both used in representing the
nodes of a file-system hierarchy, i.e. directory items that allow
one or more directories to be defined in the file structure, and
file items that allow one or more files to be specified for a
given location.
o global-attributes: A list of items including an optional language
definition to support the processing of text-string values and an
unbounded set of any-attribute items.
o any-attribute: A specific rule providing a restricted frame to
include arbitrary information via members that constitute key
value(s) pairs where both keys and values can be integers or text-
strings.
Appendix G. Item Definitions
This Appendix includes the description of every primitive and non-
primitive type the concise-software-identifier is composed of. Every
integer label included at the end of the CDDL data definition is
addressed in this section.
1. tag-id: An identifier uniquely referencing a (composite)
software component. The tag identifier is intended to be
globally unique. There are no strict guidelines on how this
identifier is structured, but examples include a 16 byte GUID
(e.g. class 4 UUID).
2. swid-name: This item provides the software component name as it
would typically be referenced. For example, what would be seen
in the add/remove dialog on a Windows device, or what is
specified as the name of a packaged software product or a patch
identifier name on a Linux device.
3. entity: Specifies the organizations related to the software
component referenced by this CoSWID tag.
4. evidence: This item is used to provide results from a scan of a
system where software that does not have a CoSWID tag is
discovered. This information is not provided by the software-
creator, and is instead created when a system is being scanned
and the evidence for why software is believed to be installed on
the device is provided in the evidence item.
5. link: A reference to any another item (can include details that
are related to the CoSWID tag such as details on where specific
resources can be found, e.g. vulnerability database
associations, ROLIE feeds, MUD files, etc). This is modeled
directly to match the HTML [LINK] element; it is critical for
streamlining software discovery scenarios to ensure their
consistency.
6. software-meta: An open-ended collection of key/value data
related to this CoSWID. The attributes included in this Element
are predefined attributes to ensure common usage across the
industry. The schema allows for any additional attribute to be
included in a CoSWID tag, though it is recommended that industry
norms for new attributes are defined and followed to the degree
possible.
7. payload: The items that may be installed on a system entity when
the software component is installed. Note that payload may be a
superset of the items installed and - depending on optimization
mechanisms in respect to that system entity - may or may not
include every item that could be created or executed on the
corresponding system entitiy when software components are
installed. In general, payload will be used to indicate the
files that may be installed with a software component.
Therefore payload will often be a superset of those files (i.e.
if a particular optional sub-component is not installed, the
files associated with that software component may be included in
payload, but not installed in the system entity).
8. any-element: A default map that can contain arbitrary map
members and even nested maps (which would be also any-elements).
In essence, the any-element allows items not defined in this
CDDL data definition to be included in a Concise Software
Identifier.
9. corpus: Set to true, if this attribute specifies that this SWID
tag is a collection of information that describes the pre-
installation data of software component.
10. patch: A set of files that is intended to modify an existing set
of files (including configuration files, scripts and
corresponding environment variables that are create by the OS
for the runtime environment) that composes a software component.
A software component patch does neither alter the version number
(see 13) nor the release details (descriptive english text, see
44) of a software components. [revision 52?]. If a Concise SWID
tag is a patch, it MUST contain the patch item and its value
MUST be set to true. It is recommended but not required to
include a rel(ation) item in a patch CoSWID. If a CoSWID
includes a patch member, but not a rel member, it is implied
that it SHOULD be installed independently of any other CoSWID
tag document - even if an effective but not explicit
relationship exists.
11. media: This text value is a hint to the tag consumer to
understand what this SWID tag applies to. This item can also be
included in the link item to represent a attributes defined by
the W3C Media Queries Recommendation (see http://www.w3.org/TR/
css3-mediaqueries/). A hint to the consumer of the link to what
the target item is applicable for.
12. supplemental: Specifies that this tag provides supplemental tag
data that can be merged with primary tag data to create a
complete record of the software information. Supplemental tags
will often be provided at install time and may be provided by
different entities (such as the tag consumer, or a Value Added
Reseller).
13. tag-version: This item indicates if a specific release of a
software component has more than one tag that can represent that
specific release. This may be the case if a CoSWID tag producer
creates and releases an incorrect tag that they subsequently
want to fix, but with no underlying changes to the product the
CoSWID tag represents. This could happen if, for example, a
patch is distributed that has a link reference that does not
cover all the various software releases it can patch. A newer
CoSWID tag for that patch can be generated and the tag-version
value incremented to indicate that the data is updated.
14. software-version: Underlying development version for the
software component.
15. version-scheme: Scheme used for the version number. Valid
enumerations are : * alphanumeric: strictly a string, sorting
alphanumerically * decimal: a floating point number (i.e., 1.25
is less than 1.3 ) * multipartnumeric: numbers separated via
dots, where the numbers are * interpreted as integers (ie, 1.2.3
, 1.4.5.6 , 1.2.3.4.5.6.7). This string * convention is similar
to OIDs. * multipartnumeric+suffix: numbers separated via dots,
where the numbers are * interpreted as integers with an
additional string suffix (e.g., 1.2.3a). * semver: a string as
defined by the semver.org spec [FiXME: reference] * unknown: the
last resort choice, no attempt should be made to order these
16. lang: An RFC5646 conferment language tag or corresponding IANA
index integer.
17. directory: A directory item allows one or more directories to be
defined in the file structure.
18. file: A file element that allows one or more files to be
specified for a given location.
19. process: Provides process (software component in execution)
information for data that will show up in a devices process
table.
20. resource: A set of items that can be used to provide arbitrary
resource information about an application installed on a system
entity, or evidence collected from a system entity.
21. size: The file size in bytes of the file.
22. file-version The file version.
23. key: Files that are considered important or required for the use
of a software component. Typical key files would be those
which, if not available on a system entity, would cause the
software component not to execute or function properly. Key
files will typically be used to validate that a software
component referenced by the CoSWID tag document is actually
installed on a specific system entity.
24. location: The directory or location where a file was found or
can expected to be located. This text-string is intended to
include the filename itself. This SHOULD be the relative path
represented by the root item.
25. fs-name: The file name or directory name without any path
characters.
26. root: A system-specific root folder that the location item is an
offset from. If this is not specified the assumption is the
root is the same folder as the location of the CoSWID tag. The
text-string value represents a path expression relative to the
CoSWID tag document location in the (composite) file-system
hierarchy.
27. path-elements: Provides the ability to apply a directory
structure to the path expressions for files defined in a payload
or evidence item.
28. process-name: The process name as it will be found in the system
entity's process table.
29. pid: The process ID for the process in execution that can be
included in the process item as part of an evidence tag.
30. type: The type of resource represented via a text-string
(typically, registry-key, port or root-uri)
31. extended-data: An open-ended collection of elements that can be
used to attach arbitrary metadata to an entity item.
32. entity-name: The text-string name of the organization claiming a
particular role in the CoSWID tag.
33. reg-id: The registration id is intended to uniquely identify a
naming authority in a given scope (e.g. global, organization,
vendor, customer, administrative domain, etc.) that is implied
by the referenced naming authority. The value of an
registration ID MUST be a RFC 3986 URI. The scope SHOULD be the
scope of an organization. In a given scope, the registration id
MUST be used consistently.
34. role: The relationship between this organization and this tag.
The role of tag creator is required for every CoSWID tag. The
role of an entity may include any role value, but the per-
defined roles include: "aggregator", "distributor", "licensor",
"software-creator", "tag-creator". The enumerations of this
will include a request to IANA in order to be reference-able via
an integer index.
35. thumbprint: This value provides a hexadecimal string that
contains a hash (i.e. the thumbprint) of the signing entities
certificate [s] [FIXME: this requires the same structure as
file-hash?].
36. date: The sate and time evidence represented by an evidence item
was gathered.
37. device-id: A text-string identifier for a device evidence was
gathered from.
38. artifact: For installation media (rel="installation-media") -
dictates the canonical name for the file. Items with the same
artifact name should be considered mirrors of each other (so
download from wherever works).
39. href: The link to the item being referenced. The href can point
to several different things, and can be any of the following: *
a relative uri (no scheme), which is interpreted depending on
context (for example, "./folder/supplemental.coswid") * a
physical file location with any system-acceptable URI scheme
(e.g., file:// http:// https:// ftp://) * an URI with "coswid:"
as the scheme, which refers to another CoSWID by tag-id. This
URI would need to be resolved in the context of the system by
software that can lookup other CoSWID tags (for example, *
"coswid:2df9de35-0aff-4a86-ace6-f7dddd1ade4c"). an URI with
"swidpath:" as the scheme, which refers to another CoSIWD via an
XPATH query. This URI would need to be resolved in the context
of the system entity via dedicated software components that can
lookup other CoSWID tags and select the appropriate tag based on
an XPATH query. Examples include: *
swidpath://SoftwareIdentity[Entity/@regid='http://contoso.com']
would * retrieve all CoSWID tags that include an entity where
the regid was * "Contoso". * swidpath://SoftwareIdentity[Meta/@
persistentId='b0c55172-38e9-4e36-be86-92206ad8eddb'] * would
retrieve CoSWID tags that matched the persistent-id. See XPATH
query standard : http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath20/ [FIXME: Concise
XPATH representation is covered in the YANG-CBOR I-D]
40. ownership: Determines the relative strength of ownership of the
software components. Valid enumerations are: abandon, private,
shared
41. rel: The relationship between this CoSWID and the target file.
Relationships can be identified by referencing the IANA
registration library: https://www.iana.org/assignments/link-
relations/link-relations.xhtml.
42. media-type: The IANA MediaType for the target file; this
provides the consumer with intelligence of what to expect. See
http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/media-types.xhtml
for more details on link type.
43. use: Determines if the target software is a hard requirement or
not. Valid enumerations are: required, recommended, optional,
44. activation-status: Identification of the activation status of
this software title (e.g. Trial, Serialized, Licensed,
Unlicensed, etc). Typically, this is used in supplemental tags.
45. channel-type: Provides information on which channel this
particular software was targeted for (e.g. Volume, Retail, OEM,
Academic, etc). Typically used in supplemental tags.
46. colloquial-version: The informal or colloquial version of the
product (i.e. 2013). Note that this version may be the same
through multiple releases of a software product where the
version specified in entity is much more specific and will
change for each software release. Note that this representation
of version is typically used to identify a group of specific
software releases that are part of the same release/support
infrastructure (i.e. Fabrikam Office 2013). This version is
used for string comparisons only and is not compared to be an
earlier or later release (that is done via the entity version
[FIXME: consistency).
47. description: A longer, detailed description of the software.
This description can be multiple sentences (differentiated from
summary, which is a very short, one-sentence description).
48. edition: The variation of the product (Extended, Enterprise,
Professional, Standard etc).
49. entitlement-data-required: An indicator to determine if there
should be accompanying proof of entitlement when a software
license reconciliation is completed.
50. entitlement-key: A vendor-specific textual key that can be used
to reconcile the validity of an entitlement. (e.g. serial
number, product or license key).
51. generator: The name of the software tool that created a CoSWID
tag. This item is typically used if tags are created on the fly
or via a catalog-based analysis for data found on a computing
device.
52. persistent-id: A GUID used to represent products installed where
the product are related, but may be different versions. For
example, an "upgradeCode" (see http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-
us/library/aa372375(v=vs.85).aspx as an reference for this
example).
53. product: The base name of the product (e.g. [FIXME: what are
appropriate examples?].
54. product-family: The overall product family this software belongs
to. Product family is not used to identify that a product is
part of a suite, but is instead used when a set of products that
are all related may be installed on multiple different devices.
For example, an enterprise backup system may consist of a backup
services, multiple different backup services that support mail
services, databases and ERP systems, as well as individual
software components that backup client system entities. In such
an usage scenario, all software components that are part of the
backup system would have the same product-family name so they
can be grouped together in respect to reporting systems.
55. revision: The informal or colloquial representation of the sub-
version of the given product (ie, SP1, R2, RC1, Beta 2, etc).
Note that the version will provide very exact version details,
the revision is intended for use in environments where reporting
on the informal or colloquial representation of the software is
important (for example, if for a certain business process, an
organization recognizes that it must have, for example
"ServicePack 1" or later of a specific product installed on all
devices, they can use the revision data value to quickly
identify any devices that do not meet this requirement).
Depending on how a software organizations distributes revisions,
this value could be specified in a primary (if distributed as an
upgrade) or supplemental (if distributed as a patch) CoSWID tag.
56. summary: A short (one-sentence) description of the software.
57. unspsc-code: An 8 digit code that provides UNSPSC classification
of the software product this SWID tag identifies. For more
information see, http://www.unspsc.org/.
58. unspsc-version: The version of the UNSPSC code used to define
the UNSPSC code value. For more information see,
http://www.unspsc.org/.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Henk Birkholz Henk Birkholz
Fraunhofer SIT Fraunhofer SIT
Rheinstrasse 75 Rheinstrasse 75
Darmstadt 64295 Darmstadt 64295
Germany Germany
Email: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de Email: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de
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