draft-ietf-sacm-arch-04.txt   draft-ietf-sacm-arch-05.txt 
SACM Working Group A. Montville SACM Working Group A. Montville
Internet-Draft B. Munyan Internet-Draft B. Munyan
Intended status: Standards Track CIS Intended status: Standards Track CIS
Expires: May 1, 2020 October 29, 2019 Expires: 12 November 2020 11 May 2020
Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Architecture Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Architecture
draft-ietf-sacm-arch-04 draft-ietf-sacm-arch-05
Abstract Abstract
This document defines an architecture enabling a cooperative Security This document defines an architecture enabling a cooperative Security
Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) ecosystem. This work is Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) ecosystem. This work is
predicated upon information gleaned from SACM Use Cases and predicated upon information gleaned from SACM Use Cases and
Requirements ([RFC7632] and [RFC8248] respectively), and terminology Requirements ([RFC7632] and [RFC8248] respectively), and terminology
as found in [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]. as found in [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology].
WORKING GROUP: The source for this draft is maintained in GitHub. WORKING GROUP: The source for this draft is maintained in GitHub.
skipping to change at page 1, line 39 skipping to change at page 1, line 39
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on May 1, 2020. This Internet-Draft will expire on 12 November 2020.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Architectural Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Architectural Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. SACM Role-based Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. SACM Role-based Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. Architectural Roles/Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. Architectural Roles/Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2.1. Orchestrator(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2.1. Orchestrator(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2.2. Repositories/CMDBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2.2. Repositories/CMDBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2.3. Integration Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2.3. Integration Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. Downstream Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3. Downstream Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.3.1. Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3.1. Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.3.2. Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3.2. Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.4. Sub-Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.4. Sub-Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.4.1. Collection Sub-Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.4.1. Collection Sub-Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.4.2. Evaluation Sub-Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4.2. Evaluation Sub-Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4. Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Security Domain Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.1. Interaction Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1. IT Asset Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.1.1. Broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) . . . . . . 13 4.1.2. Directed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2. Vulnerability Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2. Management Plane Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) . . . . . . 14 4.2.1. Orchestrator Onboarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.3. Configuration Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2.2. Component Onboarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.3.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) . . . . . . 16 4.3. Component Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.3.1. Initiate Ad-Hoc Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.3.2. Coordinate Periodic Collection . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.3.3. Coordinate Observational/Event-based
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.3.4. Persist Collected Posture Attributes . . . . . . . . 16
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.3.5. Initiate Ad-Hoc Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Appendix A. Mapping to RFC8248 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.3.6. Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Appendix B. Example Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5. Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
B.1. Policy Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.1. Orchestrator Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
B.2. Software Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.1.1. Topic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
B.3. Datastream Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.1.2. Interaction Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
B.4. Network Configuration Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.1.3. Initiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Appendix C. Exploring An XMPP-based Solution . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.1.4. Request Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
C.1. Example Architecture using XMPP-Grid and Endpoint Posture 5.1.5. Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Collection Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.1.6. Process Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.1.7. Response Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.1.8. Response Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2. Component Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.1. Topic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.2. Interaction Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.3. Initiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.4. Request Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.5. Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.6. Process Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.2.7. Response Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.2.8. Response Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3. Orchestrator-to-Component Administrative Interface . . . 19
5.3.1. Capability Advertisement Handshake . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3.2. Directed Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.4. [Taxonomy Name] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.4.1. Topic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Appendix A. Security Domain Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
A.1. IT Asset Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
A.1.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) . . . . . . 24
A.2. Vulnerability Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
A.2.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) . . . . . . 26
A.3. Configuration Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
A.3.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) . . . . . . 27
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The purpose of this draft is to define an architectural approach for The purpose of this draft is to define an architectural approach for
a SACM Domain, based on the spirit of use cases found in [RFC7632] a SACM Domain, based on the spirit of use cases found in [RFC7632]
and requirements found in [RFC8248]. This approach gains the most and requirements found in [RFC8248]. This approach gains the most
advantage by supporting a variety of collection systems, and intends advantage by supporting a variety of collection systems, and intends
to enable a cooperative ecosystem of tools from disparate sources to enable a cooperative ecosystem of tools from disparate sources
with minimal operator configuration. with minimal operator configuration.
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or many providers. Different roles within a cooperative ecosystem or many providers. Different roles within a cooperative ecosystem
may act as both providers and consumers of SACM-relevant information. may act as both providers and consumers of SACM-relevant information.
3.1. SACM Role-based Architecture 3.1. SACM Role-based Architecture
Within the cooperative SACM ecosystem, a number of roles act in Within the cooperative SACM ecosystem, a number of roles act in
coordination to provide relevant policy/guidance, perform data coordination to provide relevant policy/guidance, perform data
collection, storage, evaluation, and support downstream analytics and collection, storage, evaluation, and support downstream analytics and
reporting. reporting.
+--------------------+ +-----------------+ +--------------------+
| Feeds/Repositories | | Orchestrator(s) | | Repositories/CMDBs |
| of External Data | +---------^-------+ +----------^---------+
+---------+----------+ | | +--------------------+
| | | | Downstream Uses |
******************************************* Boundary of Responsibility ****** | | | +----------------+ |
| +-----------v------------------------v------+ | | Analytics | |
+-----------------+ | +--------------------+ | Integration Service <------> +----------------+ |
| Orchestrator(s) | | | Repositories/CMDBs | +-----------^--------------------------^----+ | +----------------+ |
+---------^-------+ | +----------^---------+ | | | | Reporting | |
| | | +--------------------+ | | | +----------------+ |
| | | | Downstream Uses | +-----------v-------------------+ | +--------------------+
| | | | +----------------+ | | Collection Sub-Architecture | |
+-----------v----------v-------------v------+ | | Analytics | | +-------------------------------+ |
| Integration Service <------> +----------------+ | +---------------v---------------+
+-----------^--------------------------^----+ | +----------------+ | | Evaluation Sub-Architecture |
| | | | Reporting | | +-------------------------------+
| | | +----------------+ |
+-----------v-------------------+ | +--------------------+
| Collection Sub-Architecture | |
+-------------------------------+ |
+---------------v---------------+
| Evaluation Sub-Architecture |
+-------------------------------+
Figure 2: Notional Role-based Architecture Figure 2: Notional Role-based Architecture
As shown in Figure 2, the SACM role-based architecture consists of As shown in Figure 2, the SACM role-based architecture consists of
some basic SACM Components communicating using an integration some basic SACM Components communicating using an integration
service. The integration service is expected to maximally align with service. The integration service is expected to maximally align with
the requirements described in [RFC8248], which means that the the requirements described in [RFC8248], which means that the
integration service will support brokered (i.e. point-to-point) and integration service will support brokered (i.e. point-to-point) and
proxied data exchange. proxied data exchange.
The boundary of responsibility is not intended to imply a physical
boundary. Rather, it is intended to be inclusive of various cloud/
virtualized environments, BYOD and vendor-provided services in
addition to any physical systems the enterprise operates.
3.2. Architectural Roles/Components 3.2. Architectural Roles/Components
This document suggests a variety of players in a cooperative This document suggests a variety of players in a cooperative
ecosystem; these players are known as SACM Components. SACM ecosystem; known as SACM Components. SACM Components may be composed
Components may be composed of other SACM Components, and each SACM of other SACM Components, and each SACM Component plays one, or more,
Component plays one, or more, of several roles relevant to the of several roles relevant to the ecosystem. Roles may act as
ecosystem. Roles may act as providers of information, consumers of providers of information, consumers of information, or both provider
information, or both provider and consumer. Figure 2 depicts a and consumer. Figure 2 depicts a number of SACM components which are
number of SACM components which are architecturally significant and architecturally significant and therefore warrant discussion and
therefore warrant discussion and clarification. clarification.
3.2.1. Orchestrator(s) 3.2.1. Orchestrator(s)
Orchestration components exists to aid in the automation of Orchestration components exists to aid in the automation of
configuration, coordination, and management for the ecosystem of SACM configuration, coordination, and management for the ecosystem of SACM
components. The Orchestrator performs control-plane operations, components. The Orchestrator performs control-plane operations,
administration of an implementing organization's components administration of an implementing organization's components
(including endpoints, posture collection services, and downstream (including endpoints, posture collection services, and downstream
activities), scheduling of automated tasks, and any ad-hoc activities activities), scheduling of automated tasks, and any ad-hoc activities
such as the initiation of collection or evaluation activities. The such as the initiation of collection or evaluation activities. The
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infrastructure to allow SACM components to communicate using a shared infrastructure to allow SACM components to communicate using a shared
set of interfaces. The Integration Service's brokering capabilities set of interfaces. The Integration Service's brokering capabilities
enable the exchange of various information payloads, orchestration of enable the exchange of various information payloads, orchestration of
component capabilities, message routing and reliable delivery. The component capabilities, message routing and reliable delivery. The
Integration Service minimizes the dependencies from one system to Integration Service minimizes the dependencies from one system to
another through the loose coupling of applications through messaging. another through the loose coupling of applications through messaging.
SACM components will "attach" to the Integration Service either SACM components will "attach" to the Integration Service either
through native support for the integration implementation, or through through native support for the integration implementation, or through
the use of "adapters" which provide a proxied attachment. the use of "adapters" which provide a proxied attachment.
The Integration Service should provide mechanisms for synchronous The Integration Service should provide mechanisms for both
"request/response"-style messaging, asynchronous "send and forget" synchronous and asynchronous "request/response"-style messaging, and
messaging, or publish/subscribe. It is the responsibility of the a publish/subscribe mechanism to implement event-based messaging. It
Integration Service to coordinate and manage the sending and is the responsibility of the Integration Service to coordinate and
receiving of messages. The Integration Service should allow manage the sending and receiving of messages. The Integration
components the ability to directly connect and produce or consume Service should allow components the ability to directly connect and
messages, or connect via message translators which can act as a produce or consume messages, or connect via message translators which
proxy, transforming messages from a component format to one can act as a proxy, transforming messages from a component format to
implementing a SACM data model. one implementing a SACM data model.
The Integration Service MUST provide routing capabilities for The Integration Service MUST provide routing capabilities for
payloads between producers and consumers. The Integration Service payloads between producers and consumers. The Integration Service
MAY provide further capabilities within the payload delivery MAY provide further capabilities within the payload delivery
pipeline. Examples of these capabilities include, but are not pipeline. Examples of these capabilities include, but are not
limited to, intermediate processing, message transformation, type limited to, intermediate processing, message transformation, type
conversion, validation, etc. conversion, validation, or other enterprise integration patterns.
3.3. Downstream Uses 3.3. Downstream Uses
As depicted by Figure 2, a number of downstream uses exist in the As depicted by Figure 2, a number of downstream uses exist in the
cooperative ecosystem. Each notional SACM component represents cooperative ecosystem. Each notional SACM component represents
distinct sub-architectures which will exchange information via the distinct sub-architectures which will exchange information via the
integration services, using interactions described in this draft. integration services, using interactions described in this draft.
3.3.1. Reporting 3.3.1. Reporting
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effective decision making within the organization. effective decision making within the organization.
3.4. Sub-Architectures 3.4. Sub-Architectures
Figure 2 shows two components representing sub-architectural roles Figure 2 shows two components representing sub-architectural roles
involved in a cooperative ecosystem of SACM components: Collection involved in a cooperative ecosystem of SACM components: Collection
and Evaluation. and Evaluation.
3.4.1. Collection Sub-Architecture 3.4.1. Collection Sub-Architecture
The Collection sub-architecture, in a SACM context, is the mechanism The Collection sub-architecture is, in a SACM context, the mechanism
by which posture attributes are collected from applicable endpoints by which posture attributes are collected from applicable endpoints
and persisted to a repository, such as a configuration management and persisted to a repository, such as a configuration management
database (CMDB). Orchestration components will choreograph endpoint database (CMDB). Orchestration components will choreograph endpoint
data collection via interactions using the Integration Service as a data collection via defined interactions, using the Integration
message broker. Instructions to perform endpoint data collection are Service as a message broker. Instructions to perform endpoint data
directed to a Posture Collection Service capable of performing collection are directed to a Posture Collection Service capable of
collection activities utilizing any number of methods, such as SNMP, performing collection activities utilizing any number of methods,
NETCONF/RESTCONF, SSH, WinRM, or host-based. such as SNMP, NETCONF/RESTCONF, SSH, WinRM, packet capture, or host-
based.
+----------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------+
| Orchestrator(s) | | Orchestrator(s) |
+-----------+----------------------------------------------+ +-----------+----------------------------------------------+
| +------------------------------+ | +------------------------------+
| | Posture Attribute Repository | | | Posture Attribute Repository |
| +--------------^---------------+ | +--------------^---------------+
Perform | Perform |
Collection | Collection |
| Collected Data | Collected Data
| ^ | ^
| | | |
+-----------v------------------------------+---------------+ +-----------v------------------------------+---------------+
| Integration Service | | Integration Service |
+----+------------------^-----------+------------------^---+ +----+------------------^-----------+------------------^---+
| | | | | | | |
v | v | v | v |
Perform Collected Perform Collected Perform Collected Perform Collected
Collection Data Collection Data Collection Data Collection Data
| ^ | ^ | ^ | ^
| | | | | | | |
+----v-----------------------+ +----v------------------+------+ +----v-----------------------+ +----|------------------|------+
| Posture Collection Service | | Endpoint | | Posture Collection Service | | | Endpoint | |
+---^------------------------+ | +--------------------------+ | +---^------------------------+ | +--v------------------+----+ |
| | | |Posture Collection Service| | | | | |Posture Collection Service| |
| v | +--------------------------+ | | v | +--------------------------+ |
Events Queries +------------------------------+ Events Queries +------------------------------+
^ | ^ | (PCS resides on Endpoint)
| | | |
+---+-------------------v----+ +---+-------------------v----+
| Endpoint | | Endpoint |
+----------------------------+ +----------------------------+
(PCS does not reside on Endpoint)
Figure 3: Decomposed Collection Sub-Architecture Figure 3: Decomposed Collection Sub-Architecture
3.4.1.1. Posture Collection Service 3.4.1.1. Posture Collection Service
The Posture Collection Service (PCS) is the SACM component The Posture Collection Service (PCS) is the SACM component
responsible for the collection of posture attributes from an endpoint responsible for the collection of posture attributes from an endpoint
or set of endpoints. A single PCS may be responsible for management or set of endpoints. A single PCS may be responsible for management
of posture attribute collection from many endpoints. The PCS will of posture attribute collection from many endpoints. The PCS will
interact with the Integration Service to receive collection interact with the Integration Service to receive collection
instructions and to provide collected posture data for persistence to instructions and to provide collected posture data for persistence to
the Posture Attribute Repository. Collection instructions may be the Posture Attribute Repository. Collection instructions may be
supplied in a variety of forms, including subscription to a publish/ supplied in a variety of forms, including subscription to a publish/
subscribe topic to which the Integration Service has published subscribe topic to which the Integration Service has published
instructions, via request/response-style synchronous messaging, or instructions, or via request/response-style messaging (either
via asynchronous "send-and-forget" messaging. Collected posture synchronous or asynchronous).
information may then be supplied to the Integration Service via
similar channels. The various interaction types are discussed later Four classifications of posture collections MAY be supported.
in this draft (TBD).
3.4.1.1.1. Ad-Hoc
Ad-Hoc collection is defined as a single colletion of posture
attributes, collected at a particular time. An example of ad-hoc
collection is the single collection of a specific registry key.
3.4.1.1.2. Continuous/Scheduled
Continuous/Scheduled collection is defined as the ongoing, periodic
collection of posture attributes. An example of scheduled collection
is the collection of a specific registry key value every day at a
given time.
3.4.1.1.3. Observational
This classification of collection is triggered by the observation,
external to an endpoint, of information asserting posture attribute
values for that endpoint. An example of observational collection is
examination of netflow data for particular packet captures and/or
specific information within those captures.
3.4.1.1.4. Event-based
Event-based collection may be triggered either internally or
externally to the endpoint. Internal event-based collection is
triggered when a posture attribute of interest is added, removed, or
modified on an endpoint. This modification indicates a change in the
current state of the endpoint, potentially affecting its adherence to
some defined policy. Modification of the endpoint's minimum password
length is an example of an attribute change which could trigger
collection.
External event-based collection can be described as a collector being
subscribed to an external source of information, receiving events
from that external source on a periodic or continuous basis. An
example of event-based collection is subscription to YANG Push
notifications.
3.4.1.2. Endpoint 3.4.1.2. Endpoint
Building upon [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology], the SACM Collection Sub- Building upon [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology], the SACM Collection Sub-
Architecture augments the definition of an Endpoint as a component Architecture augments the definition of an Endpoint as a component
within an organization's management domain from which a Posture within an organization's management domain from which a Posture
Collection Service will collect relevant posture attributes. Collection Service will collect relevant posture attributes.
3.4.1.3. Posture Attribute Repository 3.4.1.3. Posture Attribute Repository
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appropriate repository. appropriate repository.
3.4.2. Evaluation Sub-Architecture 3.4.2. Evaluation Sub-Architecture
The Evaluation Sub-Architecture, in the SACM context, is the The Evaluation Sub-Architecture, in the SACM context, is the
mechanism by which policy, expressed in the form of expected state, mechanism by which policy, expressed in the form of expected state,
is compared with collected posture attributes to yield an evaluation is compared with collected posture attributes to yield an evaluation
result, that result being contextually dependent on the policy being result, that result being contextually dependent on the policy being
evaluated. evaluated.
+------------------+ +------------------+
| Collection | +-------------------------------+ | Collection | +-------------------------------+
| Sub-Architecture | | Evaluation Results Repository | | Sub-Architecture | | Evaluation Results Repository |
+--------------+ +--------^---------+ +-----------------^-------------+ +--------------+ +--------^---------+ +-----------------^-------------+
| Orchestrator | | | | Orchestrator | | |
+------+-------+ | | +------+-------+ (Potentially) |
| Perform Store Evaluation Results | Perform Store Evaluation Results
Perform Collection | Perform Collection |
Evaluation | | Evaluation | |
| | | | | |
+------v----------------------v--------------------------------+-------------+ +------v----------------------v--------------------------------+-------------+
| Integration Service | | Integration Service |
+--------+----------------------------^----------------------^---------------+ +--------^----------------------^-----------------------^--------------------+
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
Perform Retrieve Posture | | Retrieve Posture Perform
Evaluation Attributes Retrieve Policy Retrieve Policy Attributes Evaluation
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
+--------v-------------------+ +-----v------+ +------v-----+ +------v-----+ +-----v------+ +--------v-------------------+
| Posture Evaluation Service | | Posture | | Policy | | Policy | | Posture | | Posture Evaluation Service |
+----------------------------+ | Attribute | | Repository | | Repository | | Attribute | +----------------------------+
| Repository | +------------+ +------------+ | Repository |
+------------+ +------------+
Figure 4: Decomposed Evaluation Sub-Architecture Figure 4: Decomposed Evaluation Sub-Architecture
3.4.2.1. Posture Evaluation Service 3.4.2.1. Posture Evaluation Service
The Posture Evaluation Service (PES) represents the SACM component The Posture Evaluation Service (PES) represents the SACM component
responsible for coordinating the policy to be evaluated and the responsible for coordinating the policy to be evaluated and the
collected posture attributes relevant to that policy, as well as the collected posture attributes relevant to that policy, as well as the
comparison engine responsible for correctly determining compliance comparison engine responsible for correctly determining compliance
with the expected state. with the expected state.
3.4.2.2. Policy Repository 3.4.2.2. Policy Repository
The Policy Repository represents a persistent storage mechanism for The Policy Repository represents a persistent storage mechanism for
the policy to be assessed against collected posture attributes to the policy to be assessed against collected posture attributes to
determine if an endpoint meets the defined expected state. Examples determine if an endpoint meets the desired expected state. Examples
of information contained in a Policy Repository would be of information contained in a Policy Repository would be
Vulnerability Definition Data or configuration recommendations as Vulnerability Definition Data or configuration recommendations as
part of a CIS Benchmark or DISA STIG. part of a CIS Benchmark or DISA STIG.
3.4.2.3. Evaluation Results Repository 3.4.2.3. Evaluation Results Repository
The Evaluation Results Repository persists the information The Evaluation Results Repository persists the information
representing the results of a particular posture assessment, representing the results of a particular posture assessment,
indicating those posture attributes collected from various endpoints indicating those posture attributes collected from various endpoints
which either meet or do not meet the expected state defined by the which either meet or do not meet the expected state defined by the
assessed policy. Consideration should be made for the context of assessed policy. Consideration should be made for the context of
individual results. For example, meeting the expected state for a individual results. For example, meeting the expected state for a
configuration attribute indicates a correct configuration of the configuration attribute indicates a correct configuration of the
endpoint, whereas meeting an expected state for a vulnerable software endpoint, whereas meeting an expected state for a vulnerable software
version indicates an incorrect and therefore vulnerable version indicates an incorrect configuration.
configuration.
3.4.2.4. Posture Evaluation Workflow 3.4.2.4. Posture Evaluation Workflow
Posture evaluation is orchestrated through the Integration Service to Posture evaluation is orchestrated through the Integration Service to
the appropriate Posture Evaluation Service. The PES will, through the appropriate Posture Evaluation Service (PES). The PES will,
coordination with the Integration Service, query both the Posture using interactions defined by the applicable taxonomy, query both the
Attribute Repository and the Policy Repository to obtain relevant Posture Attribute Repository and the Policy Repository to obtain
state data for comparison. If necessary, the PES may be required to relevant state data for comparison. If necessary, the PES may be
invoke further posture collection. Once all relevant posture required to invoke further posture collection. Once all relevant
information has been collected, it is compared to expected state posture information has been collected, it is compared to expected
based on applicable policy. Comparison results are then persisted to state based on applicable policy. Comparison results are then
an evaluation results repository for further downstream use and persisted to an evaluation results repository for further downstream
analysis. use and analysis.
4. Interactions 4. Interactions
SACM Components are intended to interact with other SACM Components. SACM Components are intended to interact with other SACM Components.
These interactions can be thought of, at the architectural level, as These interactions can be thought of, at the architectural level, as
the combination of interfaces with their supported operations. Each the combination of interfaces with their supported operations. Each
interaction will convey a payload of information. The payload interaction will convey a payload of information. The payload
information is expected to contain sub-domain-specific information is expected to contain sub-domain-specific
characteristics and instructions. characteristics and/or instructions.
4.1. Interaction Categories
Two categories of interactions SHOULD be supported by the Integration Two categories of interactions SHOULD be supported by the Integration
Service; broadcast interactions, and directed interactions. Service; broadcast and directed.
o *Broadcast*: A broadcast interaction, commonly known as "publish/ 4.1.1. Broadcast
subscribe", allows for a wider distribution of a message payload.
When a payload is published to a topic on the Integration Service,
all subscribers to that topic are alerted and may consume the
message payload. A broadcast interaction may also simulate a
"directed" interaction when a topic only has a single subscriber.
An example of a broadcast interaction could be to publish to a
topic that new configuration assessment content is available.
Subscribing consumers receive the notification, and proceed to
collect endpoint configuration posture based on the new content.
o *Directed*: The intent of a directed interaction is to enable A broadcast interaction, commonly known as "publish/subscribe",
point-to-point communications between a producer and consumer, allows for a wider distribution of a message payload. When a payload
through the standard interfaces provided by the Integration is published to a topic on the Integration Service, all subscribers
Service. The provider component indicates which consumer is to that topic are alerted and may consume the message payload. This
intended to receive the payload, and the Integration Service category of interaction can also be described as a "unicast"
routes the payload directly to that consumer. Two "styles" of interaction when a topic only has a single subscriber. An example of
directed interaction exist, differing only by the response from a broadcast interaction could be to publish Linux OVAL objects to a
the payload consumer: posture collection topic. Subscribing consumers receive the
notification, and proceed to collect endpoint configuration posture
based on the new content.
* *Synchronous (Request/Response)*: Synchronous, request/response 4.1.2. Directed
style interaction requires that the requesting component block
and wait for the receiving component to respond, or to time out
when that response is delayed past a given time threshold. A
synchronous interaction example may be querying a CMDB for
posture attribute information in order to perform an
evaluation.
* *Asynchronous (Fire-and-Forget)*: An asynchronous interaction The intent of a directed interaction is to enable point-to-point
involves the payload producer directing the message to a communications between a producer and consumer, through the standard
consumer, but not blocking or waiting for a response. This interfaces provided by the Integration Service. The provider
style of interaction allows the producer to continue on to component indicates which consumer is intended to receive the
other activities without the need to wait for responses. This payload, and the Integration Service routes the payload directly to
style is particularly useful when the interaction payload that consumer. Two "styles" of directed interaction exist, differing
invokes a potentially long-running task, such as data only by the response from the payload consumer.
collection, report generation, or policy evaluation. The
receiving component may reply later via callbacks or further
interactions, but it is not mandatory.
Each interaction will convey a payload of information. The payload 4.1.2.1. Synchronous
is expected to contain specific characteristics and instructions to
be interpreted by receiving components.
5. Security Domain Workflows Synchronous, request/response style interaction requires that the
requesting component block and wait for the receiving component to
respond, or to time out when that response is delayed past a given
time threshold. A synchronous interaction example may be querying a
CMDB for posture attribute information in order to perform an
evaluation.
This section describes three primary information security domains 4.1.2.2. Asynchronous
from which workflows may be derived: IT Asset Management,
Vulnerability Management, and Configuration Management.
5.1. IT Asset Management An asynchronous interaction involves the payload producer directing
the message to a consumer, but not blocking or waiting for an
immediate response. This style of interaction allows the producer to
continue on to other activities without the need to wait for
responses. This style is particularly useful when the interaction
payload invokes a potentially long-running task, such as data
collection, report generation, or policy evaluation. The receiving
component may reply later via callbacks or further interactions, but
it is not mandatory.
Information Technology asset management is easier said than done. 4.2. Management Plane Functions
The [CISCONTROLS] have two controls dealing with IT asset management.
Control 1, Inventory and Control of Hardware Assets, states,
"Actively manage (inventory, track, and correct) all hardware devices
on the network so that only authorized devices are given access, and
unauthorized and unmanaged devices are found and prevented from
gaining access." Control 2, Inventory and Control of Software
Assets, states, "Actively manage (inventory, track, and correct) all
software on the network so that only authorized software is installed
and can execute, and that unauthorized and unmanaged software is
found and prevented from installation or execution."
In spirit, this covers all of the processing entities on your network Mangement plane functions describe a component's interactions with
(as opposed to things like network cables, dongles, adapters, etc.), the ecosystem itself, not necessarily relating to collection,
whether physical or virtual, on-premises or in the cloud. evaluation, or downstream analytical processes.
5.1.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) 4.2.1. Orchestrator Onboarding
TBD The Orchestrator component, being a specialized role in the
architecture, onboards to the ecosystem in such a manner as to enable
the onboarding and capabilities of the other component roles. The
Orchestrator must be enabled with the set of capabilities needed to
manage the functions of the ecosystem.
5.1.1.1. Components With this in mind, the Orchestrator must first authenticate to the
Integration Service. Once authentication has succeeded, the
Orchestrator must establish "service handlers" per the Section 5.2.
Once "service handlers" have been established, the Orchestrator is
then equipped to handle component registration, onboarding,
capability discovery, and topic subscription policy.
TBD The following requirements exist for the Orchestrator to establish
"service handlers" supporting the Section 5.2: - The Orchestrator
MUST enable the capability to receive onboarding requests via the
"/orchestrator/registration" topic, - The Orchestrator MUST have the
capability to generate, manage, and persist unique identifiers for
all registered components, - The Orchestrator MUST have the
capability to inventory and manage its "roster" (the list of
registered components), - The Orchestrator MUST support making
directed requests to registered components over the component's
administrative interface, as configured by the
"/orchestrator/[component-unique-identifier]" topic. Administrative
interface functions are described by their taxonomy, below.
5.1.1.2. Capabilities 4.2.2. Component Onboarding
An IT asset management capability needs to be able to: Component onboarding describes how an individual component becomes
part of the ecosystem; registering with the orchestrator, advertising
capabilities, establishing its administrative interface, and
subscribing to relevant topics.
o Identify and catalog new assets by executing Target Endpoint The component onboarding workflow involves multiple steps: - The
Discovery Tasks component first authenticates to the Integration Service - The
component then initiates registration with the Orchestrator, per the
Section 5.2
o Provide information about its managed assets, including uniquely Once the component has onboarded and registered with the
identifying information (for that enterprise) Orchestrator, its administrative interface will have been established
via the "/orchestrator/[component-unique-identifier]" topic. This
administrative interface allows the component to advertise its
capabilities to the Orchestrator and in return, allow the
Orchestrator to direct capability-specific topic registration to the
component. This is performed using the Section 5.3.1 taxonomy.
Further described below, the "capability advertisement handshake"
first assumes the onboarding component has the ability to describe
its capabilities so they may be understood by the Orchestrator (TBD
on capability advertisement methodology).
o Handle software and/or hardware (including virtual assets) * The component sends a message with its operational capabilities
over the administrative interface: "/orchestrator/[component-
unique-identifier]"
o Represent cloud hybrid environments * The Orchestrator receives the component's capabilities, persists
them, and responds with the list of topics to which the component
should subscribe, in order to receive notifications, instructions,
or other directives intended to invoke the component's supported
capabilities.
5.1.1.3. Workflow(s) * The component subscribes to the topics provided by the
Orchestrator
TBD 4.3. Component Interactions
5.2. Vulnerability Management Component interactions describe functionality between components
relating to collection, evaluation, or other downstream processes.
Vulnerability management is a relatively established process. To 4.3.1. Initiate Ad-Hoc Collection
paraphrase the [CISCONTROLS], continuous vulnerability management is
the act of continuously acquiring, assessing, and taking subsequent
action on new information in order to identify and remediate
vulnerabilities, therefore minimizing the window of opportunity for
attackers.
A vulnerability assessment (i.e. vulnerability detection) is The Orchestrator supplies a payload of collection instructions to a
performed in two steps: topic or set of topics to which Posture Collection Services are
subscribed. The receiving PCS components perform the required
collection based on their capabilities. The PCS then forms a payload
of collected posture attributes (including endpoint identifying
information) and publishes that payload to the topic(s) to which the
Posture Attribute Repository is subscribed, for persistence.
o Endpoint information collected by the endpoint management 4.3.2. Coordinate Periodic Collection
capabilities is examined by the vulnerability management
capabilities through Evaluation Tasks.
o If the data possessed by the endpoint management capabilities is Similar to ad-hoc collection, the Orchestrator supplies a payload of
insufficient, a Collection Task is triggered and the necessary collection instructions containing additional information regarding
data is collected from the target endpoint. collection periodicity, to the topic or topics to which Posture
Collection Services are subscribed.
Vulnerability detection relies on the examination of different 4.3.2.1. Schedule Periodic Collection
endpoint information depending on the nature of a specific
vulnerability. Common endpoint information used to detect a
vulnerability includes:
o A specific software version is installed on the endpoint Collection instructions include information regarding the schedule
for collection, for example, every day at Noon, or every hour at 32
minutes past the hour.
o File system attributes 4.3.2.2. Cancel Periodic Collection
o Specific state attributes The Orchestrator supplies a payload of instructions to a topic or set
of topics to which Posture Collection Services are subscribed. The
receiving PCS components cancel the identified periodic collection
executing on that PCS.
In some cases, the endpoint information needed to determine an 4.3.3. Coordinate Observational/Event-based Collection
endpoint's vulnerability status will have been previously collected
by the endpoint management capabilities and available in a
Repository. However, in other cases, the necessary endpoint
information will not be readily available in a Repository and a
Collection Task will be triggered to perform collection from the
target endpoint. Of course, some implementations of endpoint
management capabilities may prefer to enable operators to perform
this collection even when sufficient information can be provided by
the endpoint management capabilities (e.g. there may be freshness
requirements for information).
5.2.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) In these scenarios, the "observer" acts as the Posture Collection
Service. Interactions with the observer could specify a time period
of observation and potentially information intended to filter
observed posture attributes to aid the PCS in determining those
attributes that are applicable for collection and persistence to the
Posture Attribute Repository.
TBD 4.3.3.1. Initiate Observational/Event-based Collection
5.2.1.1. Components The Orchestrator supplies a payload of instructions to a topic or set
of topics to which Posture Collection Services (observers) are
subscribed. This payload could include specific instructions based
on the observer's capabilities to determine specific posture
attributes to observe and collect.
TBD 4.3.3.2. Cancel Observational/Event-based Collection
5.2.1.2. Capabilities The Orchestrator supplies a payload of instructions to a topic or set
of topics to which Posture Collection Services are subscribed. The
receiving PCS components cancel the identified observational/event-
based collection executing on that PCS.
TBD 4.3.4. Persist Collected Posture Attributes
5.2.1.3. Workflow(s) [TBD] Normalization?
TBD 4.3.5. Initiate Ad-Hoc Evaluation
5.3. Configuration Management [TBD] ### Coordinate Periodic Evaluation [TBD] #### Schedule [TBD]
#### Cancel [TBD] ### Coordinate Change-based Evaluation [TBD] i.e.
if a posture attribute in the repository is changed, trigger an
evaluation of particular policy items
Configuration management involves configuration assessment, which 4.3.6. Queries
requires state assessment. The [CISCONTROLS] specify two high-level
controls concerning configuration management (Control 5 for non-
network devices and Control 11 for network devices). As an aside,
these controls are listed separately because many enterprises have
different organizations for managing network infrastructure and
workload endpoints. Merging the two controls results in the
following paraphrasing: Establish, implement, and actively manage
(track, report on, correct) the security configuration of systems
using a rigorous configuration management and change control process
in order to prevent attackers from exploiting vulnerable services and
settings.
Typically, an enterprise will use configuration guidance from a [TBD] Queries should allow for a "freshness" time period, allowing
reputable source, and from time to time they may tailor the guidance the requesting entity to determine if/when posture attributes must be
from that source prior to adopting it as part of their enterprise re-collected prior to performing evaluation. This freshness time
standard. The enterprise standard is then provided to the period can be "zeroed out" for the purpose of automatically
appropriate configuration assessment tools and they assess endpoints triggering re-collection regardless of the most recent collection.
and/or appropriate endpoint information.
A preferred flow follows: 5. Taxonomy
5.1. Orchestrator Registration
o Reputable source publishes new or updated configuration guidance The Orchestrator Registration taxonomy describes how an Orchestrator
onboards to the ecosystem, or how it returns from a non-operational
state.
o Enterprise configuration assessment capability retrieves 5.1.1. Topic
configuration guidance from reputable source
o Optional: Configuration guidance is tailored for enterprise- N/A
specific needs
o Configuration assessment tool queries asset inventory repository 5.1.2. Interaction Type
to retrieve a list of affected endpoints
o Configuration assessment tool queries configuration state Directed (Request/Response)
repository to evaluate compliance
o If information is stale or unavailable, configuration assessment 5.1.3. Initiator
tool triggers an ad hoc assessment
The SACM architecture needs to support varying deployment models to Orchestrator
accommodate the current state of the industry, but should strongly
encourage event-driven approaches to monitoring configuration.
5.3.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) 5.1.4. Request Payload
This section provides more detail about the components and N/A
capabilities required when considering the aforementioned
configuration management workflow.
5.3.1.1. Components 5.1.5. Receiver
The following is a minimal list of SACM Components required to N/A
implement the aforementioned configuration assessment workflow.
o Configuration Policy Feed: An external source of authoritative 5.1.6. Process Description
configuration recommendations.
o Configuration Policy Repository: An internal repository of Once the Orchestrator has authenticated to the Integration Service,
enterprise standard configurations. it must establish (or re-establish) any service handlers interacting
with administrative interfaces and/or general operational interfaces.
o Configuration Assessment Orchestrator: A component responsible for For initial registration, the Orchestrator MUST enable capabilities
orchestrating assessments. to:
o Posture Attribute Collection Subsystem: A component responsible * Receive onboarding requests via the "/orchestrator/registration"
for collection of posture attributes from systems. topic,
o Posture Attribute Repository: A component used for storing system * Generate, manage, and persist unique identifiers for all
posture attribute values. registered components,
o Configuration Assessment Evaluator: A component responsible for * Inventory and manage its "roster" (the list of registered
evaluating system posture attribute values against expected components), and
posture attribute values.
o Configuration Assessment Results Repository: A component used for * Support making directed requests to registered components over the
storing evaluation results. component's administrative interface, as configured by the
"/orchestrator/[component-unique-identifier]" topic.
5.3.1.2. Capabilities Administrative interfaces are to be re-established through the
inventory of previously registered components, such as Posture
Collection Services, Repositories, or Posture Evaluation Services.
Per [RFC8248], solutions MUST support capability negotiation. 5.1.7. Response Payload
Components implementing specific interfaces and operations (i.e.
interactions) will need a method of describing their capabilities to
other components participating in the ecosystem; for example, "As a
component in the ecosystem, I can assess the configuration of
Windows, MacOS, and AWS using OVAL".
5.3.1.3. Configuration Assessment Workflow N/A
This section describes the components and interactions in a basic 5.1.8. Response Processing
configuration assessment workflow. For simplicity, error conditions
are recognized as being necessary and are not depicted. When one
component messages another component, the message is expected to be
handled appropriately unless there is an error condition, or other
notification, messaged in return.
+-------------+ +----------------+ +------------------+ +------------+ N/A
| Policy Feed | | Orchestrator | | Evaluation | | Evaluation |
+------+------+ +-------+--------+ | Sub-Architecture | | Results |
| | +---^----------+---+ | Repository |
| | | | +------^-----+
| | | | |
1.| 3.| 8.| 9.| 10.|
| | | | |
| | | | |
+------v-----------------v---------------+----------v-------------+-----+
| Integration Service |
+-----+----------------------------------+----------^---------+------^--+
| | | | |
| | | | |
2.| 4.| 5.| 6.| 7.|
| | | | |
| | | | |
+-----v------+ +---v----------+---+ +--v------+--+
| Policy | | Collection | | Posture |
| Repository | | Sub-Architecture | | Attribute |
+------------+ +------------------+ | Repository |
+------------+
Figure 5: Configuration Assessment Component Interactions 5.2. Component Registration
Figure 5 depicts configuration assessment components and their Component onboarding describes how an individual component becomes
interactions, which are further described below. part of the ecosystem; registering with the orchestrator, advertising
capabilities, establishing its administrative interface, and
subscribing to relevant topics.
1. A policy feed provides a configuration assessment policy payload 5.2.1. Topic
to the Integration Service.
2. The Policy Repository, a consumer of Policy Feed information, "/orchestrator/registration"
receives and persists the Policy Feed's payload.
3. Orchestration component(s), either manually invoked, scheduled, "[component-type]" includes "pcs", "repository", "pes", and MORE TBD
or event-based, publish a payload to begin the configuration
assessment process.
4. If necessary, Collection Sub-Architecture components may be 5.2.2. Interaction Type
invoked to collect neeeded posture attribute information.
5. If necessary, the Collection Sub-Architecture will provide Directed (Request/Response)
collected posture attributes to the Integration Service for
persistence to the Posture Attribute Repository.
6. The Posture Attribute Repository will consume a payload querying 5.2.3. Initiator
for relevant posture attribute information.
7. The Posture Attribute Repository will provide the requested Any component wishing to join the ecosystem, such as Posture
information to the Integration Service, allowing further Collection Services, Repositories (policy, collection content,
orchestration payloads requesting the Evaluation Sub- posture attribute, etc), Posture Evaluation Services and more.
Architecture perform evaluation tasks.
8. The Evaluation Sub-Architecture consumes the evaluation payload 5.2.4. Request Payload
and performs component-specific state comparison operations to
produce evaluation results.
9. A payload containing evaluation results are provided by the [TBD] Information Elements, such as - identifying-information -
Evaluation Sub-Architecture to the Integration Service component-type (pcs, pes, repository, etc) - name - description
10. Evaluation results are consumed by/persisted to the Evaluation 5.2.5. Receiver
Results Repository
In the above flow, the payload information is expected to convey the Orchestrator
context required by the receiving component for the action being
taken under different circumstances. For example, a directed message 5.2.6. Process Description
sent from an Orchestrator to a Collection sub-architecture might be
telling that Collector to watch a specific posture attribute and When the Orchestrator receives the component's request for
report only specific detected changes to the Posture Attribute onboarding, it will: - Generate a unique identifier, "[component-
Repository, or it might be telling the Collector to gather that unique-identifier]", for the onboarding component, - Persist required
posture attribute immediately. Such details are expected to be information (TBD probably need more specifics), including the
handled as part of that payload, not as part of the architecture "[component-unique-identifier]" to its component inventory, enabling
described herein. an up-to-date roster of components being orchestrated, - Establish
the administrative interface via the "/orchestrator/[component-
unique-identifier]" topic.
5.2.7. Response Payload
[TBD] Information Elements - component-unique-identifier
5.2.8. Response Processing
Successful receipt of the Orchestrator's response, including the
"[component-unique-identifier]" indicates the component is onboarded
to the ecosystem. Using the response payload, the component can then
establish its end of the administrative interface with the
Orchestrator, using the "/orchestrator/[component-unique-identifier]"
topic. Given this administrative interface, the component can then
initiate the Section 5.3.1
5.3. Orchestrator-to-Component Administrative Interface
A number of functions may take place which, instead of being
published to a multi-subscriber topic, may require direct interaction
between an Orchestrator and a registered component. During component
onboarding, this direct channel is established first by the
Orchestrator and subsequently complemented by the onboarding
component.
5.3.1. Capability Advertisement Handshake
Capability advertisement, otherwise known as service discovery, is
necessary to establish and maintain a cooperative ecosystem of tools.
Using this capability advertisement "handshake", the Orchestrator
becomes knowledgeable of a component's operational capabilities, the
endpoints/services with which the component interacts, and
establishes a direct mode of contact for invoking those capabilities.
5.3.1.1. Topic
"/orchestrator/[component-unique-identifier]"
5.3.1.2. Interaction Type
Directed (Request/Response)
5.3.1.3. Initiator
Any ecosystem component (minus the Orchestrator)
5.3.1.4. Request Payload
[TBD] Information Elements - component-type - component-unique-
identifier - interaction-type (capability-advertisement): - list of
capabilities - list of endpoints/services
5.3.1.5. Receiver
Orchestrator
5.3.1.6. Process Description
Upon receipt of the component's capability advertisement, it SHOULD:
- Persist the component's capabilities to the Orchestrator's
inventory - Coordinate, based on the supplied capabilities, a list of
topics to which the component should subscribe
5.3.1.7. Response Payload
[TBD] Information Elements - list of topics to subscribe
5.3.1.8. Response Processing
Once the component has received the response to its capability
advertisement, it should subscribe to the Orchestrator-provided
topics.
5.3.2. Directed Collection
### Directed Evaluation ### Heartbeat
5.4. [Taxonomy Name]
DESCRIPTION OF TAXONOMY
5.4.1. Topic
"/name/of/topic" ### Interaction Type [Directed (Request/Response)
-or- Publish/Subscribe] ### Initiator [Component sending/publishing
the payload] ### Request Payload DESCRIPTION OF INFORMATION MODEL OF
REQUEST PAYLOAD; i.e. what elements need to be in whatever format in
the payload. ### Receiver [Component receiving/subscribed-to the
payload] ### Process Description [What the receiver does with the
payload] ### Response Payload DESCRIPTION OF INFORMATION MODEL OF
RESPONSE PAYLOAD; i.e. what elements need to be in whatever format in
the payload. ### Response Processing [What the initiator does with
any response, if there is one]
6. Privacy Considerations 6. Privacy Considerations
TODO [TBD]
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
TODO [TBD]
8. IANA Considerations 8. IANA Considerations
TODO: Revamp this section after the configuration assessment workflow [TBD] Revamp this section after the configuration assessment workflow
is fleshed out. is fleshed out.
IANA tables can probably be used to make life a little easier. We IANA tables can probably be used to make life a little easier. We
would like a place to enumerate: would like a place to enumerate:
o Capability/operation semantics * Capability/operation semantics
o SACM Component implementation identifiers * SACM Component implementation identifiers
o SACM Component versions
o Associations of SACM Components (and versions) to specific * SACM Component versions
* Associations of SACM Components (and versions) to specific
Capabilities Capabilities
o Collection sub-architecture Identification * Collection sub-architecture Identification
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp] [I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp]
Haynes, D., Fitzgerald-McKay, J., and L. Lorenzin, Haynes, D., Fitzgerald-McKay, J., and L. Lorenzin,
"Endpoint Posture Collection Profile", draft-ietf-sacm- "Endpoint Posture Collection Profile", draft-ietf-sacm-
ecp-05 (work in progress), June 2019. ecp-05 (work in progress), 21 June 2019,
<http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-sacm-ecp-
05.txt>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC8412] Schmidt, C., Haynes, D., Coffin, C., Waltermire, D., and [RFC8412] Schmidt, C., Haynes, D., Coffin, C., Waltermire, D., and
J. Fitzgerald-McKay, "Software Inventory Message and J. Fitzgerald-McKay, "Software Inventory Message and
Attributes (SWIMA) for PA-TNC", RFC 8412, Attributes (SWIMA) for PA-TNC", RFC 8412,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8412, July 2018, DOI 10.17487/RFC8412, July 2018,
skipping to change at page 19, line 40 skipping to change at page 22, line 27
[RFC8600] Cam-Winget, N., Ed., Appala, S., Pope, S., and P. Saint- [RFC8600] Cam-Winget, N., Ed., Appala, S., Pope, S., and P. Saint-
Andre, "Using Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol Andre, "Using Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
(XMPP) for Security Information Exchange", RFC 8600, (XMPP) for Security Information Exchange", RFC 8600,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8600, June 2019, DOI 10.17487/RFC8600, June 2019,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8600>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8600>.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[CISCONTROLS] [CISCONTROLS]
"CIS Controls v7.0", n.d., "CIS Controls v7.0", May 2020,
<https://www.cisecurity.org/controls>. <https://www.cisecurity.org/controls>.
[draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content] [draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content]
Birkholz, H. and N. Cam-Winget, "YANG subscribed Birkholz, H. and N. Cam-Winget, "YANG subscribed
notifications via SACM Statements", n.d., notifications via SACM Statements", May 2020,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-birkholz-sacm-yang- <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-
content-01>. content-01>.
[HACK100] "IETF 100 Hackathon - Vulnerability Scenario EPCP+XMPP", [HACK100] "IETF 100 Hackathon - Vulnerability Scenario EPCP+XMPP",
n.d., <https://www.github.com/sacmwg/vulnerability- May 2020,
scenario/ietf-hackathon>. <https://www.github.com/sacmwg/vulnerability-scenario/
ietf-hackathon>.
[HACK101] "IETF 101 Hackathon - Configuration Assessment XMPP", [HACK101] "IETF 101 Hackathon - Configuration Assessment XMPP", May
n.d., <https://www.github.com/CISecurity/Integration>. 2020, <https://www.github.com/CISecurity/Integration>.
[HACK102] "IETF 102 Hackathon - YANG Collection on Traditional [HACK102] "IETF 102 Hackathon - YANG Collection on Traditional
Endpoints", n.d., Endpoints", May 2020,
<https://www.github.com/CISecurity/YANG>. <https://www.github.com/CISecurity/YANG>.
[HACK103] "IETF 103 Hackathon - N/A", n.d., [HACK103] "IETF 103 Hackathon - N/A", May 2020,
<https://www.ietf.org/how/meetings/103/>. <https://www.ietf.org/how/meetings/103/>.
[HACK104] "IETF 104 Hackathon - A simple XMPP client", n.d., [HACK104] "IETF 104 Hackathon - A simple XMPP client", May 2020,
<https://github.com/CISecurity/SACM-Architecture>. <https://github.com/CISecurity/SACM-Architecture>.
[HACK105] "IETF 105 Hackathon - A more robust XMPP client including [HACK105] "IETF 105 Hackathon - A more robust XMPP client including
collection extensions", n.d., collection extensions", May 2020,
<https://github.com/CISecurity/SACM-Architecture>. <https://github.com/CISecurity/SACM-Architecture>.
[HACK99] "IETF 99 Hackathon - Vulnerability Scenario EPCP", n.d., [HACK99] "IETF 99 Hackathon - Vulnerability Scenario EPCP", May
2020,
<https://www.github.com/sacmwg/vulnerability-scenario/ <https://www.github.com/sacmwg/vulnerability-scenario/
ietf-hackathon>. ietf-hackathon>.
[I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology] [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]
Birkholz, H., Lu, J., Strassner, J., Cam-Winget, N., and Birkholz, H., Lu, J., Strassner, J., Cam-Winget, N., and
A. Montville, "Security Automation and Continuous A. Montville, "Security Automation and Continuous
Monitoring (SACM) Terminology", draft-ietf-sacm- Monitoring (SACM) Terminology", draft-ietf-sacm-
terminology-16 (work in progress), December 2018. terminology-16 (work in progress), 14 December 2018,
<http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-sacm-
terminology-16.txt>.
[NIST800126] [NIST800126]
Waltermire, D., Quinn, S., Booth, H., Scarfone, K., and D. Waltermire, D., Quinn, S., Booth, H., Scarfone, K., and D.
Prisaca, "SP 800-126 Rev. 3 - The Technical Specification Prisaca, "SP 800-126 Rev. 3 - The Technical Specification
for the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) - SCAP for the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) - SCAP
Version 1.3", February 2018, Version 1.3", February 2018,
<https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-126/rev- <https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-126/rev-
3/final>. 3/final>.
[NISTIR7694] [NISTIR7694]
Halbardier, A., Waltermire, D., and M. Johnson, "NISTIR Halbardier, A., Waltermire, D., and M. Johnson, "NISTIR
7694 Specification for Asset Reporting Format 1.1", n.d., 7694 Specification for Asset Reporting Format 1.1", May
2020,
<https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/nistir/7694/ <https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/nistir/7694/
final>. final>.
[RFC5023] Gregorio, J., Ed. and B. de hOra, Ed., "The Atom [RFC5023] Gregorio, J., Ed. and B. de hOra, Ed., "The Atom
Publishing Protocol", RFC 5023, DOI 10.17487/RFC5023, Publishing Protocol", RFC 5023, DOI 10.17487/RFC5023,
October 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5023>. October 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5023>.
[RFC7632] Waltermire, D. and D. Harrington, "Endpoint Security [RFC7632] Waltermire, D. and D. Harrington, "Endpoint Security
Posture Assessment: Enterprise Use Cases", RFC 7632, Posture Assessment: Enterprise Use Cases", RFC 7632,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7632, September 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7632, September 2015,
skipping to change at page 21, line 20 skipping to change at page 24, line 10
[RFC8248] Cam-Winget, N. and L. Lorenzin, "Security Automation and [RFC8248] Cam-Winget, N. and L. Lorenzin, "Security Automation and
Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Requirements", RFC 8248, Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Requirements", RFC 8248,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8248, September 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8248, September 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8248>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8248>.
[RFC8322] Field, J., Banghart, S., and D. Waltermire, "Resource- [RFC8322] Field, J., Banghart, S., and D. Waltermire, "Resource-
Oriented Lightweight Information Exchange (ROLIE)", Oriented Lightweight Information Exchange (ROLIE)",
RFC 8322, DOI 10.17487/RFC8322, February 2018, RFC 8322, DOI 10.17487/RFC8322, February 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8322>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8322>.
[XMPPEXT] "XMPP Extensions", n.d., <https://xmpp.org/extensions/>. [XMPPEXT] "XMPP Extensions", May 2020,
<https://xmpp.org/extensions/>.
Appendix A. Mapping to RFC8248 Appendix A. Security Domain Workflows
TODO: Consider removing or placing in a separate solution draft. This section describes three primary information security domains
from which workflows may be derived: IT Asset Management,
Vulnerability Management, and Configuration Management.
This section provides a mapping of XMPP and XMPP Extensions to the A.1. IT Asset Management
relevant requirements from [RFC8248]. In the table below, the ID and
Name columns provide the ID and Name of the requirement directly out
of [RFC8248]. The Supported By column may contain one of several
values:
o N/A: The requirement is not applicable to this architectural Information Technology asset management is easier said than done.
exploration The [CISCONTROLS] have two controls dealing with IT asset management.
Control 1, Inventory and Control of Hardware Assets, states,
"Actively manage (inventory, track, and correct) all hardware devices
on the network so that only authorized devices are given access, and
unauthorized and unmanaged devices are found and prevented from
gaining access." Control 2, Inventory and Control of Software
Assets, states, "Actively manage (inventory, track, and correct) all
software on the network so that only authorized software is installed
and can execute, and that unauthorized and unmanaged software is
found and prevented from installation or execution."
o Architecture: This architecture (possibly assuming some In spirit, this covers all of the processing entities on your network
components) should meet the requirement (as opposed to things like network cables, dongles, adapters, etc.),
whether physical or virtual, on-premises or in the cloud.
o XMPP: The set of XMPP Core specifications and the collection of A.1.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s)
applicable extensions, deployment, and operational considerations.
o XMPP-Core: The requirement is satisfied by a core XMPP feature TBD
o XEP-nnnn: The requirement is satisfied by a numbered XMPP A.1.1.1. Components
extension (see [XMPPEXT])
o Operational: The requirement is an operational concern or can be TBD
addressed by an operational deployment
o Implementation: The requirement is an implementation concern A.1.1.2. Capabilities
If there is no entry in the Supported By column, then there is a gap An IT asset management capability needs to be able to:
that must be filled.
+----------+----------------------------------------+---------------+ * Identify and catalog new assets by executing Target Endpoint
| ID | Name | Supported By | Discovery Tasks
+----------+----------------------------------------+---------------+
| G-001 | Solution Extensibility | XMPP-Core |
| | | |
| G-002 | Interoperability | XMPP |
| | | |
| G-003 | Scalability | XMPP |
| | | |
| G-004 | Versatility | XMPP-Core |
| | | |
| G-005 | Information Extensibility | XMPP-Core |
| | | |
| G-006 | Data Protection | Operational |
| | | |
| G-007 | Data Partitioning | Operational |
| | | |
| G-008 | Versioning and Backward Compatibility | XEP-0115/0030 |
| | | |
| G-009 | Information Discovery | XEP-0030 |
| | | |
| G-010 | Target Endpoint Discovery | XMPP-Core |
| | | |
| G-011 | Push and Pull Access | XEP-0060/0312 |
| | | |
| G-012 | SACM Component Interface | N/A |
| | | |
| G-013 | Endpoint Location and Network Topology | |
| | | |
| G-014 | Target Endpoint Identity | XMPP-Core |
| | | |
| G-015 | Data Access Control | |
| | | |
| ARCH-001 | Component Functions | XMPP |
| | | |
| ARCH-002 | Scalability | XMPP-Core |
| | | |
| ARCH-003 | Flexibility | XMPP-Core |
| | | |
| ARCH-004 | Separation of Data and Management | |
| | Functions | |
| | | |
| ARCH-005 | Topology Flexibility | XMPP-Core |
| | | |
| ARCH-006 | Capability Negotiation | XEP-0115/0030 |
| | | |
| ARCH-007 | Role-Based Authorization | XMPP-Core |
| | | |
| ARCH-008 | Context-Based Authorization | |
| | | |
| ARCH-009 | Time Synchronization | Operational |
| | | |
| IM-001 | Extensible Attribute Vocabulary | N/A |
| | | |
| IM-002 | Posture Data Publication | N/A |
| | | |
| IM-003 | Data Model Negotiation | N/A |
| | | |
| IM-004 | Data Model Identification | N/A |
| | | |
| IM-005 | Data Lifetime Management | N/A |
| | | |
| IM-006 | Singularity and Modularity | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-001 | Element Association | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-002 | Data Model Structure | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-003 | Search Flexibility | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-004 | Full vs. Partial Updates | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-005 | Loose Coupling | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-006 | Data Cardinality | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-007 | Data Model Negotiation | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-008 | Data Origin | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-009 | Origination Time | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-010 | Data Generation | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-011 | Data Source | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-012 | Data Updates | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-013 | Multiple Collectors | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-014 | Attribute Extensibility | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-015 | Solicited vs. Unsolicited Updates | N/A |
| | | |
| DM-016 | Transfer Agnostic | N/A |
| | | |
| OP-001 | Time Synchronization | |
| | | |
| OP-002 | Collection Abstraction | |
| | | |
| OP-003 | Collection Composition | |
| | | |
| OP-004 | Attribute-Based Query | |
| | | |
| OP-005 | Information-Based Query with Filtering | |
| | | |
| OP-006 | Operation Scalability | |
| | | |
| OP-007 | Data Abstraction | |
| | | |
| OP-008 | Provider Restriction | |
| | | |
| T-001 | Multiple Transfer Protocol Support | Architecture |
| | | |
| T-002 | Data Integrity | Operational |
| | | |
| T-003 | Data Confidentiality | Operational |
| | | |
| T-004 | Transfer Protection | |
| | | |
| T-005 | Transfer Reliability | |
| | | |
| T-006 | Transfer-Layer Requirements | |
| | | |
| T-007 | Transfer Protocol Adoption | Architecture |
+----------+----------------------------------------+---------------+
Appendix B. Example Components * Provide information about its managed assets, including uniquely
identifying information (for that enterprise)
TODO: Consider removing. * Handle software and/or hardware (including virtual assets)
B.1. Policy Services * Represent cloud hybrid environments
Consider a policy server conforming to [RFC8322]. [RFC8322] A.1.1.3. Workflow(s)
describes a RESTful way based on the ATOM Publishing Protocol
([RFC5023]) to find specific data collections. While this represents
a specific binding (i.e. RESTful API based on [RFC5023]), there is a
more abstract way to look at ROLIE.
ROLIE provides notional workspaces and collections, and provides the TBD
concept of information categories and links. Strictly speaking,
these are logical concepts independent of the RESTful binding ROLIE
specifies. In other words, ROLIE binds a logical interface (i.e.
GET workspace, GET collection, SET entry, and so on) to a specific A.2. Vulnerability Management
mechanism (namely an ATOM Publication Protocol extension).
It is not inconceivable to believe there could be a different Vulnerability management is a relatively established process. To
interface mechanism, or a connector, providing these same operations paraphrase the [CISCONTROLS], continuous vulnerability management is
using XMPP-Grid as the transfer mechanism. the act of continuously acquiring, assessing, and taking subsequent
action on new information in order to identify and remediate
vulnerabilities, therefore minimizing the window of opportunity for
attackers.
Even if a [RFC8322] server were external to an organization, there A vulnerability assessment (i.e. vulnerability detection) is
would be a need for a policy source inside the organization as well, performed in two steps:
and it may be preferred for such a policy source to be connected
directly to the ecosystem's communication infrastructure.
B.2. Software Inventory * Endpoint information collected by the endpoint management
capabilities is examined by the vulnerability management
capabilities through Evaluation Tasks.
The SACM working group has accepted work on the Endpoint Posture * If the data possessed by the endpoint management capabilities is
Collection Profile [I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp], which describes a collection insufficient, a Collection Task is triggered and the necessary
architecture and may be viewed as a collector coupled with a data is collected from the target endpoint.
collection-specific repository.
Posture Manager Endpoint Vulnerability detection relies on the examination of different
Orchestrator +---------------+ +---------------+ endpoint information depending on the nature of a specific
+--------+ | | | | vulnerability. Common endpoint information used to detect a
| | | +-----------+ | | +-----------+ | vulnerability includes:
| |<---->| | Posture | | | | Posture | |
| | pub/ | | Validator | | | | Collector | |
| | sub | +-----------+ | | +-----------+ |
+--------+ | | | | | |
| | | | | |
Evaluator Repository | | | | | |
+------+ +--------+ | +-----------+ |<-------| +-----------+ |
| | | | | | Posture | | report | | Posture | |
| | | | | | Collection| | | | Collection| |
| |<-----> | |<-----| | Manager | | query | | Engine | |
| |request/| | store| +-----------+ |------->| +-----------+ |
| |respond | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
+------+ +--------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
Figure 6: EPCP Collection Architecture * A specific software version is installed on the endpoint
In Figure 6, any of the communications between the Posture Manager * File system attributes
and EPCP components to its left could be performed directly or
indirectly using a given message transfer mechanism. For example,
the pub/sub interface between the Orchestrator and the Posture
Manager could be using a proprietary method or using [RFC8600] or
some other pub/sub mechanism. Similarly, the store connection from
the Posture Manager to the Repository could be performed internally
to a given implementation, via a RESTful API invocation over HTTPS,
or even over a pub/sub mechanism.
Our assertion is that the Evaluator, Repository, Orchestrator, and * Specific state attributes
Posture Manager all have the potential to represent SACM Components
with specific capability interfaces that can be logically specified,
then bound to one or more specific transfer mechanisms (i.e. RESTful
API, [RFC8322], [RFC8600], and so on).
B.3. Datastream Collection In some cases, the endpoint information needed to determine an
endpoint's vulnerability status will have been previously collected
by the endpoint management capabilities and available in a
Repository. However, in other cases, the necessary endpoint
information will not be readily available in a Repository and a
Collection Task will be triggered to perform collection from the
target endpoint. Of course, some implementations of endpoint
management capabilities may prefer to enable operators to perform
this collection even when sufficient information can be provided by
the endpoint management capabilities (e.g. there may be freshness
requirements for information).
[NIST800126], also known as SCAP 1.3, provides the technical A.2.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s)
specifications for a "datastream collection". The specification
describes the "datastream collection" as being "composed of SCAP data
streams and SCAP source components". A "datastream" provides an
encapsulation of the SCAP source components required to, for example,
perform configuration assessment on a given endpoint. These source
components include XCCDF checklists, OVAL Definitions, and CPE
Dictionary information. A single "datastream collection" may
encapsulate multiple "datastreams", and reference any number of SCAP
components. Datastream collections were intended to provide an
envelope enabling transfer of SCAP data more easily.
The [NIST800126] specification also defines the "SCAP result data TBD
stream" as being conformant to the Asset Reporting Format
specification, defined in [NISTIR7694]. The Asset Reporting Format
provides an encapsulation of the SCAP source components, Asset
Information, and SCAP result components, such as system
characteristics and state evaluation results.
What [NIST800126]did not do is specify the interface for finding or A.2.1.1. Components
acquiring source datastream information, nor an interface for
publishing result information. Discovering the actual resources for
this information could be done via ROLIE, as described in the Policy
Services section above, but other repositories of SCAP data exist as
well.
B.4. Network Configuration Collection TBD
[draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content] illustrates a SACM Component A.2.1.2. Capabilities
incorporating a YANG Push client function and an XMPP-grid publisher
function. [draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content] further states "the
output of the YANG Push client function is encapsulated in a SACM
Content Element envelope, which is again encapsulated in a SACM
statement envelope" which are published, essentially, via an XMPP-
Grid Connector for SACM Components also part of the XMPP-Grid.
This is a specific example of an existing collection mechanism being TBD
adapted to the XMPP-Grid message transfer system.
Appendix C. Exploring An XMPP-based Solution A.2.1.3. Workflow(s)
TODO: Consider removing or placing in a separate draft. TBD
Ongoing work has been taking place around and during IETF hackathons. A.3. Configuration Management
The list of hackathon efforts follows:
o [HACK99]: A partial implementation of a vulnerability assessment Configuration management involves configuration assessment, which
scenario involving an [I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp] implementation, a requires state assessment. The [CISCONTROLS] specify two high-level
[RFC8322] implementation, and a proprietary evaluator to pull the controls concerning configuration management (Control 5 for non-
pieces together. network devices and Control 11 for network devices). As an aside,
these controls are listed separately because many enterprises have
different organizations for managing network infrastructure and
workload endpoints. Merging the two controls results in the
following paraphrasing: Establish, implement, and actively manage
(track, report on, correct) the security configuration of systems
using a rigorous configuration management and change control process
in order to prevent attackers from exploiting vulnerable services and
settings.
o [HACK100]: Work to combine the vulnerability assessment scenario Typically, an enterprise will use configuration guidance from a
from [HACK99] with an XMPP-based YANG push model. reputable source, and from time to time they may tailor the guidance
from that source prior to adopting it as part of their enterprise
standard. The enterprise standard is then provided to the
appropriate configuration assessment tools and they assess endpoints
and/or appropriate endpoint information.
o [HACK101]: A fully automated configuration assessment A preferred flow follows:
implementation using XMPP (specifically Publish/Subscribe
capabilities) as a communication mechanism.
o [HACK102]: An exploration of how we might model assessment, * Reputable source publishes new or updated configuration guidance
collection, and evaluation abstractly, and then rely on YANG * Enterprise configuration assessment capability retrieves
expressions for the attributes of traditional endpoints. configuration guidance from reputable source
o [HACK103]: No SACM participation at the Bangkok hackathon. * Optional: Configuration guidance is tailored for enterprise-
specific needs
o [HACK104]: Basic XMPP-to-Concise MAP - Created an XMPP adapter * Configuration assessment tool queries asset inventory repository
that can accept basic posture attributes and translate them to to retrieve a list of affected endpoints
Concise MAP. This hackathon only proved the concept that system
characteristics information can be transported via XMPP and
translated to a (very basic) concise MAP implementation.
o [HACK105]: Advanced XMPP-to-Concise MAP: Full orchestration of * Configuration assessment tool queries configuration state
collection capabilities using XMPP. Collector implementations repository to evaluate compliance
extend the core XMPP structure to allow OVAL collection
instructions (OVAL objects) to inform posture attribute
collection. Collected system characteristics can be provided to
the Concise MAP XMPP adapter using all 3 available XMPP
capabilities: Publish/Subscribe, Information Query (iq - request/
response) stanzas, or direct Message stanzas. CDDL was created to
map collected posture attributes to Concise MAP structure. The
XMPP adapter translates the incoming system characteristics and
stores the information in the MAP.
Figure 7 depicts a slightly more detailed view of the architecture * If information is stale or unavailable, configuration assessment
(within the enterprise boundary) - one that fosters the development tool triggers an ad hoc assessment
of a pluggable ecosystem of cooperative tools. Existing collection
mechanisms can be brought into this architecture by specifying the
interface of the collector and creating the XMPP-Grid Connector
binding for that interface.
Additionally, while not directly depicted in Figure 7, this The SACM architecture needs to support varying deployment models to
architecture does allow point-to-point interfaces. In fact, accommodate the current state of the industry, but should strongly
[RFC8600] provides brokering capabilities to facilitate such point- encourage event-driven approaches to monitoring configuration.
to-point data transfers). Additionally, each of the SACM Components
depicted in Figure 7 may be a provider, a consumer, or both,
depending on the workflow in context.
+--------------+ +--------------+ A.3.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s)
| Orchestrator | | Repositories |
+------^-------+ +------^-------+
| |
| |
+-------v--------------------------v--------+ +-----------------+
| XMPP-Grid+ <-----> Downstream Uses |
+------------------------^------------------+ +-----------------+
|
|
+-------v------+
| XMPP-Grid |
| Connector(s) |
+------^-------+
|
+------v-------+
| Collector(s) |
+--------------+
Figure 7: XMPP-based Architecture This section provides more detail about the components and
capabilities required when considering the aforementioned
configuration management workflow.
[RFC8600] details a number of XMPP extensions (XEPs) that MUST be A.3.1.1. Components
utilized to meet the needs of [RFC7632] and [RFC8248]:
o Service Discovery (XEP-0030): Service Discovery allows XMPP The following is a minimal list of SACM Components required to
entities to discover information about other XMPP entities. Two implement the aforementioned configuration assessment workflow.
kinds of information can be discovered: the identity and
capabilities of an entity, such as supported features, and items
associated with an entity.
o Publish-Subscribe (XEP-0060): The PubSub extension enables * Configuration Policy Feed: An external source of authoritative
entities to create nodes (topics) at a PubSub service and publish configuration recommendations.
information at those nodes. Once published, an event notification
is broadcast to all entities that have subscribed to that node.
At this point, [RFC8600] specifies fewer features than SACM requires, * Configuration Policy Repository: An internal repository of
and there are other XMPP extensions (XEPs) we need to consider to enterprise standard configurations.
meet the needs of [RFC7632] and [RFC8248]. In Figure 7 we therefore
use "XMPP-Grid+" to indicate something more than [RFC8600] alone,
even though we are not yet fully confident in the exact set of XMPP-
related extensions we will require. The authors propose work to
extend (or modify) [RFC8600] to include additional XEPs - possibly
the following:
o Entity Capabilities (XEP-0115): This extension defines the methods * Configuration Assessment Orchestrator: A component responsible for
for broadcasting and dynamically discovering an entities' orchestrating assessments.
capabilities. This information is transported via standard XMPP
presence. Example capabilities that could be discovered could
include support for posture attribute collection, support for
specific types of posture attribute collection such as EPCP,
SWIMA, OVAL, or YANG. Other capabilities are still to be
determined.
o Ad Hoc Commands (XEP-0050): This extension allows an XMPP entity * Posture Attribute Collection Subsystem: A component responsible
to advertise and execute application-specific commands. Typically for collection of posture attributes from systems.
the commands contain data forms (XEP-0004) in order to structure
the information exchange. This extension may be usable for simple
orchestration (i.e. "do assessment").
o HTTP File Upload (XEP-0363): The HTTP File Upload extension allows * Posture Attribute Repository: A component used for storing system
for large data sets to be published to a specific path on an HTTP posture attribute values.
server, and receive a URL from which that file can later be
downloaded again. XMPP messages and IQs are meant to be compact,
and large data sets, such as collected posture attributes, may
exceed a message size threshold. Usage of this XEP allows those
larger data sets to be persisted, thus necessitating only the
download URL to be passed via XMPP messages.
o Personal Eventing Protocol (XEP-0163): The Personal Eventing * Configuration Assessment Evaluator: A component responsible for
Protocol can be thought of as a virtual PubSub service, allowing evaluating system posture attribute values against expected
an XMPP account to publish events only to their roster instead of posture attribute values.
a generic PubSub topic. This XEP may be useful in the cases when
collection requests or queries are only intended for a subset of
endpoints and not an entire subscriber set.
o File Repository and Sharing (XEP-0214): This extension defines a * Configuration Assessment Results Repository: A component used for
method for XMPP entities to designate a set of file available for storing evaluation results.
retrieval by other users of their choosing, and is based on PubSub
Collections.
o Easy User Onboarding (XEP-401): The goal of this extension is A.3.1.2. Capabilities
simplified client registration, and may be useful when adding new
endpoints or SACM components to the ecosystem.
o Bidirectional-streams Over Synchronous HTTP (BOSH) (XEP-0124): Per [RFC8248], solutions MUST support capability negotiation.
BOSH emulates the semantics of a long-lived, bidirectional TCP Components implementing specific interfaces and operations (i.e.
connection between two entities (aka "long polling"). Consider a interactions) will need a method of describing their capabilities to
SACM component that is updated dynamically, i.e. an internal other components participating in the ecosystem; for example, "As a
vulnerability definition repository ingesting data from a Feed/ component in the ecosystem, I can assess the configuration of
Repository of External Data, and a second SACM component such as Windows, MacOS, and AWS using OVAL".
an Orchestrator. Using BOSH, the Orchestrator can effectively
continuously poll the vulnerability definition repository for
changes/updates.
o PubSub Collection Nodes (XEP-0248): Effectively an extension to A.3.1.3. Configuration Assessment Workflow
XEP-0060 (Publish-Subscribe), PubSub Collections aim to simplify
an entities' subscription to multiple related topics, and
establishes a "node graph" relating parent nodes to its
descendents. An example "node graph" could be rooted in a
"vulnerability definitions" topic, and contain descendent topics
for OS family-level vulnerability definitions (i.e. Windows), and
further for OS family version-level definitions (i.e. Windows 10
or Windows Server 2016).
o PubSub Since (XEP-0312): This extension enables a subscriber to This section describes the components and interactions in a basic
automatically receive PubSub and Personal Eventing Protocol (PEP) configuration assessment workflow. For simplicity, error conditions
notifications since its last logout time. This extension may be are recognized as being necessary and are not depicted. When one
useful in intermittent connection scenarios, or when entities component messages another component, the message is expected to be
disconnect and reconnect to the ecosystem. handled appropriately unless there is an error condition, or other
notification, messaged in return.
o PubSub Chaining (XEP-0253): This extension describes the +-------------+ +----------------+ +------------------+ +------------+
federation of publishing nodes, enabling a publish node of one | Policy Feed | | Orchestrator | | Evaluation | | Evaluation |
server to be a subscriber to a publishing node of another server. +------+------+ +-------+--------+ | Sub-Architecture | | Results |
| | +---^----------+---+ | Repository |
| | | | +------^-----+
| | | | |
1.| 3.| 8.| 9.| 10.|
| | | | |
| | | | |
+------v-----------------v---------------+----------v-------------+-----+
| Integration Service |
+-----+----------------------------------+----------^---------+------^--+
| | | | |
| | | | |
2.| 4.| 5.| 6.| 7.|
| | | | |
| | | | |
+-----v------+ +---v----------+---+ +--v------+--+
| Policy | | Collection | | Posture |
| Repository | | Sub-Architecture | | Attribute |
+------------+ +------------------+ | Repository |
+------------+
C.1. Example Architecture using XMPP-Grid and Endpoint Posture Figure 5: Configuration Assessment Component Interactions
Collection Protocol
Figure 8 depicts a further detailed view of the architecture Figure 5 depicts configuration assessment components and their
including the Endpoint Posture Collection Protocol as the collection interactions, which are further described below.
subsystem, illustrating the idea of a pluggable ecosystem of
cooperative tools.
+--------------------+ 1. A policy feed provides a configuration assessment policy payload
| Feeds/Repositories | to the Integration Service.
| of External Data |
+--------------------+
|
********************v*********************** Boundary of Responsibility *******
* | *
* +--------------+ | +-------------------+ +-------------+ *
* | Orchestrator | | | Posture Attr Repo | | Policy Repo | *
* +------^-------+ | +---------^---------+ +---^---------+ *
* | | | | +----------------+ *
* | | | | | Downstream Uses| *
* | | | | | +-----------+ | *
* +------v---------v-----------v---------------v--+ | |Evaluations| | *
* | XMPP-Grid <-------> +-----------+ | *
* +----------------^-------------------^----------+ | +-----------+ | *
* | | | | Analytics | | *
* | | | +-----------+ | *
* | +-----v--------+ | +-----------+ | *
* | | Results Repo | | | Reporting | | *
* | +--------------+ | +-----------+ | *
* | +----------------+ *
* +---------v-----------+ *
* | XMPP-Grid Connector | *
* +---------^-----------+ *
* | *
* +-----------------v-------------------------------------------------------+ *
* | | *
* | +--Posture Collection Manager------------------------------------------+| *
* | |+-----------------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || *
* | || Communications Server | | Posture Server | | Posture Validator(s) | || *
* | |+----------^------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || *
* | +-----------|----------------------------------------------------------+| *
* | | | *
* | +-----------|-------------------------Endpoint or Endpoint Proxy-------+| *
* | |+----------v------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || *
* | || Communications Client | | Posture Client | | Posture Collector(s) | || *
* | |+-----------------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || *
* | +----------------------------------------------------------------------+| *
* +-----------------Endpoint Posture Collection Profile---------------------+ *
* *
*******************************************************************************
Figure 8: XMPP-based Architecture including EPCP 2. The Policy Repository, a consumer of Policy Feed information,
receives and persists the Policy Feed's payload.
Authors' Addresses 3. Orchestration component(s), either manually invoked, scheduled,
or event-based, publish a payload to begin the configuration
assessment process.
4. If necessary, Collection Sub-Architecture components may be
invoked to collect neeeded posture attribute information.
5. If necessary, the Collection Sub-Architecture will provide
collected posture attributes to the Integration Service for
persistence to the Posture Attribute Repository.
6. The Posture Attribute Repository will consume a payload querying
for relevant posture attribute information.
7. The Posture Attribute Repository will provide the requested
information to the Integration Service, allowing further
orchestration payloads requesting the Evaluation Sub-
Architecture perform evaluation tasks.
8. The Evaluation Sub-Architecture consumes the evaluation payload
and performs component-specific state comparison operations to
produce evaluation results.
9. A payload containing evaluation results are provided by the
Evaluation Sub-Architecture to the Integration Service
10. Evaluation results are consumed by/persisted to the Evaluation
Results Repository
In the above flow, the payload information is expected to convey the
context required by the receiving component for the action being
taken under different circumstances. For example, a directed message
sent from an Orchestrator to a Collection sub-architecture might be
telling that Collector to watch a specific posture attribute and
report only specific detected changes to the Posture Attribute
Repository, or it might be telling the Collector to gather that
posture attribute immediately. Such details are expected to be
handled as part of that payload, not as part of the architecture
described herein.
Authors' Addresses
Adam W. Montville Adam W. Montville
Center for Internet Security Center for Internet Security
31 Tech Valley Drive 31 Tech Valley Drive
East Greenbush, NY 12061 East Greenbush, NY 12061
USA United States of America
Email: adam.montville.sdo@gmail.com Email: adam.montville.sdo@gmail.com
Bill Munyan Bill Munyan
Center for Internet Security Center for Internet Security
31 Tech Valley Drive 31 Tech Valley Drive
East Greenbush, NY 12061 East Greenbush, NY 12061
USA United States of America
Email: bill.munyan.ietf@gmail.com Email: bill.munyan.ietf@gmail.com
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