draft-ietf-sacm-arch-03.txt   draft-ietf-sacm-arch-04.txt 
SACM Working Group A. Montville SACM Working Group A. Montville
Internet-Draft B. Munyan Internet-Draft B. Munyan
Intended status: Standards Track CIS Intended status: Standards Track CIS
Expires: March 9, 2020 September 06, 2019 Expires: May 1, 2020 October 29, 2019
Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Architecture Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Architecture
draft-ietf-sacm-arch-03 draft-ietf-sacm-arch-04
Abstract Abstract
This memo defines a Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring This document defines an architecture enabling a cooperative Security
(SACM) architecture. This work is built upon [RFC8600], and is Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) ecosystem. This work is
predicated upon information gleaned from SACM Use Cases and predicated upon information gleaned from SACM Use Cases and
Requirements ([RFC7632] and [RFC8248] respectively), and terminology Requirements ([RFC7632] and [RFC8248] respectively), and terminology
as found in [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]. as found in [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology].
WORKING GROUP: The source for this draft is maintained in GitHub. WORKING GROUP: The source for this draft is maintained in GitHub.
Suggested changes should be submitted as pull requests at Suggested changes should be submitted as pull requests at
https://github.com/sacmwg/ietf-mandm-sacm-arch/. Instructions are on https://github.com/sacmwg/ietf-mandm-sacm-arch/. Instructions are on
that page as well. that page as well.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
skipping to change at page 1, line 39 skipping to change at page 1, line 39
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on March 9, 2020. This Internet-Draft will expire on May 1, 2020.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 16 skipping to change at page 2, line 16
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Architectural Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Architectural Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1. Architectural Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. SACM Role-based Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1.1. Orchestrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. Architectural Roles/Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.2. Repositories/CMDBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2.1. Orchestrator(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.3. Component Integration Service . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2.2. Repositories/CMDBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. Sub-Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2.3. Integration Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.3. Downstream Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3. Downstream Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3.1. Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3.1. Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3.2. Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.3.2. Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Sub-Architectural Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.4. Sub-Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Collection Sub-Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.4.1. Collection Sub-Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.1. Posture Collection Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.4.2. Evaluation Sub-Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.2. Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1.3. Posture Attribute Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Security Domain Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.2. Evaluation Sub-Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.1. IT Asset Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.2.1. Posture Evaluation Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) . . . . . . 13
4.2.2. Policy Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.2. Vulnerability Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.2.3. Evaluation Results Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) . . . . . . 14
5. Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.3. Configuration Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. Security Domain Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.3.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s) . . . . . . 16
6.1. IT Asset Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.2. Vulnerability Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.3. Configuration Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7. Configuration Management Components and Capabilities . . . . 14 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.1. Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.2. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8. Configuration Assessment Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Appendix A. Mapping to RFC8248 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
9. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Appendix B. Example Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 B.1. Policy Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 B.2. Software Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 B.3. Datastream Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 B.4. Network Configuration Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Appendix C. Exploring An XMPP-based Solution . . . . . . . . . . 27
Appendix A. Mapping to RFC8248 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix B. Example Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
B.1. Policy Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
B.2. Software Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
B.3. Datastream Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
B.4. Network Configuration Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Appendix C. Exploring An XMPP-based Solution . . . . . . . . . . 25
C.1. Example Architecture using XMPP-Grid and Endpoint Posture C.1. Example Architecture using XMPP-Grid and Endpoint Posture
Collection Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Collection Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The purpose of this draft is to define an architectural approach for The purpose of this draft is to define an architectural approach for
a SACM Domain, based on the spirit of use cases found in [RFC7632] a SACM Domain, based on the spirit of use cases found in [RFC7632]
and requirements found in [RFC8248]. This approach gains the most and requirements found in [RFC8248]. This approach gains the most
advantage by supporting a variety of collection systems, and intends advantage by supporting a variety of collection systems, and intends
to enable a cooperative ecosystem of tools from disparate sources to enable a cooperative ecosystem of tools from disparate sources
with minimal operator configuration. with minimal operator configuration.
skipping to change at page 4, line 5 skipping to change at page 3, line 36
3. Architectural Overview 3. Architectural Overview
The generic approach proposed herein recognizes the need to obtain The generic approach proposed herein recognizes the need to obtain
information from existing and future state collection systems, and information from existing and future state collection systems, and
makes every attempt to respect [RFC7632] and [RFC8248]. At the makes every attempt to respect [RFC7632] and [RFC8248]. At the
foundation of any architecture are entities, or components, that need foundation of any architecture are entities, or components, that need
to communicate. They communicate by sharing information, where, in a to communicate. They communicate by sharing information, where, in a
given flow, one or more components are consumers of information and given flow, one or more components are consumers of information and
one or more components are providers of information. one or more components are providers of information.
+----------------+
| SACM Component |
| (Provider) |
+-------+--------+
|
|
+--------------v----------------+
| Integration Service |
+--------------+----------------+
|
|
+-------v--------+
| SACM Component |
| (Consumer) |
+----------------+
Figure 1: Basic Architectural Structure
A provider can be described as an abstraction that refers to an
entity capable of sending SACM-relevant information to one or many
consumers. Consumers can be described as an abstraction that refers
to an entity capable of receiving SACM-relevant information from one
or many providers. Different roles within a cooperative ecosystem
may act as both providers and consumers of SACM-relevant information.
3.1. SACM Role-based Architecture
Within the cooperative SACM ecosystem, a number of roles act in
coordination to provide relevant policy/guidance, perform data
collection, storage, evaluation, and support downstream analytics and
reporting.
+--------------------+ +--------------------+
| Feeds/Repositories | | Feeds/Repositories |
| of External Data | | of External Data |
+---------+----------+ +---------+----------+
+ |
****************************************************** Enterprise Boundary *** ******************************************* Boundary of Responsibility ******
+ |
+--------------+ | +--------------------+ +-----------------+ | +--------------------+
| Orchestrator | | | Repositories/CMDBs | | Orchestrator(s) | | | Repositories/CMDBs |
+------^-------+ | +----------^---------+ +---------^-------+ | +----------^---------+
| | | +--------------------+ | | | +--------------------+
| | | | Downstream Uses | | | | | Downstream Uses |
| | | | +----------------+ | | | | | +----------------+ |
+-----------v----------v-------------v------+ | | Analytics | | +-----------v----------v-------------v------+ | | Analytics | |
| Component Integration Service <------> +----------------+ | | Integration Service <------> +----------------+ |
+----- -----^--------------------------^----+ | +----------------+ | +-----------^--------------------------^----+ | +----------------+ |
| | | | Reporting | | | | | | Reporting | |
| | | +----------------+ | | | | +----------------+ |
+-----------v-------------------+ | +--------------------+ +-----------v-------------------+ | +--------------------+
| Collection Sub-Architecture | | | Collection Sub-Architecture | |
+-------------------------------+ | +-------------------------------+ |
+---------------------v---------+ +---------------v---------------+
| Evaluation Sub-Architecture | | Evaluation Sub-Architecture |
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
Figure 1: Notional Architecture Figure 2: Notional Role-based Architecture
As shown in Figure 1, the SACM architecture consists of some basic As shown in Figure 2, the SACM role-based architecture consists of
SACM Components communicating using a component integration service. some basic SACM Components communicating using an integration
The component integration service is expected to maximally align with service. The integration service is expected to maximally align with
the requirements described in [RFC8248], which means that the the requirements described in [RFC8248], which means that the
component integration service will support brokered (i.e. point-to- integration service will support brokered (i.e. point-to-point) and
point) and proxied data exchange. proxied data exchange.
The enterprise boundary is not intended to imply a physical boundary. The boundary of responsibility is not intended to imply a physical
Rather, the enterprise boundary is intended to be inclusive of boundary. Rather, it is intended to be inclusive of various cloud/
various cloud environments and vendor-provided services in addition virtualized environments, BYOD and vendor-provided services in
to any physical systems the enterprise operates. addition to any physical systems the enterprise operates.
3.1. Architectural Components 3.2. Architectural Roles/Components
This document suggests a variety of players in a cooperative This document suggests a variety of players in a cooperative
ecosystem - we call these players SACM Components. SACM Components ecosystem; these players are known as SACM Components. SACM
may be composed of other SACM Components, and each SACM Component Components may be composed of other SACM Components, and each SACM
plays one, or more, of several roles relevant to the ecosystem. Component plays one, or more, of several roles relevant to the
Generally each role is either a consumer of information or a provider ecosystem. Roles may act as providers of information, consumers of
of information. The Figure 1 diagram illustrates a number of SACM information, or both provider and consumer. Figure 2 depicts a
components which are architecturally significant and therefore number of SACM components which are architecturally significant and
warrant discussion and clarification. therefore warrant discussion and clarification.
3.1.1. Orchestrator 3.2.1. Orchestrator(s)
An Orchestration component exists to aid in the automation of Orchestration components exists to aid in the automation of
configuration, coordination, and management for the ecosystem of SACM configuration, coordination, and management for the ecosystem of SACM
components. The Orchestrator performs control-plane operations, components. The Orchestrator performs control-plane operations,
administration of an implementing organization's components administration of an implementing organization's components
(including endpoints, posture collection services, and downstream (including endpoints, posture collection services, and downstream
activities), scheduling of automated tasks, and any ad-hoc activities activities), scheduling of automated tasks, and any ad-hoc activities
such as the initiation of collection or evaluation activities. The such as the initiation of collection or evaluation activities. The
Orchestrator is the key administrative interface into the SACM Orchestrator is the key administrative interface into the SACM
architecture. architecture.
3.1.2. Repositories/CMDBs 3.2.2. Repositories/CMDBs
The Figure 1 diagram only includes a single reference to
"Repositories/CMDBs", but in practice, a number of separate data
repositories may exist, including posture attribute repositories,
policy repositories, local vulnerability definition data
repositories, and state assessment results repositories. These data
repositories may exist separately or together in a single
representation, and the design of these repositories may be as
distinct as their intended purpose, such as the use of relational
database management systems or graph/map implementations focused on
the relationships between data elements. Each implementation of a
SACM repository should focus on the relationships between data
elements and implement the SACM information and data model(s).
3.1.3. Component Integration Service
If each SACM component represents a set of services, capabilities,
and/or functions, the Component Integration Service represents the
"fabric" by which all those services, capabilities and functions are
woven together. The Component Integration Service acts as a message
broker, combining a canonical data model, a common command set, and a
messaging infrastructure to allow other SACM components to
communicate using a shared set of interfaces. The Component
Integration Service's brokering capabilities enable the exchange of
information, the orchestration of capabilities, message routing and
reliable delivery. The Component Integration Service minimizes the
dependencies from one system to another through the loose coupling of
applications through messaging.
The Component Integration Service should provide mechanisms for
synchronous "request/response"-style messaging, asynchronous "send
and forget" messaging, or publish/subscribe. It is the
responsibility of the Component Integration Service to coordinate and
manage the sending and receiving of messages. The Component
Integration Service should allow components the ability to directly
connect and produce or consume messages, or connect via message
translators which can act as a proxy, transforming messages from a
component format to one implementing a SACM data model.
A number of pieces come together to form the Component Integration
Service:
1. Common communication infrastructure: The physical communications Figure 2 only includes a single reference to "Repositories/CMDBs",
infrastructure, providing a cross-platform, cross-language but in practice, a number of separate data repositories may exist,
universal adapter between SACM components. This infrastructure including posture attribute repositories, policy repositories, local
commonly includes message routing capabilities to facilitate the vulnerability definition data repositories, and state assessment
correct routing of messages from SACM component to SACM results repositories. These data repositories may exist separately
component, as well as using Publish/Subscribe functionality to or together in a single representation, and the design of these
facilitate sending messages to all receivers. repositories may be as distinct as their intended purpose, such as
the use of relational database management systems or graph/map
implementations focused on the relationships between data elements.
Each implementation of a SACM repository should focus on the
relationships between data elements and implement the SACM
information and data model(s).
2. Adapters: The use of a standard, canonical data model will likely 3.2.3. Integration Service
require SACM components to translate component-specific
information into the canonical format used by the message broker.
3. Common command/interaction structure: Just as PC architectures If each SACM component represents a set of capabilities, the
have a common set of commands to represent the different Integration Service represents the "fabric" by which all those
operations possible on a physical bus, there must be common services are woven together. The Integration Service acts as a
interactions that all SACM components can understand. message broker, combining a set of common message categories and
infrastructure to allow SACM components to communicate using a shared
set of interfaces. The Integration Service's brokering capabilities
enable the exchange of various information payloads, orchestration of
component capabilities, message routing and reliable delivery. The
Integration Service minimizes the dependencies from one system to
another through the loose coupling of applications through messaging.
SACM components will "attach" to the Integration Service either
through native support for the integration implementation, or through
the use of "adapters" which provide a proxied attachment.
3.2. Sub-Architectures The Integration Service should provide mechanisms for synchronous
"request/response"-style messaging, asynchronous "send and forget"
messaging, or publish/subscribe. It is the responsibility of the
Integration Service to coordinate and manage the sending and
receiving of messages. The Integration Service should allow
components the ability to directly connect and produce or consume
messages, or connect via message translators which can act as a
proxy, transforming messages from a component format to one
implementing a SACM data model.
The Figure 1 shows two components representing the architectural The Integration Service MUST provide routing capabilities for
workflows involved in a cooperative ecosystem of SACM components: payloads between producers and consumers. The Integration Service
Collection and Evaluation. The following section, Architectural MAY provide further capabilities within the payload delivery
Workflows (TBD - ADD LINK) further expands on these components/ pipeline. Examples of these capabilities include, but are not
workflows. limited to, intermediate processing, message transformation, type
conversion, validation, etc.
3.3. Downstream Uses 3.3. Downstream Uses
As depicted by Figure 1, a number of downstream uses exist in the As depicted by Figure 2, a number of downstream uses exist in the
cooperative ecosystem. Each notional SACM component represents cooperative ecosystem. Each notional SACM component represents
distinct sub-architectures which will exchange information via the distinct sub-architectures which will exchange information via the
component integration services, using interactions described in this integration services, using interactions described in this draft.
draft.
3.3.1. Reporting 3.3.1. Reporting
The Reporting component represents the capabilities of the SACM The Reporting component represents capabilities outside of the SACM
architecture dealing with the query and retrieval of collected architecture scope dealing with the query and retrieval of collected
posture attribute information, evaluation results, etc. in various posture attribute information, evaluation results, etc. in various
display formats that are useful to a wide range of stakeholders. display formats that are useful to a wide range of stakeholders.
3.3.2. Analytics 3.3.2. Analytics
The Analytics component represents the capabilities of the SACM The Analytics component represents capabilities outside of the SACM
architecture dealing with the discovery, interpretation, and architecture scope dealing with the discovery, interpretation, and
communication of any meaningful patterns of data in order to inform communication of any meaningful patterns of data in order to inform
effective decision making within the organization. effective decision making within the organization.
4. Sub-Architectural Components 3.4. Sub-Architectures
This section describes the workflows derived from the interactions Figure 2 shows two components representing sub-architectural roles
with the two sub-architectures depicted in the Figure 1: Collection involved in a cooperative ecosystem of SACM components: Collection
and Evaluation. and Evaluation.
4.1. Collection Sub-Architecture 3.4.1. Collection Sub-Architecture
The Collection sub-architecture, in a SACM context, is the mechanism The Collection sub-architecture, in a SACM context, is the mechanism
by which posture attributes are collected from applicable endpoints by which posture attributes are collected from applicable endpoints
and persisted to a repository, such as a configuration management and persisted to a repository, such as a configuration management
database (CMDB). Orchestration components will choreograph endpoint database (CMDB). Orchestration components will choreograph endpoint
data collection via interactions using the Component Integration data collection via interactions using the Integration Service as a
Service as a message broker. Instructions to perform endpoint data message broker. Instructions to perform endpoint data collection are
collection are directed to a Posture Collection Service capable of directed to a Posture Collection Service capable of performing
performing collection activities utilizing any number of methods, collection activities utilizing any number of methods, such as SNMP,
such as SNMP, NETCONF/RESTCONF, SSH, WinRM, or host-based. NETCONF/RESTCONF, SSH, WinRM, or host-based.
+----------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------+
| Orchestrator | | Orchestrator(s) |
+-----------+----------------------------------------------+ +-----------+----------------------------------------------+
| +------------------------------+ | +------------------------------+
| | Posture Attribute Repository | | | Posture Attribute Repository |
| +--------------^---------------+ | +--------------^---------------+
| | Perform |
| | Collection |
| Collected Data | Collected Data
| ^ | ^
| | | |
+-----------v------------------------------+---------------+ +-----------v------------------------------+---------------+
| Component Integration Service | | Integration Service |
+----+------------------^-----------+------------------^---+ +----+------------------^-----------+------------------^---+
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
v | v | v | v |
Perform Collected Perform Collected Perform Collected Perform Collected
Collection Data Collection Data Collection Data Collection Data
| ^ | ^ | ^ | ^
| | | | | | | |
| | | | +----v-----------------------+ +----v------------------+------+
+----v------------------+----+ +----v------------------+----+ | Posture Collection Service | | Endpoint |
| Posture Collection Service | | Posture Collection Service | +---^------------------------+ | +--------------------------+ |
+---^------------------------+ | | | | | |Posture Collection Service| |
| | | +------------------------+ | | v | +--------------------------+ |
| v | | Endpoint | | Events Queries +------------------------------+
Events Queries | +------------------------+ | ^ |
^ | +----------------------------+
| | | |
+---+-------------------v----+ +---+-------------------v----+
| Endpoint | | Endpoint |
+----------------------------+ +----------------------------+
Figure 2: Collection Sub-Architecture Figure 3: Decomposed Collection Sub-Architecture
4.1.1. Posture Collection Service 3.4.1.1. Posture Collection Service
The Posture Collection Service (PCS) is the SACM component The Posture Collection Service (PCS) is the SACM component
responsible for the collection of posture attributes from an endpoint responsible for the collection of posture attributes from an endpoint
or set of endpoints. A single PCS may be responsible for management or set of endpoints. A single PCS may be responsible for management
of posture attribute collection from many endpoints. The PCS will of posture attribute collection from many endpoints. The PCS will
interact with the Component Integration Service to receive collection interact with the Integration Service to receive collection
instructions and to provide collected posture data for persistence to instructions and to provide collected posture data for persistence to
the Posture Attribute Repository. Collection instructions may be the Posture Attribute Repository. Collection instructions may be
supplied in a variety of forms, including subscription to a publish/ supplied in a variety of forms, including subscription to a publish/
subscribe topic to which the Component Integration Service has subscribe topic to which the Integration Service has published
published instructions, via request/response-style synchronous instructions, via request/response-style synchronous messaging, or
messaging, or via asynchronous "send-and-forget" messaging. via asynchronous "send-and-forget" messaging. Collected posture
Collected posture information may then be supplied to the Component information may then be supplied to the Integration Service via
Integration Service via similar channels. The various interaction similar channels. The various interaction types are discussed later
types are discussed later in this draft (TBD). in this draft (TBD).
4.1.2. Endpoint 3.4.1.2. Endpoint
Building upon [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology], the SACM Collection Sub- Building upon [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology], the SACM Collection Sub-
Architecture augments the definition of an Endpoint as a component Architecture augments the definition of an Endpoint as a component
within an organization's management domain from which a Posture within an organization's management domain from which a Posture
Collection Service will collect relevant posture attributes. Collection Service will collect relevant posture attributes.
4.1.3. Posture Attribute Repository 3.4.1.3. Posture Attribute Repository
The Posture Attribute Repository is a SACM component responsible for The Posture Attribute Repository is a SACM component responsible for
the persistent storage of posture attributes collected via the persistent storage of posture attributes collected via
interactions between the Posture Collection Service and Endpoints. interactions between the Posture Collection Service and Endpoints.
4.2. Evaluation Sub-Architecture 3.4.1.4. Posture Collection Workflow
Posture collection may be triggered from a number of components, but
commonly begin either via event-based triggering on an endpoint or
through manual orchestration, both illustrated in Figure 3 above.
Once orchestration has provided the directive to perform collection,
posture collection services consume the directives. Posture
collection is invoked for those endpoints overseen by the respective
posture collection services. Collected data is then provided to the
Integration Service, with a directive to store that information in an
appropriate repository.
3.4.2. Evaluation Sub-Architecture
The Evaluation Sub-Architecture, in the SACM context, is the The Evaluation Sub-Architecture, in the SACM context, is the
mechanism by which policy, expressed in the form of expected state, mechanism by which policy, expressed in the form of expected state,
is compared with collected posture attributes to yield an evaluation is compared with collected posture attributes to yield an evaluation
result, that result being contextually dependent on the policy being result, that result being contextually dependent on the policy being
evaluated. evaluated.
+---------------------------------------+ +------------------+
| Orchestrator | | Collection | +-------------------------------+
+-------------------+-------------------+ | Sub-Architecture | | Evaluation Results Repository |
| +--------------+ +--------^---------+ +-----------------^-------------+
| | Orchestrator | | |
| +------+-------+ | |
+-------------------v-------------------+ | Perform Store Evaluation Results
| Component Integration Service | Perform Collection |
+--------+------------^--------^--------+ Evaluation | |
| | | | | |
| | | +------v----------------------v--------------------------------+-------------+
v | Retrieve +--------------------------------+ | Integration Service |
Perform | Posture <-------+ Posture Attribute Repository | +--------+----------------------------^----------------------^---------------+
Evaluation | Attributes +--------------------------------+ | | |
| | | | |
| | Perform Retrieve Posture |
| | +--------------------------------+ Evaluation Attributes Retrieve Policy
| +-----Retrieve <------+ Policy Repository | | | |
| Policy +--------------------------------+ | | |
| +--------v-------------------+ +-----v------+ +------v-----+
+--------v------------------------------+ | Posture Evaluation Service | | Posture | | Policy |
| Posture Evaluation Service | +----------------------------+ | Attribute | | Repository |
+----------------------------+----------+ | Repository | +------------+
| +------------+
v
Evaluation
Results
|
|
+--------------------v----------+
| Evaluation Results Repository |
+-------------------------------+
Figure 3: Evaluation Sub-Architecture Figure 4: Decomposed Evaluation Sub-Architecture
4.2.1. Posture Evaluation Service 3.4.2.1. Posture Evaluation Service
The Posture Evaluation Service represents the SACM component The Posture Evaluation Service (PES) represents the SACM component
responsible for coordinating the policy to be evaluated and the responsible for coordinating the policy to be evaluated and the
collected posture attributes relevant to that policy, as well as the collected posture attributes relevant to that policy, as well as the
comparison engine responsible for correctly determining compliance comparison engine responsible for correctly determining compliance
with the expected state. with the expected state.
4.2.2. Policy Repository 3.4.2.2. Policy Repository
The Policy Repository represents a persistent storage mechanism for The Policy Repository represents a persistent storage mechanism for
the policy to be assessed against collected posture attributes to the policy to be assessed against collected posture attributes to
determine if an endpoint meets the defined expected state. Examples determine if an endpoint meets the defined expected state. Examples
of information contained in a Policy Repository would be of information contained in a Policy Repository would be
Vulnerability Definition Data or configuration recommendations as Vulnerability Definition Data or configuration recommendations as
part of a CIS Benchmark or DISA STIG. part of a CIS Benchmark or DISA STIG.
4.2.3. Evaluation Results Repository 3.4.2.3. Evaluation Results Repository
The Evaluation Results Repository persists the information The Evaluation Results Repository persists the information
representing the results of a particular posture assessment, representing the results of a particular posture assessment,
indicating those posture attributes collected from various endpoints indicating those posture attributes collected from various endpoints
which either meet or do not meet the expected state defined by the which either meet or do not meet the expected state defined by the
assessed policy. Consideration should be made for the context of assessed policy. Consideration should be made for the context of
individual results. For example, meeting the expected state for a individual results. For example, meeting the expected state for a
configuration attribute indicates a correct configuration of the configuration attribute indicates a correct configuration of the
endpoint, whereas meeting an expected state for a vulnerable software endpoint, whereas meeting an expected state for a vulnerable software
version indicates an incorrect and therefore vulnerable version indicates an incorrect and therefore vulnerable
configuration. configuration.
5. Interactions 3.4.2.4. Posture Evaluation Workflow
SACM Components are intended to interact with other SACM Components. Posture evaluation is orchestrated through the Integration Service to
These interactions can be thought of, at the level of this the appropriate Posture Evaluation Service. The PES will, through
architectural approach, as the combination of interfaces with their coordination with the Integration Service, query both the Posture
supported operations. Each interaction will convey a payload of Attribute Repository and the Policy Repository to obtain relevant
information. The payload information is expected to contain sub- state data for comparison. If necessary, the PES may be required to
domain-specific characteristics and instructions. invoke further posture collection. Once all relevant posture
information has been collected, it is compared to expected state
based on applicable policy. Comparison results are then persisted to
an evaluation results repository for further downstream use and
analysis.
o *Publish/Subscribe*: A component publishes information to a 4. Interactions
messaging system and a set of other components, subscribed to that
information type, receive the published information.
o *Request/Response*: A request/response interaction can take a SACM Components are intended to interact with other SACM Components.
number of forms, but will always be synchronous operations These interactions can be thought of, at the architectural level, as
involving the requesting component waiting/blocking until a the combination of interfaces with their supported operations. Each
response is received from the requested component or a timeout interaction will convey a payload of information. The payload
occurs. information is expected to contain sub-domain-specific
characteristics and instructions.
* *Information Request*: An information request is simply one Two categories of interactions SHOULD be supported by the Integration
component requesting information from another component, such Service; broadcast interactions, and directed interactions.
as an Orchestrator requesting collection capabilities from a
Posture Collection Service.
* *Query*: A query interaction can take one of two forms, o *Broadcast*: A broadcast interaction, commonly known as "publish/
"selection" or "storage". subscribe", allows for a wider distribution of a message payload.
When a payload is published to a topic on the Integration Service,
all subscribers to that topic are alerted and may consume the
message payload. A broadcast interaction may also simulate a
"directed" interaction when a topic only has a single subscriber.
An example of a broadcast interaction could be to publish to a
topic that new configuration assessment content is available.
Subscribing consumers receive the notification, and proceed to
collect endpoint configuration posture based on the new content.
+ _Selection_: A component requests data from a repository. o *Directed*: The intent of a directed interaction is to enable
point-to-point communications between a producer and consumer,
through the standard interfaces provided by the Integration
Service. The provider component indicates which consumer is
intended to receive the payload, and the Integration Service
routes the payload directly to that consumer. Two "styles" of
directed interaction exist, differing only by the response from
the payload consumer:
+ _Storage_: A component provides data to be persisted in a * *Synchronous (Request/Response)*: Synchronous, request/response
repository. style interaction requires that the requesting component block
and wait for the receiving component to respond, or to time out
when that response is delayed past a given time threshold. A
synchronous interaction example may be querying a CMDB for
posture attribute information in order to perform an
evaluation.
o *Directive*: Commonly referred to as "Send-and-Forget", a * *Asynchronous (Fire-and-Forget)*: An asynchronous interaction
directive is an asynchronous interaction whereby a component involves the payload producer directing the message to a
requests information from another component but does not wait/ consumer, but not blocking or waiting for a response. This
block for a response. The receiving component may reply later via style of interaction allows the producer to continue on to
callbacks or further interactions, but it is not mandatory. other activities without the need to wait for responses. This
style is particularly useful when the interaction payload
invokes a potentially long-running task, such as data
collection, report generation, or policy evaluation. The
receiving component may reply later via callbacks or further
interactions, but it is not mandatory.
Each interaction will convey a payload of information. The payload Each interaction will convey a payload of information. The payload
information is expected to contain sub-domain-specific is expected to contain specific characteristics and instructions to
characteristics and instructions. be interpreted by receiving components.
6. Security Domain Workflows 5. Security Domain Workflows
This section describes three primary information security domains This section describes three primary information security domains
from which workflows may be derived: IT Asset Management, from which workflows may be derived: IT Asset Management,
Vulnerability Management, and Configuration Management. Vulnerability Management, and Configuration Management.
6.1. IT Asset Management 5.1. IT Asset Management
Information Technology asset management is easier said than done. Information Technology asset management is easier said than done.
The [CISCONTROLS] have two controls dealing with IT asset management. The [CISCONTROLS] have two controls dealing with IT asset management.
Control 1, Inventory and Control of Hardware Assets, states, Control 1, Inventory and Control of Hardware Assets, states,
"Actively manage (inventory, track, and correct) all hardware devices "Actively manage (inventory, track, and correct) all hardware devices
on the network so that only authorized devices are given access, and on the network so that only authorized devices are given access, and
unauthorized and unmanaged devices are found and prevented from unauthorized and unmanaged devices are found and prevented from
gaining access." Control 2, Inventory and Control of Software gaining access." Control 2, Inventory and Control of Software
Assets, states, "Actively manage (inventory, track, and correct) all Assets, states, "Actively manage (inventory, track, and correct) all
software on the network so that only authorized software is installed software on the network so that only authorized software is installed
and can execute, and that unauthorized and unmanaged software is and can execute, and that unauthorized and unmanaged software is
found and prevented from installation or execution." found and prevented from installation or execution."
In spirit, this covers all of the processing entities on your network In spirit, this covers all of the processing entities on your network
(as opposed to things like network cables, dongles, adapters, etc.), (as opposed to things like network cables, dongles, adapters, etc.),
whether physical or virtual. whether physical or virtual, on-premises or in the cloud.
5.1.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s)
TBD
5.1.1.1. Components
TBD
5.1.1.2. Capabilities
An IT asset management capability needs to be able to: An IT asset management capability needs to be able to:
o Identify and catalog new assets by executing Target Endpoint o Identify and catalog new assets by executing Target Endpoint
Discovery Tasks Discovery Tasks
o Provide information about its managed assets, including uniquely o Provide information about its managed assets, including uniquely
identifying information (for that enterprise) identifying information (for that enterprise)
o Handle software and/or hardware (including virtual assets) o Handle software and/or hardware (including virtual assets)
o Represent cloud hybrid environments o Represent cloud hybrid environments
6.2. Vulnerability Management 5.1.1.3. Workflow(s)
TBD
5.2. Vulnerability Management
Vulnerability management is a relatively established process. To Vulnerability management is a relatively established process. To
paraphrase the [CISCONTROLS], continuous vulnerability management is paraphrase the [CISCONTROLS], continuous vulnerability management is
the act of continuously acquiring, assessing, and taking subsequent the act of continuously acquiring, assessing, and taking subsequent
action on new information in order to identify and remediate action on new information in order to identify and remediate
vulnerabilities, therefore minimizing the window of opportunity for vulnerabilities, therefore minimizing the window of opportunity for
attackers. attackers.
A vulnerability assessment (i.e. vulnerability detection) is A vulnerability assessment (i.e. vulnerability detection) is
performed in two steps: performed in two steps:
skipping to change at page 13, line 48 skipping to change at page 14, line 36
by the endpoint management capabilities and available in a by the endpoint management capabilities and available in a
Repository. However, in other cases, the necessary endpoint Repository. However, in other cases, the necessary endpoint
information will not be readily available in a Repository and a information will not be readily available in a Repository and a
Collection Task will be triggered to perform collection from the Collection Task will be triggered to perform collection from the
target endpoint. Of course, some implementations of endpoint target endpoint. Of course, some implementations of endpoint
management capabilities may prefer to enable operators to perform management capabilities may prefer to enable operators to perform
this collection even when sufficient information can be provided by this collection even when sufficient information can be provided by
the endpoint management capabilities (e.g. there may be freshness the endpoint management capabilities (e.g. there may be freshness
requirements for information). requirements for information).
6.3. Configuration Management 5.2.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s)
TBD
5.2.1.1. Components
TBD
5.2.1.2. Capabilities
TBD
5.2.1.3. Workflow(s)
TBD
5.3. Configuration Management
Configuration management involves configuration assessment, which Configuration management involves configuration assessment, which
requires state assessment. The [CISCONTROLS] specify two high-level requires state assessment. The [CISCONTROLS] specify two high-level
controls concerning configuration management (Control 5 for non- controls concerning configuration management (Control 5 for non-
network devices and Control 11 for network devices). As an aside, network devices and Control 11 for network devices). As an aside,
these controls are listed separately because many enterprises have these controls are listed separately because many enterprises have
different organizations for managing network infrastructure and different organizations for managing network infrastructure and
workload endpoints. Merging the two controls results in the workload endpoints. Merging the two controls results in the
following paraphrasing: Establish, implement, and actively manage following paraphrasing: Establish, implement, and actively manage
(track, report on, correct) the security configuration of systems (track, report on, correct) the security configuration of systems
skipping to change at page 14, line 44 skipping to change at page 16, line 5
o Configuration assessment tool queries configuration state o Configuration assessment tool queries configuration state
repository to evaluate compliance repository to evaluate compliance
o If information is stale or unavailable, configuration assessment o If information is stale or unavailable, configuration assessment
tool triggers an ad hoc assessment tool triggers an ad hoc assessment
The SACM architecture needs to support varying deployment models to The SACM architecture needs to support varying deployment models to
accommodate the current state of the industry, but should strongly accommodate the current state of the industry, but should strongly
encourage event-driven approaches to monitoring configuration. encourage event-driven approaches to monitoring configuration.
7. Configuration Management Components and Capabilities 5.3.1. Components, Capabilities and Workflow(s)
This section provides more detail about the components and This section provides more detail about the components and
capabilities required when considering the aforementioned capabilities required when considering the aforementioned
configuration management workflow. configuration management workflow.
7.1. Components 5.3.1.1. Components
The following is a minimal list of SACM Components required to The following is a minimal list of SACM Components required to
implement the aforementioned configuration assessment workflow. implement the aforementioned configuration assessment workflow.
o Configuration Policy Feed: An external source of authoritative o Configuration Policy Feed: An external source of authoritative
configuration recommendations. configuration recommendations.
o Configuration Policy Repository: An internal repository of o Configuration Policy Repository: An internal repository of
enterprise standard configurations. enterprise standard configurations.
skipping to change at page 15, line 32 skipping to change at page 16, line 38
o Posture Attribute Repository: A component used for storing system o Posture Attribute Repository: A component used for storing system
posture attribute values. posture attribute values.
o Configuration Assessment Evaluator: A component responsible for o Configuration Assessment Evaluator: A component responsible for
evaluating system posture attribute values against expected evaluating system posture attribute values against expected
posture attribute values. posture attribute values.
o Configuration Assessment Results Repository: A component used for o Configuration Assessment Results Repository: A component used for
storing evaluation results. storing evaluation results.
7.2. Capabilities 5.3.1.2. Capabilities
Per [RFC8248], solutions MUST support capability negotiation. Per [RFC8248], solutions MUST support capability negotiation.
Components implementing specific interfaces and operations (i.e. Components implementing specific interfaces and operations (i.e.
interactions) will need a method of describing their capabilities to interactions) will need a method of describing their capabilities to
other components participating in the ecosystem; for example, "As a other components participating in the ecosystem; for example, "As a
component in the ecosystem, I can assess the configuration of component in the ecosystem, I can assess the configuration of
Windows, MacOS, and AWS using OVAL". Windows, MacOS, and AWS using OVAL".
8. Configuration Assessment Workflow 5.3.1.3. Configuration Assessment Workflow
This section describes the components and interactions in a basic This section describes the components and interactions in a basic
configuration assessment workflow. For simplicity, error conditions configuration assessment workflow. For simplicity, error conditions
are recognized as being necessary and are not depicted. When one are recognized as being necessary and are not depicted. When one
component messages another component, the message is expected to be component messages another component, the message is expected to be
handled appropriately unless there is an error condition, or other handled appropriately unless there is an error condition, or other
notification, messaged in return. notification, messaged in return.
+-------------+ +-------------+ +----------------+ +------------------+ +------------+
| Policy Feed | | Policy Feed | | Orchestrator | | Evaluation | | Evaluation |
+-----+-------+ +------+------+ +-------+--------+ | Sub-Architecture | | Results |
| 5.1 | | +---^----------+---+ | Repository |
1 | +----------------------------------------+ | | | | +------^-----+
| | | | | | | |
+-----v------+ 2 +----------------+ 5 +-----v-----+ 6 +------------+ 1.| 3.| 8.| 9.| 10.|
| Policy +------> Orchestrator +-----> Evaluator +------> Evaluation | | | | | |
| Repository | +-------+--------+ +-----^-----+ | Results | | | | | |
+------------+ | | | Repository | +------v-----------------v---------------+----------v-------------+-----+
| 3 | +------------+ | Integration Service |
| | 5.2 +-----+----------------------------------+----------^---------+------^--+
+----------|--------+ | | | | | |
| +--------v------+ | | | | | | |
| | Collector | | | 2.| 4.| 5.| 6.| 7.|
| +-------+-------+ | 4 +------------+ | | | | |
| | +-------> Posture | | | | | |
| +-------+-------+ | | Attribute | +-----v------+ +---v----------+---+ +--v------+--+
| | Target System | | | Repository | | Policy | | Collection | | Posture |
| +---------------+ | +------------+ | Repository | | Sub-Architecture | | Attribute |
+-------------------+ +------------+ +------------------+ | Repository |
Collection Sub-Architecture +------------+
Figure 4: Configuration Assessment Component Interactions Figure 5: Configuration Assessment Component Interactions
Figure 4 depicts configuration assessment components and their Figure 5 depicts configuration assessment components and their
interactions, which are further described below. interactions, which are further described below.
1. Policy is stored in the Policy Repository: TODO - add specific 1. A policy feed provides a configuration assessment policy payload
interaction options here. to the Integration Service.
2. The Orchestrator obtains collection information from the Policy 2. The Policy Repository, a consumer of Policy Feed information,
Repository: TODO - add specific interaction options here. receives and persists the Policy Feed's payload.
3. The Orchestrator initiates collection to be performed by the 3. Orchestration component(s), either manually invoked, scheduled,
Collection Sub-Architecture: TODO - add specific interaction or event-based, publish a payload to begin the configuration
options here. assessment process.
4. Collected posture attributes are stored n the Posture Attribute 4. If necessary, Collection Sub-Architecture components may be
Repository: TODO - add specific interaction options here. invoked to collect neeeded posture attribute information.
5. The Orchestrator initiates the Evaluator (optionally with 5. If necessary, the Collection Sub-Architecture will provide
evaluation information gathered from the Policy Repository): TODO collected posture attributes to the Integration Service for
- add specific interaction options here persistence to the Posture Attribute Repository.
1. The Evaluator obtains evaluation information from the Policy 6. The Posture Attribute Repository will consume a payload querying
Repository (optionally): TODO - add specific interaction for relevant posture attribute information.
options here
2. The Evaluator obtains relevant posture attributes from the 7. The Posture Attribute Repository will provide the requested
Posture Attribute Repository: TODO - add specific interaction information to the Integration Service, allowing further
options here orchestration payloads requesting the Evaluation Sub-
Architecture perform evaluation tasks.
6. Evaluation results are stored in the Evaluation Results 8. The Evaluation Sub-Architecture consumes the evaluation payload
Repository: TODO - add specific interaction options here and performs component-specific state comparison operations to
produce evaluation results.
9. A payload containing evaluation results are provided by the
Evaluation Sub-Architecture to the Integration Service
10. Evaluation results are consumed by/persisted to the Evaluation
Results Repository
In the above flow, the payload information is expected to convey the In the above flow, the payload information is expected to convey the
context required by the receiving component for the action being context required by the receiving component for the action being
taken under different circumstances. For example, the Tell message taken under different circumstances. For example, a directed message
sent from an Orchestrator to a Collection sub-architecture might be sent from an Orchestrator to a Collection sub-architecture might be
telling that Collector to watch a specific posture attribute and telling that Collector to watch a specific posture attribute and
report only specific detected changes to the Posture Attribute report only specific detected changes to the Posture Attribute
Repository, or it might be telling the Collector to gather that Repository, or it might be telling the Collector to gather that
posture attribute immediately. Such details are expected to be posture attribute immediately. Such details are expected to be
handled as part of that payload, not as part of the architecture handled as part of that payload, not as part of the architecture
described herein. described herein.
9. Privacy Considerations 6. Privacy Considerations
TODO TODO
10. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
TODO TODO
11. IANA Considerations 8. IANA Considerations
TODO: Revamp this section after the configuration assessment workflow TODO: Revamp this section after the configuration assessment workflow
is fleshed out. is fleshed out.
IANA tables can probably be used to make life a little easier. We IANA tables can probably be used to make life a little easier. We
would like a place to enumerate: would like a place to enumerate:
o Capability/operation semantics o Capability/operation semantics
o SACM Component implementation identifiers o SACM Component implementation identifiers
skipping to change at page 17, line 42 skipping to change at page 19, line 4
TODO: Revamp this section after the configuration assessment workflow TODO: Revamp this section after the configuration assessment workflow
is fleshed out. is fleshed out.
IANA tables can probably be used to make life a little easier. We IANA tables can probably be used to make life a little easier. We
would like a place to enumerate: would like a place to enumerate:
o Capability/operation semantics o Capability/operation semantics
o SACM Component implementation identifiers o SACM Component implementation identifiers
o SACM Component versions o SACM Component versions
o Associations of SACM Components (and versions) to specific o Associations of SACM Components (and versions) to specific
Capabilities Capabilities
o Collection sub-architecture Identification o Collection sub-architecture Identification
12. References 9. References
12.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp] [I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp]
Haynes, D., Fitzgerald-McKay, J., and L. Lorenzin, Haynes, D., Fitzgerald-McKay, J., and L. Lorenzin,
"Endpoint Posture Collection Profile", draft-ietf-sacm- "Endpoint Posture Collection Profile", draft-ietf-sacm-
ecp-05 (work in progress), June 2019. ecp-05 (work in progress), June 2019.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
skipping to change at page 18, line 31 skipping to change at page 19, line 37
Attributes (SWIMA) for PA-TNC", RFC 8412, Attributes (SWIMA) for PA-TNC", RFC 8412,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8412, July 2018, DOI 10.17487/RFC8412, July 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8412>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8412>.
[RFC8600] Cam-Winget, N., Ed., Appala, S., Pope, S., and P. Saint- [RFC8600] Cam-Winget, N., Ed., Appala, S., Pope, S., and P. Saint-
Andre, "Using Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol Andre, "Using Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
(XMPP) for Security Information Exchange", RFC 8600, (XMPP) for Security Information Exchange", RFC 8600,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8600, June 2019, DOI 10.17487/RFC8600, June 2019,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8600>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8600>.
12.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[CISCONTROLS] [CISCONTROLS]
"CIS Controls v7.0", n.d., "CIS Controls v7.0", n.d.,
<https://www.cisecurity.org/controls>. <https://www.cisecurity.org/controls>.
[draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content] [draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content]
Birkholz, H. and N. Cam-Winget, "YANG subscribed Birkholz, H. and N. Cam-Winget, "YANG subscribed
notifications via SACM Statements", n.d., notifications via SACM Statements", n.d.,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/ <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-
draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content-01>. content-01>.
[HACK100] "IETF 100 Hackathon - Vulnerability Scenario EPCP+XMPP", [HACK100] "IETF 100 Hackathon - Vulnerability Scenario EPCP+XMPP",
n.d., <https://www.github.com/sacmwg/vulnerability- n.d., <https://www.github.com/sacmwg/vulnerability-
scenario/ietf-hackathon>. scenario/ietf-hackathon>.
[HACK101] "IETF 101 Hackathon - Configuration Assessment XMPP", [HACK101] "IETF 101 Hackathon - Configuration Assessment XMPP",
n.d., <https://www.github.com/CISecurity/Integration>. n.d., <https://www.github.com/CISecurity/Integration>.
[HACK102] "IETF 102 Hackathon - YANG Collection on Traditional [HACK102] "IETF 102 Hackathon - YANG Collection on Traditional
Endpoints", n.d., Endpoints", n.d.,
skipping to change at page 24, line 33 skipping to change at page 25, line 43
Evaluator Repository | | | | | | Evaluator Repository | | | | | |
+------+ +--------+ | +-----------+ |<-------| +-----------+ | +------+ +--------+ | +-----------+ |<-------| +-----------+ |
| | | | | | Posture | | report | | Posture | | | | | | | | Posture | | report | | Posture | |
| | | | | | Collection| | | | Collection| | | | | | | | Collection| | | | Collection| |
| |<-----> | |<-----| | Manager | | query | | Engine | | | |<-----> | |<-----| | Manager | | query | | Engine | |
| |request/| | store| +-----------+ |------->| +-----------+ | | |request/| | store| +-----------+ |------->| +-----------+ |
| |respond | | | | | | | |respond | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+------+ +--------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +------+ +--------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
Figure 5: EPCP Collection Architecture Figure 6: EPCP Collection Architecture
In Figure 5, any of the communications between the Posture Manager In Figure 6, any of the communications between the Posture Manager
and EPCP components to its left could be performed directly or and EPCP components to its left could be performed directly or
indirectly using a given message transfer mechanism. For example, indirectly using a given message transfer mechanism. For example,
the pub/sub interface between the Orchestrator and the Posture the pub/sub interface between the Orchestrator and the Posture
Manager could be using a proprietary method or using [RFC8600] or Manager could be using a proprietary method or using [RFC8600] or
some other pub/sub mechanism. Similarly, the store connection from some other pub/sub mechanism. Similarly, the store connection from
the Posture Manager to the Repository could be performed internally the Posture Manager to the Repository could be performed internally
to a given implementation, via a RESTful API invocation over HTTPS, to a given implementation, via a RESTful API invocation over HTTPS,
or even over a pub/sub mechanism. or even over a pub/sub mechanism.
Our assertion is that the Evaluator, Repository, Orchestrator, and Our assertion is that the Evaluator, Repository, Orchestrator, and
skipping to change at page 26, line 41 skipping to change at page 27, line 51
extend the core XMPP structure to allow OVAL collection extend the core XMPP structure to allow OVAL collection
instructions (OVAL objects) to inform posture attribute instructions (OVAL objects) to inform posture attribute
collection. Collected system characteristics can be provided to collection. Collected system characteristics can be provided to
the Concise MAP XMPP adapter using all 3 available XMPP the Concise MAP XMPP adapter using all 3 available XMPP
capabilities: Publish/Subscribe, Information Query (iq - request/ capabilities: Publish/Subscribe, Information Query (iq - request/
response) stanzas, or direct Message stanzas. CDDL was created to response) stanzas, or direct Message stanzas. CDDL was created to
map collected posture attributes to Concise MAP structure. The map collected posture attributes to Concise MAP structure. The
XMPP adapter translates the incoming system characteristics and XMPP adapter translates the incoming system characteristics and
stores the information in the MAP. stores the information in the MAP.
Figure 6 depicts a slightly more detailed view of the architecture Figure 7 depicts a slightly more detailed view of the architecture
(within the enterprise boundary) - one that fosters the development (within the enterprise boundary) - one that fosters the development
of a pluggable ecosystem of cooperative tools. Existing collection of a pluggable ecosystem of cooperative tools. Existing collection
mechanisms can be brought into this architecture by specifying the mechanisms can be brought into this architecture by specifying the
interface of the collector and creating the XMPP-Grid Connector interface of the collector and creating the XMPP-Grid Connector
binding for that interface. binding for that interface.
Additionally, while not directly depicted in Figure 6, this Additionally, while not directly depicted in Figure 7, this
architecture does allow point-to-point interfaces. In fact, architecture does allow point-to-point interfaces. In fact,
[RFC8600] provides brokering capabilities to facilitate such point- [RFC8600] provides brokering capabilities to facilitate such point-
to-point data transfers). Additionally, each of the SACM Components to-point data transfers). Additionally, each of the SACM Components
depicted in Figure 6 may be a provider, a consumer, or both, depicted in Figure 7 may be a provider, a consumer, or both,
depending on the workflow in context. depending on the workflow in context.
+--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+
| Orchestrator | | Repositories | | Orchestrator | | Repositories |
+------^-------+ +------^-------+ +------^-------+ +------^-------+
| | | |
| | | |
+-------v--------------------------v--------+ +-----------------+ +-------v--------------------------v--------+ +-----------------+
| XMPP-Grid+ <-----> Downstream Uses | | XMPP-Grid+ <-----> Downstream Uses |
+------------------------^------------------+ +-----------------+ +------------------------^------------------+ +-----------------+
skipping to change at page 27, line 26 skipping to change at page 28, line 35
| |
+-------v------+ +-------v------+
| XMPP-Grid | | XMPP-Grid |
| Connector(s) | | Connector(s) |
+------^-------+ +------^-------+
| |
+------v-------+ +------v-------+
| Collector(s) | | Collector(s) |
+--------------+ +--------------+
Figure 6: XMPP-based Architecture Figure 7: XMPP-based Architecture
[RFC8600] details a number of XMPP extensions (XEPs) that MUST be [RFC8600] details a number of XMPP extensions (XEPs) that MUST be
utilized to meet the needs of [RFC7632] and [RFC8248]: utilized to meet the needs of [RFC7632] and [RFC8248]:
o Service Discovery (XEP-0030): Service Discovery allows XMPP o Service Discovery (XEP-0030): Service Discovery allows XMPP
entities to discover information about other XMPP entities. Two entities to discover information about other XMPP entities. Two
kinds of information can be discovered: the identity and kinds of information can be discovered: the identity and
capabilities of an entity, such as supported features, and items capabilities of an entity, such as supported features, and items
associated with an entity. associated with an entity.
o Publish-Subscribe (XEP-0060): The PubSub extension enables o Publish-Subscribe (XEP-0060): The PubSub extension enables
entities to create nodes (topics) at a PubSub service and publish entities to create nodes (topics) at a PubSub service and publish
information at those nodes. Once published, an event notification information at those nodes. Once published, an event notification
is broadcast to all entities that have subscribed to that node. is broadcast to all entities that have subscribed to that node.
At this point, [RFC8600] specifies fewer features than SACM requires, At this point, [RFC8600] specifies fewer features than SACM requires,
and there are other XMPP extensions (XEPs) we need to consider to and there are other XMPP extensions (XEPs) we need to consider to
meet the needs of [RFC7632] and [RFC8248]. In Figure 6 we therefore meet the needs of [RFC7632] and [RFC8248]. In Figure 7 we therefore
use "XMPP-Grid+" to indicate something more than [RFC8600] alone, use "XMPP-Grid+" to indicate something more than [RFC8600] alone,
even though we are not yet fully confident in the exact set of XMPP- even though we are not yet fully confident in the exact set of XMPP-
related extensions we will require. The authors propose work to related extensions we will require. The authors propose work to
extend (or modify) [RFC8600] to include additional XEPs - possibly extend (or modify) [RFC8600] to include additional XEPs - possibly
the following: the following:
o Entity Capabilities (XEP-0115): This extension defines the methods o Entity Capabilities (XEP-0115): This extension defines the methods
for broadcasting and dynamically discovering an entities' for broadcasting and dynamically discovering an entities'
capabilities. This information is transported via standard XMPP capabilities. This information is transported via standard XMPP
presence. Example capabilities that could be discovered could presence. Example capabilities that could be discovered could
skipping to change at page 29, line 30 skipping to change at page 30, line 38
useful in intermittent connection scenarios, or when entities useful in intermittent connection scenarios, or when entities
disconnect and reconnect to the ecosystem. disconnect and reconnect to the ecosystem.
o PubSub Chaining (XEP-0253): This extension describes the o PubSub Chaining (XEP-0253): This extension describes the
federation of publishing nodes, enabling a publish node of one federation of publishing nodes, enabling a publish node of one
server to be a subscriber to a publishing node of another server. server to be a subscriber to a publishing node of another server.
C.1. Example Architecture using XMPP-Grid and Endpoint Posture C.1. Example Architecture using XMPP-Grid and Endpoint Posture
Collection Protocol Collection Protocol
Figure 7 depicts a further detailed view of the architecture Figure 8 depicts a further detailed view of the architecture
including the Endpoint Posture Collection Protocol as the collection including the Endpoint Posture Collection Protocol as the collection
subsystem, illustrating the idea of a pluggable ecosystem of subsystem, illustrating the idea of a pluggable ecosystem of
cooperative tools. cooperative tools.
+--------------------+ +--------------------+
| Feeds/Repositories | | Feeds/Repositories |
| of External Data | | of External Data |
+--------------------+ +--------------------+
| |
********************v************************* Enterprise Boundary ************ ********************v*********************** Boundary of Responsibility *******
* | * * | *
* +--------------+ | +-------------------+ +-------------+ * * +--------------+ | +-------------------+ +-------------+ *
* | Orchestrator | | | Posture Attr Repo | | Policy Repo | * * | Orchestrator | | | Posture Attr Repo | | Policy Repo | *
* +------^-------+ | +---------^---------+ +---^---------+ * * +------^-------+ | +---------^---------+ +---^---------+ *
* | | | | +----------------+ * * | | | | +----------------+ *
* | | | | | Downstream Uses| * * | | | | | Downstream Uses| *
* | | | | | +-----------+ | * * | | | | | +-----------+ | *
* +------v---------v-----------v---------------v--+ | |Evaluations| | * * +------v---------v-----------v---------------v--+ | |Evaluations| | *
* | XMPP-Grid <-------> +-----------+ | * * | XMPP-Grid <-------> +-----------+ | *
* +----------------^-------------------^----------+ | +-----------+ | * * +----------------^-------------------^----------+ | +-----------+ | *
skipping to change at page 30, line 48 skipping to change at page 31, line 48
* | | | * * | | | *
* | +-----------|-------------------------Endpoint or Endpoint Proxy-------+| * * | +-----------|-------------------------Endpoint or Endpoint Proxy-------+| *
* | |+----------v------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || * * | |+----------v------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || *
* | || Communications Client | | Posture Client | | Posture Collector(s) | || * * | || Communications Client | | Posture Client | | Posture Collector(s) | || *
* | |+-----------------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || * * | |+-----------------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || *
* | +----------------------------------------------------------------------+| * * | +----------------------------------------------------------------------+| *
* +-----------------Endpoint Posture Collection Profile---------------------+ * * +-----------------Endpoint Posture Collection Profile---------------------+ *
* * * *
******************************************************************************* *******************************************************************************
Figure 7: XMPP-based Architecture including EPCP Figure 8: XMPP-based Architecture including EPCP
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Adam W. Montville Adam W. Montville
Center for Internet Security Center for Internet Security
31 Tech Valley Drive 31 Tech Valley Drive
East Greenbush, NY 12061 East Greenbush, NY 12061
USA USA
Email: adam.montville.sdo@gmail.com Email: adam.montville.sdo@gmail.com
 End of changes. 100 change blocks. 
319 lines changed or deleted 387 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.47. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/