draft-ietf-roll-p2p-measurement-02.txt   draft-ietf-roll-p2p-measurement-03.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force M. Goyal, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force M. Goyal, Ed.
Internet-Draft University of Wisconsin Internet-Draft University of Wisconsin
Intended status: Experimental Milwaukee Intended status: Experimental Milwaukee
Expires: May 1, 2012 E. Baccelli Expires: September 5, 2012 E. Baccelli
INRIA INRIA
A. Brandt A. Brandt
Sigma Designs Sigma Designs
J. Martocci J. Martocci
Johnson Controls Johnson Controls
October 29, 2011 March 4, 2012
A Mechanism to Measure the Quality of a Point-to-point Route in a Low A Mechanism to Measure the Quality of a Point-to-point Route in a Low
Power and Lossy Network Power and Lossy Network
draft-ietf-roll-p2p-measurement-02 draft-ietf-roll-p2p-measurement-03
Abstract Abstract
This document specifies a mechanism that enables an RPL router to This document specifies a mechanism that enables an RPL router to
measure the quality of an existing route towards another RPL router measure the quality of an existing route towards another RPL router
in a low power and lossy network, thereby allowing the router to in a low power and lossy network, thereby allowing the router to
decide if it wants to initiate the discovery of a better route. decide if it wants to initiate the discovery of a better route.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
skipping to change at page 1, line 40 skipping to change at page 1, line 40
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on May 1, 2012. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 5, 2012.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. The Measurement Object (MO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. The Measurement Object (MO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. Format of the base MO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Format of the base MO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. Secure MO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Secure MO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Originating a Measurement Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Originating a Measurement Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1. To Measure A Hop-by-hop Route with a Global 4.1. To Measure A Hop-by-hop Route with a Global
RPLInstanceID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 RPLInstanceID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2. To Measure A Hop-by-hop Route with a Local 4.2. To Measure A Hop-by-hop Route with a Local
RPLInstanceID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 RPLInstanceID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.3. To Measure A Source Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.3. To Measure A Source Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5. Processing a Measurement Request at an Intermediate Router . . 12 5. Processing a Measurement Request at an Intermediate Router . . 12
5.1. Determining Next Hop For An MO Measuring A Source Route . 13 5.1. Determining Next Hop For An MO Measuring A Source Route . 13
5.2. Determining Next Hop For An MO Measuring A Hop-by-hop 5.2. Determining Next Hop For An MO Measuring A Hop-by-hop
Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6. Processing a Measurement Request at the Target . . . . . . . . 14 6. Processing a Measurement Request at the Target . . . . . . . . 14
7. Processing a Measurement Reply at the Origin . . . . . . . . . 15 7. Processing a Measurement Reply at the Origin . . . . . . . . . 15
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Point to point (P2P) communication between arbitrary routers in a Low Point to point (P2P) communication between arbitrary routers in a Low
power and Lossy Network (LLN) is a key requirement for many power and Lossy Network (LLN) is a key requirement for many
applications [RFC5826][RFC5867]. RPL [I-D.ietf-roll-rpl], the IPv6 applications [RFC5826][RFC5867]. RPL [I-D.ietf-roll-rpl], the IPv6
Routing Protocol for LLNs, constrains the LLN topology to a Directed Routing Protocol for LLNs, constrains the LLN topology to a Directed
Acyclic Graph (DAG) built to optimize routing costs to reach the Acyclic Graph (DAG) built to optimize the routing costs to reach the
DAG's root and requires the P2P routes to use the DAG links only. DAG's root. The P2P routing functionality, available under RPL, has
Such P2P routes may potentially be suboptimal and may lead to traffic the following key limitations:
congestion near the DAG root. Additionally, RPL is a proactive
routing protocol and hence all P2P routes must be established ahead
of the time they are used.
To ameliorate situations, where RPL's P2P routing functionality does o The P2P routes are restricted to use the DAG links only. Such P2P
not meet the requirements, [I-D.ietf-roll-p2p-rpl] describes a routes may potentially be suboptimal and may lead to traffic
reactive mechanism to discover P2P routes that meet the specified congestion near the DAG root.
performance criteria. This mechanism, henceforth referred to as the
reactive P2P route discovery, allows the specification of routing o RPL is a proactive routing protocol and hence requires all P2P
constraints [I-D.ietf-roll-routing-metrics], that the discovered routes to be established ahead of the time they are used. Many
routes must satisfy. In some cases, the application requirements or LLN applications require the ability to establish P2P routes "on
the LLN's topological features allow a router to infer the routing demand".
constraints intrinsically. For example, the application may require
the end-to-end loss rate and/or latency on the route to be below To ameliorate situations, where the core RPL's P2P routing
certain thresholds or the LLN topology may be such that a router can functionality does not meet the application requirements,
safely assume its destination to be less than a certain number of [I-D.ietf-roll-p2p-rpl] describes P2P-RPL, an extension to core RPL.
hops away from itself. P2P-RPL provides a reactive mechanism to discover P2P routes that
meet the specified routing constraints
[I-D.ietf-roll-routing-metrics]. In some cases, the application
requirements or the LLN's topological features allow a router to
infer these routing constraints implicitly. For example, the
application may require the end-to-end loss rate and/or latency along
the route to be below certain thresholds or the LLN topology may be
such that a router can safely assume its destination to be less than
a certain number of hops away from itself.
When the existing routes are deemed unsatisfactory but the router When the existing routes are deemed unsatisfactory but the router
does not intrinsically know the routing constraints to be used in P2P does not implicitly know the routing constraints to be used in P2P-
route discovery, it may be necessary for the router to determine the RPL route discovery, it may be necessary for the router to measure
aggregated values of the routing metrics along the existing route. the aggregated values of the routing metrics along the existing
This knowledge will allow the router to frame reasonable routing route. This knowledge will allow the router to frame reasonable
constraints for use in P2P route discovery to determine a better routing constraints to discover a better route using P2P-RPL. For
route. For example, if the router determines the aggregate ETX example, if the router determines the aggregate ETX
[I-D.ietf-roll-routing-metrics] along an existing route to be "x", it [I-D.ietf-roll-routing-metrics] along an existing route to be "x", it
can use "ETX < x*y", where y is a certain fraction, as the routing can use "ETX < x*y", where y is a certain fraction, as the routing
constraint for use in P2P route discovery. Note that it is important constraint for use in P2P-RPL route discovery. Note that it is
that the routing constraints are not overly strict; otherwise the P2P important that the routing constraints are not overly strict;
route discovery may fail even though a route, much better than the otherwise the P2P-RPL route discovery may fail even though a route,
one currently being used, exists. much better than the one currently being used, exists.
This document specifies a mechanism that enables an RPL router to This document specifies a mechanism that enables an RPL router to
measure the aggregated values of the routing metrics along an measure the aggregated values of the routing metrics along an
existing route to another RPL router in an LLN, thereby allowing the existing route to another RPL router in an LLN, thereby allowing the
router to decide if it wants to initiate the reactive discovery of a router to decide if it wants to discover a better route using P2P-RPL
more optimal route and determine the routing constraints to be used and determine the routing constraints to be used for this purpose.
for this purpose.
1.1. Terminology 1.1. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
[RFC2119]. [RFC2119].
Additionally, this document uses terminology from Additionally, this document uses terminology from
[I-D.ietf-roll-terminology], [I-D.ietf-roll-rpl] and [I-D.ietf-roll-terminology], [I-D.ietf-roll-rpl] and
[I-D.ietf-roll-p2p-rpl]. The following terms, originally defined in [I-D.ietf-roll-p2p-rpl]. The following terms, originally defined in
[I-D.ietf-roll-p2p-rpl], are redefined in the following manner. [I-D.ietf-roll-p2p-rpl], are redefined in the following manner.
Origin: The origin refers to the router that initiates the Origin: The origin refers to the RPL router that initiates the
measurement process defined in this document and is the start point measurement process defined in this document and is the start point
of the P2P route being measured. of the P2P route being measured.
Target: The target refers to the router at the end point of the P2P Target: The target refers to the RPL router at the end point of the
route being measured. P2P route being measured.
Intermediate Router: A router, other than the origin and the target, Intermediate Router: An RPL router, other than the origin and the
on the P2P route being measured. target, on the P2P route being measured.
2. Overview 2. Overview
The mechanism described in this document can be used by an origin in The mechanism described in this document can be used by an origin in
an RPL domain to measure the aggregated values of the routing metrics an LLN to measure the aggregated values of the routing metrics along
along a P2P route to a target within the same RPL domain. Such a a P2P route to a target within the LLN. Such a route could be a
route could be a source route or a hop-by-hop route established using source route or a hop-by-hop route established using RPL
RPL [I-D.ietf-roll-rpl] or the reactive P2P route discovery [I-D.ietf-roll-rpl] or P2P-RPL [I-D.ietf-roll-p2p-rpl]. The origin
[I-D.ietf-roll-p2p-rpl]. The origin sends a Measurement Request sends a Measurement Request message along the route. The Measurement
message along the route. The Measurement Request accumulates the Request accumulates the values of the routing metrics as it travels
values of the routing metrics as it travels towards the target. Upon towards the target. Upon receiving the Measurement Request, the
receiving the Measurement Request, the target unicasts a Measurement target unicasts a Measurement Reply message, carrying the accumulated
Reply message, carrying the accumulated values of the routing values of the routing metrics, back to the origin. Optionally, the
metrics, back to the origin. Optionally, the origin may allow an origin may allow an intermediate router to generate the Measurement
intermediate route to generate the Measurement Reply if it already Reply if it already knows the relevant routing metric values along
knows the relevant routing metric values along rest of the route. rest of the route.
3. The Measurement Object (MO) 3. The Measurement Object (MO)
This document defines two new RPL Control Message types, the This document defines two new RPL Control Message types, the
Measurement Object (MO), with code 0x06 (to be confirmed by IANA), Measurement Object (MO), with code 0x06 (to be confirmed by IANA),
and the Secure MO, with code 0x86 (to be confirmed by IANA). An MO and the Secure MO, with code 0x86 (to be confirmed by IANA). An MO
serves as both Measurement Request and Measurement Reply. serves as both Measurement Request and Measurement Reply.
3.1. Format of the base MO 3.1. Format of the base MO
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. Metric Container Option(s) . . Metric Container Option(s) .
. . . .
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 1: Format of the base Measurement Object (MO) Figure 1: Format of the base Measurement Object (MO)
The format of a base MO is shown in Figure 1. A base MO consists of The format of a base MO is shown in Figure 1. A base MO consists of
the following fields: the following fields:
o RPLInstanceID: Relevant only if the MO travels along a hop-by-hop o RPLInstanceID: The origin sets this field to indicate the
route. This field identifies the RPLInstanceID of the hop-by-hop RPLInstanceID of the route being measured. An intermediate router
route being measured. If the route being measured is a source MUST discard the received MO message if it is not aware of the RPL
route, this field MUST be set to 10000000 on transmission and Instance specified by the RPLInstanceID value. If the
ignored on reception. RPLInstanceID is a local value, the RPL Instance is identified by
both the RPLInstanceID and the Origin Address fields. An
intermediate router MUST set the RPLInstanceID field in the
outgoing MO packet to the same value that it had in the
corresponding incoming MO packet.
o Compr: In many LLN deployments, IPv6 addresses share a well known, o Compr: In many LLN deployments, IPv6 addresses share a well known,
common prefix. In such cases, the common prefix can be elided common prefix. In such cases, the common prefix can be elided
when specifying IPv6 addresses in Origin/Target Address fields and when specifying IPv6 addresses in the Origin/Target Address fields
the Address vector. The "Compr" field is a 4-bit unsigned integer and the Address vector. The "Compr" field, a 4-bit unsigned
that indicates the number of prefix octets that are elided from integer, is set by the origin to specify the number of prefix
the IPv6 addresses in Origin/Target Address fields and the Address octets that are elided from the IPv6 addresses in Origin/Target
vector. The Compr value will be 0 if full IPv6 addresses are Address fields and the Address vector. An intermediate router
carried in the Origin/Target Address fields and the Address MUST set the Compr field in the outgoing MO packet to the same
vector. value that it had in the corresponding incoming MO packet. The
Compr value will be 0 if full IPv6 addresses are carried in the
Origin/Target Address fields and the Address vector.
o Type (T): This flag is set if the MO represents a Measurement o Type (T): This flag is set to 1 if the MO represents a Measurement
Request. The flag is cleared if the MO is a Measurement Reply. Request. The flag is cleared to 0 if the MO is a Measurement
Reply.
o Hop-by-hop (H): This flag is set if the MO travels along a hop-by- o Hop-by-hop (H): The origin sets this flag to 1 if the route being
hop route. In that case, the hop-by-hop route is identified by measured is a hop-by-hop route. In that case, the hop-by-hop
the RPLInstanceID and, if the RPLInstanceID is a local value, the route is identified by the RPLInstanceID and, if the RPLInstanceID
Origin Address serving as the DODAGID. This flag is cleared if is a local value, the Origin Address serving as the DODAGID. The
the MO travels along a source route specified in the Address origin resets this flag to 0 if the route being measured is a
vector. Note that, in case the P2P route being measured lies source route specified in the Address vector. An intermediate
along a non-storing DAG, an MO message may travel along a hop-by- router MUST set the H flag in an outgoing MO packet to the same
hop route till it reaches the DAG's root, which then sends it value that it had in the corresponding incoming MO packet unless
along a source route to its destination. In that case, the DAG the router is the root of the non-storing global DAG, identified
root will reset the H flag and also insert the source route to the by the RPLInstanceID, along which the MO packet had been traveling
destination inside the Address vector. so far. In that case, the DAG root MUST reset the H flag to 0 in
the outgoing MO packet if it intends to insert a source route in
the Address vector to direct the MO packet towards the target.
o Accumulate Route (A): This flag is relevant only if the MO o Accumulate Route (A): This flag is relevant only if the MO
represents a Measurement Request that travels along a hop-by-hop represents a Measurement Request that travels along a hop-by-hop
route represented by a local RPLInstanceID. In other words, this route represented by a local RPLInstanceID. In other words, this
flag MAY be set only if T = 1, H = 1 and the RPLInstanceID field flag MAY be set to 1 only if T = 1, H = 1 and the RPLInstanceID
has a local value. Otherwise, this flag MUST be cleared. A value field has a local value. Otherwise, this flag MUST be cleared to
1 in this flag indicates that the Measurement Request MUST 0. A value 1 in this flag indicates that the Measurement Request
accumulate a source route for use by the target to send the MUST accumulate a source route for use by the target to send the
Measurement Reply back to the origin. In this case, the Measurement Reply back to the origin. In this case, an
intermediate routers MUST add their IPv6 addresses (after eliding intermediate router MUST add its unicast IPv6 address (after
Compr number of prefix octets) to the Address vector in the manner eliding Compr number of prefix octets) to the Address vector in
specified later. the manner specified later. Route accumulation is not allowed
when the Measurement Request travels along a hop-by-hop route with
a global RPLInstanceID, i.e., along a global DAG, because:
* The DAG's root may need the Address vector to insert a source
route to the target; and
* The target can presumably reach the origin along this global
DAG.
o Reverse (R): This flag is relevant only if the MO represents a o Reverse (R): This flag is relevant only if the MO represents a
Measurement Request that travels along a source route, specified Measurement Request that travels along a source route, specified
in the Address vector, to the target. In other words, this flag in the Address vector, to the target. In other words, this flag
MAY be set only if T = 1 and H = 0. Otherwise, this flag MUST be MAY be set to 1 only if T = 1 and H = 0. Otherwise, this flag
cleared. A value 1 in the flag indicates that the Address vector MUST be cleared to 0. A value 1 in the flag indicates that the
contains a complete source route from the origin to the target, Address vector contains a complete source route from the origin to
which can be used, after reversal, by the target to source route the target, which can be used, after reversal, by the target to
the Measurement Reply message back to the origin. source route the Measurement Reply message back to the origin.
o Back Request (B): This flag serves as a request to the target to o Back Request (B): This flag serves as a request to the target to
send a Measurement Request towards the origin. The origin MAY set send a Measurement Request towards the origin. The origin MAY set
this flag if it wants to make such a request to the target. On this flag to 1 if it wants to make such a request to the target.
receiving this request, the target MAY generate a Measurement An intermediate router MUST set the B flag in an outgoing MO
Request to measure the cost of its current (or the most preferred) packet to the same value that it had in the corresponding incoming
route to the origin. Receipt of this Measurement Request would MO packet. On receiving a Measurement Request with the B flag set
allow the origin to know the cost of the back route from the to 1, the target SHOULD generate a Measurement Request to measure
target to itself and thus determine the round-trip cost of the cost of its current (or the most preferred) route to the
reaching the target. origin. Receipt of this Measurement Request would allow the
origin to know the cost of the back route from the target to
itself and thus determine the round-trip cost of reaching the
target.
o Intermediate Reply (I): Relevant only if a hop-by-hop route is o Intermediate Reply (I): Relevant only if a hop-by-hop route is
being measured, this flag serves as a permission to an being measured, this flag serves as a permission to an
intermediate router to generate a Measurement Reply if it knows intermediate router to generate a Measurement Reply if it knows
the cost of the rest of the route being measured. The origin MAY the cost of the rest of the route being measured. The origin MAY
set this flag if a hop-by-hop route is being measured (i.e., H = set this flag to 1 if a hop-by-hop route is being measured (i.e.,
1) and the origin wants to allow the intermediate routers to H = 1) and the origin wants to allow an intermediate router to
generate the Measurement Reply in response to this Measurement generate the Measurement Reply in response to this Measurement
Request. Setting this flag may be useful in scenarios where Hop Request. Setting this flag may be useful in scenarios where the
Count [I-D.ietf-roll-routing-metrics] is the routing metric of Hop Count [I-D.ietf-roll-routing-metrics] is the routing metric of
interest and the origin expects an intermediate router (e.g. the interest and the origin expects an intermediate router (e.g. the
root of a non-storing DAG or a common ancestor of the origin and root of a non-storing DAG or a common ancestor of the origin and
the target in a storing DAG) to know the Hop Count of the the target in a storing DAG) to know the Hop Count of the
remainder of the route to the target. This flag MUST be cleared remainder of the route to the target. This flag MUST be cleared
if the route being measured is a source route (i.e., H = 0). to 0 if the route being measured is a source route (i.e., H = 0).
o SequenceNo: A 6-bit sequence number, assigned by the origin, that o SequenceNo: A 6-bit sequence number, assigned by the origin, that
allows the origin to uniquely identify a Measurement Request and allows the origin to uniquely identify a Measurement Request and
the corresponding Measurement Reply. the corresponding Measurement Reply. An intermediate router MUST
set this field in the outgoing MO packet to the same value that it
had in the corresponding incoming MO packet. The target MUST set
this field in a Measurement Reply message to the same value that
it had in the corresponding Measurement Request message.
o Num: This field indicates the number of fields in the Address o Num: The origin sets this field to indicate the number of fields
vector. If the value of this field is zero, the Address vector is in the Address vector. If the value of this field is zero, the
not present in the MO. Address vector is not present in the MO.
o Index: If the Measurement Request is traveling along a source o Index: If the Measurement Request is traveling along a source
route contained in the Address vector (T=1,H=0), this field route contained in the Address vector (T=1,H=0), this field
indicates the index in the Address vector of the next hop on the indicates the index in the Address vector of the next hop on the
route. If the Measurement Request is traveling along a hop-by-hop route. If the Measurement Request is traveling along a hop-by-hop
route with a local RPLInstanceID and the A flag is set route with a local RPLInstanceID and the A flag is set
(T=1,H=1,A=1 and RPLInstanceID field has a local value), this (T=1,H=1,A=1 and RPLInstanceID field has a local value), this
field indicates the index in the Address vector where an field indicates the index in the Address vector where an
intermediate router receiving the MO message must store its IPv6 intermediate router receiving the MO message must store its IPv6
address. Otherwise, this field MUST be set to zero on address. Otherwise, this field MUST be set to zero on
transmission and ignored on reception. transmission and ignored on reception.
o Origin Address: An IPv6 address of the origin after eliding Compr o Origin Address: A unicast IPv6 address of the origin after eliding
number of prefix octets. If the MO is traveling along a hop-by- Compr number of prefix octets. If the MO is traveling along a
hop route and the RPLInstanceID field indicates a local value, the hop-by-hop route and the RPLInstanceID field indicates a local
Origin Address field MUST contain the DODAGID value that, along value, the Origin Address field MUST specify the DODAGID value
with the RPLInstanceID, uniquely identifies within the RPL domain that, along with the RPLInstanceID, uniquely identifies the hop-
the hop-by-hop route being measured. by-hop route being measured.
o Target Address: An IPv6 address of the target after eliding Compr o Target Address: A unicast IPv6 address of the target after eliding
number of prefix octets. Compr number of prefix octets.
o Address[1..Num]: A vector of IPv6 addresses (with Compr number of o Address[1..Num]: A vector of unicast IPv6 addresses (with Compr
prefix octets elided) representing a source route to the target: number of prefix octets elided) representing a source route to the
target:
* Each element in the vector has size (16 - Compr) octets. * Each element in the vector has size (16 - Compr) octets.
* The total number of elements inside the Address vector is given * The total number of elements inside the Address vector is given
by the Num field. by the Num field.
* When the Measurement Request is traveling along a hop-by-hop * When the Measurement Request is traveling along a hop-by-hop
route with local RPLInstanceID and has the A flag set, the route with local RPLInstanceID and has the A flag set, the
Address vector is used to accumulate a source route to be used Address vector is used to accumulate a source route to be used
by the target to send the Measurement Reply back to the origin. by the target to send the Measurement Reply back to the origin.
In this case, the route MUST be accumulated in the forward In this case, the route MUST be accumulated in the forward
direction, i.e., from the origin to the target. The target direction, i.e., from the origin to the target. The target
router would reverse this route to obtain a source route from router would reverse this route to obtain a source route from
itself to the origin. The IPv6 addresses in the accumulated itself to the origin. The IPv6 addresses in the accumulated
route MUST be accessible in the backward direction. An route MUST be accessible in the backward direction, i.e., from
intermediate router adding its address to the Address vector the target to the origin. An intermediate router adding its
MUST ensure that its address does not already exist in the address to the Address vector MUST ensure that its address does
vector. not already exist in the vector.
* When the Measurement Request is traveling along a source route, * When the Measurement Request is traveling along a source route,
the Address vector MUST contain a complete route to the target the Address vector MUST contain a complete route to the target
and the IPv6 addresses in the Address vector MUST be accessible and the IPv6 addresses in the Address vector MUST be accessible
in the forward direction, i.e., from the origin to the target. in the forward direction, i.e., from the origin to the target.
A router (origin or an intermediate router) inserting an A router (origin or an intermediate router) inserting an
Address vector inside an MO MUST ensure that no address appears Address vector inside an MO MUST ensure that no address appears
more than once inside the vector. Each router on the way MUST more than once inside the vector. Each router on the way MUST
ensure that the loops do not exist within the source route. ensure that the loops do not exist within the source route.
The origin may set the R flag in the MO if the route in the The origin MAY set the R flag in the MO if the route in the
Address vector represents a complete route from the origin to Address vector represents a complete route from the origin to
the target and this route can be used after reversal by the the target and this route can be used after reversal by the
target to send the Measurement Reply message back to the target to send the Measurement Reply message back to the
origin. origin.
* The origin and target addresses MUST NOT be included in the * The origin and target addresses MUST NOT be included in the
Address vector. Address vector.
* The Address vector MUST NOT contain any multicast addresses. * The Address vector MUST NOT contain any multicast addresses.
o Metric Container Options: An MO MUST contain one or more Metric o Metric Container Options: An MO MUST contain one or more Metric
Container options to accumulate routing metric values for the Container options to accumulate the routing metric values for the
route being measured. route being measured.
3.2. Secure MO 3.2. Secure MO
A Secure MO message follows the format in Figure 7 of A Secure MO message follows the format in Figure 7 of
[I-D.ietf-roll-rpl], where the base format is the base MO shown in [I-D.ietf-roll-rpl], where the base format is the base MO shown in
Figure 1. Figure 1.
4. Originating a Measurement Request 4. Originating a Measurement Request
If an origin needs to measure the routing metric values along a P2P If an origin needs to measure the routing metric values along a P2P
route towards a target, it generates an MO message and sets its route towards a target, it generates an MO message and sets its
fields in the manner described below. Additionally, the origin MUST fields as described in Section 3.1. The setting of MO fields in
set the T flag to 1 to indicate that the MO represents a Measurement specific cases is described below. In all cases, the origin MUST set
the T flag to 1 to indicate that the MO represents a Measurement
Request. The origin MUST also include one or more Metric Container Request. The origin MUST also include one or more Metric Container
options inside the MO that carry the routing metric objects of options inside the MO to carry the routing metric objects of
interest. If required, the origin must also initiate these routing interest. Depending on the metrics being measured, the origin must
metric objects by including the values of the routing metrics for the also initiate these routing metric objects by including the values of
first hop on the P2P route being measured. the routing metrics for the first hop on the P2P route being
measured.
After setting the MO fields as described below, the origin MUST After setting the MO fields appropriately, the origin MUST unicast
unicast the MO message to the next hop on the P2P route. the MO message to the next hop on the P2P route.
4.1. To Measure A Hop-by-hop Route with a Global RPLInstanceID 4.1. To Measure A Hop-by-hop Route with a Global RPLInstanceID
If a hop-by-hop route with a global RPLInstanceID is being measured, If a hop-by-hop route with a global RPLInstanceID is being measured,
the MO message MUST NOT contain the Address vector and the following the MO message MUST NOT contain the Address vector and the following
MO fields MUST be set in the manner specified below: MO fields MUST be set in the manner specified below:
o Hop-by-hop (H): This flag MUST be set; o Hop-by-hop (H): This flag MUST be set to 1.
o Accumulate Route (A): This flag MUST be cleared;
o Reverse (R): This flag MUST be cleared;
o Back Request (B): This flag MAY be set if the origin wants to o Accumulate Route (A): This flag MUST be cleared to 0.
request the target to generate a Measurement Request back to
itself;
o Intermediate Reply (I): This flag MAY be set if the origin wants o Reverse (R): This flag MUST be cleared to 0.
to permit the intermediate routers to generate the Measurement
Reply on the target's behalf;
o Num: This field MUST be set to zero; o Num: This field MUST be cleared to 0.
o Index: This field MUST be set to zero. o Index: This field MUST be cleared to 0.
4.2. To Measure A Hop-by-hop Route with a Local RPLInstanceID 4.2. To Measure A Hop-by-hop Route with a Local RPLInstanceID
If a hop-by-hop route with a local RPLInstanceID is being measured If a hop-by-hop route with a local RPLInstanceID is being measured
and the MO is not accumulating a source route for the target's use, and the MO is not accumulating a source route for the target's use,
the MO message MUST NOT contain the Address vector and the following the MO message MUST NOT contain the Address vector and the following
MO fields MUST be set in the manner specified below: MO fields MUST be set in the manner specified below:
o Hop-by-hop (H): This flag MUST be set; o Hop-by-hop (H): This flag MUST be set to 1.
o Accumulate Route (A): This flag MUST be cleared;
o Reverse (R): This flag MUST be cleared;
o Back Request (B): This flag MAY be set if the origin wants to o Accumulate Route (A): This flag MUST be cleared to 0.
request the target to generate a Measurement Request back to
itself;
o Intermediate Reply (I): This flag MAY be set if the origin wants o Reverse (R): This flag MUST be cleared to 0.
to permit the intermediate routers to generate the Measurement
Reply on the target's behalf;
o Num: This field MUST be set to zero; o Num: This field MUST be cleared to 0.
o Index: This field MUST be set to zero; o Index: This field MUST be cleared to 0.
o Origin Address: This field MUST contain the DODAGID value (after o Origin Address: This field MUST contain the DODAGID value (after
eliding Compr number of prefix octets) associated with the route eliding Compr number of prefix octets) associated with the route
being measured. being measured.
If a hop-by-hop route with a local RPLInstanceID is being measured If a hop-by-hop route with a local RPLInstanceID is being measured
and the origin desires the MO to accumulate a source route for the and the origin desires the MO to accumulate a source route for the
target to send the Measurement Reply message back, it MUST set the target to send the Measurement Reply message back, it MUST set the
following MO fields in the manner specified below: following MO fields in the manner specified below:
o Hop-by-hop (H): This flag MUST be set; o Hop-by-hop (H): This flag MUST be set to 1.
o Accumulate Route (A): This flag MUST be set;
o Reverse (R): This flag MUST be cleared; o Accumulate Route (A): This flag MUST be set to 1.
o Back Request (B): This flag MAY be set if the origin wants to o Reverse (R): This flag MUST be cleared to 0.
request the target to generate a Measurement Request back to
itself;
o Intermediate Reply (I): This flag MAY be set if the origin wants o Intermediate Reply (I): This flag MUST be cleared to 0.
to permit the intermediate routers to generate the Measurement
Reply on the target's behalf;
o Address vector: The Address vector must be large enough to o Address vector: The Address vector must be large enough to
accomodate a complete source route from the origin to the target. accomodate a complete source route from the origin to the target.
All the bits in the Address vector field MUST be set to zero; All the bits in the Address vector field MUST be cleared to 0.
o Num: This field MUST specify the number of address elements that o Num: This field MUST specify the number of address elements that
can fit inside the Address vector; can fit inside the Address vector.
o Index: This field MUST be set to 1.
o Index: This field MUST be set to 1;
o Origin Address: This field MUST contain the DODAGID value (after o Origin Address: This field MUST contain the DODAGID value (after
eliding Compr number of prefix octets) associated with the route eliding Compr number of prefix octets) associated with the route
being measured. being measured.
4.3. To Measure A Source Route 4.3. To Measure A Source Route
If a source route is being measured, the origin MUST set the If a source route is being measured, the origin MUST set the
following MO fields in the manner specified below: following MO fields in the manner specified below:
o RPLInstanceID: This field MUST be set to 10000000; o Hop-by-hop (H): This flag MUST be cleared to 0.
o Hop-by-hop (H): This flag MUST be cleared;
o Accumulate Route (A): This flag MUST be cleared;
o Reverse (R): This flag MUST be set if the source route in the o Accumulate Route (A): This flag MUST be cleared to 0.
Address vector can be reversed and used by the target to source
route the Measurement Reply message back to the origin.
Otherwise, this flag MUST be cleared;
o Back Request (B): This flag MAY be set if the origin wants to o Reverse (R): This flag SHOULD be set to 1 if the source route in
request the target to generate a Measurement Request back to the Address vector can be reversed and used by the target to
itself; source route the Measurement Reply message back to the origin.
Otherwise, this flag MUST be cleared to 0.
o Intermediate Reply (I): This flag MUST be cleared. o Intermediate Reply (I): This flag MUST be cleared to 0.
o Address vector: o Address vector:
* The Address vector MUST contain a complete route from the * The Address vector MUST contain a complete route from the
origin to the target (excluding the origin and the target); origin to the target (excluding the origin and the target).
* The IPv6 addresses (with Compr prefix octets elided) in the * The IPv6 addresses (with Compr prefix octets elided) in the
Address vector MUST be accessible in the forward direction, Address vector MUST be accessible in the forward direction,
i.e., from the origin to the target; i.e., from the origin to the target.
* To prevent loops in the source route, the origin MUST ensure * To prevent loops in the source route, the origin MUST ensure
that compliance to the following rules:
+ Any IPv6 address MUST NOT appear more than once in the + Any IPv6 address MUST NOT appear more than once in the
Address vector; Address vector.
+ If the Address vector includes multiple IPv6 addresses + If the Address vector includes multiple IPv6 addresses
assigned to the origin's interfaces, such addresses MUST assigned to the origin's interfaces, such addresses MUST
appear back to back inside the Address vector. appear back to back inside the Address vector.
* Each address appearing in the Address vector MUST be a unicast * Each address appearing in the Address vector MUST be a unicast
address. address.
o Num: This field MUST be set to indicate the number of elements in o Num: This field MUST be set to indicate the number of elements in
the Address vector; the Address vector.
o Index: This field MUST be set to 1. o Index: This field MUST be set to 1.
The origin MUST NOT send the packet further if the next hop address The origin MUST NOT send the packet further if the next hop address
on the source route is not on-link. on the source route is not on-link.
5. Processing a Measurement Request at an Intermediate Router 5. Processing a Measurement Request at an Intermediate Router
A router MAY discard a received MO with no further processing to meet A router (an intermediate router or the target) MAY discard a
any policy-related goal. Such policy goals may include the need to received MO with no further processing to meet any policy-related
reduce the router's CPU load or to enhance its battery life. goal. Such policy goals may include the need to reduce the router's
CPU load or to enhance its battery life.
A router MUST discard a received MO with no further processing:
o If the router is not aware of the RPL Instance identified by the
RPLInstanceID (and the Origin Address, if RPLInstanceID is a local
value) field in the message.
o If the Compr field is not same as what the router considers as the
length of the common prefix used in IPv6 addresses in the LLN.
On receiving an MO, if a router chooses to process the packet On receiving an MO, if a router chooses to process the packet
further, it MUST check if one of its IPv6 addresses is listed as further, it MUST check if one of its IPv6 addresses is listed as
either the Origin or the Target Address. If not, the router either the Origin or the Target Address. If neither, the router
considers itself an Intermediate Router and MUST process the received considers itself an Intermediate Router and MUST process the received
MO in the following manner. MO in the following manner.
An intermediate router MUST discard the packet with no further An intermediate router MUST discard the packet with no further
processing if the received MO is not a Measurement Request. processing if the received MO is not a Measurement Request.
If the I flag is set in the received MO and the intermediate router If the I flag is set to 1 in the received MO and the intermediate
knows the values of the routing metrics, specified in the Metric router knows the values of the routing metrics, specified in the
Container, for the remainder of the route, it MAY generate a Metric Container, for the remainder of the route, it MAY generate a
Measurement Reply on the target's behalf in the manner specified in Measurement Reply on the target's behalf in the manner specified in
Section 6 (after including in the Measurement Reply the relevant Section 6 (after including in the Measurement Reply the relevant
routing metric values for the complete route being measured). routing metric values for the complete route being measured).
Otherwise, the intermediate router MUST process the received MO in Otherwise, the intermediate router MUST process the received MO in
the following manner. the following manner.
The router MUST determine the next hop on the P2P route being The router MUST determine the next hop on the P2P route being
measured in the manner described below. The router MUST drop the MO measured in the manner described below. The router MUST drop the MO
with no further processing and MAY send an ICMPv6 Destination with no further processing and MAY send an ICMPv6 Destination
Unreachable (with Code 0 - No Route To Destination) error message to Unreachable (with Code 0 - No Route To Destination) error message to
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After determining the next hop, the router MUST update the routing After determining the next hop, the router MUST update the routing
metric objects, contained in the Metric Container options inside the metric objects, contained in the Metric Container options inside the
MO, either by updating the aggregated value for the routing metric or MO, either by updating the aggregated value for the routing metric or
by attaching the local values for the metric inside the object. by attaching the local values for the metric inside the object.
After updating the routing metrics, the router MUST unicast the MO to After updating the routing metrics, the router MUST unicast the MO to
the next hop. the next hop.
5.1. Determining Next Hop For An MO Measuring A Source Route 5.1. Determining Next Hop For An MO Measuring A Source Route
In case the received MO is measuring a source route (H=0), the router In case the received MO is measuring a source route (H=0),
MUST increment the Index field and use the Address[Index] element as
the next hop. If Index is greater than Num, the router MUST use the o The router MUST verify that the Address[Index] element lists one
Target Address as the next hop. of its unicast IPv6 addresses, failing which the router MUST
discard the MO packet with no further processing;
o The router MUST then increment the Index field and use the
Address[Index] element as the next hop. If Index is greater than
Num, the router MUST use the Target Address as the next hop.
An intermediate router MUST discard the MO packet with no further An intermediate router MUST discard the MO packet with no further
processing if the next hop address is not on-link or is not a unicast processing if the next hop address is not on-link or is not a unicast
address. To prevent loops, an intermediate router MUST check if the address. To prevent loops, an intermediate router MUST check if the
Address vector includes multiple IPv6 addresses assigned to the Address vector includes multiple IPv6 addresses assigned to the
router's interfaces and if such addresses do not appear back to back router's interfaces and if such addresses do not appear back to back
inside the Address vector. In this case, the router MUST discard the inside the Address vector. In this case, the router MUST discard the
MO packet with no further processing. An MO message MUST NOT leave MO packet with no further processing.
the RPL domain where it originated. Hence, an intermediate router
MUST discard an MO message traveling along a source route if the next
hop on the way does not lie within the RPL domain.
5.2. Determining Next Hop For An MO Measuring A Hop-by-hop Route 5.2. Determining Next Hop For An MO Measuring A Hop-by-hop Route
If the received MO is measuring a hop-by-hop route (H=1), the router If the received MO is measuring a hop-by-hop route (H=1), the router
MUST use the RPLInstanceID, the Target Address and, if RPLInstanceID MUST use the RPLInstanceID, the Target Address and, if RPLInstanceID
is a local value, the DODAGID (same as the Origin Address) to is a local value, the Origin Address to determine the next hop for
determine the next hop for the MO. Moreover, the MO. Moreover,
o If the RPLInstanceID of the hop-by-hop route is a local value and o If the RPLInstanceID of the hop-by-hop route is a local value and
the A flag is set, the router MUST check if the Address vector the A flag is set, the router MUST check if the Address vector
already contains one of its IPv6 addresses. If yes, the router already contains one of its IPv6 addresses. If yes, the router
MUST discard the packet with no further processing. Otherwise, MUST discard the packet with no further processing. Otherwise,
the router MUST store one of its IPv6 addresses (after eliding the router MUST store one of its IPv6 addresses (after eliding
Compr prefix octets) at location Address[Index] and then increment Compr prefix octets) at location Address[Index] and then increment
the Index field. the Index field.
o If the router is the root of the non-storing DAG along which the o If the router is the root of the non-storing DAG along which the
received MO message has been traveling, the router MUST do the received MO message has been traveling so far, the router MUST do
following: the following:
* Reset the H, A and R flags. * Reset the H, A and R flags.
* Insert a source route to the target inside the Address vector * Remove any existing Address vector inside the MO.
as per the following rules:
* Insert a new Address vector inside the MO and specify a source
route to the target inside the Address vector as per the
following rules:
+ The Address vector MUST contain a complete route from the + The Address vector MUST contain a complete route from the
router to the target (excluding the router and the target); router to the target (excluding the router and the target);
+ The IPv6 addresses (with Compr prefix octets elided) in the + The IPv6 addresses (with Compr prefix octets elided) in the
Address vector MUST be accessible in the forward direction, Address vector MUST be accessible in the forward direction,
i.e., towards the target; i.e., towards the target;
+ To prevent loops in the source route, the router MUST ensure + To prevent loops in the source route, the router MUST ensure
that that
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unicast address. unicast address.
* Specify in the Num field the number of address elements in the * Specify in the Num field the number of address elements in the
Address vector. Address vector.
* Set the Index field to 1. * Set the Index field to 1.
6. Processing a Measurement Request at the Target 6. Processing a Measurement Request at the Target
On receiving an MO, if a router chooses to process the packet further On receiving an MO, if a router chooses to process the packet further
and finds one of its IPv6 addresses listed as the Target Address, it and finds one of its unicast IPv6 addresses listed as the Target
MUST process the received MO in the following manner. Address, the router considers itself the target and MUST process the
received MO in the following manner.
The target MUST discard the packet with no further processing if the The target MUST discard the packet with no further processing if the
received MO is not a Measurement Request. received MO is not a Measurement Request.
The target MUST update the routing metric objects in the Metric The target MUST update the routing metric objects in the Metric
Container options if required and MAY note the measured values for Container options if required and MAY note the measured values for
the complete route if desired. the complete route (especially, if the received Measurement Request
is likely a response to an earlier Measurement Request that the
target had sent to the origin with B flag set to 1).
The target MUST generate a Measurement Reply message. The received The target MUST generate a Measurement Reply message. The
Measurement Request message can be trivially converted into the Measurement Reply message MUST have the same SequenceNo field as the
Measurement Reply by reseting the T flag to zero. The target MAY received Measurement Request message. The received Measurement
remove the Address vector from the Measurement Reply if desired. The Request message can be trivially converted into the Measurement Reply
target MUST then unicast the Measurement Reply back to the origin: by reseting the T flag to zero. The target MAY remove the Address
vector from the Measurement Reply if desired. The target MUST then
unicast the Measurement Reply back to the origin:
o If the Measurement Request traveled along a DAG with a global o If the Measurement Request traveled along a DAG with a global
RPLInstanceID, the Measurement Reply MAY be unicast back to the RPLInstanceID, the Measurement Reply MAY be unicast back to the
origin along the same DAG. origin along the same DAG.
o If the Measurement Request traveled along a hop-by-hop route with o If the Measurement Request traveled along a hop-by-hop route with
a local RPLInstanceID and the A flag inside the received message a local RPLInstanceID and the A flag inside the received message
is set, the target MAY reverse the source route contained in the is set to 1, the target MAY reverse the source route contained in
Address vector and use it to send the Measurement Reply back to the Address vector and use it to send the Measurement Reply back
the origin. to the origin.
o If the Measurement Request traveled along a source route and the R o If the Measurement Request traveled along a source route and the R
flag inside the received message is set, the target MAY reverse flag inside the received message is set to 1, the target MAY
the source route contained in the Address vector and use it to reverse the source route contained in the Address vector and use
send the Measurement Reply back to the origin. it to send the Measurement Reply back to the origin.
If the B flag is set in the received Measurement Request, the target If the B flag in the received Measurement Request is set to 1, the
MAY generate a new Measurement Request to measure the cost of its target MAY generate a new Measurement Request to measure the cost of
current (or the most preferred) route to the origin. The routing its current (or the most preferred) route to the origin. The routing
metrics used in the new Measurement Request MUST include the routing metrics used in the new Measurement Request MUST include the routing
metrics specified in the received Measurement Request. metrics specified in the received Measurement Request.
7. Processing a Measurement Reply at the Origin 7. Processing a Measurement Reply at the Origin
When a router receives an MO, it examines if one of its IPv6 When a router receives an MO, it examines if one of its unicast IPv6
addresses is listed as the Origin Address. If yes, the router MUST addresses is listed as the Origin Address. If yes, the router is the
process the received message in the following manner. origin and MUST process the received message in the following manner.
The origin MUST discard the packet with no further processing if the The origin MUST discard the packet with no further processing if the
received MO is not a Measurement Reply or if the origin has no received MO is not a Measurement Reply or if the origin has no
recollection of sending a Measurement Request with the sequence recollection of sending a Measurement Request with the sequence
number listed in the received MO. number listed in the received MO.
The origin SHOULD examine the routing metric objects inside the The origin MUST examine the routing metric objects inside the Metric
Metric Container options to evaluate the quality of the measured P2P Container options to evaluate the quality of the measured P2P route.
route. If a routing metric object contains local metric values If a routing metric object contains local metric values recorded by
recorded by routers on the route, the origin MAY aggregate these routers on the route, the origin MUST aggregate these local values
local values into an end-to-end value as per the aggregation rules into an end-to-end value as per the aggregation rules for the metric.
for the metric.
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
The mechanism defined in this document can potentially be used by a The mechanism defined in this document can potentially be used by a
compromised router to generate bogus measurement requests to compromised router to generate bogus Measurement Requests to
arbitrary target routers. Such bogus measurement requests may cause arbitrary target routers. Such Measurement Requests may cause
processing overload in the routers in the network, drain their processing overload in the routers in the network, drain their
batteries and cause traffic congestion in the network. Note that batteries and cause traffic congestion in the network. Note that
some of these problems would occur even if the compromised router some of these problems would occur even if the compromised router
were to generate bogus data traffic to arbitrary destinations. were to generate bogus data traffic to arbitrary destinations.
Since a Measurement Request can travel along a source route specified Since a Measurement Request can travel along a source route specified
in the Address vector, some of the security concerns that led to the in the Address vector, some of the security concerns that led to the
deprecation of Type 0 routing header [RFC5095] may be valid here. To deprecation of Type 0 routing header [RFC5095] may be valid here. To
address such concerns, the mechanism described in this document address such concerns, the mechanism described in this document
includes several remedies: includes several remedies:
o This document requires that a route inserted inside the Address o This document requires that a route inserted inside the Address
vector must be a strict source route and must not include any vector must be a strict source route and must not include any
multicast addresses. multicast addresses.
o This document requires that an MO message must not cross the o This document requires that an MO message must not cross the
boundaries of the RPL domain where it is originated. Hence, any boundaries of the RPL Instance where it originated. A router must
security problems associated with the mechanism would be limited drop a received MO message if it is not aware of the RPL Instance
to the RPL domain where the MO message is generated. referred to in the message. Hence, any security problems
associated with the mechanism would be limited to one RPL
Instance.
o A router must drop a received MO message if the next hop address o This document requires that a router must drop a received MO
is not on-link or if it is not a unicast address. message if the next hop address is not on-link or if it is not a
unicast address.
o A router must check the source route inside the Address vector of o This document requires that a router must check the source route
each received MO message to ensure that it does not contain a loop inside the Address vector of each received MO message to ensure
involving the router. The router must drop the received packet if that it does not contain a loop involving the router. The router
the source route does contain such a loop. This and the previous must drop the received packet if the source route does contain
rule protect the network against some of the security concerns such a loop. This and the previous two rules protect the network
even if a compromised node inserts the Address vector inside the against some of the security concerns even if a compromised node
MO message. inserts a malformed Address vector inside the MO message.
9. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
IANA is requested to allocate a new code point in the "RPL Control IANA is requested to allocate new code points in the "RPL Control
Codes" registry for the "Measurement Object" described in this Codes" registry for the "Measurement Object" and "Secure Measurement
document. Object" described in this document.
+------+---------------------------+---------------+ +------+---------------------------+---------------+
| Code | Description | Reference | | Code | Description | Reference |
+------+---------------------------+---------------+ +------+---------------------------+---------------+
| 0x06 | Measurement Object | This document | | 0x06 | Measurement Object | This document |
| 0x86 | Secure Measurement Object | This document | | 0x86 | Secure Measurement Object | This document |
+------+---------------------------+---------------+ +------+---------------------------+---------------+
RPL Control Codes RPL Control Codes
10. Acknowledgements 10. Acknowledgements
Authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Pascal Thubert, Authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Matthias Philipp,
Richard Kelsey and Zach Shelby in the development of this document. Pascal Thubert, Richard Kelsey and Zach Shelby in the development of
this document.
11. References 11. References
11.1. Normative References 11.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
11.2. Informative References 11.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-roll-p2p-rpl] [I-D.ietf-roll-p2p-rpl]
Goyal, M., Baccelli, E., Philipp, M., Brandt, A., Cragie, Goyal, M., Baccelli, E., Philipp, M., Brandt, A., and J.
R., and J. Martocci, "Reactive Discovery of Point-to-Point Martocci, "Reactive Discovery of Point-to-Point Routes in
Routes in Low Power and Lossy Networks", Low Power and Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-roll-p2p-rpl-08
draft-ietf-roll-p2p-rpl-04 (work in progress), July 2011. (work in progress), March 2012.
[I-D.ietf-roll-routing-metrics] [I-D.ietf-roll-routing-metrics]
Vasseur, J., Kim, M., Pister, K., Dejean, N., and D. Barthel, D., Vasseur, J., Pister, K., Kim, M., and N.
Barthel, "Routing Metrics used for Path Calculation in Low Dejean, "Routing Metrics used for Path Calculation in Low
Power and Lossy Networks", Power and Lossy Networks",
draft-ietf-roll-routing-metrics-19 (work in progress), draft-ietf-roll-routing-metrics-19 (work in progress),
March 2011. March 2011.
[I-D.ietf-roll-rpl] [I-D.ietf-roll-rpl]
Winter, T., Thubert, P., Brandt, A., Clausen, T., Hui, J., Brandt, A., Vasseur, J., Hui, J., Pister, K., Thubert, P.,
Kelsey, R., Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., and J. Levis, P., Struik, R., Kelsey, R., Clausen, T., and T.
Vasseur, "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power and
Winter, "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power and
Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-roll-rpl-19 (work in Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-roll-rpl-19 (work in
progress), March 2011. progress), March 2011.
[I-D.ietf-roll-terminology] [I-D.ietf-roll-terminology]
Vasseur, J., "Terminology in Low power And Lossy Vasseur, J., "Terminology in Low power And Lossy
Networks", draft-ietf-roll-terminology-06 (work in Networks", draft-ietf-roll-terminology-06 (work in
progress), September 2011. progress), September 2011.
[RFC5095] Abley, J., Savola, P., and G. Neville-Neil, "Deprecation [RFC5095] Abley, J., Savola, P., and G. Neville-Neil, "Deprecation
of Type 0 Routing Headers in IPv6", RFC 5095, of Type 0 Routing Headers in IPv6", RFC 5095,
 End of changes. 92 change blocks. 
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