draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-11.txt   rfc5826.txt 
Networking Working Group A. Brandt
Internet Draft Sigma Designs, Inc.
Intended status: Informational J. Buron
Expires: July 2010 Sigma Designs, Inc.
G. Porcu
Telecom Italia
January 13, 2010
Home Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) A. Brandt
Networks Request for Comments: 5826 J. Buron
draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-11 Category: Informational Sigma Designs, Inc.
ISSN: 2070-1721 G. Porcu
Telecom Italia
April 2010
Status of this Memo Home Automation Routing Requirements in Low-Power and Lossy Networks
This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with Abstract
the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering This document presents requirements specific to home control and
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that automation applications for Routing Over Low power and Lossy (ROLL)
other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- networks. In the near future, many homes will contain high numbers
Drafts. of wireless devices for a wide set of purposes. Examples include
actuators (relay, light dimmer, heating valve), sensors (wall switch,
water leak, blood pressure), and advanced controllers (radio-
frequency-based AV remote control, central server for light and heat
control). Because such devices only cover a limited radio range,
routing is often required. The aim of this document is to specify
the routing requirements for networks comprising such constrained
devices in a home-control and automation environment.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six Status of This Memo
months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts
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The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. published for informational purposes.
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received public review and has been approved for publication by the
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approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on July 13, 2010. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5286.
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Abstract
This document presents home control and automation application
specific requirements for Routing Over Low power and Lossy
networks (ROLL). In the near future many homes will contain high
numbers of wireless devices for a wide set of purposes. Examples
include actuators (relay, light dimmer, heating valve), sensors
(wall switch, water leak, blood pressure) and advanced controllers
(RF-based AV remote control, Central server for light and heat
control). Because such devices only cover a limited radio range,
routing is often required. The aim of this document is to specify
the routing requirements for networks comprising such constrained
devices in a home control and automation environment.
Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119
[RFC2119].
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction................................................4 1. Introduction ....................................................3
1.1. Terminology............................................5 1.1. Terminology ................................................4
2. Home Automation Applications................................6 1.2. Requirements Language ......................................6
2.1. Lighting Application In Action.........................6 2. Home Automation Applications ....................................6
2.2. Energy Conservation and Optimizing Energy Consumption..6 2.1. Lighting Application in Action .............................6
2.3. Moving a Remote Control Around.........................7 2.2. Energy Conservation and Optimizing Energy Consumption ......6
2.4. Adding A New Module To The System......................7 2.3. Moving a Remote Control Around .............................7
2.5. Controlling Battery Operated Window Shades.............8 2.4. Adding a New Module to the System ..........................7
2.6. Remote Video Surveillance..............................8 2.5. Controlling Battery-Operated Window Shades .................8
2.7. Healthcare.............................................8 2.6. Remote Video Surveillance ..................................8
2.7.1. At-home Health Reporting..........................9 2.7. Healthcare .................................................9
2.7.2. At-home Health Monitoring........................10 2.7.1. At-Home Health Reporting ...........................10
2.8. Alarm Systems.........................................10 2.7.2. At-Home Health Monitoring ..........................10
3. Unique Routing Requirements of Home Automation Applications11 2.8. Alarm Systems .............................................10
3.1. Constraint-based Routing..............................11 3. Unique Routing Requirements of Home Automation Applications ....11
3.2. Support of Mobility...................................12 3.1. Constraint-Based Routing ..................................12
3.3. Scalability...........................................12 3.2. Support of Mobility .......................................12
3.4. Convergence Time......................................13 3.3. Scalability ...............................................13
3.5. Manageability.........................................13 3.4. Convergence Time ..........................................13
3.6. Stability.............................................13 3.5. Manageability .............................................14
4. Traffic Pattern............................................13 3.6. Stability .................................................14
5. Security Considerations....................................14 4. Traffic Pattern ................................................14
6. IANA Considerations........................................16 5. Security Considerations ........................................15
7. Acknowledgments............................................16 6. Acknowledgments ................................................16
8. Disclaimer for pre-RFC5378 work............................16 7. References .....................................................16
9. References.................................................16 7.1. Normative References ......................................16
9.1. Normative References..................................16 7.2. Informative References ....................................17
9.2. Informative References................................16
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document presents home control and automation application This document presents requirements specific to home control and
specific requirements for Routing Over Low power and Lossy automation applications for Routing Over Low power and Lossy (ROLL)
networks (ROLL). In the near future many homes will contain high networks. In the near future, many homes will contain high numbers
numbers of wireless devices for a wide set of purposes. Examples of wireless devices for a wide set of purposes. Examples include
include actuators (relay, light dimmer, heating valve), sensors actuators (relay, light dimmer, heating valve), sensors (wall switch,
(wall switch, water leak, blood pressure) and advanced water leak, blood pressure), and advanced controllers. Basic home-
controllers. Basic home control modules such as wall switches and control modules such as wall switches and plug-in modules may be
plug-in modules may be turned into an advanced home automation turned into an advanced home automation solution via the use of an
solution via the use of an IP-enabled application responding to IP-enabled application responding to events generated by wall
events generated by wall switches, motion sensors, light sensors, switches, motion sensors, light sensors, rain sensors, and so on.
rain sensors, and so on.
Network nodes may be sensors and actuators at the same time. An Network nodes may be sensors and actuators at the same time. An
example is a wall switch for replacement in existing homes. The example is a wall switch for replacement in existing homes. The push
push buttons may generate events for a controller node or for buttons may generate events for a controller node or for activating
activating other actuator nodes. At the same time, a built-in other actuator nodes. At the same time, a built-in relay may act as
relay may act as actuator for a controller or other remote actuator for a controller or other remote sensors.
sensors.
Because ROLL nodes only cover a limited radio range, routing is Because ROLL nodes only cover a limited radio range, routing is often
often required. These devices are usually highly constrained in required. These devices are usually highly constrained in terms of
term of resources such as battery and memory and operate in resources such as battery and memory and operate in unstable
unstable environments. Persons moving around in a house, opening environments. Persons moving around in a house, opening or closing a
or closing a door or starting a microwave oven affect the door, or starting a microwave oven affect the reception of weak radio
reception of weak radio signals. Reflection and absorption may signals. Reflection and absorption may cause a reliable radio link
cause a reliable radio link to turn unreliable for a period of to turn unreliable for a period of time and then become reusable
time and then being reusable again, thus the term "lossy". All again, thus the term "lossy". All traffic in a ROLL network is
traffic in a ROLL network is carried as IPv6 packets. carried as IPv6 packets.
The connected home area is very much consumer-oriented. The The connected home area is very much consumer oriented. The
implication on network nodes is that devices are very cost implication on network nodes is that devices are very cost sensitive,
sensitive, which leads to resource-constrained environments having which leads to resource-constrained environments having slow CPUs and
slow CPUs and small memory footprints. At the same time, nodes small memory footprints. At the same time, nodes have to be
have to be physically small which puts a limit to the physical physically small, which puts a limit to the physical size of the
size of the battery; and thus, the battery capacity. As a result, battery, and thus, the battery capacity. As a result, it is common
it is common for battery operated sensor-style nodes to shut down for battery-operated, sensor-style nodes to shut down radio and CPU
radio and CPU resources for most of the time. The radio tends to resources for most of the time. The radio tends to use the same
use the same power for listening as for transmitting power for listening as for transmitting.
Although this document focuses its text on radio-based wireless
networks, home-automation networks may also operate using a variety
of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4, Bluetooth, Low-Power WiFi, wired or
other low-power PLC (Power-Line Communication) links. Many such low-
power link technologies share similar characteristics with low-power
wireless and this document should be regarded as applying equally to
all such links.
Section 2 describes a few typical use cases for home automation Section 2 describes a few typical use cases for home automation
applications. Section 3 discusses the routing requirements for applications. Section 3 discusses the routing requirements for
networks comprising such constrained devices in a home network networks comprising such constrained devices in a home network
environment. These requirements may be overlapping requirements environment. These requirements may be overlapping requirements
derived from other application-specific routing requirements derived from other application-specific routing requirements
presented in [I-D.Martocci-Building-reqs], [I-D.Pister-Industial- presented in [BUILDING-REQS], [RFC5673], and [RFC5548].
reqs] and [RFC5548].
A full list of requirements documents may be found in section 9. A full list of requirements documents may be found in Section 7.
1.1. Terminology 1.1. Terminology
ROLL: Routing Over Low-power and Lossy networks ROLL: Routing Over Low-power and Lossy networks. A ROLL
A ROLL node may be classified as sensor, actuator node may be classified as a sensor, actuator, or
or controller. controller.
Actuator: Network node which performs some physical action. Actuator: Network node that performs some physical action.
Dimmers and relays are examples of actuators. Dimmers and relays are examples of actuators. If
If sufficiently powered, actuator nodes may sufficiently powered, actuator nodes may participate
participate in routing network messages. in routing network messages.
Border router:Infrastructure device that connects a ROLL network Border router: Infrastructure device that connects a ROLL network to
to the Internet or some backbone network. the Internet or some backbone network.
Channel: Radio frequency band used to carry network packets. Channel: Radio frequency band used to carry network packets.
Controller: Network node that controls actuators. Control Controller: Network node that controls actuators. Control
decisions may be based on sensor readings, sensor decisions may be based on sensor readings, sensor
events, scheduled actions or incoming commands from events, scheduled actions, or incoming commands from
the Internet or other backbone networks. the Internet or other backbone networks. If
If sufficiently powered, controller nodes may sufficiently powered, controller nodes may participate
participate in routing network messages. in routing network messages.
Downstream: Data direction traveling from a Local Area Network Downstream: Data direction traveling from a Local Area Network
(LAN) to a Personal Area Network (PAN) device. (LAN) to a Personal Area Network (PAN) device.
DR: Demand-Response DR: Demand-Response. The mechanism of users adjusting
The mechanism of users adjusting their power their power consumption in response to the actual
consumption in response to actual pricing of power. pricing of power.
DSM: Demand Side Management DSM: Demand-Side Management. Process allowing power
Process allowing power utilities to enable and utilities to enable and disable loads in consumer
disable loads in consumer premises. Where DR relies premises. Where DR relies on voluntary action from
on voluntary action from users, DSM may be based on users, DSM may be based on enrollment in a formal
enrollment in a formal program. program.
HC-LLN: Home Control in Low-Power and Lossy Networks LLNs: Low-Power and Lossy Networks.
LAN: Local Area Network. LAN: Local Area Network.
PAN: Personal Area Network. PAN: Personal Area Network. A geographically limited
A geographically limited wireless network based on wireless network based on, e.g., 802.15.4 or Z-Wave
e.g. 802.15.4 or Z-Wave radio. radio.
PDA Personal Digital Assistant. A small, handheld PDA Personal Digital Assistant. A small, handheld
computer. computer.
PLC Power Line Communication PLC Power-Line Communication.
RAM Random Access Memory RAM Random Access Memory.
Sensor: Network node that measures some physical parameter
and/or detects an event.
The sensor may generate a trap message to notify a
controller or directly activate an actuator.
If sufficiently powered, sensor nodes may
participate in routing network messages.
Upstream: Data direction traveling from a PAN to a LAN Sensor: Network node that measures some physical parameter
device. and/or detects an event. The sensor may generate a
trap message to notify a controller or directly
activate an actuator. If sufficiently powered, sensor
nodes may participate in routing network messages.
Refer to the roll-terminology reference document [I-D.Vasseur- Upstream: Data direction traveling from a PAN to a LAN device.
Terminology] for a full list of terms used in the IETF ROLL WG.
2. Home Automation Applications Refer to the ROLL terminology reference document [ROLL-TERM] for a
full list of terms used in the IETF ROLL WG.
Home automation applications represent a special segment of 1.2. Requirements Language
networked devices with its unique set of requirements.
Historically, such applications used wired networks or power line
communication (PLC), but wireless solutions have emerged; allowing
existing homes to be upgraded more easily.
To facilitate the requirements discussion in Section 3, this The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
section lists a few typical use cases of home automation "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
applications. New applications are being developed at a high pace document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
and this section does not mean to be exhaustive. Most home
automation applications tend to be running some kind of
command/response protocol. The command may come from several
places.
2.1. Lighting Application In Action 2. Home Automation Applications
Home automation applications represent a special segment of networked
devices with its unique set of requirements. Historically, such
applications used wired networks or power-line communication (PLC)
but wireless solutions have emerged, allowing existing homes to be
upgraded more easily.
To facilitate the requirements discussion in Section 3, this section
lists a few typical use cases of home automation applications. New
applications are being developed at a high pace and this section does
not mean to be exhaustive. Most home automation applications tend to
be running some kind of command/response protocol. The command may
come from several places.
2.1. Lighting Application in Action
A lamp may be turned on, not only by a wall switch but also by a A lamp may be turned on, not only by a wall switch but also by a
movement sensor. The wall switch module may itself be a push- movement sensor. The wall-switch module may itself be a push-button
button sensor and an actuator at the same time. This will often be sensor and an actuator at the same time. This will often be the case
the case when upgrading existing homes as existing wiring is not when upgrading existing homes as existing wiring is not prepared for
prepared for automation. automation.
One event may cause many actuators to be activated at the same One event may cause many actuators to be activated at the same time.
time.
Using the direct analogy to an electronic car key, a house owner
may activate the "leaving home" function from an electronic house
key, mobile phone, etc. For the sake of visual impression, all
lights should turn off at the same time. At least, it should
appear to happen at the same time.
2.2. Energy Conservation and Optimizing Energy Consumption Using the direct analogy to an electronic car key, a house owner may
activate the "leaving home" function from an electronic house key,
mobile phone, etc. For the sake of visual impression, all lights
should turn off at the same time; at least, it should appear to
happen at the same time.
2.2. Energy Conservation and Optimizing Energy Consumption
In order to save energy, air conditioning, central heating, window In order to save energy, air conditioning, central heating, window
shades etc. may be controlled by timers, motion sensors or shades, etc., may be controlled by timers, motion sensors, or
remotely via internet or cell. Central heating may also be set to remotely via Internet or cell. Central heating may also be set to a
a reduced temperature during night time. reduced temperature during nighttime.
The power grid may experience periods where more wind-generated The power grid may experience periods where more wind-generated power
power is produced than is needed. Typically this may happen during is produced than is needed. Typically this may happen during night
night hours. hours.
In periods where electricity demands exceed available supply, In periods where electricity demands exceed available supply,
appliances such as air conditioning, climate control systems, appliances such as air conditioning, climate-control systems, washing
washing machines etc. can be turned off to avoid overloading the machines, etc., can be turned off to avoid overloading the power
power grid. grid.
This is known as Demand-Side Management (DSM).
Remote control of household appliances is well-suited for this
application.
The start/stop decision for the appliances can also be regulated This is known as Demand-Side Management (DSM). Remote control of
by dynamic power pricing information obtained from the electricity household appliances is well-suited for this application.
utility companies. This method called Demand-Response (DR) works
by motivation of users via pricing, bonus points, etc. For The start/stop decision for the appliances can also be regulated by
example, the washing machine and dish washer may just as well work dynamic power pricing information obtained from the electricity
while power is cheap. The electric car should also charge its utility companies. This method, called Demand-Response (DR), works
batteries on cheap power. by motivation of users via pricing, bonus points, etc. For example,
the washing machine and dish washer may just as well work while power
is cheap. The electric car should also charge its batteries on cheap
power.
In order to achieve effective electricity savings, the energy In order to achieve effective electricity savings, the energy
monitoring application must guarantee that the power consumption monitoring application must guarantee that the power consumption of
of the ROLL devices is much lower than that of the appliance the ROLL devices is much lower than that of the appliance itself.
itself.
Most of these appliances are mains powered and are thus ideal for Most of these appliances are mains powered and are thus ideal for
providing reliable, always-on routing resources. Battery-powered providing reliable, always-on routing resources. Battery-powered
nodes, by comparison, are constrained routing resources and may nodes, by comparison, are constrained routing resources and may only
only provide reliable routing under some circumstances. provide reliable routing under some circumstances.
2.3. Moving a Remote Control Around 2.3. Moving a Remote Control Around
A remote control is a typical example of a mobile device in a home A remote control is a typical example of a mobile device in a home
automation network. An advanced remote control may be used for automation network. An advanced remote control may be used for
dimming the light in the dining room while eating and later on, dimming the light in the dining room while eating and later on,
turning up the music while doing the dishes in the kitchen. turning up the music while doing the dishes in the kitchen. Reaction
Reaction must appear to be instant (within a few hundred must appear to be instant (within a few hundred milliseconds) even
milliseconds) even when the remote control has moved to a new when the remote control has moved to a new location. The remote
location. The remote control may be communicating to either a control may be communicating to either a central home automation
central home automation controller or directly to the lamps and controller or directly to the lamps and the media center.
the media center.
2.4. Adding A New Module To The System 2.4. Adding a New Module to the System
Small-size, low-cost modules may have no user interface except for Small-size, low-cost modules may have no user interface except for a
a single button. Thus, an automated inclusion process is needed single button. Thus, an automated inclusion process is needed for
for controllers to find new modules. Inclusion covers the controllers to find new modules. Inclusion covers the detection of
detection of neighbors and assignment of a unique node ID. neighbors and the assignment of a unique node ID. Inclusion should
Inclusion should be completed within a few seconds. be completed within a few seconds.
For ease of use in a consumer application space such as home For ease of use in a consumer application space such as home control,
control, nodes may be included without having to type in special nodes may be included without having to type in special codes before
codes before inclusion. One way to achieve an acceptable balance inclusion. One way to achieve an acceptable balance between security
between security and convenience is to block inclusion during and convenience is to block inclusion during normal operation,
normal operation and explicitly enable inclusion support just explicitly enable inclusion support just before adding a new module,
before adding a new module and disable it again just after adding and disable it again just after adding a new module.
a new module.
For security considerations, refer to section 5. For security considerations, refer to Section 5.
If assignment of unique addresses is performed by a central If assignment of unique addresses is performed by a central
controller, it must be possible to route the inclusion request controller, it must be possible to route the inclusion request from
from the joining node to the central controller before the joining the joining node to the central controller before the joining node
node has been included in the network. has been included in the network.
2.5. Controlling Battery Operated Window Shades 2.5. Controlling Battery-Operated Window Shades
In consumer premises, window shades are often battery-powered as In consumer premises, window shades are often battery-powered as
there is no access to mains power over the windows. For battery there is no access to mains power over the windows. For battery
conservation purposes, such an actuator node is sleeping most of conservation purposes, such an actuator node is sleeping most of the
the time. A controller sending commands to a sleeping actuator time. A controller sending commands to a sleeping actuator node via
node via ROLL devices will have no problems delivering the packet ROLL devices will have no problems delivering the packet to the
to the nearest powered router, but that router may experience a nearest powered router, but that router may experience a delay until
delay until the next wake-up time before the command can be the next wake-up time before the command can be delivered.
delivered.
2.6. Remote Video Surveillance 2.6. Remote Video Surveillance
Remote video surveillance is a fairly classic application for Home Remote video surveillance is a fairly classic application for home
networking providing the ability for the end user to get a video networking. It provides the ability for the end-user to get a video
stream from a Web Cam reached via the Internet. The video stream stream from a web cam reached via the Internet. The video stream may
may be triggered by the end-user after receiving an alarm from a be triggered by the end-user after receiving an alarm from a sensor
sensor (movement or smoke detector) or the user simply wants to (movement or smoke detector) or the user simply wants to check the
check the home status via video. home status via video.
Note that in the former case, more than likely, there will be a
form of inter-device communication: Upon detecting some movement
in the home, the movement sensor may send a request to the light
controller to turn on the lights, to the Web Cam to start a video
stream that would then be directed to the end user's cell phone or
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) via the Internet.
In contrast to other applications, e.g. industrial sensors, where
data would mainly be originated by a sensor to a sink and vice
versa, this scenario implicates a direct inter-device
communication between ROLL devices.
2.7. Healthcare Note that in the former case, more than likely, there will be a form
of inter-device communication: upon detecting some movement in the
home, the movement sensor may send a request to the light controller
to turn on the lights, to the Web Cam to start a video stream that
would then be directed to the end-user's cell phone or Personal
Digital Assistant (PDA) via the Internet.
By adding communication capability to devices, patients and In contrast to other applications, e.g., industrial sensors, where
elderly citizens may be able to do simple measurements at home. data would mainly be originated by a sensor to a sink and vice versa,
this scenario implicates a direct inter-device communication between
ROLL devices.
Thanks to online devices, a doctor can keep an eye on the 2.7. Healthcare
patient's health and receive warnings if a new trend is discovered
by automated filters.
Fine-grained daily measurements presented in proper ways may allow By adding communication capability to devices, patients and elderly
citizens may be able to do simple measurements at home.
Thanks to online devices, a doctor can keep an eye on the patient's
health and receive warnings if a new trend is discovered by automated
filters.
Fine-grained, daily measurements presented in proper ways may allow
the doctor to establish a more precise diagnosis. the doctor to establish a more precise diagnosis.
Such applications may be realized as wearable products which Such applications may be realized as wearable products that
frequently do a measurement and automatically deliver the result frequently do a measurement and automatically deliver the result to a
to a data sink locally or over the Internet. data sink locally or over the Internet.
Applications falling in this category are referred to as at-home Applications falling in this category are referred to as at-home
health reporting. Whether measurements are done in a fixed health reporting. Whether measurements are done in a fixed interval
interval or if they are manually activated, they leave all or they are manually activated, they leave all processing to the
processing to the receiving data sink. receiving data sink.
A more active category of applications may send an alarm if some A more active category of applications may send an alarm if some
alarm condition is triggered. This category of applications is alarm condition is triggered. This category of applications is
referred to as at-home health monitoring. Measurements are referred to as at-home health monitoring. Measurements are
interpreted in the device and may cause reporting of an event if interpreted in the device and may cause reporting of an event if an
an alarm is triggered. alarm is triggered.
Many implementations may overlap both categories. Many implementations may overlap both categories.
Since wireless and battery operated systems may never reach 100% Since wireless and battery operated systems may never reach 100%
guaranteed operational time, healthcare and security systems will guaranteed operational time, healthcare and security systems will
need a management layer implementing alarm mechanisms for low need a management layer implementing alarm mechanisms for low
battery, report activity, etc. battery, report activity, etc.
For instance if a blood pressure sensor did not report a new
measurement, say 5 minutes after the scheduled time, some For instance, if a blood pressure sensor did not report a new
measurement, say five minutes after the scheduled time, some
responsible person must be notified. responsible person must be notified.
The structure and performance of such a management layer is
outside the scope of the routing requirements listed in this
document.
2.7.1. At-home Health Reporting The structure and performance of such a management layer is outside
the scope of the routing requirements listed in this document.
2.7.1. At-Home Health Reporting
Applications might include: Applications might include:
o Temperature o Temperature
o Weight o Weight
o Blood pressure o Blood pressure
o Insulin level o Insulin level
Measurements may be stored for long term statistics. At the same Measurements may be stored for long-term statistics. At the same
time, a critically high blood pressure may cause the generation of time, a critically high blood pressure may cause the generation of an
an alarm report. Refer to 2.7.2. alarm report. Refer to Section 2.7.2.
To avoid a high number of request messages, nodes may be To avoid a high number of request messages, nodes may be configured
configured to autonomously do a measurement and send a report in to autonomously do a measurement and send a report in intervals.
intervals.
2.7.2. At-home Health Monitoring 2.7.2. At-Home Health Monitoring
An alarm event may become active e.g. if the measured blood An alarm event may become active, e.g., if the measured blood
pressure exceeds a threshold or if a person falls to the ground. pressure exceeds a threshold or if a person falls to the ground.
Alarm conditions must be reported with the highest priority and Alarm conditions must be reported with the highest priority and
timeliness. timeliness.
Applications might include: Applications might include:
o Temperature o Temperature
o Weight o Weight
o Blood pressure o Blood pressure
o Insulin level o Insulin level
o Electrocardiogram (ECG) o Electrocardiogram (ECG)
o Position tracker o Position tracker
2.8. Alarm Systems 2.8. Alarm Systems
A home security alarm system is comprised of various sensors A home security alarm system is comprised of various sensors
(vibration, fire or carbon monoxide, door/window, glass-break, (vibration, fire, carbon monoxide, door/window, glass-break,
presence, panic button, etc.). presence, panic button, etc.).
Some smoke alarms are battery powered and at the same time mounted Some smoke alarms are battery powered and at the same time mounted in
in a high place. Battery-powered safety devices should only be a high place. Battery-powered safety devices should only be used for
used for routing if no other alternatives exist to avoid draining routing if no other alternatives exist to avoid draining the battery.
the battery. A smoke alarm with a drained battery does not provide A smoke alarm with a drained battery does not provide a lot of
a lot of safety. Also, it may be inconvenient to exchange battery safety. Also, it may be inconvenient to change the batteries in a
in a smoke alarm. smoke alarm.
Alarm system applications may have both a synchronous and an Alarm system applications may have both a synchronous and an
asynchronous behavior; i.e. they may be periodically queried by a asynchronous behavior; i.e., they may be periodically queried by a
central control application (e.g. for a periodical refreshment of central control application (e.g., for a periodical refreshment of
the network state), or send a message to the control application the network state) or send a message to the control application on
on their own initiative. their own initiative.
When a node (or a group of nodes) identifies a risk situation When a node (or a group of nodes) identifies a risk situation (e.g.,
(e.g. intrusion, smoke, fire), it sends an alarm message to a intrusion, smoke, fire), it sends an alarm message to a central
central controller that could autonomously forward it via Internet controller that could autonomously forward it via the Internet or
or interact with other network nodes (e.g. try to obtain more interact with other network nodes (e.g., try to obtain more detailed
detailed information or ask other nodes close to the alarm event). information or ask other nodes close to the alarm event).
Finally, routing via battery-powered nodes may be very slow if the Finally, routing via battery-powered nodes may be very slow if the
nodes are sleeping most of the time (they could appear nodes are sleeping most of the time (they could appear unresponsive
unresponsive to the alarm detection). To ensure fast message to the alarm detection). To ensure fast message delivery and avoid
delivery and avoid battery drain, routing should be avoided via battery drain, routing should be avoided via sleeping devices.
sleeping devices.
3. Unique Routing Requirements of Home Automation Applications 3. Unique Routing Requirements of Home Automation Applications
Home automation applications have a number of specific routing Home automation applications have a number of specific routing
requirements related to the set of home networking applications requirements related to the set of home networking applications and
and the perceived operation of the system. the perceived operation of the system.
The relations of use cases to requirements are outlined in the The relations of use cases to requirements are outlined in the table
table below: below:
+------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
| Use case | Requirement | | Use case | Requirement |
+------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.1. Lighting Application In |3.2. Support of Mobility | |2.1. Lighting Application in |3.2. Support of Mobility |
|Action |3.3. Scalability | |Action |3.3. Scalability |
| | |
+------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.2. Energy Conservation and |3.1. Constraint-based Routing| |2.2. Energy Conservation and |3.1. Constraint-Based Routing|
|Optimizing Energy Consumption | | |Optimizing Energy Consumption | |
+------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.3. Moving a Remote Control |3.2. Support of Mobility | |2.3. Moving a Remote Control |3.2. Support of Mobility |
|Around |3.4. Convergence Time | |Around |3.4. Convergence Time |
+------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.4. Adding A New Module To |3.4. Convergence Time | |2.4. Adding a New Module to |3.4. Convergence Time |
|The System |3.5. Manageability | |the System |3.5. Manageability |
+------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.7. Healthcare |3.1. Constraint-based Routing| |2.7. Healthcare |3.1. Constraint-Based Routing|
| |3.2. Support of Mobility | | |3.2. Support of Mobility |
| |3.4. Convergence Time | | |3.4. Convergence Time |
| | |
+------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.8. Alarm Systems |3.3. Scalability | |2.8. Alarm Systems |3.3. Scalability |
| |3.4. Convergence Time | | |3.4. Convergence Time |
+------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
3.1. Constraint-based Routing 3.1. Constraint-Based Routing
For convenience and low operational costs, power consumption of For convenience and low-operational costs, power consumption of
consumer products must be kept at a very low level to achieve a consumer products must be kept at a very low level to achieve a long
long battery lifetime. One implication of this fact is that Random battery lifetime. One implication of this fact is that Random Access
Access Memory (RAM) is limited and it may even be powered down; Memory (RAM) is limited and it may even be powered down, leaving only
leaving only a few 100 bytes of RAM alive during the sleep phase. a few 100 bytes of RAM alive during the sleep phase.
The use of battery powered devices reduces installation costs and The use of battery-powered devices reduces installation costs and
does enable installation of devices even where main power lines does enable installation of devices even where main power lines are
are not available. On the other hand, in order to be cost not available. On the other hand, in order to be cost effective and
effective and efficient, the devices have to maximize the sleep efficient, the devices have to maximize the sleep phase with a duty
phase with a duty cycle lower than 1%. cycle lower than 1%.
Some devices only wake up in response to an event, e.g. a push Some devices only wake up in response to an event, e.g., a push
button. button.
Simple battery-powered nodes such as movement sensors on garage Simple battery-powered nodes such as movement sensors on garage doors
doors and rain sensors may not be able to assist in routing. and rain sensors may not be able to assist in routing. Depending on
Depending on the node type, the node never listens at all, listens the node type, the node never listens at all, listens rarely, or
rarely or makes contact on demand to a pre-configured target node. makes contact on demand to a pre-configured target node. Attempting
Attempting to communicate to such nodes may at best require long to communicate with such nodes may at best require a long time before
time before getting a response. getting a response.
Other battery-powered nodes may have the capability to participate Other battery-powered nodes may have the capability to participate in
in routing. The routing protocol SHOULD route via mains-powered routing. The routing protocol SHOULD route via mains-powered nodes
nodes if possible. if possible.
The routing protocol MUST support constraint-based routing taking The routing protocol MUST support constraint-based routing taking
into account node properties (CPU, memory, level of energy, sleep into account node properties (CPU, memory, level of energy, sleep
intervals, safety/convenience of changing battery). intervals, safety/convenience of changing battery).
3.2. Support of Mobility 3.2. Support of Mobility
In a home environment, although the majority of devices are fixed In a home environment, although the majority of devices are fixed
devices, there is still a variety of mobile devices: for example a devices, there is still a variety of mobile devices, for example, a
remote control is likely to move. Another example of mobile remote control is likely to move. Another example of mobile devices
devices is wearable healthcare devices. is wearable healthcare devices.
While healthcare devices delivering measurement results can While healthcare devices delivering measurement results can tolerate
tolerate route discovery times measured in seconds, a remote route discovery times measured in seconds, a remote control appears
control appears unresponsive if using more than 0.5 seconds to unresponsive if using more than 0.5 seconds to, e.g., pause the
e.g. pause the music. music.
In more rare occasions, receiving nodes may also have moved. On more rare occasions, receiving nodes may also have moved.
Examples include safety-off switch in a clothes iron, a vacuum Examples include a safety-off switch in a clothes iron, a vacuum
cleaner robot or the wireless chime of doorbell set. cleaner robot, or the wireless chime of doorbell set.
Refer to section 3.4. for routing protocol convergence times. Refer to Section 3.4 for routing protocol convergence times.
A non-responsive node can either be caused by 1) a failure in the A non-responsive node can either be caused by 1) a failure in the
node, 2) a failed link on the path to the node or 3) a moved node. node, 2) a failed link on the path to the node, or 3) a moved node.
In the first two cases, the node can be expected to reappear at In the first two cases, the node can be expected to reappear at
roughly the same location in the network, whereas it can return roughly the same location in the network, whereas it can return
anywhere in the network in the latter case. anywhere in the network in the latter case.
3.3. Scalability 3.3. Scalability
Looking at the number of wall switches, power outlets, sensors of Looking at the number of wall switches, power outlets, sensors of
various nature, video equipment and so on in a modern house, it various natures, video equipment, and so on in a modern house, it
seems quite realistic that hundreds of low power devices may form seems quite realistic that hundreds of devices may form a home-
a home automation network in a fully populated "smart" home. automation network in a fully populated "smart" home, and a large
Moving towards professional building automation, the number of proportion of those may be low-power devices. Moving towards
such devices may be in the order of several thousands. professional-building automation, the number of such devices may be
in the order of several thousands.
The routing protocol MUST support 250 devices in the network. The routing protocol needs to be able to support a basic home
deployment and so MUST be able to support at least 250 devices in the
network. Furthermore, the protocol SHOULD be extensible to support
more sophisticated and future deployments with a larger number of
devices.
3.4. Convergence Time 3.4. Convergence Time
A wireless home automation network is subject to various A wireless home automation network is subject to various
instabilities due to signal strength variation, moving persons and instabilities due to signal strength variation, moving persons, and
the like. the like.
Measured from the transmission of a packet, the following
convergence time requirements apply.
The routing protocol MUST converge within 0.5 second if no nodes Measured from the transmission of a packet, the following convergence
have moved. time requirements apply.
The routing protocol MUST converge within 4 seconds if nodes have The routing protocol MUST converge within 0.5 seconds if no nodes
moved. have moved (see Section 3.2 for motivation).
In both cases, "converge" means "the originator node has received The routing protocol MUST converge within four seconds if nodes have
a response from the destination node". The above-mentioned moved to re-establish connectivity within a time that a human
convergence time requirements apply to a home control network operator would find tolerable as, for example, when moving a remote
environment of up to 250 nodes with up to 4 repeating nodes control unit.
between source and destination.
3.5. Manageability In both cases, "converge" means "the originator node has received a
response from the destination node". The above-mentioned convergence
time requirements apply to a home control network environment of up
to 250 nodes with up to four repeating nodes between source and
destination.
The ability of the home network to support auto-configuration is 3.5. Manageability
of the utmost importance. Indeed, most end users will not have the
The ability of the home network to support auto-configuration is of
the utmost importance. Indeed, most end-users will not have the
expertise and the skills to perform advanced configuration and expertise and the skills to perform advanced configuration and
troubleshooting. Thus the routing protocol designed for home troubleshooting. Thus, the routing protocol designed for home-
automation networks MUST provide a set of features including zero- automation networks MUST provide a set of features including zero-
configuration of the routing protocol for a new node to be added configuration of the routing protocol for a new node to be added to
to the network. From a routing perspective, zero-configuration the network. From a routing perspective, zero-configuration means
means that a node can obtain an address and join the network on that a node can obtain an address and join the network on its own,
its own, almost without human intervention. almost without human intervention.
3.6. Stability 3.6. Stability
If a node is found to fail often compared to the rest of the If a node is found to fail often compared to the rest of the network,
network, this node SHOULD NOT be the first choice for routing of this node SHOULD NOT be the first choice for routing of traffic.
traffic.
4. Traffic Pattern 4. Traffic Pattern
Depending on the design philosophy of the home network, wall Depending on the design philosophy of the home network, wall switches
switches may be configured to directly control individual lamps or may be configured to directly control individual lamps or
alternatively, all wall switches send control commands to a alternatively, all wall switches send control commands to a central
central lighting control computer which again sends out control lighting control computer, which again sends out control commands to
commands to relevant devices. relevant devices.
In a distributed system, the traffic tends to be multipoint-to- In a distributed system, the traffic tends to be multipoint-to-
multipoint. In a centralized system, it is a mix of multipoint-to- multipoint. In a centralized system, it is a mix of multipoint-to-
point and point-to-multipoint. point and point-to-multipoint.
Wall switches only generate traffic when activated, which Wall switches only generate traffic when activated, which typically
typically happens from a one to tens of times per hour. happens from one to ten times per hour.
Remote controls have a similar transmit pattern to wall switches, Remote controls have a similar transmit pattern to wall switches but
but are activated more frequently. may be activated more frequently in some deployments.
Temperature/air pressure/rain sensors send frames when queried by Temperature/air and pressure/rain sensors send frames when queried by
the user or can be preconfigured to send measurements at fixed the user or can be preconfigured to send measurements at fixed
intervals (typically minutes). Motion sensors typically send a intervals (typically minutes). Motion sensors typically send a frame
frame when motion is first detected and another frame when an idle when motion is first detected and another frame when an idle period
period with no movement has elapsed. The highest transmission with no movement has elapsed. The highest transmission frequency
frequency depends on the idle period used in the sensor. depends on the idle period used in the sensor. Sometimes, a timer
Sometimes, a timer will trigger a frame transmission when an will trigger a frame transmission when an extended period without
extended period without status change has elapsed. status change has elapsed.
All frames sent in the above examples are quite short, typically All frames sent in the above examples are quite short, typically less
less than 5 bytes of payload. Lost frames and interference from than five bytes of payload. Lost frames and interference from other
other transmitters may lead to retransmissions. In all cases, transmitters may lead to retransmissions. In all cases,
acknowledgment frames with a size of a few bytes are used. acknowledgment frames with a size of a few bytes are used.
As mentioned in the introduction, all messages are carried in IPv6 5. Security Considerations
packets; typically as UDP but ICMP echo and other types may also
appear.
In order to save bandwidth, the transport layer will typically be
using header compression [I-D.Hui-HeaderCompression].
5. Security Considerations
As every network, HC-LLNs are exposed to routing security threats As is the case with every network, LLNs are exposed to routing
that need to be addressed. The wireless and distributed nature of security threats that need to be addressed. The wireless and
these networks increases the spectrum of potential routing distributed nature of these networks increases the spectrum of
security threats. This is further amplified by the resource potential routing security threats. This is further amplified by the
constraints of the nodes, thereby preventing resource-intensive resource constraints of the nodes, thereby preventing resource-
routing security approaches from being deployed. A viable routing intensive routing security approaches from being deployed. A viable
security approach SHOULD be sufficiently lightweight that it may routing security approach SHOULD be sufficiently lightweight that it
be implemented across all nodes in a HC-LLN. These issues require may be implemented across all nodes in a LLN. These issues require
special attention during the design process, so as to facilitate a special attention during the design process, so as to facilitate a
commercially attractive deployment. commercially attractive deployment.
An attacker can snoop, replay, or originate arbitrary messages to An attacker can snoop, replay, or originate arbitrary messages to a
a node in an attempt to manipulate or disable the routing node in an attempt to manipulate or disable the routing function.
function.
To mitigate this, the HC-LLN MUST be able to authenticate a new
node prior to allowing it to participate in the routing decision
process. The routing protocol MUST support message integrity.
Further examples of routing security issues that may arise are the To mitigate this, the LLN MUST be able to authenticate a new node
abnormal behavior of nodes that exhibit an egoistic conduct, such prior to allowing it to participate in the routing decision process.
as not obeying network rules or forwarding no or false packets. The routing protocol MUST support message integrity.
Other important issues may arise in the context of denial-of- A further example of routing security issues that may arise is the
service (DoS) attacks, malicious address space allocations, abnormal behavior of nodes that exhibit an egoistic conduct, such as
advertisement of variable addresses, a wrong neighborhood, etc. not obeying network rules or forwarding no or false packets.
The routing protocol(s) SHOULD support defense against DoS attacks
and other attempts to maliciously or inadvertently cause the
mechanisms of the routing protocol(s) to over-consume the limited
resources of LLN nodes, e.g., by constructing forwarding loops or
causing excessive routing protocol overhead traffic, etc.
The properties of self-configuration and self-organization that Other important issues may arise in the context of denial-of-service
are desirable in a HC-LLN introduce additional routing security (DoS) attacks, malicious address space allocations, advertisement of
variable addresses, a wrong neighborhood, etc. The routing
protocol(s) SHOULD support defense against DoS attacks and other
attempts to maliciously or inadvertently cause the mechanisms of the
routing protocol(s) to over-consume the limited resources of LLN
nodes, e.g., by constructing forwarding loops or causing excessive
routing protocol overhead traffic, etc.
The properties of self-configuration and self-organization that are
desirable in a LLN introduce additional routing security
considerations. Mechanisms MUST be in place to deny any node that considerations. Mechanisms MUST be in place to deny any node that
attempts to take malicious advantage of self-configuration and attempts to take malicious advantage of self-configuration and self-
self-organization procedures. Such attacks may attempt, for organization procedures. Such attacks may attempt, for example, to
example, to cause DoS, drain the energy of power-constrained cause DoS, drain the energy of power-constrained devices, or to
devices, or to hijack the routing mechanism. A node MUST hijack the routing mechanism. A node MUST authenticate itself to a
authenticate itself to a trusted node that is already associated trusted node that is already associated with the LLN before the
with the HC-LLN before the former can take part in self- former can take part in self-configuration or self-organization. A
configuration or self-organization. A node that has already node that has already authenticated and associated with the LLN MUST
authenticated and associated with the HC-LLN MUST deny, to the deny, to the maximum extent possible, the allocation of resources to
maximum extent possible, the allocation of resources to any any unauthenticated peer. The routing protocol(s) MUST deny service
unauthenticated peer. The routing protocol(s) MUST deny service to any node that has not clearly established trust with the HC-LLN.
to any node that has not clearly established trust with the HC-
LLN. In a home-control environment, it is considered unlikely that a
In a home control environment, it is considered unlikely that a network is constantly being snooped and at the same time, ease of use
network is constantly being snooped and at the same time, ease of is important. As a consequence, the network key MAY be exposed for
use is important. As a consequence the network key MAY be exposed short periods during inclusion of new nodes.
for short periods during inclusion of new nodes.
Electronic door locks and other critical applications SHOULD apply Electronic door locks and other critical applications SHOULD apply
end-to-end application security on top of the network transport end-to-end application security on top of the network transport
security. security.
If connected to a backbone network, the HC-LLN SHOULD be capable If connected to a backbone network, the LLN SHOULD be capable of
of limiting the resources utilized by nodes in said backbone limiting the resources utilized by nodes in said backbone network so
network so as not to be vulnerable to DoS. This should typically as not to be vulnerable to DoS. This should typically be handled by
be handled by border routers providing access from a backbone border routers providing access from a backbone network to resources
network to resources in the HC-LLN. in the LLN.
With low computation power and scarce energy resources, HC-LLNs'
nodes may not be able to resist any attack from high-power
malicious nodes (e.g., laptops and strong radios). However, the
amount of damage generated to the whole network SHOULD be
commensurate with the number of nodes physically compromised. For
example, an intruder taking control over a single node SHOULD NOT
be able to completely deny service to the whole network.
In general, the routing protocol(s) SHOULD support the
implementation of routing security best practices across the HC-
LLN. Such an implementation ought to include defense against, for
example, eavesdropping, replay, message insertion, modification,
and man-in-the-middle attacks.
The choice of the routing security solutions will have an impact With low-computation power and scarce energy resources, LLNs' nodes
on the routing protocol(s). To this end, routing protocol(s) may not be able to resist any attack from high-power malicious nodes
proposed in the context of HC-LLNs MUST support authentication and (e.g., laptops and strong radios). However, the amount of damage
integrity measures and SHOULD support confidentiality (routing generated to the whole network SHOULD be commensurate with the number
security) measures. of nodes physically compromised. For example, an intruder taking
control over a single node SHOULD NOT be able to completely deny
service to the whole network.
6. IANA Considerations In general, the routing protocol(s) SHOULD support the implementation
of routing security best practices across the LLN. Such an
implementation ought to include defense against, for example,
eavesdropping, replay, message insertion, modification, and man-in-
the-middle attacks.
This document includes no request to IANA. The choice of the routing security solutions will have an impact on
the routing protocol(s). To this end, routing protocol(s) proposed
in the context of LLNs MUST support authentication and integrity
measures and SHOULD support confidentiality (routing security)
measures.
7. Acknowledgments 6. Acknowledgments
J. P. Vasseur, Jonathan Hui, Eunsook "Eunah" Kim, Mischa Dohler J. P. Vasseur, Jonathan Hui, Eunsook "Eunah" Kim, Mischa Dohler, and
and Massimo Maggiorotti are gratefully acknowledged for their Massimo Maggiorotti are gratefully acknowledged for their
contributions to this document. contributions to this document.
This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot. 7. References
8. Disclaimer for pre-RFC5378 work
This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
Contributions published or made publicly available before November
10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s)
controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not
be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative
works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process,
except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate it
into languages other than English.
9. References
9.1. Normative References
[I-D.Vasseur-Terminology] Vasseur, JP. "Terminology in Low power
And Lossy Networks", draft-vasseur-roll-terminology-02
(work in progress), October 2008.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate 7.1. Normative References
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
9.2. Informative References [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC5548] Dohler, M., "Routing Requirements for Urban Low-Power 7.2. Informative References
and Lossy Networks", BCP 14, RFC 5548, May 2009.
[I-D.Pister-Industial-reqs] Pister, K., "Industrial Routing [BUILDING-REQS] Martocci, J., Ed., De Mil, P., Vermeylen, W., and N.
Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Networks ", draft- Riou, "Building Automation Routing Requirements in
ietf-roll-indus-routing-reqs (work in progress) Low Power and Lossy Networks", Work in Progress,
January 2010.
[I-D.Martocci-Building-reqs] Martocci, J., "Building Automation [RFC5548] Dohler, M., Ed., Watteyne, T., Ed., Winter, T., Ed.,
Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Networks ", and D. Barthel, Ed., "Routing Requirements for Urban
draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs (work in progress) Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC 5548, May 2009.
[I-D.Levis-Protocols-survey] Lewis, P. "Overview of Existing [RFC5673] Pister, K., Ed., Thubert, P., Ed., Dwars, S., and T.
Routing Protocols for Low Power and Lossy Networks", Phinney, "Industrial Routing Requirements in Low-
draft-ietf-roll-protocols-survey (work in progress) Power and Lossy Networks", RFC 5673, October 2009.
[I-D.Hui-HeaderCompression] Hui, J., "Compression Format for IPv6 [ROLL-TERM] Vasseur, JP. "Terminology in Low power And Lossy
Datagrams in 6LoWPAN Networks ", draft-ietf-6lowpan-hc Networks", Work in Progress, October 2009.
(work in progress), December 2008.
Author's Addresses Authors' Addresses
Anders Brandt Anders Brandt
Sigma Designs, Inc. Sigma Designs, Inc.
Emdrupvej 26 Emdrupvej 26
Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, DK-2100
Denmark Denmark
Email: abr@sdesigns.dk EMail: abr@sdesigns.dk
Jakob Buron Jakob Buron
Sigma Designs, Inc. Sigma Designs, Inc.
Emdrupvej 26 Emdrupvej 26
Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, DK-2100
Denmark Denmark
Email: jbu@sdesigns.dk EMail: jbu@sdesigns.dk
Giorgio Porcu Giorgio Porcu
Telecom Italia Telecom Italia
Piazza degli Affari, 2 Piazza degli Affari, 2
20123 Milan 20123 Milan
Italy Italy
Acknowledgment EMail: gporcu@gmail.com
Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
Internet Society.
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