draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-09.txt   draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-10.txt 
Networking Working Group A. Brandt Networking Working Group A. Brandt
Internet Draft Sigma Designs, Inc. Internet Draft Sigma Designs, Inc.
Intended status: Informational J. Buron Intended status: Informational J. Buron
Expires: May 2010 Sigma Designs, Inc. Expires: July 2010 Sigma Designs, Inc.
G. Porcu G. Porcu
Telecom Italia Telecom Italia
November 30, 2009 January 6, 2010
Home Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Home Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy
Networks Networks
draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-09 draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-10
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with
the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
Drafts. Drafts.
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documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts
as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in
progress." progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 30, 2010. This Internet-Draft will expire on July 6, 2010.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license- publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-
info). info).
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2.4. Adding A New Module To The System......................7 2.4. Adding A New Module To The System......................7
2.5. Controlling Battery Operated Window Shades.............8 2.5. Controlling Battery Operated Window Shades.............8
2.6. Remote Video Surveillance..............................8 2.6. Remote Video Surveillance..............................8
2.7. Healthcare.............................................8 2.7. Healthcare.............................................8
2.7.1. At-home Health Reporting..........................9 2.7.1. At-home Health Reporting..........................9
2.7.2. At-home Health Monitoring........................10 2.7.2. At-home Health Monitoring........................10
2.8. Alarm Systems.........................................10 2.8. Alarm Systems.........................................10
3. Unique Routing Requirements of Home Automation Applications11 3. Unique Routing Requirements of Home Automation Applications11
3.1. Constraint-based Routing..............................11 3.1. Constraint-based Routing..............................11
3.2. Support of Mobility...................................12 3.2. Support of Mobility...................................12
3.3. Sleeping Nodes........................................13 3.3. Healthcare Routing....................................13
3.4. Healthcare Routing....................................13 3.4. Scalability...........................................13
3.5. Scalability...........................................13 3.5. Convergence Time......................................13
3.6. Convergence Time......................................13 3.6. Manageability.........................................14
3.7. Manageability.........................................14 3.7. Stability.............................................14
3.8. Stability.............................................14
4. Traffic Pattern............................................14 4. Traffic Pattern............................................14
5. Security Considerations....................................15 5. Security Considerations....................................15
6. IANA Considerations........................................16 6. IANA Considerations........................................16
7. Acknowledgments............................................17 7. Acknowledgments............................................16
8. Disclaimer for pre-RFC5378 work............................17 8. Disclaimer for pre-RFC5378 work............................17
9. References.................................................17 9. References.................................................17
9.1. Normative References..................................17 9.1. Normative References..................................17
9.2. Informative References................................17 9.2. Informative References................................17
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document presents home control and automation application This document presents home control and automation application
specific requirements for Routing Over Low power and Lossy specific requirements for Routing Over Low power and Lossy
networks (ROLL). In the near future many homes will contain high networks (ROLL). In the near future many homes will contain high
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networks comprising such constrained devices in a home network networks comprising such constrained devices in a home network
environment. These requirements may be overlapping requirements environment. These requirements may be overlapping requirements
derived from other application-specific routing requirements derived from other application-specific routing requirements
presented in [I-D.Martocci-Building-reqs], [I-D.Pister-Industial- presented in [I-D.Martocci-Building-reqs], [I-D.Pister-Industial-
reqs] and [RFC5548]. reqs] and [RFC5548].
A full list of requirements documents may be found in section 9. A full list of requirements documents may be found in section 9.
1.1. Terminology 1.1. Terminology
ROLL: Routing Over Low-power and Lossy networks ROLL: Routing Over Low-power and Lossy networks
A ROLL node may be classified as sensor, actuator A ROLL node may be classified as sensor, actuator
or controller. or controller.
Actuator: Network node which performs some physical action. Actuator: Network node which performs some physical action.
Dimmers and relays are examples of actuators. Dimmers and relays are examples of actuators.
If sufficiently powered, actuator nodes may If sufficiently powered, actuator nodes may
participate in routing network messages. participate in routing network messages.
Border router:Infrastructure device that connects a ROLL network Border router:Infrastructure device that connects a ROLL network
to the Internet or some backbone network. to the Internet or some backbone network.
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requirements related to the set of home networking applications requirements related to the set of home networking applications
and the perceived operation of the system. and the perceived operation of the system.
The relations of use cases to requirements are outlined in the The relations of use cases to requirements are outlined in the
table below: table below:
+-------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +-------------------------------+-----------------------------+
| Use case | Requirement | | Use case | Requirement |
+-------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +-------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.1. Lighting Application In |3.2. Support of Mobility | |2.1. Lighting Application In |3.2. Support of Mobility |
|Action |3.5. Scalability | |Action |3.4. Scalability |
| | | | | |
+-------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +-------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.2. Energy Conservation and |3.1. Constraint-based Routing| |2.2. Energy Conservation and |3.1. Constraint-based Routing|
|Optimizing Energy Consumption | | |Optimizing Energy Consumption | |
+-------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +-------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.3. Moving a Remote Control |3.2. Support of Mobility | |2.3. Moving a Remote Control |3.2. Support of Mobility |
|Around |3.6. Convergence Time | |Around |3.5. Convergence Time |
+-------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.4. Adding A New Module To The|3.6. Convergence Time |
|System |3.7. Manageability |
+-------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.5. Controlling Battery |3.3. Sleeping Nodes |
|Operated Window Shades | |
+-------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +-------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.6. Remote Video Surveillance |3.3. Sleeping Nodes | |2.4. Adding A New Module To The|3.5. Convergence Time |
| |3.6. Convergence Time | |System |3.6. Manageability |
+-------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +-------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.7. Healthcare |3.1. Constraint-based Routing| |2.7. Healthcare |3.1. Constraint-based Routing|
| |3.2. Support of Mobility | | |3.2. Support of Mobility |
| |3.4. Healthcare Routing | | |3.3. Healthcare Routing |
| |3.6. Convergence Time | | |3.5. Convergence Time |
+-------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +-------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2.8. Alarm Systems |3.5. Scalability | |2.8. Alarm Systems |3.4. Scalability |
| |3.6. Convergence Time | | |3.5. Convergence Time |
+-------------------------------+-----------------------------+ +-------------------------------+-----------------------------+
3.1. Constraint-based Routing 3.1. Constraint-based Routing
For convenience and low operational costs, power consumption of For convenience and low operational costs, power consumption of
consumer products must be kept at a very low level to achieve a consumer products must be kept at a very low level to achieve a
long battery lifetime. One implication of this fact is that Random long battery lifetime. One implication of this fact is that Random
Access Memory (RAM) is limited and it may even be powered down; Access Memory (RAM) is limited and it may even be powered down;
leaving only a few 100 bytes of RAM alive during the sleep phase. leaving only a few 100 bytes of RAM alive during the sleep phase.
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While healthcare devices delivering measurement results can While healthcare devices delivering measurement results can
tolerate route discovery times measured in seconds, a remote tolerate route discovery times measured in seconds, a remote
control appears unresponsive if using more than 0.5 seconds to control appears unresponsive if using more than 0.5 seconds to
e.g. pause the music. e.g. pause the music.
In more rare occasions, receiving nodes may also have moved. In more rare occasions, receiving nodes may also have moved.
Examples include safety-off switch in a clothes iron, a vacuum Examples include safety-off switch in a clothes iron, a vacuum
cleaner robot or the wireless chime of doorbell set. cleaner robot or the wireless chime of doorbell set.
Refer to section 3.6. for routing protocol convergence times. Refer to section 3.5. for routing protocol convergence times.
A non-responsive node can either be caused by 1) a failure in the A non-responsive node can either be caused by 1) a failure in the
node, 2) a failed link on the path to the node or 3) a moved node. node, 2) a failed link on the path to the node or 3) a moved node.
In the first two cases, the node can be expected to reappear at In the first two cases, the node can be expected to reappear at
roughly the same location in the network, whereas it can return roughly the same location in the network, whereas it can return
anywhere in the network in the latter case. anywhere in the network in the latter case.
3.3. Sleeping Nodes 3.3. Healthcare Routing
Sleeping nodes may appear to be non-responsive. The routing
protocol MUST take into account the delivery time to a sleeping
target node.
3.4. Healthcare Routing
Because most health care applications may run on battery, this Because most health care applications may run on battery, this
leads to specific requirements for the routing protocol. Most leads to specific requirements for the routing protocol. Most
health care applications may also be portable and therefore need health care applications may also be portable and therefore need
to locate a new neighbor router on a frequent basis. to locate a new neighbor router on a frequent basis.
Not being powered most of the time, the nodes should not be used Not being powered most of the time, the nodes should not be used
as routing nodes. However, battery-powered nodes may be involved as routing nodes. However, battery-powered nodes may be involved
in routing. Examples include cases where a person falls during a in routing. Examples include cases where a person falls during a
power blackout. In that case it may be that no mains-powered power blackout. In that case it may be that no mains-powered
routers are available for forwarding the alarm message to a routers are available for forwarding the alarm message to a
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Delivery of measurement data has a more relaxed requirement for Delivery of measurement data has a more relaxed requirement for
route discovery time compared to a remote control. On the other route discovery time compared to a remote control. On the other
hand, it is critical that a "person fell" alarm is actually hand, it is critical that a "person fell" alarm is actually
delivered. delivered.
If possible at all, the routing protocol MUST deliver a health- If possible at all, the routing protocol MUST deliver a health-
care related message. It is NOT a requirement that such message is care related message. It is NOT a requirement that such message is
delivered in less than a second. delivered in less than a second.
3.5. Scalability 3.4. Scalability
Looking at the number of wall switches, power outlets, sensors of Looking at the number of wall switches, power outlets, sensors of
various nature, video equipment and so on in a modern house, it various nature, video equipment and so on in a modern house, it
seems quite realistic that hundreds of low power devices may form seems quite realistic that hundreds of low power devices may form
a home automation network in a fully populated "smart" home. a home automation network in a fully populated "smart" home.
Moving towards professional building automation, the number of Moving towards professional building automation, the number of
such devices may be in the order of several thousands. such devices may be in the order of several thousands.
The routing protocol MUST support 250 devices in the network. The routing protocol MUST support 250 devices in the network.
3.6. Convergence Time 3.5. Convergence Time
A wireless home automation network is subject to various A wireless home automation network is subject to various
instabilities due to signal strength variation, moving persons and instabilities due to signal strength variation, moving persons and
the like. the like.
Measured from the transmission of a packet, the following Measured from the transmission of a packet, the following
convergence time requirements apply. convergence time requirements apply.
The routing protocol MUST converge within 0.5 second if no nodes The routing protocol MUST converge within 0.5 second if no nodes
have moved. have moved.
The routing protocol MUST converge within 4 seconds if nodes have The routing protocol MUST converge within 4 seconds if nodes have
moved. moved.
In both cases, "converge" means "the originator node has received In both cases, "converge" means "the originator node has received
a response from the destination node". The above-mentioned a response from the destination node". The above-mentioned
convergence time requirements apply to a home control network convergence time requirements apply to a home control network
environment of up to 250 nodes with up to 4 repeating nodes environment of up to 250 nodes with up to 4 repeating nodes
between source and destination. between source and destination.
3.7. Manageability 3.6. Manageability
The ability of the home network to support auto-configuration is The ability of the home network to support auto-configuration is
of the utmost importance. Indeed, most end users will not have the of the utmost importance. Indeed, most end users will not have the
expertise and the skills to perform advanced configuration and expertise and the skills to perform advanced configuration and
troubleshooting. Thus the routing protocol designed for home troubleshooting. Thus the routing protocol designed for home
automation networks MUST provide a set of features including zero- automation networks MUST provide a set of features including zero-
configuration of the routing protocol for a new node to be added configuration of the routing protocol for a new node to be added
to the network. From a routing perspective, zero-configuration to the network. From a routing perspective, zero-configuration
means that a node can obtain an address and join the network on means that a node can obtain an address and join the network on
its own, almost without human intervention. its own, almost without human intervention.
3.8. Stability 3.7. Stability
If a node is found to fail often compared to the rest of the If a node is found to fail often compared to the rest of the
network, this node SHOULD NOT be the first choice for routing of network, this node SHOULD NOT be the first choice for routing of
traffic. traffic.
4. Traffic Pattern 4. Traffic Pattern
Depending on the design philosophy of the home network, wall Depending on the design philosophy of the home network, wall
switches may be configured to directly control individual lamps or switches may be configured to directly control individual lamps or
alternatively, all wall switches send control commands to a alternatively, all wall switches send control commands to a
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