draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-03.txt   draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-04.txt 
Networking Working Group A. Brandt Networking Working Group A. Brandt
Internet Draft Zensys, Inc. Internet Draft Zensys, Inc.
Intended status: Informational G. Porcu Intended status: Informational G. Porcu
Expires: January 2009 Telecom Italia Expires: January 2009 Telecom Italia
September 11, 2008 October 24, 2008
Home Automation Routing Requirement in Low Power and Lossy Home Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy
Networks Networks
draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-03 draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-04
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).
Abstract Abstract
This document presents home control and automation application This document presents home control and automation application
specific requirements for Routing Over Low power and Lossy specific requirements for Routing Over Low power and Lossy
networks (ROLL). In a modern home, a high number of wireless networks (ROLL). In a modern home, a high number of wireless
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2.2. Energy Conservation and Optimizing Energy Consumption....6 2.2. Energy Conservation and Optimizing Energy Consumption....6
2.3. Moving a Remote Control Around...........................7 2.3. Moving a Remote Control Around...........................7
2.4. Adding A New Module To The System........................7 2.4. Adding A New Module To The System........................7
2.5. Controlling Battery Operated Window Shades...............8 2.5. Controlling Battery Operated Window Shades...............8
2.6. Remote Video Surveillance................................8 2.6. Remote Video Surveillance................................8
2.7. Healthcare...............................................8 2.7. Healthcare...............................................8
2.7.1. At-home Health Reporting............................9 2.7.1. At-home Health Reporting............................9
2.7.2. At-home Health Monitoring...........................9 2.7.2. At-home Health Monitoring...........................9
2.8. Alarm Systems............................................9 2.8. Alarm Systems............................................9
3. Unique Routing Requirements of Home Automation Applications..10 3. Unique Routing Requirements of Home Automation Applications..10
3.1. Support of Groupcast....................................11 3.1. Constraint-based Routing................................11
3.2. Constraint-based Routing................................12 3.2. Support of Mobility.....................................12
3.3. Support of Mobility.....................................12 3.3. Sleeping Nodes..........................................12
3.4. Sleeping Nodes..........................................13 3.4. Healthcare Routing......................................12
3.5. Healthcare Routing......................................13 3.5. Scalability.............................................13
3.6. Scalability.............................................13 3.6. Convergence Time........................................13
3.7. Convergence Time........................................14 3.7. Manageability...........................................13
3.8. Manageability...........................................14 3.8. Stability...............................................14
3.9. Stability...............................................14
4. Traffic Pattern..............................................14 4. Traffic Pattern..............................................14
5. Open Issues..................................................15 5. Open Issues..................................................14
6. Security Considerations......................................15 6. Security Considerations......................................15
7. IANA Considerations..........................................15 7. IANA Considerations..........................................15
8. Acknowledgments..............................................15 8. Acknowledgments..............................................15
9. References...................................................16 9. References...................................................15
9.1. Normative References....................................16 9.1. Normative References....................................15
9.2. Informative References..................................17 9.2. Informative References..................................16
Disclaimer of Validity..........................................18 Disclaimer of Validity..........................................17
Terminology Terminology
ROLL: Routing Over Low-power and Lossy networks ROLL: Routing Over Low-power and Lossy networks
A ROLL node may be classified as sensor, actuator A ROLL node may be classified as sensor, actuator
or controller. or controller.
Access Point: The access point is an infrastructure device that
connects a ROLL network to the Internet or some
backbone network.
Actuator: Network node which performs some physical action. Actuator: Network node which performs some physical action.
Dimmers and relays are examples of actuators. Dimmers and relays are examples of actuators.
If sufficiently powered, actuator nodes may If sufficiently powered, actuator nodes may
participate in routing network messages. participate in routing network messages.
Border router: Infrastructure device that connects a ROLL network
to the Internet or some backbone network.
Channel: Radio frequency band used to carry network packets. Channel: Radio frequency band used to carry network packets.
Controller: Network node that controls actuators. Control Controller: Network node that controls actuators. Control
decisions may be based on sensor readings, sensor decisions may be based on sensor readings, sensor
events, scheduled actions or incoming commands from events, scheduled actions or incoming commands from
the Internet or other backbone networks. the Internet or other backbone networks.
If sufficiently powered, controller nodes may If sufficiently powered, controller nodes may
participate in routing network messages. participate in routing network messages.
Downstream: Data direction traveling from a Local Area Network Downstream: Data direction traveling from a Local Area Network
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Sensor: Network node that measures data and/or detects an Sensor: Network node that measures data and/or detects an
event. event.
The sensor may generate a trap message to notify a The sensor may generate a trap message to notify a
controller or directly activate an actuator. controller or directly activate an actuator.
If sufficiently powered, sensor nodes may If sufficiently powered, sensor nodes may
participate in routing network messages. participate in routing network messages.
Upstream: Data direction traveling from a PAN to a LAN Upstream: Data direction traveling from a PAN to a LAN
device. device.
Refer to the roll-terminology reference document for a full list
of terms used in the IETF ROLL WG.
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document presents home control and automation application This document presents home control and automation application
specific requirements for Routing Over Low power and Lossy specific requirements for Routing Over Low power and Lossy
networks (ROLL). In a modern home, a high number of wireless networks (ROLL). In a modern home, a high number of wireless
devices are used for a wide set of purposes. Examples include devices are used for a wide set of purposes. Examples include
actuators (relay, light dimmer, heating valve), sensors (wall actuators (relay, light dimmer, heating valve), sensors (wall
switch, water leak, blood pressure) and advanced controllers. switch, water leak, blood pressure) and advanced controllers.
Basic home control modules such as wall switches and plug-in Basic home control modules such as wall switches and plug-in
modules may be turned into an advanced home automation solution modules may be turned into an advanced home automation solution
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One event may cause many actuators to be activated at the same One event may cause many actuators to be activated at the same
time. time.
Using the direct analogy to an electronic car key, a house owner Using the direct analogy to an electronic car key, a house owner
may activate the "leaving home" function from an electronic house may activate the "leaving home" function from an electronic house
key, mobile phone, etc. For the sake of visual impression, all key, mobile phone, etc. For the sake of visual impression, all
lights should turn off at the same time. At least, it should lights should turn off at the same time. At least, it should
appear to happen at the same time. A well-known problem in appear to happen at the same time. A well-known problem in
wireless home automation is the "popcorn effect": Lamps are turned wireless home automation is the "popcorn effect": Lamps are turned
on one at a time, at a rate so slow that it is clearly visible. on one at a time, at a rate so slow that it is clearly visible.
Some existing home automation solutions use a clever mix of a Some existing home automation solutions use a clever mix of a
"subnet groupcast" message in direct range with no acknowledgement "subnet groupcast" message in direct range with no acknowledgement
before sending acknowledged singlecast messages to each device. before sending acknowledged singlecast messages to each device.
Subnet groupcast, being an application-level feature, is not
further discussed in this specification.
The controller forms the group and decides which nodes should The controller forms the group and decides which nodes should
receive a message. receive a message.
2.2. Energy Conservation and Optimizing Energy Consumption 2.2. Energy Conservation and Optimizing Energy Consumption
In order to save energy, air conditioning, central heating, window In order to save energy, air conditioning, central heating, window
shades etc. may be controlled by timers, motion sensors or shades etc. may be controlled by timers, motion sensors or
remotely via internet or cell. Central heating may also be set to remotely via internet or cell. Central heating may also be set to
a reduced temperature during night time. a reduced temperature during night time.
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Home automation applications have a number of specific routing Home automation applications have a number of specific routing
requirements related to the set of home networking applications requirements related to the set of home networking applications
and the perceived operation of the system. and the perceived operation of the system.
The relations of use cases to requirements are outlined in the The relations of use cases to requirements are outlined in the
table below: table below:
+------------------------------- +-----------------------------+ +------------------------------- +-----------------------------+
| Use case | Requirement | | Use case | Requirement |
+------------------------------- +-----------------------------+ +------------------------------- +-----------------------------+
|2.1. Lighting Application In |3.1. Support of Groupcast | |2.1. Lighting Application In |3.2. Support of Mobility |
|Action |3.3. Support of Mobility | |Action |3.5. Scalability |
| |3.6. Scalability | | | |
+------------------------------- +-----------------------------+ +------------------------------- +-----------------------------+
|2.2. Energy Conservation and |3.2. Constraint-based Routing| |2.2. Energy Conservation and |3.1. Constraint-based Routing|
|Optimizing Energy Consumption | | |Optimizing Energy Consumption | |
+------------------------------- +-----------------------------+ +------------------------------- +-----------------------------+
|2.3. Moving a Remote Control |3.3. Support of Mobility | |2.3. Moving a Remote Control |3.2. Support of Mobility |
|Around |3.7. Convergence Time | |Around |3.6. Convergence Time |
+------------------------------- +-----------------------------+ +------------------------------- +-----------------------------+
|2.4. Adding A New Module To The |3.7. Convergence Time | |2.4. Adding A New Module To The |3.6. Convergence Time |
|System |3.8. Manageability | |System |3.7. Manageability |
+------------------------------- +-----------------------------+ +------------------------------- +-----------------------------+
|2.5. Controlling Battery |3.4. Sleeping Nodes | |2.5. Controlling Battery |3.3. Sleeping Nodes |
|Operated Window Shades | | |Operated Window Shades | |
+------------------------------- +-----------------------------+ +------------------------------- +-----------------------------+
|2.7. Healthcare |3.2. Constraint-based Routing| |2.7. Healthcare |3.1. Constraint-based Routing|
| |3.3. Support of Mobility | | |3.2. Support of Mobility |
| |3.5. Healthcare Routing | | |3.4. Healthcare Routing |
| |3.7. Convergence Time | | |3.6. Convergence Time |
+------------------------------- +-----------------------------+ +------------------------------- +-----------------------------+
|2.8. Alarm Systems |3.6. Scalability | |2.8. Alarm Systems |3.5. Scalability |
| |3.7. Convergence Time | | |3.6. Convergence Time |
+------------------------------- +-----------------------------+ +------------------------------- +-----------------------------+
3.1. Support of Groupcast 3.1. Constraint-based Routing
+----------------------------------------------------------+
| Author's note: |
| The support of groupcast only has implication on the |
| addressing scheme and as such, it is outside the scope |
| of this document that focuses on routing requirements. |
| Nevertheless, it is an important parameter for the |
| definition of the ROLL layer interface towards various |
| layer two technologies for home control. |
| |
| Should a dedicated application-specific document be |
| created for such details? |
+----------------------------------------------------------+
Groupcast, in the context of home automation, is defined as the
ability to simultaneously transmit a message to a group of
recipients without prior interaction with the group members (i.e.
group setup). A use-case for groupcast is given in Section 2.1.
Broadcast and groupcast in home automation MAY be used to achieve
simultaneous reaction from a group of nodes.
It SHOULD be to possible to address a group of receivers known by
the sender even if the receivers do not know that they have been
grouped by the sender.
3.2. Constraint-based Routing
For convenience and low operational costs, power consumption of For convenience and low operational costs, power consumption of
consumer products must be kept at a very low level to achieve a consumer products must be kept at a very low level to achieve a
long battery lifetime. One implication of this fact is that Random long battery lifetime. One implication of this fact is that Random
Access Memory (RAM) is limited and it may even be powered down; Access Memory (RAM) is limited and it may even be powered down;
leaving only a few 100 bytes of RAM alive during the sleep phase. leaving only a few 100 bytes of RAM alive during the sleep phase.
The use of battery powered devices reduces installation costs and The use of battery powered devices reduces installation costs and
does enable installation of devices even where main power lines does enable installation of devices even where main power lines
are not available. On the other hand, in order to be cost are not available. On the other hand, in order to be cost
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time before getting a response. time before getting a response.
Other battery-powered nodes may have the capability to participate Other battery-powered nodes may have the capability to participate
in routing. The routing protocol SHOULD route via mains-powered in routing. The routing protocol SHOULD route via mains-powered
nodes if possible. nodes if possible.
The routing protocol MUST support constraint-based routing taking The routing protocol MUST support constraint-based routing taking
into account node properties (CPU, memory, level of energy, sleep into account node properties (CPU, memory, level of energy, sleep
intervals, safety/convenience of changing battery). intervals, safety/convenience of changing battery).
3.3. Support of Mobility 3.2. Support of Mobility
In a home environment, although the majority of devices are fixed In a home environment, although the majority of devices are fixed
devices, there is still a variety of mobile devices: for example a devices, there is still a variety of mobile devices: for example a
multi-purpose remote control is likely to move. Another example of multi-purpose remote control is likely to move. Another example of
mobile devices is wearable healthcare devices. mobile devices is wearable healthcare devices.
While healthcare devices delivering measurement results can While healthcare devices delivering measurement results can
tolerate route discovery times measured in seconds, a remote tolerate route discovery times measured in seconds, a remote
control appears unresponsive if using more than 0.5 seconds to control appears unresponsive if using more than 0.5 seconds to
e.g. pause the music. e.g. pause the music.
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The routing protocol MUST provide mobility with convergence time The routing protocol MUST provide mobility with convergence time
below 0.5 second if only the sender has moved. below 0.5 second if only the sender has moved.
A non-responsive node can either be caused by 1) a failure in the A non-responsive node can either be caused by 1) a failure in the
node, 2) a failed link on the path to the node or 3) a moved node. node, 2) a failed link on the path to the node or 3) a moved node.
In the first two cases, the node can be expected to reappear at In the first two cases, the node can be expected to reappear at
roughly the same location in the network, whereas it can return roughly the same location in the network, whereas it can return
anywhere in the network in the latter case. anywhere in the network in the latter case.
3.4. Sleeping Nodes 3.3. Sleeping Nodes
Sleeping nodes may appear to be non-responsive. The routing Sleeping nodes may appear to be non-responsive. The routing
protocol MUST take into account the delivery time to a sleeping protocol MUST take into account the delivery time to a sleeping
target node. target node.
The wake-up interval of a sleeping node MUST be less than one The wake-up interval of a sleeping node MUST be less than one
second. second.
3.5. Healthcare Routing 3.4. Healthcare Routing
Because most health care applications may run on battery, this Because most health care applications may run on battery, this
leads to specific requirements for the routing protocol. Most leads to specific requirements for the routing protocol. Most
health care applications may also be portable and therefore need health care applications may also be portable and therefore need
to locate a new neighbor router on a frequent basis. to locate a new neighbor router on a frequent basis.
Not being powered most of the time, the nodes should not be used Not being powered most of the time, the nodes should not be used
as routing nodes. However, battery-powered nodes may be involved as routing nodes. However, battery-powered nodes may be involved
in routing. Examples include cases where a person falls during a in routing. Examples include cases where a person falls during a
power blackout. In that case it may be that no mains-powered power blackout. In that case it may be that no mains-powered
routers are available for forwarding the alarm message to a routers are available for forwarding the alarm message to a
(battery-backed) internet gateway located out of direct range. (battery-backed) internet gateway located out of direct range.
Delivery of measurement data has a more relaxed requirement for Delivery of measurement data has a more relaxed requirement for
route discovery time compared to a remote control. On the other route discovery time compared to a remote control. On the other
hand, it is critical that a "person fell" alarm is actually hand, it is critical that a "person fell" alarm is actually
delivered. delivered.
3.6. Scalability 3.5. Scalability
Looking at the number of wall switches, power outlets, sensors of Looking at the number of wall switches, power outlets, sensors of
various nature, video equipment and so on in a modern house, it various nature, video equipment and so on in a modern house, it
seems quite realistic that hundreds of low power devices may form seems quite realistic that hundreds of low power devices may form
a home automation network in a fully populated "smart" home. a home automation network in a fully populated "smart" home.
Moving towards professional building automation, the number of Moving towards professional building automation, the number of
such devices may be in the order of several thousands. such devices may be in the order of several thousands.
The routing protocol MUST support 250 devices in the network. The routing protocol MUST support 250 devices in the network.
3.7. Convergence Time 3.6. Convergence Time
A wireless home automation network is subject to various A wireless home automation network is subject to various
instabilities due to signal strength variation, moving persons and instabilities due to signal strength variation, moving persons and
the like. Furthermore, as the number of devices increases, the the like. Furthermore, as the number of devices increases, the
probability of a node failure also increases. probability of a node failure also increases.
Measured from the transmission of a packet, the following Measured from the transmission of a packet, the following
convergence time requirements apply. convergence time requirements apply.
The routing protocol MUST converge within 0.5 second if no nodes The routing protocol MUST converge within 0.5 second if no nodes
have moved. have moved.
The routing protocol MUST converge within 2 seconds if the The routing protocol MUST converge within 2 seconds if the
destination node of the packet has moved. destination node of the packet has moved.
In both cases, "converge" means "the originator node has received In both cases, "converge" means "the originator node has received
a response from the destination node". a response from the destination node".
3.8. Manageability 3.7. Manageability
The ability of the home network to support auto-configuration is The ability of the home network to support auto-configuration is
of the utmost importance. Indeed, most end users will not have the of the utmost importance. Indeed, most end users will not have the
expertise and the skills to perform advanced configuration and expertise and the skills to perform advanced configuration and
troubleshooting. Thus the routing protocol designed for home troubleshooting. Thus the routing protocol designed for home
automation networks MUST provide a set of features including zero- automation networks MUST provide a set of features including zero-
configuration of the routing protocol for a new node to be added configuration of the routing protocol for a new node to be added
to the network. From a routing perspective, zero-configuration to the network. From a routing perspective, zero-configuration
means that a node can obtain an address and join the network on means that a node can obtain an address and join the network on
its own, without human intervention. its own, without human intervention.
3.9. Stability 3.8. Stability
The routing protocol MUST support the ability to isolate a The routing protocol MUST support the ability to isolate a
misbehaving node thus preserving the correct operation of the misbehaving node thus preserving the correct operation of the
overall network. overall network.
4. Traffic Pattern 4. Traffic Pattern
Depending on the design philosophy of the home network, wall Depending on the design philosophy of the home network, wall
switches may be configured to directly control individual lamps or switches may be configured to directly control individual lamps or
alternatively, all wall switches send control commands to a alternatively, all wall switches send control commands to a
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less than 5 bytes of payload. Lost frames and interference from less than 5 bytes of payload. Lost frames and interference from
other transmitters may lead to retransmissions. In all cases, other transmitters may lead to retransmissions. In all cases,
acknowledgment frames with a size of a few bytes are used. acknowledgment frames with a size of a few bytes are used.
5. Open Issues 5. Open Issues
Other items to be addressed in further revisions of this document Other items to be addressed in further revisions of this document
include: include:
o Load Balancing (Symmetrical and Asymmetrical) o Load Balancing (Symmetrical and Asymmetrical)
o Groupcast definition in a separate document? (TBD)
o Use case: Home Control Installer Scenario o Use case: Home Control Installer Scenario
o Security
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
Implementing security mechanisms in ROLL network devices may Implementing security mechanisms in ROLL network devices may
degrade energy efficiency and increase cost. degrade energy efficiency and increase cost.
The routing protocol chosen for ROLL MUST allow for low-power, The routing protocol chosen for ROLL MUST allow for low-power,
low-cost network devices with limited security needs. low-cost network devices with limited security needs.
Protection against unintentional inclusion in neighboring networks Protection against unintentional inclusion in neighboring networks
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Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
draft-ietf-roll-indus-routing-reqs-01.txt draft-ietf-roll-indus-routing-reqs-01.txt
draft-ietf-roll-urban-routing-reqs-01.txt draft-ietf-roll-urban-routing-reqs-01.txt
draft-martocci-roll-commercial-routing-reqs-00.txt draft-martocci-roll-commercial-routing-reqs-00.txt
draft-ietf-roll-protocols-survey-00.txt draft-ietf-roll-protocols-survey-00.txt
draft-vasseur-roll-terminology-02.txt
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
Author's Addresses Author's Addresses
Anders Brandt Anders Brandt
Zensys, Inc. Zensys, Inc.
Emdrupvej 26 Emdrupvej 26
Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, DK-2100
Denmark Denmark
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