draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-01.txt   draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-02.txt 
Networking Working Group A. Brandt Networking Working Group A. Brandt
Internet Draft Zensys, Inc. Internet Draft Zensys, Inc.
Intended status: Informational G. Porcu Intended status: Informational G. Porcu
Expires: January 2009 Telecom Italia Expires: January 2009 Telecom Italia
July 4, 2008 July 14, 2008
Home Automation Routing Requirement in Low Power and Lossy Networks Home Automation Routing Requirement in Low Power and Lossy Networks
draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-01 draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-02
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).
Abstract Abstract
This document presents home control and automation application This document presents home control and automation application
specific requirements for ROuting in Low power and Lossy networks specific requirements for ROuting in Low power and Lossy networks
(ROLL). In a modern home, a high number of wireless devices are used (ROLL). In a modern home, a high number of wireless devices are used
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1. Terminology....................................................3 1. Terminology....................................................3
2. Introduction...................................................3 2. Introduction...................................................3
3. Home automation applications...................................4 3. Home automation applications...................................4
3.1. Turning off the house when leaving........................4 3.1. Turning off the house when leaving........................4
3.2. Energy conservation and optimizing energy consumption.....5 3.2. Energy conservation and optimizing energy consumption.....5
3.3. Moving a remote control around............................5 3.3. Moving a remote control around............................5
3.4. Adding a new lamp module to the system....................6 3.4. Adding a new lamp module to the system....................6
3.5. Controlling battery operated window shades................6 3.5. Controlling battery operated window shades................6
3.6. Remote video surveillance.................................6 3.6. Remote video surveillance.................................6
3.7. Healthcare................................................6 3.7. Healthcare................................................7
3.7.1. At-home health reporting.............................7 3.7.1. At-home health reporting.............................7
3.7.2. At-home health monitoring............................7 3.7.2. At-home health monitoring............................8
3.7.3. Healthcare routing considerations....................8 3.7.3. Healthcare routing considerations....................8
3.8. Alarm systems.............................................8 3.8. Alarm systems.............................................8
3.9. Battery-powered devices...................................9 3.9. Battery-powered devices...................................9
4. Unique requirements of home automation applications............9 4. Unique requirements of home automation applications............9
4.1. Support of groupcast......................................9 4.1. Support of groupcast......................................9
4.2. Constraint-based Routing..................................9 4.2. Constraint-based Routing.................................10
4.3. Support of Mobility......................................10 4.3. Support of Mobility......................................10
4.4. Support of Periodical Scanning...........................10 4.4. Support of Periodical Scanning...........................11
4.5. Scalability..............................................11 4.5. Scalability..............................................11
4.6. Convergence Time.........................................11 4.6. Convergence Time.........................................11
4.7. Manageability............................................11 4.7. Manageability............................................12
5. Traffic Pattern...............................................11 5. Traffic Pattern...............................................12
6. Open issues...................................................12 6. Open issues...................................................13
7. Security Considerations.......................................12 7. Security Considerations.......................................13
8. IANA Considerations...........................................13 8. IANA Considerations...........................................13
9. Acknowledgments...............................................13 9. Acknowledgments...............................................13
10. References...................................................13 10. References...................................................14
10.1. Normative References....................................13 10.1. Normative References....................................14
10.2. Informative References..................................14 10.2. Informative References..................................14
Disclaimer of Validity...........................................15 Disclaimer of Validity...........................................15
1. Terminology 1. Terminology
ROLL: ROuting in Low-power and Lossy networks ROLL: ROuting in Low-power and Lossy networks
ROLL device: A ROLL network node with constrained CPU and memory ROLL device: A ROLL network node with constrained CPU and memory
resources; potentially constrained power resources. resources; potentially constrained power resources.
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consumer-oriented. The implications on network nodes in this aspect, consumer-oriented. The implications on network nodes in this aspect,
is that devices are very cost sensitive, which leads to resource- is that devices are very cost sensitive, which leads to resource-
constrained environments having slow CPUs and small memory constrained environments having slow CPUs and small memory
footprints. At the same time, nodes have to be physically small which footprints. At the same time, nodes have to be physically small which
puts a limit to the physical size of the battery; and thus, the puts a limit to the physical size of the battery; and thus, the
battery capacity. As a result, it is common for low-power sensor- battery capacity. As a result, it is common for low-power sensor-
style nodes to shut down radio and CPU resources for most of the style nodes to shut down radio and CPU resources for most of the
time. Often, the radio uses the same power for listening as for time. Often, the radio uses the same power for listening as for
transmitting. transmitting.
Section 3. describes a few typical use cases for home automation Section 3 describes a few typical use cases for home automation
applications. Section 4. discusses the routing requirements for applications. Section 4 discusses the routing requirements for
networks comprising such constrained devices in a home network networks comprising such constrained devices in a home network
environment. These requirements may be overlapping requirements environment. These requirements may be overlapping requirements
derived from other application-specific requirements. derived from other application-specific requirements.
3. Home automation applications 3. Home automation applications
Home automation applications represent a special segment of networked Home automation applications represent a special segment of networked
wireless devices with its unique set of requirements. To facilitate wireless devices with its unique set of requirements. To facilitate
the requirements discussion in Section 4, this section lists a few the requirements discussion in Section 4, this section lists a few
typical use cases of home automation applications. New applications typical use cases of home automation applications. New applications
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hours. The washing machine and dish washer may just as well work hours. The washing machine and dish washer may just as well work
while power is cheap. The electric car should also charge its while power is cheap. The electric car should also charge its
batteries on cheap power. batteries on cheap power.
In periods where electricity demands exceed available supply, In periods where electricity demands exceed available supply,
appliances such as air conditioning, climate control systems, washing appliances such as air conditioning, climate control systems, washing
machines etc. can be turned off to avoid overloading the power grid. machines etc. can be turned off to avoid overloading the power grid.
Wireless remote control of the household appliances is well-suited Wireless remote control of the household appliances is well-suited
for this application. The start/stop decision for the appliances can for this application. The start/stop decision for the appliances can
be regulated by dynamic power pricing information obtained from the be regulated by dynamic power pricing information obtained from the
electricity utility companies. electricity utility companies. Moreover, in order to achieve
effective electricity savings, the energy monitoring application
running on the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) must guarantee that the
power consumption of the ROLL devices is much lower than that of the
appliance itself.
Most of these applications are mains powered and are thus ideal for Most of these applications are mains powered and are thus ideal for
providing reliable, always-on routing resources. Battery-powered providing reliable, always-on routing resources. Battery-powered
nodes, by comparison, are constrained routing resources and may only nodes, by comparison, are constrained routing resources and may only
provide reliable routing under some circumstances. provide reliable routing under some circumstances.
3.3. Moving a remote control around 3.3. Moving a remote control around
A remote control is a typical example of a mobile device in a home A remote control is a typical example of a mobile device in a home
automation network. An advanced remote control may be used for automation network. An advanced remote control may be used for
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3.8. Alarm systems 3.8. Alarm systems
A home security alarm system is comprised of various devices like A home security alarm system is comprised of various devices like
vibration detectors, fire or carbon monoxide detection system, door vibration detectors, fire or carbon monoxide detection system, door
or window contacts, glass-break detector, presence sensor, panic or window contacts, glass-break detector, presence sensor, panic
button, home security key. button, home security key.
Some smoke alarms are battery powered and at the same time mounted in Some smoke alarms are battery powered and at the same time mounted in
a high place. Battery-powered safety devices should only be used for a high place. Battery-powered safety devices should only be used for
routing if no other alternatives exist. A smoke alarm with a drained routing if no other alternatives exist to avoid draining the battery.
battery does not provide a lot of safety. Also, it may be A smoke alarm with a drained battery does not provide a lot of
inconvenient to exchange battery in a smoke alarm. Finally, routing safety. Also, it may be inconvenient to exchange battery in a smoke
via battery-powered nodes may be very slow if they are sleeping most alarm.
of the time.
All of the above-mentioned reasons suggest that routing should be
avoided via this category of devices.
A plethora of applications could be developed for home alarm system: Alarm system applications may have both a synchronous and an
most of them, most of the time, have prevention and monitoring asynchronous behavior; i.e. they may be periodically queried by a
activity in which routing requirements are deterministic, but all of central control application (e.g. for a periodical refreshment of the
them have an alarm state in which nodes may burst an aperiodic alarm. network state), or send a message to the control application on their
own initiative basing upon the status of the environment they
monitor.
When a node (or a group of nodes) identifies a risk situation (e.g.
intrusion, smoke, fire), it sends an alarm message to the control
centre that could autonomously forward it via Internet or interact
with the WSN (e.g. trying to obtain more detailed information or
asking to other nodes close to the alarm event). Alarm messages
have, obviously, strict low-latency requirements.
Finally, routing via battery-powered nodes may be very slowly
reacting if the nodes are sleeping most of the time (they could
appear unresponsive to the alarm detection). To ensure fast message
delivery and avoid battery drain, routing should be avoided via this
category of devices.
3.9. Battery-powered devices 3.9. Battery-powered devices
For convenience and low operational costs, power consumption of For convenience and low operational costs, power consumption of
consumer products must be kept at a very low level to achieve a long consumer products must be kept at a very low level to achieve a long
battery lifetime. One implication of this fact is that RAM memory is battery lifetime. One implication of this fact is that RAM memory is
limited and it may even be powered down; leaving only a few 100 bytes limited and it may even be powered down; leaving only a few 100 bytes
of RAM alive during the sleep phase. of RAM alive during the sleep phase.
The use of battery powered devices reduces installation costs and
does enable installation of devices even where main power lines are
not available. On the other hand, in order to be cost effective and
efficient, the devices have to maximize the sleep phase with a duty
cycle lower than 10%.
4. Unique requirements of home automation applications 4. Unique requirements of home automation applications
Home automation applications have a number of specific requirements Home automation applications have a number of specific requirements
related to the set of home networking applications and the perceived related to the set of home networking applications and the perceived
operation of the system. operation of the system.
4.1. Support of groupcast 4.1. Support of groupcast
Groupcast, in the context of home automation, is defined as the Groupcast, in the context of home automation, is defined as the
ability to simultaneously transmit a message to a group of recipients ability to simultaneously transmit a message to a group of recipients
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Protection against unintentional inclusion in neighboring networks Protection against unintentional inclusion in neighboring networks
must be provided. Providing confidentiality, integrity and must be provided. Providing confidentiality, integrity and
authentication against malicious opponents is optional. authentication against malicious opponents is optional.
8. IANA Considerations 8. IANA Considerations
This document includes no request to IANA. This document includes no request to IANA.
9. Acknowledgments 9. Acknowledgments
J. P. Vasseur, Jonathan Hui, Eunsook "Eunah" Kim and Mischa Dohler J. P. Vasseur, Jonathan Hui, Eunsook "Eunah" Kim, Mischa Dohler and
are gratefully acknowledged for their contributions to this document. Massimo Maggiorotti are gratefully acknowledged for their
contributions to this document.
This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot. This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.
10. References 10. References
10.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
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Denmark Denmark
Email: abr@zen-sys.com Email: abr@zen-sys.com
Giorgio Porcu Giorgio Porcu
Telecom Italia Telecom Italia
Piazza degli Affari, 2 Piazza degli Affari, 2
20123 Milan 20123 Milan
Italy Italy
Email: giorgio.porcu@telecomitalia.it Email: giorgio.porcu@guest.telecomitalia.it
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