draft-ietf-regext-rfc7484bis-06.txt   rfc9224.txt 
Network Working Group M. Blanchet Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Blanchet
Internet-Draft Viagenie Request for Comments: 9224 Viagenie
Obsoletes: 7484 (if approved) 28 January 2022 STD: 95 March 2022
Intended status: Standards Track Obsoletes: 7484
Expires: 1 August 2022 Category: Standards Track
ISSN: 2070-1721
Finding the Authoritative Registration Data (RDAP) Service Finding the Authoritative Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)
draft-ietf-regext-rfc7484bis-06 Service
Abstract Abstract
This document specifies a method to find which Registration Data This document specifies a method to find which Registration Data
Access Protocol (RDAP) server is authoritative to answer queries for Access Protocol (RDAP) server is authoritative to answer queries for
a requested scope, such as domain names, IP addresses, or Autonomous a requested scope, such as domain names, IP addresses, or Autonomous
System numbers. This document obsoletes RFC7484. System numbers. This document obsoletes RFC 7484.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This is an Internet Standards Track document.
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on 1 August 2022. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9224.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction
2. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Conventions Used in This Document
3. Structure of the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries . . . . . 3 3. Structure of the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries
4. Bootstrap Service Registry for Domain Name Space . . . . . . 5 4. Bootstrap Service Registry for Domain Name Space
5. Bootstrap Service Registries for Internet Numbers . . . . . . 6 5. Bootstrap Service Registries for Internet Numbers
5.1. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv4 Address Space . . . . 6 5.1. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv4 Address Space
5.2. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv6 Address Space . . . . 7 5.2. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv6 Address Space
5.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space . . . . . 9 5.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space
6. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Entity
7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values
8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . 10 8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations
9. Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 9. Limitations
10. Formal Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10. Formal Definition
10.1. Imported JSON Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10.1. Imported JSON Terms
10.2. Registry Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10.2. Registry Syntax
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 11. Security Considerations
12. Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12. IANA Considerations
12.1. RDAP Browser Mobile Application . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12.1. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv4 Address Space
12.2. ICANN Lookup Web Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12.2. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv6 Address Space
12.3. ARIN Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 12.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space
13. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 12.4. Bootstrap Service Registry for Domain Name Space
13.1. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv4 Address Space . . . 16 13. References
13.2. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv6 Address Space . . . 16 13.1. Normative References
13.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space . . . . . 16 13.2. Informative References
13.4. Bootstrap Service Registry for Domain Name Space . . . . 16 Appendix A. Changes since RFC 7484
14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Acknowledgements
14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Author's Address
14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Changes since RFC7484 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Querying and retrieving registration data from registries are defined Querying and retrieving registration data from registries are defined
in Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) [RFC7480] [RFC7481] in the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) [RFC7480] [RFC7481]
[RFC9082] [RFC9083]. These documents do not specify where to send [RFC9082] [RFC9083]. These documents do not specify where to send
the queries. This document specifies a method to find which server the queries. This document specifies a method to find which server
is authoritative to answer queries for the requested scope. is authoritative to answer queries for the requested scope.
Top-Level Domains (TLDs), Autonomous System (AS) numbers, and network Top-Level Domains (TLDs), Autonomous System (AS) numbers, and network
blocks are delegated by IANA to Internet registries such as TLD blocks are delegated by IANA to Internet registries such as TLD
registries and Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) that then issue registries and Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) that then issue
further delegations and maintain information about them. Thus, the further delegations and maintain information about them. Thus, the
bootstrap information needed by RDAP clients is best generated from bootstrap information needed by RDAP clients is best generated from
data and processes already maintained by IANA; the relevant data and processes already maintained by IANA; the relevant
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Service Registries. These new registries are based on the existing Service Registries. These new registries are based on the existing
entries of the above-mentioned registries. An RDAP client fetches entries of the above-mentioned registries. An RDAP client fetches
the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries, extracts the data, and then the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries, extracts the data, and then
performs a match with the query data to find the authoritative performs a match with the query data to find the authoritative
registration data server and appropriate query base URL. registration data server and appropriate query base URL.
2. Conventions Used in This Document 2. Conventions Used in This Document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here. capitals, as shown here.
3. Structure of the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries 3. Structure of the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries
The RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries, as specified in Section 13 The RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries, as specified in Section 12
below, have been made available as JSON [RFC8259] objects, which can below, have been made available as JSON [RFC8259] objects, which can
be retrieved via HTTP from locations specified by IANA. The JSON be retrieved via HTTP from locations specified by IANA. The JSON
object for each registry contains a series of members containing object for each registry contains a series of members containing
metadata about the registry such as a version identifier, a timestamp metadata about the registry such as a version identifier, a timestamp
of the publication date of the registry, and a description. of the publication date of the registry, and a description.
Additionally, a "services" member contains the registry items Additionally, a "services" member contains the registry items
themselves, as an array. Each item of the array contains a second- themselves, as an array. Each item of the array contains a second-
level array, with two elements, each of them being a third-level level array, with two elements, each of them being a third-level
array. array.
Each element of the Services Array is a second-level array with two Each element of the Services Array is a second-level array with two
elements: in order, an Entry Array and a Service URL Array. elements: in order, an Entry Array and a Service URL Array.
The Entry Array contains all entries that have the same set of base The Entry Array contains all entries that have the same set of base
RDAP URLs. The Service URL Array contains the list of base RDAP URLs RDAP URLs. The Service URL Array contains the list of base RDAP URLs
usable for the entries found in the Entry Array. Elements within usable for the entries found in the Entry Array. Elements within
these two arrays are not ordered in any way. these two arrays are not ordered in any way.
An example structure of the JSON output of a RDAP Bootstrap Service An example structure of the JSON output of an RDAP Bootstrap Service
Registry is illustrated: Registry is illustrated:
{ {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
"description": "Some text", "description": "Some text",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["entry1", "entry2", "entry3"], ["entry1", "entry2", "entry3"],
[ [
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content of the bootstrap object. content of the bootstrap object.
Per [RFC7258], in each array of base RDAP URLs, the secure versions Per [RFC7258], in each array of base RDAP URLs, the secure versions
of the transport protocol SHOULD be preferred and tried first. For of the transport protocol SHOULD be preferred and tried first. For
example, if the base RDAP URLs array contains both HTTPS and HTTP example, if the base RDAP URLs array contains both HTTPS and HTTP
URLs, the bootstrap client SHOULD try the HTTPS version first. URLs, the bootstrap client SHOULD try the HTTPS version first.
Base RDAP URLs MUST have a trailing "/" character because they are Base RDAP URLs MUST have a trailing "/" character because they are
concatenated to the various segments defined in [RFC9082]. concatenated to the various segments defined in [RFC9082].
JSON names MUST follow the format recommendations of section 6 of JSON names MUST follow the format recommendations of Section 6 of
[RFC7480]. Any unrecognized JSON object properties or values MUST be [RFC7480]. Any unrecognized JSON object properties or values MUST be
ignored by implementations. ignored by implementations.
Internationalized Domain Name labels used as entries or base RDAP Internationalized Domain Name labels used as entries or base RDAP
URLs in the registries defined in this document MUST be only URLs in the registries defined in this document MUST be only
represented using their A-label form as defined in [RFC5890]. represented using their A-label form as defined in [RFC5890].
All Domain Name labels used as entries or base RDAP URLs in the All Domain Name labels used as entries or base RDAP URLs in the
registries defined in this document MUST be only represented in registries defined in this document MUST be only represented in
lowercase. lowercase.
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[ [
"https://example.net/rdap/xn--zckzah/", "https://example.net/rdap/xn--zckzah/",
"http://example.net/rdap/xn--zckzah/" "http://example.net/rdap/xn--zckzah/"
] ]
] ]
] ]
} }
The domain name's authoritative registration data service is found by The domain name's authoritative registration data service is found by
doing the label-wise longest match of the target domain name with the doing the label-wise longest match of the target domain name with the
domain values in the Entry Arrays in the IANA Bootstrap Service domain values in the Entry Arrays in the IANA "Bootstrap Service
Registry for Domain Name Space. The match is done per label, from Registry for Domain Name Space". The match is done per label, from
right to left. If the longest match results in multiple entries, right to left. If the longest match results in multiple entries,
then those entries are considered equivalent. The values contained then those entries are considered equivalent. The values contained
in the Service URL Array of the matching second-level array are the in the Service URL Array of the matching second-level array are the
valid base RDAP URLs as described in [RFC9082]. valid base RDAP URLs as described in [RFC9082].
For example, a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches the com For example, a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches the com
entry in one of the arrays of the registry. The base RDAP URL for entry in one of the arrays of the registry. The base RDAP URL for
this query is then taken from the second element of the array, which this query is then taken from the second element of the array, which
is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client
chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example, it chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example, it
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For example, a query for "2001:db8:1000::/48" matches the For example, a query for "2001:db8:1000::/48" matches the
"2001:db8::/34" entry and the "2001:db8:1000::/36" entry in the "2001:db8::/34" entry and the "2001:db8:1000::/36" entry in the
example registry above. The latter is chosen by the client because example registry above. The latter is chosen by the client because
it is the longest match. The base RDAP URL for this query is then it is the longest match. The base RDAP URL for this query is then
taken from the second element of the array, which is an array of base taken from the second element of the array, which is an array of base
RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client chooses one of the base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client chooses one of the base
URLs from this array; in this example, it chooses URLs from this array; in this example, it chooses
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/" because it's the secure version of "https://example.net/rdaprir2/" because it's the secure version of
the protocol. The segment specified in [RFC9082] is then appended to the protocol. The segment specified in [RFC9082] is then appended to
the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is, the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is therefore
therefore, "https://example.net/rdaprir2/ip/2001:db8:1000::/48". If "https://example.net/rdaprir2/ip/2001:db8:1000::/48". If the target
the target RDAP server does not answer, the client can then use RDAP server does not answer, the client can then use another URL
another URL prefix from the array. prefix from the array.
5.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space 5.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space
The JSON output of this registry contains Autonomous Systems number The JSON output of this registry contains entries for AS number
ranges entries, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. ranges, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. The
The Entry Array is an array containing the list of AS number ranges Entry Array is an array containing the list of AS number ranges
served by the base RDAP URLs found in the second element. Each served by the base RDAP URLs found in the second element. Each
element of the array contains two AS numbers represented in decimal element of the array contains two AS numbers represented in decimal
format, separated by a hyphen, that represents the range of AS format, separated by a hyphen, that represents the range of AS
numbers between the two AS numbers (inclusive), where values are in numbers between the two AS numbers (inclusive), where values are in
increasing order (e.g. 100-200, not 200-100). A single AS number is increasing order (e.g., 100-200, not 200-100). A single AS number is
represented as a range of two identical AS numbers. AS numbers are represented as a range of two identical AS numbers. AS numbers are
represented as 'asplain' as defined in [RFC5396]. Ranges MUST NOT represented as 'asplain' as defined in [RFC5396]. Ranges MUST NOT
overlap. overlap.
{ {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z", "publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z",
"description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.", "description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
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"https://example.net/rdaprir2/". The segment specified in [RFC9082] "https://example.net/rdaprir2/". The segment specified in [RFC9082]
is then appended to the base URL to complete the query. The complete is then appended to the base URL to complete the query. The complete
query is, therefore, "https://example.net/rdaprir2/autnum/65411". If query is, therefore, "https://example.net/rdaprir2/autnum/65411". If
the server does not answer, the client can then use another URL the server does not answer, the client can then use another URL
prefix from the array. prefix from the array.
6. Entity 6. Entity
Entities (such as contacts, registrants, or registrars) can be Entities (such as contacts, registrants, or registrars) can be
queried by handle as described in [RFC9082]. Since there is no queried by handle as described in [RFC9082]. Since there is no
global namespace for entities, this document does not describe how to global name space for entities, this document does not describe how
find the authoritative RDAP server for entities. However, it is to find the authoritative RDAP server for entities. However, it is
possible that, if the entity identifier was received from a previous possible that, if the entity identifier was received from a previous
query, the same RDAP server could be queried for that entity, or the query, the same RDAP server could be queried for that entity, or the
entity identifier itself is a fully qualified URL that can be entity identifier itself is a fully qualified URL that can be
queried. The mechanism described in [RFC8521] MAY also be used. queried. The mechanism described in [RFC8521] MAY also be used.
7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values 7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values
The registries may not contain the requested value. In these cases, The registries may not contain the requested value. In these cases,
there is no known RDAP server for that requested value, and the there is no known RDAP server for that requested value, and the
client SHOULD provide an appropriate error message to the user. client SHOULD provide an appropriate error message to the user.
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10. Formal Definition 10. Formal Definition
This section is the formal definition of the registries. The This section is the formal definition of the registries. The
structure of JSON objects and arrays using a set of primitive structure of JSON objects and arrays using a set of primitive
elements is defined in [RFC8259]. Those elements are used to elements is defined in [RFC8259]. Those elements are used to
describe the JSON structure of the registries. describe the JSON structure of the registries.
10.1. Imported JSON Terms 10.1. Imported JSON Terms
* OBJECT: a JSON object, defined in Section 4 of [RFC8259] OBJECT: a JSON object, defined in Section 4 of [RFC8259]
* MEMBER: a member of a JSON object, defined in Section 4 of MEMBER: a member of a JSON object, defined in Section 4 of [RFC8259]
[RFC8259]
* MEMBER-NAME: the name of a MEMBER, defined as a "string" in MEMBER-NAME: the name of a MEMBER, defined as a "string" in
Section 4 of [RFC8259] Section 4 of [RFC8259]
* MEMBER-VALUE: the value of a MEMBER, defined as a "value" in MEMBER-VALUE: the value of a MEMBER, defined as a "value" in
Section 4 of [RFC8259] Section 4 of [RFC8259]
* ARRAY: an array, defined in Section 5 of [RFC8259] ARRAY: an array, defined in Section 5 of [RFC8259]
* ARRAY-VALUE: an element of an ARRAY, defined in Section 5 of ARRAY-VALUE: an element of an ARRAY, defined in Section 5 of
[RFC8259] [RFC8259]
* STRING: a "string", as defined in Section 7 of [RFC8259] STRING: a "string", as defined in Section 7 of [RFC8259]
10.2. Registry Syntax 10.2. Registry Syntax
Using the above terms for the JSON structures, the syntax of a Using the above terms for the JSON structures, the syntax of a
registry is defined as follows: registry is defined as follows:
* rdap-bootstrap-registry: an OBJECT containing a MEMBER version and rdap-bootstrap-registry: an OBJECT containing a MEMBER version and a
a MEMBER publication, an optional MEMBER description, and a MEMBER MEMBER publication, an optional MEMBER description, and a MEMBER
services-list services-list
* version: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "version" and MEMBER-VALUE a version: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "version" and MEMBER-VALUE a
STRING STRING
* publication: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "publication" and MEMBER- publication: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "publication" and MEMBER-
VALUE a STRING VALUE a STRING
* description: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "description" and MEMBER- description: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "description" and MEMBER-
VALUE a STRING VALUE a STRING
* services-list: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "services" and MEMBER- services-list: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "services" and MEMBER-VALUE
VALUE a services-array a services-array
* services-array: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a service services-array: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a service
* service: an ARRAY of 2 elements, where the first ARRAY-VALUE is an service: an ARRAY of 2 elements, where the first ARRAY-VALUE is an
entry-list and the second ARRAY-VALUE is a service-uri-list entry-list and the second ARRAY-VALUE is a service-uri-list
* entry-list: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is an entry entry-list: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is an entry
* entry: a STRING entry: a STRING
* service-uri-list: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a service- service-uri-list: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a service-uri
uri
* service-uri: a STRING service-uri: a STRING
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
By providing a bootstrap method to find RDAP servers, this document By providing a bootstrap method to find RDAP servers, this document
helps to ensure that the end users will get the RDAP data from an helps to ensure that the end users will get the RDAP data from an
authoritative source, instead of from rogue sources. The method has authoritative source instead of from rogue sources. The method has
the same security properties as the RDAP protocols themselves. The the same security properties as the RDAP protocols themselves. The
transport used to access the registries uses TLS [RFC8446]. transport used to access the registries uses TLS [RFC8446].
Additional considerations on using RDAP are described in [RFC7481]. Additional considerations on using RDAP are described in [RFC7481].
12. Implementation Status 12. IANA Considerations
NOTE: Please remove this section and the reference to RFC 7942 prior
to publication as an RFC.
This section records the status of known implementations of the
protocol defined by this specification at the time of posting of this
Internet-Draft, and is based on a proposal described in [RFC7942].
The description of implementations in this section is intended to
assist the IETF in its decision processes in progressing drafts to
RFCs. Please note that the listing of any individual implementation
here does not imply endorsement by the IETF. Furthermore, no effort
has been spent to verify the information presented here that was
supplied by IETF contributors. This is not intended as, and must not
be construed to be, a catalog of available implementations or their
features. Readers are advised to note that other implementations may
exist.
According to [RFC7942], "this will allow reviewers and working groups
to assign due consideration to documents that have the benefit of
running code, which may serve as evidence of valuable experimentation
and feedback that have made the implemented protocols more mature.
It is up to the individual working groups to use this information as
they see fit".
12.1. RDAP Browser Mobile Application
Responsible Organization: Viagenie
Author: Marc Blanchet
Location: https://viagenie.ca/rdapbrowser/
Description: RDAP Browser is an RDAP client for domain names, IP
addresses and AS numbers fetching the IANA registries described in
this document to find the right authoritative RDAP server. End
user can query any domain name, IP address or AS number and the
registration data will be shown on the screen.
Level of Maturity: Production (i.e. in the Android and iOS App
stores since August 2019)
Contact Information: rdapbrowser@viagenie.ca
Information last updated: March 2021
12.2. ICANN Lookup Web Application
Responsible Organization: ICANN
Location: https://lookup.icann.org
Description: ICANN's Domain Name Registration Data Lookup is an
RDAP client for domain names fetching the IANA regis tries
described in this document to find the right authoritative RDAP
server. End user can query any domain name and the registration
data will be shown on the screen.
Level of Maturity: Production
Information last updated: March 2021
12.3. ARIN Implementation
Responsible Organization: ARIN
Base URL: https://rdap-bootstrap.arin.net/bootstrap ( Sample
query: https://rdap-bootstrap.arin.net/bootstrap/autnum/1 )
Description: ARIN RDAP Bootstrap server aids clients by reading
the bootstrapping information published by IANA and using it to
send HTTP redirects to RDAP queries. RDAP clients
https://search.arin.net/ and NicInfo ( https://github.com/arineng/
nicinfo ) use this bootstrap service. The underlying server
software is open-sourced at https://github.com/arineng/
rdap_bootstrap_server .
Level of Maturity: Production
Contact Information: info@arin.net
Information Last Updated: Nov 2020
13. IANA Considerations
IANA has created the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries, listed IANA has created the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries listed below
below, and made them available as JSON objects. The contents of and made them available as JSON objects. The contents of these
these registries are described in Section 3, Section 4, and registries are described in Sections 3, 4, and 5, with the formal
Section 5, with the formal syntax specified in Section 10. The syntax specified in Section 10. The registries MUST be accessible
registries MUST be accessible only through HTTPS (TLS [RFC8446]) only through HTTPS (TLS [RFC8446]) transport.
transport.
The process for adding or updating entries in these registries The process for adding or updating entries in these registries
differs from the normal IANA registry processes: these registries are differs from the normal IANA registry processes: these registries are
generated from the data, processes, and policies maintained by IANA generated from the data, processes, and policies maintained by IANA
in their allocation registries ([ipv4reg], [ipv6reg], [asreg], and in their allocation registries ([ipv4reg], [ipv6reg], [asreg], and
[domainreg]), with the addition of new RDAP server information. [domainreg]), with the addition of new RDAP server information.
IANA updates RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries entries from the IANA updates RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries entries from the
allocation registries as those registries are updated. allocation registries as those registries are updated.
This document does not change any policies related to the allocation This document does not change any policies related to the allocation
registries; IANA has provided a mechanism for collecting the RDAP registries; IANA has provided a mechanism for collecting the RDAP
server information. server information.
IANA has created a new top-level category on the Protocol Registries IANA has created a new top-level category on the Protocol Registries
page, <https://www.iana.org/protocols>. The group is called page: <https://www.iana.org/protocols>. The group is called
"Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)". Each of the RDAP "Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)". Each of the RDAP
Bootstrap Services Registries has been made available for general Bootstrap Services Registries has been made available for on-demand
public on-demand download in the JSON format, and that registry's URI download in the JSON format by the general public, and that
is listed directly on the Protocol Registries page. registry's URI is listed directly on the Protocol Registries page.
Other normal registries will be added to this group by other Other normal registries will be added to this group by other
documents, but the reason the URIs for these registries are clearly documents, but the reason the URIs for these registries are clearly
listed on the main page is to make those URIs obvious to implementers listed on the main page is to make those URIs obvious to implementers
-- these are registries that will be accessed by software, as well as -- these are registries that will be accessed by software, as well as
by humans using them for reference information. by humans using them for reference information.
Because these registries will be accessed by software, the download Because these registries will be accessed by software, the download
demand for the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries may be unusually demand for the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries may be unusually
high compared to normal IANA registries. The technical high compared to normal IANA registries. The technical
infrastructure by which registries are published has been put in infrastructure by which registries are published has been put in
place by IANA to support the load. Since the publication of place by IANA to support the load. Since the publication of
[RFC7484], no issue have been reported regarding the load or the [RFC7484], no issues have been reported regarding the load or the
service. service.
As discussed in Section 8, software that accesses these registries As discussed in Section 8, software that accesses these registries
will depend on the HTTP Expires header field to limit their query will depend on the HTTP Expires header field to limit their query
rate. It is, therefore, important for that header field to be rate. It is, therefore, important for that header field to be
properly set to provide timely information as the registries change, properly set to provide timely information as the registries change,
while maintaining a reasonable load on the IANA servers. while maintaining a reasonable load on the IANA servers.
The HTTP Content-Type returned to clients accessing these JSON- The HTTP Content-Type returned to clients accessing these JSON-
formatted registries MUST be "application/json", as defined in formatted registries MUST be "application/json", as defined in
[RFC8259]. [RFC8259].
Because of how information in the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries Because of how information in the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries
is grouped and formatted, the registry entries may not be sortable. is grouped and formatted, the registry entries may not be sortable.
It is, therefore, not required or expected that the entries be It is, therefore, not required or expected that the entries be
ordered in any way. ordered in any way.
NOTE TO IANA: Please update the registries to reference this new RFC 12.1. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv4 Address Space
instead of RFC 7484 once this document is approved by the IESG and
published by the RFC Editor". RFC-Editor, please remove this
paragraph before publication
13.1. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv4 Address Space
Entries in this registry contain at least the following: Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
* a CIDR [RFC4632] specification of the network block being * a CIDR [RFC4632] specification of the network block being
registered. registered
* one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this * one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration. registration
13.2. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv6 Address Space 12.2. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv6 Address Space
Entries in this registry contain at least the following: Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
* an IPv6 prefix [RFC5952] specification of the network block being * an IPv6 prefix [RFC5952] specification of the network block being
registered. registered
* one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this * one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration. registration
13.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space 12.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space
Entries in this registry contain at least the following: Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
* a range of Autonomous System numbers being registered. * a range of Autonomous System numbers being registered
* one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this * one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration. registration
13.4. Bootstrap Service Registry for Domain Name Space 12.4. Bootstrap Service Registry for Domain Name Space
Entries in this registry contain at least the following: Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
* a domain name attached to the root being registered. * a domain name attached to the root being registered
* one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this * one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration. registration
14. References 13. References
14.1. Normative References 13.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3339] Klyne, G. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the Internet: [RFC3339] Klyne, G. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the Internet:
Timestamps", RFC 3339, DOI 10.17487/RFC3339, July 2002, Timestamps", RFC 3339, DOI 10.17487/RFC3339, July 2002,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3339>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3339>.
skipping to change at page 17, line 47 skipping to change at line 682
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
[RFC8259] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data [RFC8259] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259, Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8259>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8259>.
14.2. Informative References 13.2. Informative References
[asreg] IANA, "Autonomous System (AS) Numbers", [asreg] IANA, "Autonomous System (AS) Numbers",
<https://www.iana.org/assignments/as-numbers>. <https://www.iana.org/assignments/as-numbers>.
[domainreg] [domainreg]
IANA, "Root Zone Database", IANA, "Root Zone Database",
<https://www.iana.org/domains/root/db>. <https://www.iana.org/domains/root/db>.
[ipv4reg] IANA, "IPv4 Address Space Registry", [ipv4reg] IANA, "IANA IPv4 Address Space Registry",
<https://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-space>. <https://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-space>.
[ipv6reg] IANA, "IPv6 Global Unicast Address Assignments", [ipv6reg] IANA, "IPv6 Global Unicast Address Assignments",
<https://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6-unicast-address- <https://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6-unicast-address-
assignments>. assignments>.
[REDIRECT-RDAP] [REDIRECT-RDAP]
Martinez, C., Zhou, L., and G. Rada, "Redirection Service Martinez, C.M., Ed., Zhou, L., Ed., and G. Rada,
for Registration Data Access Protocol", Work in Progress, "Redirection Service for Registration Data Access
draft-ietf-weirds-redirects-04, July 2014. Protocol", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
weirds-redirects-04, July 2014,
<https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-weirds-
redirects-04>.
[RFC7071] Borenstein, N. and M. Kucherawy, "A Media Type for [RFC7071] Borenstein, N. and M. Kucherawy, "A Media Type for
Reputation Interchange", RFC 7071, DOI 10.17487/RFC7071, Reputation Interchange", RFC 7071, DOI 10.17487/RFC7071,
November 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7071>. November 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7071>.
[RFC7234] Fielding, R., Ed., Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke, [RFC7234] Fielding, R., Ed., Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke,
Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching", Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching",
RFC 7234, DOI 10.17487/RFC7234, June 2014, RFC 7234, DOI 10.17487/RFC7234, June 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7234>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7234>.
[RFC7481] Hollenbeck, S. and N. Kong, "Security Services for the [RFC7481] Hollenbeck, S. and N. Kong, "Security Services for the
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", STD 95, Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", STD 95,
RFC 7481, DOI 10.17487/RFC7481, March 2015, RFC 7481, DOI 10.17487/RFC7481, March 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7481>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7481>.
[RFC7484] Blanchet, M., "Finding the Authoritative Registration Data [RFC7484] Blanchet, M., "Finding the Authoritative Registration Data
(RDAP) Service", RFC 7484, DOI 10.17487/RFC7484, March (RDAP) Service", RFC 7484, DOI 10.17487/RFC7484, March
2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7484>. 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7484>.
[RFC7942] Sheffer, Y. and A. Farrel, "Improving Awareness of Running
Code: The Implementation Status Section", BCP 205,
RFC 7942, DOI 10.17487/RFC7942, July 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7942>.
[RFC8446] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol [RFC8446] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018, Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.
[RFC8521] Hollenbeck, S. and A. Newton, "Registration Data Access [RFC8521] Hollenbeck, S. and A. Newton, "Registration Data Access
Protocol (RDAP) Object Tagging", BCP 221, RFC 8521, Protocol (RDAP) Object Tagging", BCP 221, RFC 8521,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8521, November 2018, DOI 10.17487/RFC8521, November 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8521>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8521>.
[RFC9082] Hollenbeck, S. and A. Newton, "Registration Data Access [RFC9082] Hollenbeck, S. and A. Newton, "Registration Data Access
Protocol (RDAP) Query Format", STD 95, RFC 9082, Protocol (RDAP) Query Format", STD 95, RFC 9082,
DOI 10.17487/RFC9082, June 2021, DOI 10.17487/RFC9082, June 2021,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9082>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9082>.
[RFC9083] Hollenbeck, S. and A. Newton, "JSON Responses for the [RFC9083] Hollenbeck, S. and A. Newton, "JSON Responses for the
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", STD 95, Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", STD 95,
RFC 9083, DOI 10.17487/RFC9083, June 2021, RFC 9083, DOI 10.17487/RFC9083, June 2021,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9083>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9083>.
Appendix A. Changes since RFC 7484
There are no substantive changes except for minor clarifications.
This update is primarily to meet the requirements for moving to an
Internet Standard.
Acknowledgements Acknowledgements
The WEIRDS working group had multiple discussions on this topic, The WEIRDS Working Group had multiple discussions on this topic,
including a session during IETF 84, where various methods such as including a session during IETF 84, where various methods such as in-
in-DNS and others were debated. The idea of using IANA registries DNS and others were debated. The idea of using IANA registries was
was discovered by the author during discussions with his colleagues discovered by the author during discussions with his colleagues as
as well as by a comment from Andy Newton. All the people involved in well as by a comment from Andy Newton. All the people involved in
these discussions are herein acknowledged. Linlin Zhou, Jean- these discussions are herein acknowledged. Linlin Zhou, Jean-
Philippe Dionne, John Levine, Kim Davies, Ernie Dainow, Scott Philippe Dionne, John Levine, Kim Davies, Ernie Dainow, Scott
Hollenbeck, Arturo Servin, Andy Newton, Murray Kucherawy, Tom Hollenbeck, Arturo Servin, Andy Newton, Murray Kucherawy, Tom
Harrison, Naoki Kambe, Alexander Mayrhofer, Edward Lewis, Pete Harrison, Naoki Kambe, Alexander Mayrhofer, Edward Lewis, Pete
Resnick, Alessandro Vesely, Bert Greevenbosch, Barry Leiba, Jari Resnick, Alessandro Vesely, Bert Greevenbosch, Barry Leiba, Jari
Arkko, Kathleen Moriaty, Stephen Farrell, Richard Barnes, and Jean- Arkko, Kathleen Moriaty, Stephen Farrell, Richard Barnes, and Jean-
Francois Tremblay have provided input and suggestions to this Francois Tremblay provided input and suggestions to the first version
document. Guillaume Leclanche was a coauthor of this document for of this document.
some revisions; his support is therein acknowledged and greatly
appreciated. The section on formal definition was inspired by
Section 6.2 of [RFC7071]. This new version got comments and
suggestions from: Gavin Brown, Patrick Mevzek, John Levine, Jasdip
Singh, George Michaelson, Scott Hollenbeck, Russ Housley, Joel
Halpern, Lars Eggert, Benjamin Kaduk, Scott Kelly, Eric Vyncke, John
Scudder, Erik Kline, Robert Wilton. Errata of RFC7484 were submitted
by Pieter Vandepitte and were applied to this version.
Changes since RFC7484
There are no substantive changes except for updates to the Guillaume Leclanche was a coauthor of this document for some
implementation status and minor clarifications. This update is revisions; his support is therein acknowledged and greatly
primarily to meet the requirements for moving to Internet Standard. appreciated. The section on formal definition was inspired by
Section 6.2 of [RFC7071]. This new version [This document] received
comments and suggestions from Gavin Brown, Patrick Mevzek, John
Levine, Jasdip Singh, George Michaelson, Scott Hollenbeck, Russ
Housley, Joel Halpern, Lars Eggert, Benjamin Kaduk, Scott Kelly, √Čric
Vyncke, John Scudder, Erik Kline, and Robert Wilton. Errata for RFC
7484 were submitted by Pieter Vandepitte and were applied to this
document.
Author's Address Author's Address
Marc Blanchet Marc Blanchet
Viagenie Viagenie
246 Aberdeen 246 Aberdeen
Quebec QC G1R 2E1 Quebec QC G1R 2E1
Canada Canada
Email: Marc.Blanchet@viagenie.ca Email: Marc.Blanchet@viagenie.ca
URI: https://viagenie.ca URI: https://viagenie.ca
 End of changes. 64 change blocks. 
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