draft-ietf-regext-rdap-redacted-01.txt   draft-ietf-regext-rdap-redacted-02.txt 
Network Working Group J.G. Gould Network Working Group J.G. Gould
Internet-Draft D.S. Smith Internet-Draft D.S. Smith
Intended status: Standards Track VeriSign, Inc. Intended status: Standards Track VeriSign, Inc.
Expires: 5 March 2022 J.K. Kolker Expires: 22 May 2022 J.K. Kolker
R.C. Carney R.C. Carney
GoDaddy Inc. GoDaddy Inc.
1 September 2021 18 November 2021
Redacted Fields in the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) Response Redacted Fields in the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) Response
draft-ietf-regext-rdap-redacted-01 draft-ietf-regext-rdap-redacted-02
Abstract Abstract
This document describes an RDAP extension for explicitly identifying This document describes an RDAP extension for explicitly identifying
redacted RDAP lookup response fields, using JSONPath as the default redacted RDAP response fields, using JSONPath as the default
expression language. expression language.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on 5 March 2022. This Internet-Draft will expire on 22 May 2022.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/ Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
skipping to change at page 2, line 15 skipping to change at page 2, line 15
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Redaction Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Redaction Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1. Redaction by Removal Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Redaction by Removal Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. Redaction by Empty Value Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. Redaction by Empty Value Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Redacted RDAP Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Redacted RDAP Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1. RDAP Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.1. RDAP Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2. "redacted" Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2. "redacted" Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. JSONPath Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5. JSONPath Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.1. RDAP Extensions Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.1. RDAP Extensions Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.2. JSON Values Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6.2. JSON Values Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9.1. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 9.1. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9.2. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 9.2. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Appendix A. Change History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Appendix A. Change History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
A.1. Change from 00 to 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 A.1. Change from 00 to 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 A.2. Change from 01 to 02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document describes an RDAP extension for explicitly identifying This document describes an RDAP extension for explicitly identifying
redacted RDAP lookup response fields, using JSONPath as the default redacted RDAP response fields, using JSONPath as the default
expression language. A redacted RDAP field is one that has data expression language. A redacted RDAP field is one that has data
removed from the RDAP lookup response due to the lack of client removed from the RDAP response due to the lack of client privilege to
privilege to receive the field. This extension can be used to receive the field. This extension can be used to identify redacted
identify redacted RDAP fields in any RDAP object class, as defined in RDAP fields in any RDAP object class, as defined in [RFC7483], or
[RFC7483], or RDAP fields defined in RDAP extensions. Because an RDAP fields defined in RDAP extensions. Because an RDAP response may
RDAP lookup response may exclude a field due to either the lack of exclude a field due to either the lack of data or based on the lack
data or based on the lack of RDAP client privileges, this extension of RDAP client privileges, this extension is used to explicitly
is used to explicitly specify which RDAP fields are not included in specify which RDAP fields are not included in the RDAP response due
the RDAP lookup response due to redaction. It thereby provides a to redaction. It thereby provides a capability for disambiguation
capability for disambiguation between redaction and possible other between redaction and possible other reasons for data or field
reasons for data or field absence. absence.
In [RFC7482] RDAP supports both lookup and search queries, where a In [RFC7482] RDAP supports both lookup and search queries, where a
lookup query responds with a single object and a search query lookup query responds with a single object and a search query
responds with a list of objects. This document applies to redaction responds with a list of objects. This document applies to redaction
of a single object in a lookup response. of a single object of a lookup response and in each of the objects of
a search response.
JSONPath, as defined in [I-D.ietf-jsonpath-base], is used as the JSONPath, as defined in [I-D.ietf-jsonpath-base], is used as the
default expression language to reference RDAP fields that have been default expression language to reference RDAP fields that have been
redacted. The redacted JSON fields will either be removed or have redacted. The redacted JSON fields will either be removed or have
empty values in the RDAP lookup response. JSON is defined by empty values in the RDAP response. JSON is defined by [RFC8259].
[RFC8259].
2. Conventions Used in This Document 2. Conventions Used in This Document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here. capitals, as shown here.
The JSON examples include extra line breaks and whitespace. For The JSON examples include extra line breaks and whitespace. For
skipping to change at page 5, line 43 skipping to change at page 5, line 43
"reason": { "reason": {
"type": "Server policy" "type": "Server policy"
} }
} }
] ]
4. Redacted RDAP Response 4. Redacted RDAP Response
4.1. RDAP Conformance 4.1. RDAP Conformance
RDAP lookup responses that contain values described in this document RDAP responses that contain values described in this document MUST
MUST indicate conformance with this specification by including an indicate conformance with this specification by including an
rdapConformance ([RFC7483]) value of "redacted_0.1". The information rdapConformance ([RFC7483]) value of "redacted_0.1". The information
needed to register this value in the RDAP Extensions Registry is needed to register this value in the RDAP Extensions Registry is
described in Section 6.1. described in Section 6.1.
Example rdapConformance member with the redacted extension: Example rdapConformance member with the redacted extension:
"rdapConformance": [ "rdapConformance": [
"rdap_level_0", "rdap_level_0",
"redacted_0" "redacted_0"
] ]
4.2. "redacted" Member 4.2. "redacted" Member
The "redacted" member MUST be added to the RDAP lookup response when The "redacted" member MUST be added to the RDAP response when there
there are redacted fields. The "redacted" member contains an array are redacted fields. The "redacted" member is included as a member
of redacted objects with the following child members: of the object class in a lookup response, such as the object classes
defined in [RFC9083], and as a member of the object instances in a
search response, such as the object instances defined in [RFC9083].
The "redacted" member contains an array of redacted objects with the
following child members:
"name": A logical name for the redacted field. The logical name "name": A logical name for the redacted field. The logical name
used for the redacted field is up to server policy. The logical used for the redacted field is up to server policy. The logical
name is defined using an object with a "type" field denoting a name is defined using an object with a "type" field denoting a
registered redacted name (see Section 6.2) or a "description" registered redacted name (see Section 6.2) or a "description"
field denoting an unregistered redacted name. The registered field denoting an unregistered redacted name. The registered
redacted names and the chosen unregistered names can meet the redacted names and the chosen unregistered names can meet the
needs of different RDAP services or industries. needs of different RDAP services or industries.
"path": The JSON expression of the redacted field, using the "path": The JSON expression of the redacted field, using the
skipping to change at page 6, line 48 skipping to change at page 6, line 52
"reason": OPTIONAL human readable reason(s) for the redacted field "reason": OPTIONAL human readable reason(s) for the redacted field
in the language defined by the [RFC7483] "lang" member. The in the language defined by the [RFC7483] "lang" member. The
default language is "en" if the [RFC7483] "lang" member is not default language is "en" if the [RFC7483] "lang" member is not
specified. The reason is defined using an object with an specified. The reason is defined using an object with an
OPTIONAL "type" field denoting a registered redacted reason (see OPTIONAL "type" field denoting a registered redacted reason (see
see Section 6.2) and an OPTIONAL "description" field denoting an see Section 6.2) and an OPTIONAL "description" field denoting an
unregistered redacted reason. The "description" field MUST NOT unregistered redacted reason. The "description" field MUST NOT
be a client processing dependency. be a client processing dependency.
Example unredacted version of RDAP lookup response: Example unredacted version of an RDAP lookup response:
{ {
"rdapConformance": [ "rdapConformance": [
"rdap_level_0" "rdap_level_0"
], ],
"objectClassName": "domain", "objectClassName": "domain",
"handle": "ABC123", "handle": "ABC123",
"ldhName": "example.com", "ldhName": "example.com",
"secureDNS": { "secureDNS": {
"delegationSigned": false "delegationSigned": false
}, },
"notices": [
{
"title": "Terms of Use",
"description": [
"Service subject to Terms of Use."
],
"links": [
{
"rel": "self",
"href": "https://www.example.com/terms-of-use",
"type": "text/html",
"value": "https://www.example.com/terms-of-use"
}
]
}
],
"nameservers": [ "nameservers": [
{ {
"objectClassName": "nameserver", "objectClassName": "nameserver",
"ldhName": "ns1.example.com" "ldhName": "ns1.example.com"
}, },
{ {
"objectClassName": "nameserver", "objectClassName": "nameserver",
"ldhName": "ns2.example.com" "ldhName": "ns2.example.com"
} }
], ],
skipping to change at page 14, line 25 skipping to change at page 14, line 9
} }
], ],
"status": [ "status": [
"server delete prohibited", "server delete prohibited",
"server update prohibited", "server update prohibited",
"server transfer prohibited", "server transfer prohibited",
"client transfer prohibited" "client transfer prohibited"
] ]
} }
Example redacted version of RDAP response: Example redacted version of an RDAP lookup response:
{ {
"rdapConformance": [ "rdapConformance": [
"rdap_level_0", "rdap_level_0",
"redacted_0" "redacted_0"
], ],
"objectClassName": "domain", "objectClassName": "domain",
"ldhName": "example.com", "ldhName": "example.com",
"secureDNS": { "secureDNS": {
"delegationSigned": false "delegationSigned": false
}, },
"notices": [
{
"title": "Terms of Use",
"description": [
"Service subject to Terms of Use."
],
"links": [
{
"rel": "self",
"href": "https://www.example.com/terms-of-use",
"type": "text/html",
"value": "https://www.example.com/terms-of-use"
}
]
}
],
"nameservers": [ "nameservers": [
{ {
"objectClassName": "nameserver", "objectClassName": "nameserver",
"ldhName": "ns1.example.com" "ldhName": "ns1.example.com"
}, },
{ {
"objectClassName": "nameserver", "objectClassName": "nameserver",
"ldhName": "ns2.example.com" "ldhName": "ns2.example.com"
} }
], ],
skipping to change at page 22, line 35 skipping to change at page 21, line 52
}, },
"path": "$.entities[?(@.roles[0]=='administrative')]", "path": "$.entities[?(@.roles[0]=='administrative')]",
"method": "removal", "method": "removal",
"reason": { "reason": {
"description": "Refer to the technical contact" "description": "Refer to the technical contact"
} }
} }
] ]
} }
Example unredacted version of an RDAP search response:
{
"rdapConformance": [
"rdap_level_0"
],
"domainSearchResults":[
{
"objectClassName": "domain",
"handle": "ABC121",
"ldhName": "example1.com",
"links":[
{
"value":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example1.com",
"rel":"self",
"href":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example1.com",
"type":"application/rdap+json"
},
{
"value":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example1.com",
"rel":"related",
"href":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example1.com",
"type":"application/rdap+json"
}
]
},
{
"objectClassName": "domain",
"handle": "ABC122",
"ldhName": "example2.com",
"links":[
{
"value":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example2.com",
"rel":"self",
"href":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example2.com",
"type":"application/rdap+json"
},
{
"value":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example2.com",
"rel":"related",
"href":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example2.com",
"type":"application/rdap+json"
}
]
}
]
}
Example redacted version of an RDAP search response:
{
"rdapConformance": [
"rdap_level_0",
"redacted_0"
],
"domainSearchResults":[
{
"objectClassName": "domain",
"ldhName": "example1.com",
"links":[
{
"value":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example1.com",
"rel":"self",
"href":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example1.com",
"type":"application/rdap+json"
},
{
"value":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example1.com",
"rel":"related",
"href":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example1.com",
"type":"application/rdap+json"
}
],
"redacted": [
{
"name": {
"type": "Registry Domain ID"
},
"path": "$.domainSearchResults[0].handle",
"pathLang": "jsonpath",
"method": "removal",
"reason": {
"type": "Server policy"
}
}
]
},
{
"objectClassName": "domain",
"ldhName": "example2.com",
"links":[
{
"value":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example2.com",
"rel":"self",
"href":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example2.com",
"type":"application/rdap+json"
},
{
"value":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example2.com",
"rel":"related",
"href":"https://example.com/rdap/domain/example2.com",
"type":"application/rdap+json"
}
],
"redacted": [
{
"name": {
"type": "Registry Domain ID"
},
"path": "$.domainSearchResults[1].handle",
"pathLang": "jsonpath",
"method": "removal",
"reason": {
"type": "Server policy"
}
}
]
}
]
}
5. JSONPath Considerations 5. JSONPath Considerations
JSONPath [I-D.ietf-jsonpath-base] is the default JSON path expression JSONPath [I-D.ietf-jsonpath-base] is the default JSON path expression
language. This section covers considerations for servers using language. This section covers considerations for servers using
[I-D.ietf-jsonpath-base] to identify redacted RDAP fields with the [I-D.ietf-jsonpath-base] to identify redacted RDAP fields with the
"path" member of redacted objects in the "redacted" member. The list "path" member of redacted objects in the "redacted" member. The list
of JSONPath considerations include: of JSONPath considerations include:
1. Use absolute paths with the '$' JSONPath element. An example is 1. Use absolute paths with the '$' JSONPath element. An example is
"$.handle" for the "Registry Domain ID". "$.handle" for the "Registry Domain ID" in a lookup response or
2. Validate a JSONPath expression using a non-redacted RDAP lookup "$.domainSearchResults[0].handle" in a search response.
2. Validate a JSONPath expression using a non-redacted RDAP
response, where evaluating the expression results in returning response, where evaluating the expression results in returning
the redacted field. the redacted field.
3. Reference the removed object field when redacting an entire 3. Reference the removed object field when redacting an entire
object by the Redaction by Removal Method (Section 3.1), where object by the Redaction by Removal Method (Section 3.1), where
all of the object's child fields are explicitly removed. An all of the object's child fields are explicitly removed. An
example is "$.entities[?(@.roles[0]=='administrative')]" for the example is "$.entities[?(@.roles[0]=='administrative')]" for the
entire "Administrative Contact". entire "Administrative Contact".
4. When an entity has multiple roles, include "redacted" members for 4. When an entity has multiple roles, include "redacted" members for
each role using the role index. This will result in duplicate each role using the role index. This will result in duplicate
"redacted" members, but will enable the client to treat redaction "redacted" members, but will enable the client to treat redaction
consistently when there is a single role per entity or multiple consistently when there is a single role per entity or multiple
roles per entity. An example is when the "roles" member has the roles per entity. An example is when the "roles" member has the
skipping to change at page 24, line 10 skipping to change at page 25, line 47
6.1. RDAP Extensions Registry 6.1. RDAP Extensions Registry
IANA is requested to register the following value in the RDAP IANA is requested to register the following value in the RDAP
Extensions Registry: Extensions Registry:
Extension identifier: redacted_0.1 Extension identifier: redacted_0.1
Registry operator: Any Registry operator: Any
Published specification: This document. Published specification: This document.
Contact: IESG <iesg@ietf.org> Contact: IESG <iesg@ietf.org>
Intended usage: This extension identifies the redacted fields in an Intended usage: This extension identifies the redacted fields in an
RDAP lookup response. RDAP response.
6.2. JSON Values Registry 6.2. JSON Values Registry
Section 10.2 of [RFC9083] defines the JSON Values Registry with pre- Section 10.2 of [RFC9083] defines the JSON Values Registry with pre-
defined Type field values and the use of the "Expert Review" policy defined Type field values and the use of the "Expert Review" policy
defined in [RFC8126]. Two new JSON Values Registry Type field values defined in [RFC8126]. Two new JSON Values Registry Type field values
are used to register pre-defined redacted name and reason values: are used to register pre-defined redacted name and reason values:
"redacted name": Redacted name being registered. The registered "redacted name": Redacted name being registered. The registered
redacted name is referenced using the "type" field of the redacted name is referenced using the "type" field of the
skipping to change at page 24, line 48 skipping to change at page 26, line 41
Gustavo Lozano, and Rick Wilhelm. Gustavo Lozano, and Rick Wilhelm.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Informative References 9.1. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-regext-rdap-jscontact] [I-D.ietf-regext-rdap-jscontact]
Loffredo, M. and G. Brown, "Using JSContact in Loffredo, M. and G. Brown, "Using JSContact in
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) JSON Responses", Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) JSON Responses",
Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-regext-rdap- Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-regext-rdap-
jscontact-02, 28 May 2021, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/ jscontact-03, 22 October 2021,
draft-ietf-regext-rdap-jscontact-02>. <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-regext-rdap-
jscontact-03>.
9.2. Normative References 9.2. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-jsonpath-base] [I-D.ietf-jsonpath-base]
Gössner, S., Normington, G., and C. Bormann, "JSONPath: Gössner, S., Normington, G., and C. Bormann, "JSONPath:
Query expressions for JSON", Work in Progress, Internet- Query expressions for JSON", Work in Progress, Internet-
Draft, draft-ietf-jsonpath-base-01, 8 July 2021, Draft, draft-ietf-jsonpath-base-02, 25 October 2021,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-jsonpath-base-01>. <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-jsonpath-base-02>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC6350] Perreault, S., "vCard Format Specification", RFC 6350, [RFC6350] Perreault, S., "vCard Format Specification", RFC 6350,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6350, August 2011, DOI 10.17487/RFC6350, August 2011,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6350>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6350>.
skipping to change at page 26, line 46 skipping to change at page 28, line 41
redaction names by changing the "reason" property to be a redaction names by changing the "reason" property to be a
JSON object with the "type" and "description" properties. JSON object with the "type" and "description" properties.
The "type" property includes registration in the IANA JSON The "type" property includes registration in the IANA JSON
Values Registry. Values Registry.
2. Added a "JSON Values Registry" section in the IANA 2. Added a "JSON Values Registry" section in the IANA
Considersations section to define the "redaction name" JSON Considersations section to define the "redaction name" JSON
Values Registry Type values to support the registration of Values Registry Type values to support the registration of
redaction names. redaction names.
3. Added a JSONPath Considerations item associated with handling 3. Added a JSONPath Considerations item associated with handling
entities with multiple roles. entities with multiple roles.
4. Added language to restrict the extension to lookup responses. 4. Added language to restrict the extension to responses.
A.2. Change from 01 to 02
1. Updates to add support for RDAP search responses:
1. Replaced "RDAP lookup response" with "RDAP response"
throughout the draft to expand the scope to include search.
2. Updated the description in the second paragraph of the
Introduction to cover both a lookup response and a search
response.
3. Added an example of the use of an absoluate path for a search
response to the "JSONPath Considerations" section.
4. Added a description of the placement of the "redacted" member
in a lookup response and a search response in the ""redacted"
Member" section.
5. Added an example of an unredacted search response and a
redacted search response in the ""redacted" Member" section.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
James Gould James Gould
VeriSign, Inc. VeriSign, Inc.
12061 Bluemont Way 12061 Bluemont Way
Reston, VA 20190 Reston, VA 20190
United States of America United States of America
Email: jgould@verisign.com Email: jgould@verisign.com
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