draft-ietf-pim-v2-sm-00.txt   draft-ietf-pim-v2-sm-01.txt 
Network Working Group L Wei, Editor Network Working Group L Wei
Internet Draft Siara Internet Draft Editor, Siara
D. Estrin D. Estrin
USC USC
D. Farinacci D. Farinacci
Cisco Procket
A. Helmy A. Helmy
USC USC
D. Thaler D. Thaler
Microsoft Microsoft
S. Deering S. Deering
Cisco Cisco
M. Handley M. Handley
UCL ACIRI
V. Jacobson V. Jacobson
Cisco Cisco
C. Liu C. Liu
USC Fujitsu
P. Sharma P. Sharma
Expires March 31, 1999 USC Expires May 2, 2000 HPL
October 1999 November 1999
draft-ietf-pim-v2-sm-00.txt draft-ietf-pim-v2-sm-01.txt
Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol
Specification Specification
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
skipping to change at page 12, line 23 skipping to change at page 12, line 23
metric value can be compared with another metric value provided both metric value can be compared with another metric value provided both
metric preferences are the same. A metric preference can be assigned metric preferences are the same. A metric preference can be assigned
per unicast routing protocol and needs to be consistent for all per unicast routing protocol and needs to be consistent for all
routers on the multi-access network. routers on the multi-access network.
Asserts are also needed for (*,G) entries since an RP-Tree and an Asserts are also needed for (*,G) entries since an RP-Tree and an
SP-Tree for the same group may both cross the same multi-access SP-Tree for the same group may both cross the same multi-access
network. When an assert is sent for a (*,G) entry, the first bit in network. When an assert is sent for a (*,G) entry, the first bit in
the metric preference (RPT-bit) is always set to 1 to indicate that the metric preference (RPT-bit) is always set to 1 to indicate that
this path corresponds to the RP tree, and that the match must be done this path corresponds to the RP tree, and that the match must be done
on (*,G) if it exists. Furthermore, the RPT-bit is always cleared for on the RP-Tree (i.e. match on S,G RPTbit entry first, and *,G second).
metric preferences that refer to SP-tree entries; this causes an SP- Furthermore, the RPT-bit is always cleared for metric preferences that
tree path to always look better than an RP-tree path. When the SP- refer to SP-tree entries; this causes an SP-tree path to always look
tree and RPtree cross the same LAN, this mechanism eliminates the better than an RP-tree path. When the SP-tree and RPtree cross the
duplicates that would otherwise be carried over the LAN. same LAN, this mechanism eliminates the duplicates that would
otherwise be carried over the LAN. Note that the source address
carried inside the assert message is always the source address of
the data packet causing this assert. The RPTbit is set to indicate
an RP-Tree metric.
In case the packet, or the Assert message, matches on oif for In case the packet, or the Assert message, matches on oif for
(*,*,RP) entry, a (*,G) entry is created, and asserts take place as (*,*,RP) entry, a (*,G) entry is created, and asserts take place as
if the matching state were (*,G). if the matching state were (*,G).
The DR may lose the (*,G) Assert process to another router on the LAN The DR may lose the (*,G) Assert process to another router on the LAN
if there are multiple paths to the RP through the LAN. From then on, if there are multiple paths to the RP through the LAN. From then on,
the DR is no longer the last-hop router for local receivers and the DR is no longer the last-hop router for local receivers and
removes the LAN from its (*,G) oif list. The winning router becomes removes the LAN from its (*,G) oif list. The winning router becomes
the last-hop router and is responsible for sending (*,G) join the last-hop router and is responsible for sending (*,G) join
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Join/Prune message is received with a higher Holdtime. Join/Prune message is received with a higher Holdtime.
2.10 Unicast Routing Changes 2.10 Unicast Routing Changes
When unicast routing changes, an RPF check is done on all active When unicast routing changes, an RPF check is done on all active
(S,G), (*,G) and (*,*,RP) entries, and all affected expected incoming (S,G), (*,G) and (*,*,RP) entries, and all affected expected incoming
interfaces are updated. In particular, if the new incoming interface interfaces are updated. In particular, if the new incoming interface
appears in the outgoing interface list, it is deleted from the appears in the outgoing interface list, it is deleted from the
outgoing interface list. The previous incoming interface may be added outgoing interface list. The previous incoming interface may be added
to the outgoing interface list by a subsequent Join/Prune from to the outgoing interface list by a subsequent Join/Prune from
downstream. Join/Prune messages received on the current incoming downstream. Join/Prune messages received on the new incoming
interface are ignored. Join/Prune messages received on new interface are ignored. Join/Prune messages received on new
interfaces or existing outgoing interfaces are not ignored. Other interfaces or existing outgoing interfaces are not ignored. Other
outgoing interfaces are left as is until they are explicitly pruned outgoing interfaces are left as is until they are explicitly pruned
by downstream routers or are timed out due to lack of appropriate by downstream routers or are timed out due to lack of appropriate
Join/Prune messages. If the router has a (S,G) entry with the SPT-bit Join/Prune messages. If the router has a (S,G) entry with the SPT-bit
set, and the updated iif(S,G) does not differ from iif(*,G) or set, and the updated iif(S,G) does not differ from iif(*,G) or
iif(*,*,RP), then the router resets the SPT-bit. iif(*,*,RP), then the router resets the SPT-bit.
The router must send a Join/Prune message with S in the Join list out The router must send a Join/Prune message with S or RP in the Join
any new incoming interfaces to inform upstream routers that it list out any new incoming interfaces to inform upstream routers that
expects multicast datagrams over the interface. It may also send a it expects multicast datagrams over the interface. It may also send a
Join/Prune message with S in the Prune list out the old incoming Join/Prune message with S or RP in the Prune list out the old incoming
interface, if the link is operational, to inform upstream routers interface, if the link is operational, to inform upstream routers
that this part of the distribution tree is going away. that this part of the distribution tree is going away.
2.11 PIM-SM for Inter-Domain Multicast 2.11 PIM-SM for Inter-Domain Multicast
Future documents will address the use of PIM-SM as a backbone inter- Future documents will address the use of PIM-SM as a backbone inter-
domain multicast routing protocol. Design choices center primarily domain multicast routing protocol. Design choices center primarily
around the distribution and usage of RP information for wide area, around the distribution and usage of RP information for wide area,
inter-domain groups. inter-domain groups.
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timer (the Random-Delay-Join-Timer) whose expiration triggers timer (the Random-Delay-Join-Timer) whose expiration triggers
sending of a Join/Prune message for the asserted route entry to sending of a Join/Prune message for the asserted route entry to
the Assert winner (if the Join/Prune Suppression timer has the Assert winner (if the Join/Prune Suppression timer has
expired.) expired.)
We do not trigger prunes onto interfaces based on data packets. Data We do not trigger prunes onto interfaces based on data packets. Data
packets that arrive on the wrong incoming interface are silently packets that arrive on the wrong incoming interface are silently
dropped. However, on point-to-point interfaces triggered prunes may dropped. However, on point-to-point interfaces triggered prunes may
be sent as an optimization. be sent as an optimization.
aragraphFragmentation It is possible that a Join/Prune message It is possible that a Join/Prune message constructed according to the
constructed according to the preceding rules could exceed the MTU of preceding rules could exceed the MTU of a network. In this case, the
a network. In this case, the message can undergo semantic message can undergo semantic fragmentation whereby information
fragmentation whereby information corresponding to different groups corresponding to different groups can be sent in different messages.
can be sent in different messages. However, if a Join/Prune message However, if a Join/Prune message must be fragmented the complete prune
must be fragmented the complete prune list corresponding to a group G list corresponding to a group G must be included in the same Join/Prune
must be included in the same Join/Prune message as the associated message as the associated RP-tree Join for G. If such semantic
RP-tree Join for G. If such semantic fragmentation is not possible, fragmentation is not possible, IP fragmentation should be used between
IP fragmentation should be used between the two neighboring hops. the two neighboring hops.
3.2.2 Receiving Join/Prune Messages When a router receives 3.2.2 Receiving Join/Prune Messages
Join/Prune message, it processes it as follows.
When a router receives Join/Prune message, it processes it as follows.
The receiver of the Join/Prune notes the interface on which the PIM The receiver of the Join/Prune notes the interface on which the PIM
message arrived, call it I. The receiver then checks to see if the message arrived, call it I. The receiver then checks to see if the
Join/Prune message was addressed to the receiving router itself Join/Prune message was addressed to the receiving router itself
(i.e., the router's address appears in the Unicast Upstream Neighbor (i.e., the router's address appears in the Unicast Upstream Neighbor
Router field of the Join/Prune message). (If the router is connected Router field of the Join/Prune message). (If the router is connected
to a multiaccess LAN, the message could be intended for a different to a multiaccess LAN, the message could be intended for a different
router.) If the Join/Prune is for this router the following actions router.) If the Join/Prune is for this router the following actions
are taken. are taken.
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a group mask length of 4, indicating a (*,*,RP) Join. a group mask length of 4, indicating a (*,*,RP) Join.
4 If the (Si,G) entry has its RPT-bit flag set to 1, and 4 If the (Si,G) entry has its RPT-bit flag set to 1, and
its oif list is the same as the (*,G) oif list, then the its oif list is the same as the (*,G) oif list, then the
(Si,G)RPT-bit entry is deleted, (Si,G)RPT-bit entry is deleted,
5 The incoming interface is set to the interface used to 5 The incoming interface is set to the interface used to
send unicast packets to the RP in the (*,G) route entry, send unicast packets to the RP in the (*,G) route entry,
i.e., RPF interface toward the RP. i.e., RPF interface toward the RP.
2 For each address, Sj, in the join list whose RPT-bit and 2 For each address, Sj, for which there is no existing (Sj,G)
WC-bit are not set, and for which there is no existing (Sj,G)
route entry, the router initiates one. The router creates a route entry, the router initiates one. The router creates a
(S,G) entry and copies all outgoing interfaces from the (S,G) entry and copies all outgoing interfaces from the
(S,G)RPT-bit entry, if it exists. If there is no (S,G) entry, (*,G) entry; and if there is no (*,G) entry, the oif list is
the oif list is copied from the (*,G) entry; and if there is no copied from the (*,*,RP) entry, if it exists. In all cases,
(*,G) entry, the oif list is copied from the (*,*,RP) entry, if the iif of the (S,G) entry is always excluded from the oif list.
it exists. In all cases, the iif of the (S,G) entry is always
excluded from the oif list.
1 If the interface used to reach Sj, is the same as I, 1 If the interface used to reach Sj, is the same as I,
this represents an error (or a unicast routing change) and this represents an error (or a unicast routing change) and
the Join/Prune must not be processed. the Join/Prune must not be processed.
2 Interface I is added to the outgoing interface list for 2 Make the RPT-bit setting of the created (Sj,G) entry be
the same as the RPT-bit setting in the Join/Prune
packet.
3 Interface I is added to the outgoing interface list to
(Sj,G). The incoming interface for (Sj,G) is set to the (Sj,G). The incoming interface for (Sj,G) is set to the
interface used to send unicast packets to Sj (i.e., the interface used to send unicast packets to Sj (i.e., the
RPF neighbor). RPF neighbor).
3 For each address, Sj, in the join list of the Join/Prune 3 For each address, Sj, in the join list of the Join/Prune
message, for which there is an existing (Sj,G) route entry, message, for which there is an existing (Sj,G) route entry,
1 If the RPT-bit is not set for Sj listed in the 1 If the RPT-bit is not set for Sj listed in the
Join/Prune message, but the RPT-bit flag is set on the Join/Prune message, but the RPT-bit flag is set on the
existing (Sj,G) entry, the router clears the RPT-bit flag existing (Sj,G) entry, the router clears the RPT-bit flag
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2 If I is not the same as the existing incoming 2 If I is not the same as the existing incoming
interface, the router adds I to the list of outgoing interface, the router adds I to the list of outgoing
interfaces. interfaces.
3 The Oif-timer for I is increased (never decreased) to 3 The Oif-timer for I is increased (never decreased) to
the Holdtime included in the Join/Prune message. In the Holdtime included in the Join/Prune message. In
addition, if the Oif-timer for that interface is increased, addition, if the Oif-timer for that interface is increased,
the Oif-Deletion-Delay for that interface is set to 1/3rd the Oif-Deletion-Delay for that interface is set to 1/3rd
the Holdtime specified in the Join/Prune message. the Holdtime specified in the Join/Prune message.
There may be situations when an implementation may want to send
(S,G)RPT-bit jois up the RP-tree, to re-enable forwarding of packets
down the RP-tree without (*,G) joins. Such (S,G)RPTbit joins
SHOULD be accepted. For each address, Sj, in the join list of the
Join/Prune message whose RPT-bit is set and WC-bit cleared,
1 If no (Sj,G) and no (*,G) entry exists, create an (*,G) entry
with NULL outgoing interface list. Create an (Sj,G)RPT-bit
and follow the next rule;
2 If no (Sj,G) entry exists but (*,G) entry exists,
create an (Sj,G)RPT-bit entry, and follow the next
rule;
3 If an (Sj,G) or (Sj,G) RPT-bit entry exists, add I to the
outgoing interface list if it is not the same as the incoming
interface. If the addition of I causes the entry to go into
forwarding state, an (Sj,G) or (Sj,G)RPT-bit join should
be triggered.
For each group address G, in the Join/Prune message, the For each group address G, in the Join/Prune message, the
associated prune list is processed as follows. We refer to each associated prune list is processed as follows. We refer to each
address in the prune list as Sp; Sp refers to the RP if the RPT- address in the prune list as Sp; Sp refers to the RP if the RPT-
bit and WC-bit are both set. For each Sp in the prune list of the bit and WC-bit are both set. When IGMP members exist for the
Join/Prune message: group G on the receiving interface, the prune is ignored.
Otherwise, for each Sp in the prune list of the Join/Prune message:
1 For each address, Sp, in the prune list whose RPT-bit and 1 For each address, Sp, in the prune list whose RPT-bit and
WC-bit are cleared: WC-bit are cleared:
1 If there is an existing (Sp,G) route entry, the router 1 If there is an existing (Sp,G) route entry, the router
lowers the entry's Oif-timer for I to its Oif-Deletion- lowers the entry's Oif-timer for I to its Oif-Deletion-
Delay, allowing for other downstream routers on a multi- Delay, allowing for other downstream routers on a multi-
access LAN to override the prune. However, on point-to- access LAN to override the prune. However, on point-to-
point links, the oif-timer is expired immediately. point links, the oif-timer is expired immediately.
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outgoing interface list is null. outgoing interface list is null.
3 If (*,G), or corresponding (*,*,RP), state exists, but 3 If (*,G), or corresponding (*,*,RP), state exists, but
there is no (Sp,G) entry, an (Sp,G)RPT-bit entry is created there is no (Sp,G) entry, an (Sp,G)RPT-bit entry is created
. The outgoing interface list is copied from the (*,G), or . The outgoing interface list is copied from the (*,G), or
(*,*,RP), entry, with the interface, I, on which the prune (*,*,RP), entry, with the interface, I, on which the prune
was received, is deleted. Packets from the pruned source, was received, is deleted. Packets from the pruned source,
Sp, match on this state and are not forwarded toward the Sp, match on this state and are not forwarded toward the
pruned receivers. pruned receivers.
4 If there exists a (Sp,G) entry, with or without the
RPT-bit set, the oif-timer for I is expired, and the
Entry-timer is restarted.
3 For each address, Sp, in the prune list whose RPT-bit and 3 For each address, Sp, in the prune list whose RPT-bit and
WC-bit are both set: WC-bit are both set:
1 If there is an existing (*,G) entry, with Sp as the RP 1 If there is an existing (*,G) entry, with Sp as the RP
for G, the router lowers the entry's Oif-timer for I to its for G, the router lowers the entry's Oif-timer for I to its
Oif-Deletion-Delay, allowing for other downstream routers Oif-Deletion-Delay, allowing for other downstream routers
on a multi-access LAN to override the prune. However, on on a multi-access LAN to override the prune. However, on
point-to-point links, the oif-timer is expired immediately. point-to-point links, the oif-timer is expired immediately.
2 If the corresponding (*,*,RP) state exists, but there 2 If the corresponding (*,*,RP) state exists, but there
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timer if the matching entry is (S,G). Optionally, the timer if the matching entry is (S,G). Optionally, the
(S,G) Entry-timer may be restarted by periodic checking of (S,G) Entry-timer may be restarted by periodic checking of
the matching packet count. the matching packet count.
2 If the entry is a (S,G) entry with a cleared SPT-bit, 2 If the entry is a (S,G) entry with a cleared SPT-bit,
and a (*,G) or associated (*,*,RP) also exists whose and a (*,G) or associated (*,*,RP) also exists whose
incoming interface is different than that for (S,G), set incoming interface is different than that for (S,G), set
the SPT-bit for the (S,G) entry and trigger an (S,G) RPT- the SPT-bit for the (S,G) entry and trigger an (S,G) RPT-
bit prune towards the RP. bit prune towards the RP.
If the receiving router is the RP, a register stop SHOULD
be sent to the DR, indicating the native SP-tree path between
the source and the RP has already be setup.
3 If the source of the packet is a directly-connected 3 If the source of the packet is a directly-connected
host and the router is the DR on the receiving interface, host and the router is the DR on the receiving interface,
check the Register-Suppression-timer associated with the check the Register-Suppression-timer associated with the
(S,G) entry. If it is not running, then the router (S,G) entry. If it is not running, then the router
encapsulates the data packet in a register message and encapsulates the data packet in a register message and
sends it to the RP. sends it to the RP.
This covers the common case of a packet arriving on the RPF This covers the common case of a packet arriving on the RPF
interface to the source or RP and being forwarded to all interface to the source or RP and being forwarded to all
joined branches. It also detects when packets arrive on the joined branches. It also detects when packets arrive on the
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4 If the packet does not match any entry, but the source of 4 If the packet does not match any entry, but the source of
the data packet is a local, directly-connected host, and the data packet is a local, directly-connected host, and
the router is the DR on a multi-access LAN and has RP-Set the router is the DR on a multi-access LAN and has RP-Set
information, the DR uses the hash function to determine the information, the DR uses the hash function to determine the
RP associated with the destination group, G. The DR creates RP associated with the destination group, G. The DR creates
a (S,G) entry, with the Register-Suppression-timer not a (S,G) entry, with the Register-Suppression-timer not
running, encapsulates the data packet in a Register message running, encapsulates the data packet in a Register message
and unicasts it to the RP. and unicasts it to the RP.
5 If the packet does not match to any entry, and it is not a 5 If a packet is received from S on the RPF interface to S, and
local host or the router is not the DR, drop the packet. there is existing (*,G) but no (S,G) state, the implementation
MUST guarantee that packets from this source are not forwarded
via the RP Tree onto the source subnet. In the absence of
other efficient mechanisms to enforce this, an implementation
in this situation MAY create (S,G) state with an outgoing
interface list of null, and discard the packet.
3.4.1 Data triggered switch to shortest path tree (SP-tree) 3.4.1 Data triggered switch to shortest path tree (SP-tree)
Different criteria can be applied to trigger switching over from the Different criteria can be applied to trigger switching over from the
RP-based shared tree to source-specific, shortest path trees. RP-based shared tree to source-specific, shortest path trees.
One proposed example is to do so based on data rate. For example, One proposed example is to do so based on data rate. For example,
when a (*,G), or corresponding (*,*,RP), entry is created, a data when a (*,G), or corresponding (*,*,RP), entry is created, a data
rate counter may be initiated at the last-hop routers. The counter rate counter may be initiated at the last-hop routers. The counter
is incremented with every data packet received for directly connected is incremented with every data packet received for directly connected
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to a multi-access LAN is responsible for forwarding packets onto the to a multi-access LAN is responsible for forwarding packets onto the
LAN. LAN.
3.5.1 Sending Asserts 3.5.1 Sending Asserts
The following Assert rules are provided when a multicast packet is The following Assert rules are provided when a multicast packet is
received on an outgoing multi-access interface "I" of an existing received on an outgoing multi-access interface "I" of an existing
active (S,G), (*,G) or (*,*,RP) entry: active (S,G), (*,G) or (*,*,RP) entry:
1 Do unicast routing table lookup on source address from data 1 Do unicast routing table lookup on source address from data
packet, and send assert on interface "I" for source address in packet for (S,G) and do lookup on the RP if matching on (*,G)
data packet; include metric preference of routing protocol and or (*,*,RP) entry. Send assert on interface "I", include source
metric from routing table lookup. address in data packet; include metric preference of routing
protocol and metric from routing table lookup.
2 If route is not found, use metric preference of 0x7fffffff 2 If route is not found, use metric preference of 0x7fffffff
and metric 0xffffffff. and metric 0xffffffff.
When an assert is sent for a (*,G) entry, the first bit in the metric When an assert is sent for a (*,G) entry, the first bit in the metric
preference (the RPT-bit) is set to 1, indicating the data packet is preference (the RPT-bit) is set to 1, indicating the data packet is
routed down the RP-tree. routed down the RP-tree.
Asserts should be rate-limited in an implementation-specific manner. Asserts should be rate-limited in an implementation-specific manner.
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RPT-bit is cleared and the matching entry is (*,G), or (*,*,RP), RPT-bit is cleared and the matching entry is (*,G), or (*,*,RP),
the router creates a (S,G)RPT-bit entry. Otherwise, no new the router creates a (S,G)RPT-bit entry. Otherwise, no new
entry is created in response to the Assert. entry is created in response to the Assert.
2 The router then compares the metric values received in the 2 The router then compares the metric values received in the
Assert with the metric values associated with the matched entry. Assert with the metric values associated with the matched entry.
The RPT-bit and metric preference (in that order) are treated as The RPT-bit and metric preference (in that order) are treated as
the high-order part of an Assert metric comparison. If the value the high-order part of an Assert metric comparison. If the value
in the Assert is less than the router's value (with ties broken in the Assert is less than the router's value (with ties broken
by the IP address, where higher network layer address wins), by the IP address, where higher network layer address wins),
delete the interface from the entry. When the deletion occurs delete the interface from the entry. The Entry-timer for the
for a (*,G) or (*,*,RP) entry , the interface is also deleted affected entries is restarted.
from any associated (S,G)RPT-bit or (*,G) entries, respectively.
The Entry-timer for the affected entries is restarted.
3 If the router has won the election the router keeps the 3 If the router has won the election the router keeps the
interface in its outgoing interface list. It acts as the interface in its outgoing interface list. It acts as the
forwarder for the LAN. forwarder for the LAN.
The winning router sends an Assert message containing its own metric The winning router sends an Assert message containing its own metric
to that outgoing interface. This will cause other routers on the LAN to that outgoing interface. This will cause other routers on the LAN
to prune that interface from their route entries. The winning router to prune that interface from their route entries. The winning router
sets the RPT-bit in the Assert message if a (*,G) or (S,G)RPT-bit sets the RPT-bit in the Assert message if a (*,G) or (S,G)RPT-bit
entry was matched. entry was matched.
Receiving Asserts on an entry's incoming interface Receiving Asserts on an entry's incoming interface
If the Assert arrived on the incoming interface of an existing (S,G), If the Assert arrived on the incoming interface of an existing (S,G),
(*,G), or (*,*,RP) entry, the Assert is processed as follows. If the (*,G), or (*,*,RP) entry, the Assert is processed as follows.
Assert message does not match the entry, exactly, it is ignored; i.e, If a longest match lookup does not find any entry, the Assert is
longest-match is not used in this case. If the Assert message does ignored. If the longest match lookup found an entry for the Assert
match exactly, then: message, then:
1 Downstream routers will select the upstream router with the 1 Downstream routers will select the upstream router with the
smallest metric preference and metric as their RPF neighbor. If smallest metric preference and metric as their RPF neighbor. If
two metrics are the same, the highest network layer address is two metrics are the same, the highest network layer address is
chosen to break the tie. This is important so that downstream chosen to break the tie. This is important so that downstream
routers send subsequent Joins/Prunes (in SM) to the correct routers send subsequent Joins/Prunes (in SM) to the correct
neighbor. An Assert-timer is initiated when changing the RPF neighbor. An Assert-timer is initiated when changing the RPF
neighbor to the Assert winner. When the timer expires, the neighbor to the Assert winner. When the timer expires, the
router resets its RPF neighbor according to its unicast routing router resets its RPF neighbor according to its unicast routing
tables to capture network dynamics and router failures. tables to capture network dynamics and router failures.
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Set to | When | Applies to Set to | When | Applies to
included Holdtime | adding oif off Join/Prune | (S,G) (*,G) included Holdtime | adding oif off Join/Prune | (S,G) (*,G)
| | (*,*,RP) | | (*,*,RP)
Increased (only) to | When | Applies to Increased (only) to | When | Applies to
included Holdtime | received Join/Prune | (S,G) (*,G) included Holdtime | received Join/Prune | (S,G) (*,G)
| | (*,*,RP) | | (*,*,RP)
(*,*,RP) oif-timer value | (*,*,RP) oif-timer restarted | (S,G) (*,G) (*,*,RP) oif-timer value | (*,*,RP) oif-timer restarted | (S,G) (*,G)
(*,G) oif-timer value | (*,G) oif-timer restarted | (S,G) (*,G) oif-timer value | (*,G) oif-timer restarted | (S,G)
When the timer expires, the oif is removed from the oiflist if When the timer expires, the oif is removed from the oiflist,
there are no directly-connected members. When deleted, the oif if there are no directly-connected members. When the deletion occurs
is also removed in any associated (S,G) or (*,G) entries. for a (*,G) or (*,*,RP) entry , the interface is also deleted
from any associated (S,G)RPT-bit or (*,G) entries, respectively.
The Entry-timer for the affected entries is restarted.
* [Entry-Timer (kept per route entry)] A timer for each route * [Entry-Timer (kept per route entry)] A timer for each route
entry is used to time out that entry. The following table entry is used to time out that entry. The following table
summarizes its usage when first adding the oif to the entry's summarizes its usage when first adding the oif to the entry's
oiflist, and when it should be restarted (unless it is already oiflist, and when it should be restarted (unless it is already
higher). higher).
Set to | When | Applies to Set to | When | Applies to
[Data-Timeout] | created off data packet | (S,G) [Data-Timeout] | created off data packet | (S,G)
included Holdtime | created off Join/Prune | (S,G) (*,G) (*,*,RP) included Holdtime | created off Join/Prune | (S,G) (*,G) (*,*,RP)
skipping to change at page 40, line 24 skipping to change at page 40, line 24
interval between originating Bootstrap messages, and should be interval between originating Bootstrap messages, and should be
equal to 60 seconds. equal to 60 seconds.
* [Bootstrap-Timeout] This is the time after which the * [Bootstrap-Timeout] This is the time after which the
elected BSR will be assumed unreachable when Bootstrap elected BSR will be assumed unreachable when Bootstrap
messages are not received from it. This should be set to `2 * messages are not received from it. This should be set to `2 *
[Bootstrap-Period] + 10'. Default: 130 seconds. [Bootstrap-Period] + 10'. Default: 130 seconds.
3.9 Summary of flags used 3.9 Summary of flags used
delete the interface from the entry. When the deletion occurs
for a (*,G) or (*,*,RP) entry , the interface is also deleted
from any associated (S,G)RPT-bit or (*,G) entries, respectively.
The Entry-timer for the affected entries is restarted.
Following is a summary of all the flags used in our scheme. Following is a summary of all the flags used in our scheme.
Bit | Used in | Definition Bit | Used in | Definition
Border | Register | Register for external sources is coming Border | Register | Register for external sources is coming
from PIM multicast border router from PIM multicast border router
Null | Register | Register sent as Probe of RP, the Null | Register | Register sent as Probe of RP, the
encapsulated IP data packet should not encapsulated IP data packet should not
be forwarded be forwarded
RPT | Route entry | Entry represents state on the RP-tree RPT | Route entry | Entry represents state on the RP-tree
skipping to change at page 63, line 33 skipping to change at page 63, line 33
all aspects of the architectural and detailed design but managed to all aspects of the architectural and detailed design but managed to
get away without hacking the latex! get away without hacking the latex!
Deborah Estrin Deborah Estrin
Computer Science Dept/ISI Computer Science Dept/ISI
University of Southern Calif. University of Southern Calif.
Los Angeles, CA 90089 Los Angeles, CA 90089
EMail: estrin@usc.edu EMail: estrin@usc.edu
Dino Farinacci Dino Farinacci
Cisco Systems Inc. Procket Networks, Inc
170 West Tasman Drive, EMail: dino@procket.com
San Jose, CA 95134
EMail: dino@cisco.com
Ahmed Helmy Ahmed Helmy
Computer Science Dept. Computer Science Dept.
University of Southern Calif. University of Southern Calif.
Los Angeles, CA 90089 Los Angeles, CA 90089
EMail: ahelmy@catarina.usc.edu EMail: helmy@ceng.usc.edu
David Thaler David Thaler
EECS Department Microsoft Corporation
University of Michigan One Microsoft Way
Ann Arbor, MI 48109 Redmond, WA 98052
EMail: thalerd@eecs.umich.edu EMail: dthaler@microsoft.com
Stephen Deering Stephen Deering
Xerox PARC Cisco Systems, inc,
3333 Coyote Hill Road San Jose, CA 95134
Palo Alto, CA 94304 EMail: deering@cisco.com
EMail: deering@parc.xerox.com
Mark Handley Mark Handley
Department of Computer Science AT&T Center for Internet Research at ICSI,
University College London International Computer Science Institute,
Gower Street 1947 Center Street, Suite 600,
London, WC1E 6BT Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
UK EMail: mjh@aciri.org
EMail: m.handley@cs.ucl.ac.uk
Van Jacobson Van Jacobson
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Cisco Systems, Inc.
1 Cyclotron Road 170 W Tasman Drive
Berkeley, CA 94720 San Jose, CA 95134
EMail: van@ee.lbl.gov EMail: van.jacobson@cisco.com
Ching-gung Liu Ching-Gung Liu
Computer Science Dept. Fujitsu Laboratories of America, Inc.
University of Southern Calif. 595, Lawrence Expressway, Sunnyvale, CA 91748
Los Angeles, CA 90089 EMail: charley@fla.fujitsu.com
EMail: charley@catarina.usc.edu
Puneet Sharma Puneet Sharma
Computer Science Dept. Hewlett Packard Laboratories
University of Southern Calif. 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304
Los Angeles, CA 90089 Email: puneet@hpl.hp.com
EMail: puneet@catarina.usc.edu
Liming Wei Liming Wei
Siara Systems, Inc. Siara Systems, Inc.
300 Ferguson Drive 300 Ferguson Drive
Mountain View, CA 94043 Mountain View, CA 94043
EMail: lwei@siara.com EMail: lwei@siara.com
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
 End of changes. 

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