Network Working Group                                     Dino Farinacci
Internet-Draft                                             Greg Shepherd
Intended status: Experimental                                  Yiqun Cai
Expires: January 7, July 8, 2012                                        Stig Venaas
                                                           cisco Systems
                                                            July 6, 2011
                                                         January 5, 2012

                   Population Count Extensions to PIM
                    draft-ietf-pim-pop-count-04.txt
                    draft-ietf-pim-pop-count-05.txt

Abstract

   This specification defines a method for providing multicast
   distribution-tree accounting data.  Simple extensions to the PIM
   protocol allow a rough approximation of tree-based data in a scalable
   fashion.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 7, July 8, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Requirements Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  New Hello TLV Pop-Count Support  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  New Pop-Count Join Attribute Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.1.  Options  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       4.1.1.  Link Speed Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.2.  Example message layouts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   5.  How to use Pop-Count Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   6.  Implementation Approaches  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   7.  Caveats  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   10. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

1.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.  Introduction

   This draft proposes a mechanism to convey accounting information
   using the PIM protocol [RFC4601] [RFC5015].  Putting the mechanism in
   PIM allows efficient distribution and maintenance of such accounting
   information.  Previous mechanisms require data to be correlated from
   multiple router sources.

   This proposal allows a single router to be queried to obtain
   accounting and statistic information for a multicast distribution
   tree as a whole or any distribution sub-tree downstream from a
   queried router.  The amount of information is fixed and does not
   increase as multicast membership, tree diameter, or branching
   increase.

   The sort of accounting data this draft provides, on a per multicast
   route basis, are:

   1.  The number of branches in a distribution tree.

   2.  The membership type of the distribution tree, that is SSM or ASM.

   3.  Routing domain and time zone boundary information.

   4.  On-tree node and tree diameter counters.

   5.  Effective MTU and bandwidth.

   This draft adds a new PIM Join Attribute type [RFC5384] to the Join/
   Prune message as well as a new Hello TLV.  The mechanism is
   applicable to IPv4 and IPv6 multicast.

2.1.  Terminology

   This section defines the terms used in this draft.

   Multicast Route:   A (S,G) or (*,G) entry regardless if the route is
      in ASM, SSM, or Bidir mode of operation.

   Stub Link:   A link with members joined to the group via IGMP or MLD.

   Transit Link:   A link put in the oif-list for a multicast route
      because it was joined by PIM routers.

   Note that a link can be both a Stub Link and a Transit Link at the
   same time.

3.  New Hello TLV Pop-Count Support

   When a PIM router sends a Join/Prune message to a neighbor, it will
   encode the data in a new PIM Join Attribute type (described in this
   draft) when the PIM router determines the neighbor can support this
   draft.  If a PIM router supports this draft, it must send the Pop-
   Count-Supported TLV.  The format of the TLV is defined to be:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          OptionType           |         OptionLength          |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                          OptionValue                          |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   OptionType = 29, OptionLength = 4, there is no OptionValue semantics
   defined at this time but will be included for expandability and be
   defined in future revisions of this draft.  The format will look
   like:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             29                |              4                |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                      Unallocated Flags                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Unallocated Flags:   for now should be sent as 0 and ignored on
      receipt.

4.  New Pop-Count Join Attribute Format

   When a PIM router supports this draft and has determined from a
   received Hello, the neighbor supports this draft, it will send Join/
   Prune messages that MAY include a Pop-Count attribute.  The mechanism
   to process PIM Join Attribute is described in [RFC5384].  The format
   of the new attribute is described in the following.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |F|E| Attr Type |    Length     |        Effective MTU          |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             Flags             |        Options Bitmap         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                            Options                            |
      .                               .                               .
      .                               .                               .
      .                               .                               .
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The above format is used only for entries in the join-list section of
   the Join/Prune message.

   F bit:   0 Non-Transitive Attribute.

   E bit:   As specified by [RFC5384].

   Attr Type:   2.

   Length:   The minimum length is 6.

   Effective MTU:   This contains the minimum MTU for any link in the
      oif-list.  The sender of Join/Prune message takes the minimum
      value for the MTU (in bytes) from each link in the oif-list.  If
      this value is less than the value stored for the multicast route
      (the one received from downstream joiners) then the value should
      be reset and sent in Join/Prune message.  Otherwise, the value
      should remain unchanged.

      This provides one to obtain the MTU supported by multicast
      distribution tree when examined at the first-hop router(s) or for
      sub-tree for any router on the distribution tree.

   Flags:   The flags field has the following format:

           0                   1
           0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |  Unalloc/Reserved   |P|a|t|A|S|
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Unallocated Flags:   The flags which are currently not defined.
         If a new flag is defined and sent by a new implementation, an
         old implementation should preserve the bit settings.  This
         means that if a bit was set in a PIM Join message from any of
         the downstream routers, then it MUST also be set in any PIM
         Join sent upstream.

      S flag:   If an IGMPv3 or MLDv2 report was received on any oif-
         list entry or the bit was set from any PIM Join message.  This
         bit should only be cleared when the above becomes untrue.

      A flag:   If an IGMPv1, IGMPv2, or MLDv1 report was received on
         any oif-list entry or the bit was set from any PIM Join
         message.  This bit should only be cleared when the above
         becomes untrue.

         A combination of settings for these bits indicate:

           A-flag   S-flag   Description
           ------   ------   -----------------------------------------
             0        0      There are no members for the group
                             ('Stub Oif-List Count' is 0)
             0        1      All group members are only SSM capable
             1        0      All group members are only ASM capable
             1        1      There is a mixture of SSM and ASM capable

      t flag:   If there are any tunnels on the distribution tree.  If a
         tunnel is in the oif-list, a router should set this bit in its
         Join/Prune messages.  Otherwise, it propagates the bit setting
         from downstream joiners.

      a flag:   If there are any auto-tunnels on the distribution tree.
         If an auto-tunnel is in the oif-list, a router should set this
         bit in its Join/Prune messages.  Otherwise, it propagates the
         bit setting from downstream joiners.  An example of an auto-
         tunnel is an tunnel setup by the AMT [AMT] protocol.

      P flag:   This flag remains set if all downstream routers support
         this specification.  That is, they are PIM pop-count capable.
         This allows one to tell if the entire sub-tree is completely
         accounting capable.

   Options Bitmap:   This is a bitmap that shows which options are
      present.  The format of the bitmap is as follows:

            0                   1
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
           |T|s|m|M|d|n|D|z| Unalloc/Rsrvd |
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Each one of the bits T, s, m, M, d, n, D and z is associated with
      one option, where the option is included if and only if the
      respective bit is set.  Included options MUST be in the same order
      as these bits are listed.  The bits denote the following options:

            bit     Option
           -----   ------------------------
             T      Transit Oif-List Count
             s      Stub Oif-List Count
             m      Minimum Speed Link
             M      Maximum Speed Link
             d      Domain Count
             n      Node Count
             D      Diameter Count
             z      TZ Count

      See Section 4.1 for details on the different options.  The
      unallocated bits are reserved.  Any unknown bits MUST be set to 0
      when a message is sent, and treated as 0 (ignored) when received.
      This means that unknown options which are denoted by unknown bits
      are ignored.

      By using this bitmap we can specify at most 16 options.  If there
      becomes a need for more than 16 options, one can define a new
      option that contains a bitmap, which can then be used to specify
      which further options are present.  The last bit in the current
      bitmap could be used for that option.  The exact definition of
      this is however left for future documents.

   Options:   This field contains options.  Which options are present
      are determined by the flag bits.  As new flags and options may be
      defined in the future, any unknown/reserved flags MUST be ignored,
      and any additional trailing options MUST be ignored.  See
      Section 4.1 for details on the options defined in this document.

4.1.  Options

   There are several options defined in this document.  For each option,
   there is also a related flag that shows whether the option is
   present.  See the Options Bitmap above for a list of the options and
   their respective bits.  Each option has a fixed size.

   Transit Oif-List Count:   This is filled in by a router sending a
      Join/Prune message which is equal to the number of oifs for the
      multicast route that has been joined by PIM.  This indicates the
      transit branches on a multicast distribution tree (no members on
      the links between this router and joining routers).  This is added
      to the value advertised by all downstream PIM routers that have
      joined on this oif.  Length 2 octets.

   Stub Oif-List Count:   This is filled in by a router sending a Join/
      Prune message which is equal to the number of oifs for the
      multicast route that has been joined by IGMP or MLD.  This
      indicates the links where there are host members for the multicast
      route.  This is added to the value advertised by all downstream
      PIM routers that have joined on this oif.  Length 2 octets.

   Minimum Speed Link:   This contains the minimum bandwidth rate for
      any link in the oif-list and is encoded as specified in
      Section 4.1.1.  The sender of Join/Prune message takes the minimum
      value for each link in the oif-list for the multicast route.  If
      this value is less than the value stored for the multicast route
      (the one received from downstream joiners) then the value should
      be reset and sent in Join/Prune message.  Otherwise, the value
      should remain unchanged.  This together with the Maximum Speed
      Link option provides a way to obtain the lowest and highest speed
      link for the multicast distribution tree.  Length 2 octets.

   Maximum Speed Link:   This contains the maximum bandwidth rate for
      any link in the oif-list and is encoded as specified in
      Section 4.1.1.  The sender of Join/Prune message takes the maximum
      value for each link in the oif-list for the multicast route.  If
      this value is greater than the value stored for the multicast
      route (the one received from downstream joiners) then the value
      should be reset and sent in Join/Prune message.  Otherwise, the
      value should remain unchanged.  This together with the Minimum
      Speed Link option provides a way to obtain the lowest and highest
      speed link for the multicast distribution tree.  Length 2 octets.

   Domain Count:   This indicates the number of routing domains the
      distribution tree traverses.  A router should increment this value
      if it is sending a Join/Prune message over a link which traverses
      a domain boundary.  Length 1 octet.

   Node Count:   This indicates the number of routers on the
      distribution tree.  Each router will sum up all the Node Counts
      from all joiners on all oifs and increment by 1 before including
      this value in the Join/Prune message.  Length 1 octet.

   Diameter Count:   This indicates the longest length of any given
      branch of the tree in router hops.  Each router that sends a Join
      increments the max value received by all downstream joiners by 1.
      Length 1 octet.

   TZ Count:   This indicates the number of timezones the distribution
      tree traverses.  A router should increment this value if it is
      sending a Join/Prune message over a link which traverses a time
      zone.  This can be a configured link attribute or use other means
      to determine the timezone is acceptable.  Length 1 octet.

4.1.1.  Link Speed Encoding

   The speed is encoded using 2 octets as follows:

            0                   1
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
           | Exponent  |    Significand    |
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Using this format, the speed of the link is Significand * 10 ^
   Exponent kbps.  This allows specifying link speeds with up to 3
   decimal digits precision and speeds from 1 kbps to 10 ^ 67 kbps.  A
   computed speed of 0 kbps means the link speed is < 1 kbps.

   Here are some examples how this is used:

            Link Speed     Exponent     Significand
           ------------   ----------   -------------
            500 kbps       0            500
            500 kbps       2              5
            155 Mbps       3            155
            40 Gpbs        6             40
            100 Gpbs       6            100
            100 Gpbs       8              1

4.2.  Example message layouts

   We will here give a few examples to illustrate the use of flags and
   options.

   A minimum size message has no option flags set, and looks like this:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |F|E| Attr Type |  Length = 6   |        Effective MTU          |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Unalloc/Reserved   |P|a|t|A|S|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0| Unalloc/Rsrvd |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   A message containing all the options defined in this document would
   look like this:

               <figure>
               <preamble></preamble>
               <artwork><![CDATA[
       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |F|E| Attr Type |  Length = 18  |        Effective MTU          |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Unalloc/Reserved   |P|a|t|A|S|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1| Unalloc/Rsrvd |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |    Transit Oif-List Count     |     Stub Oif-List Count       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Minimum Speed Link       |      Maximum Speed Link       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Domain Count |  Node Count   | Diameter Count|    TZ Count   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   A message containing only Stub Oif-List Count and Node Count would
   look like this:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |F|E| Attr Type |  Length = 9   |        Effective MTU          |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Unalloc/Reserved   |P|a|t|A|S|0|1|0|0|0|1|0|0| Unalloc/Rsrvd |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Stub Oif-List Count       |  Node count   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

5.  How to use Pop-Count Encoding

   A router supporting this draft MUST include PIM Join Attribute TLV in
   its PIM Hellos.  See [RFC5384] and [HELLO] for details.

   It is very important to note that any changes to the values
   maintained in this draft MUST NOT trigger a new Join/Prune message.
   Due to the periodic nature of PIM, the values can be accurately
   obtained at 1 minute intervals (or whatever Join/Prune interval
   used).

   When a router removes a link from an oif-list, it must be able to
   reevaluate the values that it will advertise upstream.  This happens
   when an oif-list entry is timed out or a Prune is received.

   It is recommended that the Join Attribute defined in this draft be
   used for entries in the join-list part of the Join/Prune message.  If
   the new encoding is used in the prune-list or an Assert message, an
   implementation must ignore them but still process the Prune as if it
   was in the original encoding described in [RFC4601].

   It is also recommended that join suppression be disabled on a LAN
   when Pop-Count is used.

6.  Implementation Approaches

   An implementation can decide how the accounting attributes are
   maintained.  The values can be stored as part of the multicast route
   data structure by combining the local information it has with the
   joined information on a per oif basis.  So when it is time to send a
   Join/Prune message, the values stored in the multicast route can be
   copied to the message.

   Or, an implementation could store the accounting values per oif and
   when a Join/Prune message is sent, it can combine the oifs with its
   local information.  Then the combined information can be copied to
   the message.

   When a downstream joiner stops joining, accounting values cached must
   be evaluated.  There are two approaches which can be taken.  One is
   to keep values learned from each joiner so when the joiner goes away
   the count/max/min values are known and the combined value can be
   adjusted.  The other approach is to set the value to 0 for the oif,
   and then start accumulating new values as subsequent Joins are
   received.

   The same issue arises when an oif is removed from the oif-list.
   Keeping per-oif values allows you to adjust the per-route values when
   an oif goes away.  Or, alternatively, a delay for reporting the new
   set a values from the route can occur while all oif values are zeroed
   (where accumulation of new values from subsequent Joins cause re-
   population of values and a new max/min/ count can be reevaluated for
   the route).

   It is recommended that when triggered Join/Prune messages are sent by
   a downstream router, that the accounting information not be included
   in the message.  This way when convergence is important, avoiding the
   processing time to build an accounting record in a downstream router
   and processing time to parse the message in the upstream router will
   help reduce convergence time.  An upstream router should not
   interpret a Join/Prune message received with no accounting data to
   mean clearing or resetting what accounting data it has cached.

7.  Caveats

   This draft requires each router on a multicast distribution tree to
   support this draft or else the accounting attributes for the tree
   will not be known.

   However, if there are a contiguous set of routers downstream in the
   distribution tree, they can maintain accounting information for the
   sub-tree.

   If there are a set of contiguous routers supporting this draft
   upstream on the multicast distribution tree, accounting information
   will be available but it will not represent an accurate assessment of
   the entire tree.  Also, it will not be clear for how much of the
   distribution tree the accounting information covers.

8.  IANA Considerations

   A new PIM Hello Option type, 29, has been assigned.  See [HELLO] for
   details.

   A new PIM Join Attribute type needs to be assigned. 2 is proposed in
   this draft.

9.  Security Considerations

   There are no security considerations for this design other than what
   is already in the main PIM specification [RFC4601].

10.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank John Zwiebel, Amit Jain, and Clayton
   Wagar for their review comments on the initial versions of this
   draft.  Further review and comments were provided by Thomas Morin and
   Zhaohui (Jeffrey) Zhang.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4601]  Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas,
              "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
              Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006.

   [RFC5015]  Handley, M., Kouvelas, I., Speakman, T., and L. Vicisano,
              "Bidirectional Protocol Independent Multicast (BIDIR-
              PIM)", RFC 5015, October 2007.

   [RFC5384]  Boers, A., Wijnands, I., and E. Rosen, "The Protocol
              Independent Multicast (PIM) Join Attribute Format",
              RFC 5384, November 2008.

11.2.  Informative References

   [AMT]      Thaler, D., Talwar, M., Aggarwal, A., Vicisano, L., and T.
              Pusateri, "Automatic IP Multicast Without Explicit
              Tunnels (AMT)", draft-ietf-mboned-auto-multicast-10.txt draft-ietf-mboned-auto-multicast-11.txt
              (work in progress), March 2010.

   [HELLO]    IANA, "PIM Hello Options", PIM-HELLO-OPTIONS per
              RFC4601 http://www.iana.org/assignments/pim-hello-options,
              March 2007.

Authors' Addresses

   Dino Farinacci
   cisco Systems
   Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Email: dino@cisco.com

   Greg Shepherd
   cisco Systems
   Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Email: gjshep@gmail.com

   Yiqun Cai
   cisco Systems
   Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Email: ycai@cisco.com

   Stig Venaas
   cisco Systems
   Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Email: stig@cisco.com