draft-ietf-pim-group-rp-mapping-02.txt   draft-ietf-pim-group-rp-mapping-03.txt 
PIM Working Group B. Joshi PIM Working Group B. Joshi
Internet-Draft Infosys Technologies Ltd. Internet-Draft Infosys Technologies Ltd.
Expires: March 26, 2010 A. Kessler Expires: August 14, 2010 A. Kessler
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
D. McWalter D. McWalter
Data Connection Ltd Metaswitch Networks
September 22, 2009 February 10, 2010
PIM Group-to-RP Mapping PIM Group-to-RP Mapping
draft-ietf-pim-group-rp-mapping-02.txt draft-ietf-pim-group-rp-mapping-03.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Abstract Abstract
Each PIM-SM router in a PIM Domain which supports ASM maintains Each PIM-SM router in a PIM Domain which supports ASM maintains
Group-to-RP mappings which are used to identify a RP for a specific Group-to-RP mappings which are used to identify a RP for a specific
multicast group. PIM-SM has defined an algorithm to choose a RP from multicast group. PIM-SM has defined an algorithm to choose a RP from
the Group-to-RP mappings learned using various mechanisms. This the Group-to-RP mappings learned using various mechanisms. This
algorithm does not allow administrator to override a specific Group- algorithm does not consider the PIM mode and the mechanism through
to-RP mapping with the static Group-to-RP mapping which an which a Group-to-RP mapping was learned.
administrator would want to use. This algorithm also does not
consider the PIM mode and the mechanism through which a Group-to-RP
mapping was learned.
The intention of this document is to suggest a standard algorithm to This document defines a standard algorithm to deterministically
deterministically choose between several group-to-rp mappings for a choose between several group-to-rp mappings for a specific group.
specific group. This document first explains the requirements to This document first explains the requirements to extend the
extend the Group-to-RP mapping algorithm and then proposes the new Group-to-RP mapping algorithm and then proposes the new algorithm.
algorithm.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Existing algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Existing algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. Common use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5. Common use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. Proposed algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Proposed algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7. Deprecation of MIB Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. Deprecation of MIB Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8. Clarification for MIB Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. Clarification for MIB Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
9. Use of dynamic group-to-rp mapping protocols . . . . . . . . . 14 9. Use of dynamic group-to-rp mapping protocols . . . . . . . . . 12
10. Security Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10. Filtering Group-to-RP mappings at domain boundaries . . . . . 13
11. IANA Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 11. Security Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
12. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 12. IANA Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
13. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 14. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Multiple mechanisms exist today to create and distribute Group-to-RP Multiple mechanisms exist today to create and distribute Group-to-RP
mappings. Each PIM-SM router may learn Group-to-RP mappings through mappings. Each PIM-SM router may learn Group-to-RP mappings through
various mechanisms. various mechanisms.
It is critical that each router select the same 'RP' for a specific It is critical that each router select the same 'RP' for a specific
multicast group address. This is even true in the case of Anycast RP multicast group address. This is even true in the case of Anycast RP
for redundancy. Routers should select the same RP address to use for for redundancy. This RP address may correspond to a different
a given group address. This RP address may correspond to a different
physical router but it is one logical RP address and must be physical router but it is one logical RP address and must be
consistent across the PIM domain. This is usually achieved by using consistent across the PIM domain. This is usually achieved by using
the same algorithm to select the RP in all the PIM routers in a the same algorithm to select the RP in all the PIM routers in a
domain. domain.
PIM-SM[RFC4601] has defined an algorithm to select a 'RP' for a given PIM-SM[RFC4601] has defined an algorithm to select a 'RP' for a given
multicast group address but it is not flexible enough for an multicast group address but it is not flexible enough for an
administrator to apply various policies. Please refer to section 3 administrator to apply various policies. Please refer to section 3
for more details. for more details.
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"SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY",
and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. This and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. This
document also uses following terms: document also uses following terms:
o PIM Mode o PIM Mode
PIM Mode is the mode of operation a particular multicast group is PIM Mode is the mode of operation a particular multicast group is
used for. Wherever this term in used in this document, it refers to used for. Wherever this term in used in this document, it refers to
either Sparse Mode or BIDIR Mode. either Sparse Mode or BIDIR Mode.
o Dynamic group-to-RP mapping mechanisms
The term Dynamic group-to-RP mapping mechanisms in this document
refers to BSR and Auto-RP.
o Dynamic mappings or Dynamically learned mappings
The terms Dynamic mappings or Dynamically learned mappings refer to
group-to-RP mappings that have been learned by BSR or Auto-RP.
Group-to-RP mappings that have been learned by embedded RP are
referred to as Embedded Group-to-RP mappings.
o Filtering
Filtering is selective discarding of dynamic Group-to-RP mapping
information, based on the group address, the type of Group-to-RP
mapping message and the interface on which the mapping message was
received.
o Multicast Domain and Boundaries
The term multicast domain used in this document refers to a network
topology that has a consistent set of Group-to-RP Mappings. The
interface between two or more multicast domains is a multicast domain
boundary. The multicast boundaries are usually enforced by filtering
the dynamic mapping messages and/or configuring different static RP
mappings.
3. Existing algorithm 3. Existing algorithm
Existing algorithm defined in PIM-SM (Section 4.7.1 in [RFC4601]) Existing algorithm defined in PIM-SM (Section 4.7.1 in [RFC4601])
does not consider following constraints: does not consider following constraints:
o It does not consider the origin of a Group-to-RP mapping and o It does not consider the origin of a Group-to-RP mapping and
therefore will treat all of them equally. therefore will treat all of them equally.
o It does not provide the flexibility that a specific statically
created Group-to-RP mapping can override any dynamically learned
mappings.
o It does not provide the flexibility to give higher priority to a o It does not provide the flexibility to give higher priority to a
specific PIM mode. For example, an entry learned for PIM-BIDIR specific PIM mode. For example, an entry learned for PIM-BIDIR
mode is treated with same priority as an entry learned for PIM-SM. mode is treated with same priority as an entry learned for PIM-SM.
4. Assumptions 4. Assumptions
We have made following assumptions in defining this algorithm: We have made following assumptions in defining this algorithm:
o PIM-SM [RFC4601] and BSR [RFC5059] suggested use of a hash o Embedded Group-to-RP mappings are special and always have the
function as the last step to select a RP from multiple Group-to-RP highest priority. They cannot be overridden either by static
mappings. There seems to be no requirement for this function, so configuration or by dynamic Group-to-RP mappings.
this draft assumes that the step to apply hash function can be
removed.
o A static Group-to-RP mapping entry can be configured with
override-dynamic flag. If this flag is set, the static
Group-to-RP mapping entry will be preferred instead of dynamically
learned entries.
o Group-to-RP mappings created with the embedded RP extracted from o Dynamic mappings will override a static RP config if they have
Multicast Group addresses are special and always has the highest overlapping ranges. However, it is possible to override dynamic
priority. These mappings can not be overridden by a static Group- Group-to-RP mappings with static configurations, either by
to-RP mapping with override-dynamic flag set. filtering, or by configuring longer static group addresses that
override dynamic mappings when longest prefix matching is applied.
o A Group-to-RP mapping can be learned from various mechanisms. We o A Group-to-RP mapping can be learned from various mechanisms. We
assume that following list is in the decreasing preferences of assume that following list is in the decreasing preferences of
these mechanism: these mechanism:
* Embedded Group-to-RP mappings * Embedded Group-to-RP mappings
* Bootstrap Router Mechanism [PIM-BSR] * Dynamically learned mappings
* Auto-RP [Cisco]
* Static configuration. * Static configuration.
* Other mapping method * Other mapping method
o A Group-to-RP mapping learned for PIM-BIDIR mode is preferred to o A Group-to-RP mapping learned for PIM-BIDIR mode is preferred to
an entry learned for PIM-SM mode. an entry learned for PIM-SM mode.
o Dynamic group-to-RP mapping mechanisms are filtered at domain
boundaries or for policy enforcement inside a domain.
5. Common use cases 5. Common use cases
o Default static Group-to-RP mappings with dynamically learned o Default static Group-to-RP mappings with dynamically learned
entries entries
Many network operators will have a dedicated infrastructure for the Many network operators will have a dedicated infrastructure for the
standard multicast group range (224/4) and so might be using standard multicast group range (224/4) and so might be using
statically configured Group-to-RP mappings for this range. In this statically configured Group-to-RP mappings for this range. In this
case, to support some specific applications, they might like to learn case, to support some specific applications, they might like to learn
Group-to-RP mappings dynamically using either BSR or Auto-RP Group-to-RP mappings dynamically using either BSR or Auto-RP
mechanism. In this case to select Group-to-RP mappings for these mechanism. In this case to select Group-to-RP mappings for these
specific applications, a longer prefix match should be given specific applications, a longer prefix match should be given
preference over statically configured Group-to-RP mappings. For preference over statically configured Group-to-RP mappings. For
example 239.100.0.0/16 could be learned for a corporate example 239.100.0.0/16 could be learned for a corporate
communications application. Network operators may change the Group- communications application. Network operators may change the Group-
to-RP mappings for these applications more often and would need to be to-RP mappings for these applications more often and would need to be
learned dynamically. learned dynamically.
o Static Group-to-RP mappings with override-dynamic flag
Many Network operators would like to statically configure one or
multiple Group-to-RP mappings and would always want to ignore any
dynamically learned mappings through either BSR, AutoRP or embedded
RP for these group prefixes. This is accomplished by providing a
'override-dynamic' flag for Group-to-RP mapping configuration. When
this flag is enabled for a static Group-to-RP mapping, it will have
the highest precedence and would always be use for the specified
group prefix. For example: 224.1.0.0/16 is configured with override-
dynamic flag enabled and uses RP address RP1. If the router learns
the more specific group prefix 224.1.1.0/24 which uses RP2 through
BSR, it will choose the RP1 for any group falling under 224.1.0.0/16
range.
o Migration situations o Migration situations
Network operators occasionally go through a migration due to an Network operators occasionally go through a migration due to an
acquisition or a change in their network design. In order to acquisition or a change in their network design. In order to
facilitate this migration there is a needs to have a deterministic facilitate this migration there is a need to have a deterministic
behavior of Group-to-RP mapping selection for entries learned using behaviour of Group-to-RP mapping selection for entries learned using
BSR and AutoRP mechanism. This will help in avoiding any unforeseen BSR and Auto-RP mechanism. This will help in avoiding any unforeseen
interoperability issues between different vendor's network elements. interoperability issues between different vendor's network elements.
o Use by management systems o Use by management systems
A network management system [or a stand alone box] can find out RP A network management station can determine the RP for a specific
for a specific group in a specific router by running this algorithm group in a specific router by running this algorithm on the
on the Group-to-RP mapping table fetched using SNMP MIB objects. Group-to-RP mapping table fetched using SNMP MIB objects.
o More use cases o More use cases
By no means, the above list is complete. Please drop a mail to By no means, the above list is complete. Please drop a mail to
'authors' if you see any other use case for this. 'authors' if you see any other use case for this.
6. Proposed algorithm 6. Proposed algorithm
We propose following algorithm here which addresses the above The following algorithm addresses the above mentioned shortcomings in
mentioned shortcomings in the existing mechanism: the existing mechanism:
1. If the Multicast Group Address being looked up contains an 1. If the Multicast Group Address being looked up contains an
embedded RP, RP address extracted from the Group address is embedded RP, RP address extracted from the Group address is
selected as Group-to-RP mapping. selected as Group-to-RP mapping.
2. If the Multicast Group Address being looked up is in the SSM 2. If the Multicast Group Address being looked up is in the SSM
range or is configured for Dense mode, no Group-to-RP mapping is range or is configured for Dense mode, no Group-to-RP mapping is
selected, and this algorithm terminates. Alternatively, a RP selected, and this algorithm terminates. Alternatively, a RP
with address type 'unknown' can be selected. Please look at with address type 'unknown' can be selected. Please look at
section #8 for more details on this. section #8 for more details on this.
3. From the set of all Group-to-RP mapping entries, the subset 3. From the set of all Group-to-RP mapping entries, the subset
whose group prefix contains the multicast group that is being whose group prefix contains the multicast group that is being
looked up, are selected. looked up, are selected.
4. If there are no entries available, then the Group-to-RP mapping 4. If there are no entries available, then the Group-to-RP mapping
is undefined. is undefined.
5. If there are multiple entries available, a subset of those 5. A longest prefix match is performed on the subset of Group-to-RP
Group-to-RP mapping is selected that are learned using 'static'
configuration and are configured with 'override-dynamic' flag.
* If there is only one entry available then that is selected as
Group-to-RP mapping.
* If there are multiple entries available, we continue with the
algorithm with this smaller set of Group-to-RP Mappings
* If there are no static entries with 'override-dynamic' flag
set then we continue with the original subset of Group-to-RP
Mappings from step 2.
6. A longest prefix match is performed on the subset of Group-to-RP
Mappings. Mappings.
* If there is only one entry available then that is selected as * If there is only one entry available then that is selected as
Group-to-RP mapping. Group-to-RP mapping.
* If there are multiple entries available, we continue with the * If there are multiple entries available, we continue with the
algorithm with this smaller set of Group-to-RP Mappings algorithm with this smaller set of Group-to-RP Mappings.
7. From the remaining set of Group-to-RP Mappings we select the 6. From the remaining set of Group-to-RP Mappings we select the
subset of entries based on the preference for the PIM modes subset of entries based on the preference for the PIM modes
which they are assigned. A Group-to-RP mapping entry with PIM which they are assigned. A Group-to-RP mapping entry with PIM
Mode 'BIDIR' will be preferred to an entry with PIM Mode Mode 'BIDIR' will be preferred to an entry with PIM Mode
'PIM-SM' 'PIM-SM'
* If there is only one entry available then that is selected as * If there is only one entry available then that is selected as
Group-to-RP mapping. Group-to-RP mapping.
* If there are multiple entries available, we continue with the * If there are multiple entries available, we continue with the
algorithm with this smaller set of Group-to-RP Mappings algorithm with this smaller set of Group-to-RP Mappings
8. From the remaining set of Group-to-RP Mappings we select the 7. From the remaining set of Group-to-RP Mappings we select the
subset of the entries based on the origin. Origin preference subset of the entries based on the origin. Group-to-RP mappings
will be 'bsr', 'auto-rp', 'static' and 'other'. learned dynamically are preferred over static mappings. If the
remaining dynamic Group-to-RP mappings are from BSR and Auto-RP
then the mappings from BSR SHOULD be preferred.
* If there is only one entry available then that is selected as * If there is only one entry available then that is selected as
Group-to-RP mapping. Group-to-RP mapping.
* If there are multiple entries available, we continue with the * If there are multiple entries available, we continue with the
algorithm with this smaller set of Group-to-RP Mappings algorithm with this smaller set of Group-to-RP Mappings.
8. If the remaining Group-to-RP mappings were learned through BSR
then the RP will be selected by comparing the RP Priority in the
Candidate-RP-Advertisement messages. The RP mapping with the
lowest value indicates the highest priority [RFC5059].
* If more than one RP has the same highest priority value we
continue with the algorithm with those Group-to-RP mappings.
* If the remaining Group-to-RP mappings were NOT learned from
BSR we continue the algorithm with the next step.
9. If the remaining Group-to-RP mappings were learned through BSR 9. If the remaining Group-to-RP mappings were learned through BSR
and the PIM Mode of the Group is 'PIM-SM' then the hash function and the PIM Mode of the Group is 'PIM-SM' then the hash function
will be used to choose the RP. The RP with the highest will be used to choose the RP. The RP with the highest
resulting hash value will be selected. resulting hash value will be selected.
* If more than one RP has the same highest hash value we * If more than one RP has the same highest hash value we
continue with the algorithm with those Group-to-RP mappings. continue with the algorithm with those Group-to-RP mappings.
* If the remaining Group-to-RP mappings were NOT learned from * If the remaining Group-to-RP mappings were NOT learned from
BSR we continue the algorithm with the next step BSR we continue the algorithm with the next step.
10. From the remaining set of Group-to-RP Mappings we will select 10. From the remaining set of Group-to-RP Mappings we will select
the RP with the highest IP address. This will serve as a final the RP with the highest IP address. This will serve as a final
tiebreaker. tiebreaker.
7. Deprecation of MIB Objects 7. Deprecation of MIB Objects
Group-to-RP mapping algorithm defined in PIM-STD-MIB [RFC5060] does Group-to-RP mapping algorithm defined in PIM-STD-MIB [RFC5060] does
not specify the usage of 'pimGroupMappingPrecedence' and not specify the usage of 'pimGroupMappingPrecedence' and
'pimStaticRPPrecedence' objects in 'pimGroupMappingTable' table 'pimStaticRPPrecedence' objects in 'pimGroupMappingTable' table
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pimGroupMappingTable. They would have a type of configSSM and an RP pimGroupMappingTable. They would have a type of configSSM and an RP
with address type 'unknown' as described above. with address type 'unknown' as described above.
The advantage of keeping all the ranges in the table would be that The advantage of keeping all the ranges in the table would be that
this table will contain all the known multicast group ranges. this table will contain all the known multicast group ranges.
9. Use of dynamic group-to-rp mapping protocols 9. Use of dynamic group-to-rp mapping protocols
In practice, it is not usually necessary to run several dynamic In practice, it is not usually necessary to run several dynamic
Group-to-RP mapping mechanisms in one administrative domain. Group-to-RP mapping mechanisms in one administrative domain.
Specifically, interoperation of BSR and AutoRP is OPTIONAL and not Specifically, interoperation of BSR and Auto-RP is OPTIONAL and not
recommended by this document. recommended by this document.
However, if a router does receive two overlapping sets of Group-to-RP However, if a router does receive two overlapping sets of Group-to-RP
mappings, for example from AutoRP and BSR, then some algorithm is mappings, for example from Auto-RP and BSR, then some algorithm is
needed to deterministically resolve the situation. The algorithm in needed to deterministically resolve the situation. The algorithm in
this document MUST be used. This can be important at domain border this document MUST be used. This can be important at domain border
routers, and is likely to improve stability under misconfiguration routers, and is likely to improve stability under misconfiguration
and when configuration is changing. and when configuration is changing.
An implementation of PIM that supports only one mechanism for An implementation of PIM that supports only one mechanism for
learning Group-to-RP mappings SHOULD also use this algorithm. The learning Group-to-RP mappings SHOULD also use this algorithm. The
algorithm has been chosen so that existing standard implementations algorithm has been chosen so that existing standard implementations
are already compliant. are already compliant.
10. Security Consideration 10. Filtering Group-to-RP mappings at domain boundaries
An implementation of PIM SHOULD support configuration to block
specific dynamic mechanism for a valid group prefix range. For
example, it should be possible to allow 239/8 range for Auto-RP
protocol but block the BSR advertisement for the same range.
Similarly it should be possible to filter out all Group-to-RP
mappings learned from BSR or Auto-RP protocol.
11. Security Consideration
This document does not suggest any protocol specific functionality so This document does not suggest any protocol specific functionality so
there is no security related consideration. there is no security related consideration.
11. IANA Consideration 12. IANA Consideration
This draft does not create any namespace for IANA to manage. This draft does not create any namespace for IANA to manage.
12. Acknowledgments 13. Acknowledgements
This draft is created based on the discussion occurred during the This draft is created based on the discussion occurred during the
PIM-STD-MIB [RFC5060] work. Many thanks to Stig Vennas and Toerless PIM-STD-MIB [RFC5060] work. Many thanks to Stig Vennas and Toerless
Eckert for providing useful comments during that discussion. Eckert for providing useful comments during that discussion.
13. Normative References 14. Normative References
[RFC4601] Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas, [RFC4601] Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas,
"Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006. Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006.
[RFC5060] Sivaramu, R., Lingard, J., McWalter, D., Joshi, B., and A. [RFC5060] Sivaramu, R., Lingard, J., McWalter, D., Joshi, B., and A.
Kessler, "Protocol Independent Multicast MIB", RFC 5060, Kessler, "Protocol Independent Multicast MIB", RFC 5060,
January 2008. January 2008.
[RFC3956] Savola, P. and B. Haberman, "Embedding the Rendezvous [RFC3956] Savola, P. and B. Haberman, "Embedding the Rendezvous
skipping to change at page 19, line 26 skipping to change at page 18, line 26
Andy Kessler Andy Kessler
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
425 E. Tasman Drive 425 E. Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
USA USA
Email: kessler@cisco.com Email: kessler@cisco.com
URI: http://www.cisco.com/ URI: http://www.cisco.com/
David McWalter David McWalter
Data Connection Ltd Metaswitch Networks
100 Church Street 100 Church Street
Enfield EN2 6BQ Enfield EN2 6BQ
UK UK
Email: dmcw@dataconnection.com Email: dmcw@metaswitch.com
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