draft-ietf-opsawg-syslog-snmp-05.txt   rfc5675.txt 
Network Working Group V. Marinov Network Working Group V. Marinov
Internet-Draft J. Schoenwaelder Request for Comments: 5675 J. Schoenwaelder
Intended status: Standards Track Jacobs University Bremen Category: Standards Track Jacobs University Bremen
Expires: February 14, 2010 August 13, 2009 October 2009
Mapping Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Notifications to
SYSLOG Messages
draft-ietf-opsawg-syslog-snmp-05.txt
Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Mapping Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Notifications to SYSLOG Messages
other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
Drafts.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Abstract
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at This memo defines a mapping from Simple Network Management Protocol
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. (SNMP) notifications to SYSLOG messages.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at Status of This Memo
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on February 14, 2010. This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the BSD License.
This memo defines a mapping from Simple Network Management Protocol RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
(SNMP) notifications to SYSLOG messages.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1. SNMP Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1. SNMP Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2. SYSLOG Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. SYSLOG Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG Messages . . . . . . . . 6 3. Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG Messages . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. SYSLOG Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1. SYSLOG Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2. Structured Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. Structured Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.3. MSG Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3. MSG Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Relationship to the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Relationship to the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
SNMP and SYSLOG are two widely used protocols to communicate event SNMP and SYSLOG are two widely used protocols to communicate event
notifications. Although co-existence of several management protocols notifications. Although co-existence of several management protocols
in one operational environment is possible, certain environments in one operational environment is possible, certain environments
require that all event notifications are collected by a single system require that all event notifications be collected by a single system
daemon such as a SYSLOG collector or an SNMP notification receiver daemon, such as a SYSLOG collector or an SNMP notification receiver,
via a single management protocol. In such environments, it is via a single management protocol. In such environments, it is
necessary to translate event notifications between management necessary to translate event notifications between management
protocols. protocols.
The latest version of SYSLOG, specified in [RFC5424], supports a The latest version of SYSLOG, specified in [RFC5424], supports a
structured data element format. Structured data elements allow us to structured data element format. Structured data elements allow us to
map between SNMP notifications and SYSLOG messages without losing map between SNMP notifications and SYSLOG messages without losing
information. In this memo we specify a concrete mapping from SNMP information. In this memo, we specify a concrete mapping from SNMP
event notifications [RFC3416] into SYSLOG messages [RFC5424]. We event notifications [RFC3416] into SYSLOG messages [RFC5424]. We
specify how the SYSLOG message format should be utilized to carry the specify how the SYSLOG message format should be utilized to carry the
information contained in an SNMP notification message. A new SYSLOG information contained in an SNMP notification message. A new SYSLOG
structured data element is defined which carries the PDU portion of structured data element is defined, which carries the PDU portion of
an SNMP notification message. an SNMP notification message.
1.1. Conventions 1.1. Conventions
A system which has the capability of receiving SNMP notification A system that has the capability of receiving SNMP notification
messages from an SNMP Notification Originator and sending the SNMP messages from an SNMP notification originator and sending the SNMP
data contained inside in a SYSLOG message format to a SYSLOG data contained inside in a SYSLOG message format to a SYSLOG
collector is referred in this memo as an "SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator". collector is referred to in this memo as an "SNMP-to-SYSLOG
By definition, such a system should have an SNMP Notification translator". By definition, such a system should have an SNMP
Receiver application and a SYSLOG originator running in order to be
able to perform the functions of an "SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator". RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
notification receiver application and a SYSLOG originator running in
order to be able to perform the functions of an "SNMP-to-SYSLOG
translator".
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
2. Background 2. Background
2.1. SNMP Notifications 2.1. SNMP Notifications
A detailed introduction to the SNMP Management Framework can be found A detailed introduction to the SNMP Management Framework can be found
in [RFC3410]. The SNMP Management Architecture is described in in [RFC3410]. The SNMP Management Architecture is described in
[RFC3411]. Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information [RFC3411]. Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information
store, termed the Management Information Base or MIB [RFC3418]. store, termed the Management Information Base or MIB [RFC3418].
Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the
SMI [RFC2578]. Structure of Management Information (SMI) [RFC2578].
An SNMP notification message is generated and transmitted by an SNMP An SNMP notification message is generated and transmitted by an SNMP
entity on behalf of a Notification Originator application [RFC3413]. entity on behalf of a notification originator application [RFC3413].
SNMP notifications are often used to notify a Notification Receiver SNMP notifications are often used to notify a notification receiver
application at a logically remote SNMP entity that an event has application at a logically remote SNMP entity that an event has
occurred or that a certain condition is present. There are two types occurred or that a certain condition is present. There are two types
of SNMP protocol operations that are associated with SNMP of SNMP protocol operations that are associated with SNMP
notification messages [RFC3416]: notification messages [RFC3416]:
o SNMPv2-Trap-PDU, an unconfirmed notification delivery mechanisms o SNMPv2-Trap-PDU, an unconfirmed notification delivery mechanism
o InformRequest-PDU, a confirmed notification delivery mechanism o InformRequest-PDU, a confirmed notification delivery mechanism
The scopedPDU portion of an SNMPv3 trap or inform message has the The scopedPDU portion of an SNMPv3 trap or inform message has the
following format [RFC3412]: following format [RFC3412]:
ScopedPDU ::= SEQUENCE { ScopedPDU ::= SEQUENCE {
contextEngineID OCTET STRING, contextEngineID OCTET STRING,
contextName OCTET STRING, contextName OCTET STRING,
data ANY -- e.g., PDUs as defined in [RFC3416] data ANY -- e.g., PDUs as defined in [RFC3416]
} }
The data member of the SEQUENCE ScopedPDU carries a SNMPv2-Trap-PDU The data member of the SEQUENCE ScopedPDU carries an SNMPv2-Trap-PDU
or an InformRequest-PDU. They both have the same structure: or an InformRequest-PDU. They both have the same structure:
RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
PDUs ::= [7] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE { PDUs ::= [7] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE {
request-id INTEGER, request-id INTEGER,
error-status INTEGER, -- ignored in notifications error-status INTEGER, -- ignored in notifications
error-index INTEGER, -- ignored in notifications error-index INTEGER, -- ignored in notifications
variable-bindings VarBindList variable-bindings VarBindList
} }
-- variable binding -- variable binding
VarBind ::= SEQUENCE { VarBind ::= SEQUENCE {
skipping to change at page 5, line 7 skipping to change at page 4, line 35
endOfMibView [2] IMPLICIT NULL endOfMibView [2] IMPLICIT NULL
} }
} }
-- variable-binding list -- variable-binding list
VarBindList ::= SEQUENCE (SIZE (0..max-bindings)) OF VarBind VarBindList ::= SEQUENCE (SIZE (0..max-bindings)) OF VarBind
The first two variable bindings in the variable binding list of an The first two variable bindings in the variable binding list of an
SNMPv2-Trap-PDU or InformRequest-PDU are sysUpTime.0 [RFC3418] and SNMPv2-Trap-PDU or InformRequest-PDU are sysUpTime.0 [RFC3418] and
snmpTrapOID.0 [RFC3418] respectively. If the OBJECTS clause is snmpTrapOID.0 [RFC3418], respectively. If the OBJECTS clause is
present in the invocation of the corresponding NOTIFICATION-TYPE present in the invocation of the corresponding NOTIFICATION-TYPE
macro, then each corresponding variable, as instantiated by this macro, then each corresponding variable, as instantiated by this
notification, is copied, in order, to the variable-bindings field. notification, is copied, in order, to the variable-bindings field.
If any additional variables are being included (at the option of the If any additional variables are being included (at the option of the
generating SNMP entity), then each is copied to the variable-bindings generating SNMP entity), then each is copied to the variable-bindings
field. field.
In the case of SNMPv1 or SNMPv2c notifications, the contextEngineID In the case of SNMPv1 or SNMPv2c notifications, the contextEngineID
and the contextName parameters are not present in notification and the contextName parameters are not present in notification
messages. messages.
This document assumes that notifications are in the format defined in This document assumes that notifications are in the format defined in
RFC 3416 [RFC3416]. Notifications in the SNMPv1 notification format [RFC3416]. Notifications in the SNMPv1 notification format MUST be
MUST be translated as described in Section 3.1 of RFC 3584 [RFC3584]. translated as described in Section 3.1 of [RFC3584].
RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
2.2. SYSLOG Notifications 2.2. SYSLOG Notifications
The SYSLOG protocol is defined in [RFC5424]. The message contains a The SYSLOG protocol is defined in [RFC5424]. The message contains a
global header and a number of structured data elements. The ABNF global header and a number of structured data elements. The ABNF
[RFC5234] representation of a SYSLOG message is defined in RFC 5424 [RFC5234] representation of a SYSLOG message is defined in RFC 5424
[RFC5424]. The relevant productions for structured data elements [RFC5424]. The relevant productions for structured data elements
are: are:
STRUCTURED-DATA = NILVALUE / 1*SD-ELEMENT STRUCTURED-DATA = NILVALUE / 1*SD-ELEMENT
skipping to change at page 6, line 7 skipping to change at page 5, line 35
UTF-8-STRING = *OCTET ; Any VALID UTF-8 String UTF-8-STRING = *OCTET ; Any VALID UTF-8 String
; "shortest form" MUST be used ; "shortest form" MUST be used
OCTET = %d00-255 OCTET = %d00-255
SP = %d32 SP = %d32
PRINTUSASCII = %d33-126 PRINTUSASCII = %d33-126
NILVALUE = "-" NILVALUE = "-"
3. Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG Messages 3. Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG Messages
In this section, we define how the scopedPDU portion from a SNMP In this section, we define how the scopedPDU portion from an SNMP
notification message is used to generate a message in the SYSLOG notification message is used to generate a message in the SYSLOG
format. The notification receiver application at the SNMP-to-SYSLOG format. The notification receiver application at the SNMP-to-SYSLOG
translator is listening for incoming notifications. After a translator is listening for incoming notifications. After a
notification is received by the SNMP engine the data portion is notification is received by the SNMP engine, the data portion is
forwarded to the notification receiver application. The data portion forwarded to the notification receiver application. The data portion
contains the scopedPDU of the message which is used by the SYSLOG contains the scopedPDU of the message, which is used by the SYSLOG
originator on the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator to generate a SYSLOG originator on the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator to generate a SYSLOG
message and send it to a SYSLOG collector (or proxy). Note that message and send it to a SYSLOG collector (or proxy). Note that
every SNMP notification maps to exactly one SYSLOG message. every SNMP notification maps to exactly one SYSLOG message.
RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
+------------+ +------------------+ +------------+ +------------------+
|snmp | snmp | | syslog +---------+ |snmp | snmp | | syslog +---------+
|notification| notification | +------------+ | message |syslog | |notification| notification | +------------+ | message |syslog |
|originator |------------->| |syslog | |-------->|collector| |originator |------------->| |syslog | |-------->|collector|
+------------+ | |originator | | +---------+ +------------+ | |originator | | +---------+
+------------+ | +------------+ | +------------+ | +------------+ |
|snmp | snmp | +------------+ | syslog +---------+ |snmp | snmp | +------------+ | syslog +---------+
|notification| notification | |snmp | | message |syslog | |notification| notification | |snmp | | message |syslog |
|originator |------------->| |notification| |-------->|collector| |originator |------------->| |notification| |-------->|collector|
+------------+ | |receiver | | +---------+ +------------+ | |receiver | | +---------+
+------------+ | +------------+ | +------------+ | +------------+ |
|snmp | snmp | | |snmp | snmp | |
|notification| notification | SNMP-to-SYSLOG | |notification| notification | SNMP-to-SYSLOG |
|originator |------------->| translator | |originator |------------->| translator |
+------------+ +------------------+ +------------+ +------------------+
Figure 1: SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator deployment Figure 1: SNMP-to-SYSLOG Translator Deployment
A common deployment scenario is shown in Figure 1. There can be many A common deployment scenario is shown in Figure 1. There can be many
SNMP notification originators which send SNMP event notifications to SNMP notification originators that send SNMP event notifications to
a SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator. The SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator extracts an SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator. The SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator extracts
the data portion of the notification, generates a SYSLOG message, and the data portion of the notification, generates a SYSLOG message, and
send the SYSLOG message to a SYSLOG collector, which is responsible sends the SYSLOG message to a SYSLOG collector, which is responsible
for collecting and storing all notification messages. The arrows in for collecting and storing all notification messages. The arrows in
Figure 1 indicate message flows, not individual messages. Figure 1 indicate message flows, not individual messages.
The SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator is not transparent for a SYSLOG The SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator is not transparent for a SYSLOG
collector. The global header of the SYSLOG message generated by the collector. The global header of the SYSLOG message generated by the
SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator is filled with parameters that are specific SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator is filled with parameters that are specific
for the system running the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator such as its for the system running the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator, such as its
hostname, time stamp, etc. The data portion (scopedPDU for SNMPv3 or hostname, timestamp, etc. The data portion (scopedPDU for SNMPv3 or
PDU for SNMPv1/SNMPv2c) of the SNMP notification message is contained PDU for SNMPv1/SNMPv2c) of the SNMP notification message is contained
in the structured data of the SYSLOG message. in the structured data of the SYSLOG message.
Implementations MUST drop invalid SNMP messages before they are Implementations MUST drop invalid SNMP messages before they are
passed to the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator. passed to the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator.
3.1. SYSLOG Header 3.1. SYSLOG Header
The SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator fills the HEADER field of a SYSLOG The SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator fills the HEADER field of a SYSLOG
message with parameters specific to the system on which it is message with parameters specific to the system on which it is
running. The default facility level for SYSLOG messages containing running. The default facility level for SYSLOG messages containing
SNMP notifications SHOULD be 3, which corresponds to messages SNMP notifications SHOULD be 3, which corresponds to messages
generated by system daemons. The default severity level SHOULD be 5, generated by system daemons. The default severity level SHOULD be 5,
which corresponds to "Notice: normal but significant condition". If which corresponds to "Notice: normal but significant condition". If
the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator has a notion of the type of the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator has a notion of the type of
notification that has been received it might choose other values for notification that has been received, it might choose other values for
facility and severity level. facility and severity level.
The VERSION, TIMESTAMP, HOSTNAME, APP-NAME, PROCID and MSGID fields RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
The VERSION, TIMESTAMP, HOSTNAME, APP-NAME, PROCID, and MSGID fields
in the SYSLOG message header are filled with values that are specific in the SYSLOG message header are filled with values that are specific
to the system on which the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator is running. The to the system on which the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator is running. The
character set used in the HEADER MUST be seven-bit ASCII in an eight- character set used in the HEADER MUST be seven-bit ASCII in an eight-
bit field as described in [RFC5424]. bit field, as described in [RFC5424].
3.2. Structured Data 3.2. Structured Data
The STRUCTURED-DATA field of a SYSLOG message carries the ScopedPDU The STRUCTURED-DATA field of a SYSLOG message carries the ScopedPDU
(or PDU) portion of an SNMP notification message. For the purpose of (or PDU) portion of an SNMP notification message. For the purpose of
carrying SNMP notification data, a new SD-ID element is defined. The carrying SNMP notification data, a new SD-ID element is defined. The
ABNF [RFC5234] representation of the new structured element is: ABNF [RFC5234] representation of the new structured element is:
SNMP-SD-ELEMENT = "[" SNMP-SD-ID [CTX] *VARBIND "]" SNMP-SD-ELEMENT = "[" SNMP-SD-ID [CTX] *VARBIND "]"
SNMP-SD-ID = %x73.6E.6D.70 ; snmp SNMP-SD-ID = %x73.6E.6D.70 ; snmp
skipping to change at page 8, line 18 skipping to change at page 8, line 4
OID = OIDSTART *("." OIDSUBID) OID = OIDSTART *("." OIDSUBID)
OIDSTART = (("0." / "1.") [%d49-51] DIGIT) / ("2." OIDSUBID) OIDSTART = (("0." / "1.") [%d49-51] DIGIT) / ("2." OIDSUBID)
OIDSUBID = ZERO / (NONZERODIGIT *DIGIT) OIDSUBID = ZERO / (NONZERODIGIT *DIGIT)
PARAM-VALUE = UTF-8-STRING ; characters '"', '\' and PARAM-VALUE = UTF-8-STRING ; characters '"', '\' and
; ']' MUST be escaped. ; ']' MUST be escaped.
UTF-8-STRING = *OCTET ; Any VALID UTF-8 String UTF-8-STRING = *OCTET ; Any VALID UTF-8 String
; "shortest form" MUST be used ; "shortest form" MUST be used
HEXSTRING = *HEX HEXSTRING = *HEX
RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
INTEGER32 = ["-"] NONZERODIGIT 0*DIGIT INTEGER32 = ["-"] NONZERODIGIT 0*DIGIT
UNSIGNED32 = NONZERODIGIT 0*DIGIT UNSIGNED32 = NONZERODIGIT 0*DIGIT
UNSIGNED64 = NONZERODIGIT 0*DIGIT UNSIGNED64 = NONZERODIGIT 0*DIGIT
IPV4ADDRESS = d8 "." d8 "." d8 "." d8 IPV4ADDRESS = d8 "." d8 "." d8 "." d8
d8 = DIGIT ; 0-9 d8 = DIGIT ; 0-9
/ %d49-57 DIGIT ; 10-99 / %d49-57 DIGIT ; 10-99
/ "1" 2DIGIT ; 100-199 / "1" 2DIGIT ; 100-199
/ "2" %d48-52 DIGIT ; 200-249 / "2" %d48-52 DIGIT ; 200-249
/ "25" %d48-53 ; 250-255 / "25" %d48-53 ; 250-255
HEX = DIGIT / %x41-46 / %x61-66 ; 0-9 / A-F / a-f HEX = DIGIT / %x41-46 / %x61-66 ; 0-9 / A-F / a-f
NONZERODIGIT = %d49-57 NONZERODIGIT = %d49-57
ZERO = %d48 ZERO = %d48
DIGIT = ZERO / NONZERODIGIT DIGIT = ZERO / NONZERODIGIT
SP = %d32 SP = %d32
Each SNMP-SD-ELEMENT starts with the SD-ID "snmp". The first two Each SNMP-SD-ELEMENT starts with the SD-ID "snmp". The first two
SD-ID parameters are "ctxEngine" and "ctxName". The context MUST be SD-ID parameters are "ctxEngine" and "ctxName". The context MUST be
present in an SNMPv3 notification and therefore they MUST be present present in an SNMPv3 notification and therefore "ctxEngine" and
in a SYSLOG message generated by an SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator from an "ctxName" MUST be present in a SYSLOG message generated by an SNMP-
SNMPv3 notification. The contexdEngineID is encoded as an to-SYSLOG translator from an SNMPv3 notification. The
hexadecimal string while the contextName is encoded as a UTF8 string. contextEngineID is encoded as an hexadecimal string while the
contextName is encoded as a UTF8 string.
The remaining parameters in the "snmp" SD-ID correspond to the The remaining parameters in the "snmp" SD-ID correspond to the
varbind list elements contained in the SNMP PDU. The name of a varbind list elements contained in the SNMP PDU. The name of a
varbind is encoded as an OID in dotted notation. The rendered OID is varbind is encoded as an OID in dotted notation. The rendered OID is
carried in a "vN" parameter, where N identifies the position of the carried in a "vN" parameter, where N identifies the position of the
varbind in the varbind list of the SNMP message (the first varbind varbind in the varbind list of the SNMP message (the first varbind
having the position 1). A MIB aware implementation may in addition having the position 1). A MIB-aware implementation may in addition
generate a parameter "lN" carrying the descriptor of the associated generate a parameter "lN" carrying the descriptor of the associated
MIB object plus the instance identifier suffix (also called an OID MIB object plus the instance identifier suffix (also called an OID
label). The number N again identifies the position of the varbind in label). The number N again identifies the position of the varbind in
the varbind list of the SNMP message. the varbind list of the SNMP message.
The value of a varbind is encoded depending on its type according to The value of a varbind is encoded depending on its type according to
the rules shown in Table 1 and type specific parameter names are used the rules shown in Table 1, and type-specific parameter names are
to convey the type information. The number N again identifies the used to convey the type information. The number N again identifies
position of the varbind in the varbind list of the SNMP message. A the position of the varbind in the varbind list of the SNMP message.
MIB aware implementation may in addition generate a parameter "aN" A MIB-aware implementation may in addition generate a parameter "aN"
carrying a alternate textual representation of the value, which is carrying an alternate textual representation of the value, which is
obtained by applying DISPLAY-HINTs and translating named numbers into obtained by applying DISPLAY-HINTs and translating named numbers into
corresponding labels or OBJECT IDENTIFIER values to descriptors. For corresponding labels or OBJECT IDENTIFIER values to descriptors. For
SNMP object types that have a DISPLAY-HINT of the form 'Ma' or 'Mt' SNMP object types that have a DISPLAY-HINT of the form 'Ma' or 'Mt',
where M is some number, a MIB aware implementation can choose to where M is some number, a MIB-aware implementation can choose to
include the "aN" parameter and to suppress the corresponding "xN" include the "aN" parameter and to suppress the corresponding "xN"
parameter. This special case allows to save space for textual parameter. This special case saves space for textual objects. A
objects. A receiver receiving a "aN" parameter without a matching
value at position N can unambiguously convert the value carried in RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
the "aN" parameter back to an OCTET STRING value.
receiver receiving an "aN" parameter without a matching value at
position N can unambiguously convert the value carried in the "aN"
parameter back to an OCTET STRING value.
While the inclusion of additional parameters carrying OID labels or While the inclusion of additional parameters carrying OID labels or
alternate value representations increases human readability, this alternate value representations increases human readability, this
comes at the cost of increased message size which may cause comes at the cost of increased message size, which may cause
truncation of SYSLOG message. Therefore, implementations SHOULD truncation of SYSLOG messages. Therefore, implementations SHOULD
provide a configuration mechanism to enable/disable the generation of provide a configuration mechanism to enable/disable the generation of
parameters carrying OID labels or alternate value representations. parameters carrying OID labels or alternate value representations.
+--------------------+------------+--------------------------+ +--------------------+------------+--------------------------+
| SNMP Type | PARAM-NAME | Value Encoding | | SNMP Type | PARAM-NAME | Value Encoding |
+--------------------+------------+--------------------------+ +--------------------+------------+--------------------------+
| OBJECT IDENTIFIER | oN | dotted-decimal notation | | OBJECT IDENTIFIER | oN | dotted-decimal notation |
| OCTET STRING | xN | hexadecimal string | | OCTET STRING | xN | hexadecimal string |
| Counter32 | cN | unsigned decimal number | | Counter32 | cN | unsigned decimal number |
| Counter64 | CN | unsigned decimal number | | Counter64 | CN | unsigned decimal number |
skipping to change at page 10, line 4 skipping to change at page 9, line 43
Table 1: Mapping of SNMP Types to SD Params Table 1: Mapping of SNMP Types to SD Params
The SYSLOG message generated by the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator may, in The SYSLOG message generated by the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator may, in
addition to the SNMP-SD-ELEMENT, include other structured data addition to the SNMP-SD-ELEMENT, include other structured data
elements in its structured data part. These additional structured elements in its structured data part. These additional structured
data elements MUST comply with the specification in [RFC5424]. data elements MUST comply with the specification in [RFC5424].
In particular, the parameters in the "origin" SD-ID SHOULD identify In particular, the parameters in the "origin" SD-ID SHOULD identify
the originator of the SNMP notification. A suitable value for the the originator of the SNMP notification. A suitable value for the
"ip" parameter MAY be taken from the snmpTrapAddress varbind if "ip" parameter MAY be taken from the snmpTrapAddress varbind if
present and a suitable value for the "enterpriseId" parameter MAY be present, and a suitable value for the "enterpriseId" parameter MAY be
extracted from snmpTrapOID varbind. extracted from the snmpTrapOID varbind.
3.3. MSG Data 3.3. MSG Data
The MSG part of the SYSLOG message is optional and may contain a The MSG part of the SYSLOG message is optional and may contain a
free-form message that provides a textual description of the SNMP free-form message that provides a textual description of the SNMP
event notification. According to [RFC5424], the character set used event notification. According to [RFC5424], the character set used
in MSG SHOULD be UNICODE, encoded using UTF-8 as specified in in MSG SHOULD be Unicode, encoded using UTF-8 as specified in
[RFC3629]. If the originator can not encode the MSG in Unicode, it [RFC3629]. If the originator cannot encode the MSG in Unicode, it
RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
MAY use any other encoding. The originator MAY use the "language" MAY use any other encoding. The originator MAY use the "language"
parameters defined in [RFC5424] to convey information about the parameters defined in [RFC5424] to convey information about the
natural language used inside MSG. natural language used inside MSG.
4. Relationship to the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB 4. Relationship to the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB
A companion document defines an SNMP MIB module to represent SYSLOG A companion document [RFC5676] defines an SNMP MIB module to
messages and to send SYSLOG messages as SNMP notifications to SNMP represent SYSLOG messages and to send SYSLOG messages as SNMP
notification receivers [I-D.ietf-opsawg-syslog-msg-mib]. This notifications to SNMP notification receivers. This section discusses
section discusses the possibilities of using both specifications in the possibilities of using both specifications in combination.
combination.
A SYSLOG collector implementing the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB module and the A SYSLOG collector implementing the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB module and the
mapping of SNMP notifications to SYSLOG messages may be configured to mapping of SNMP notifications to SYSLOG messages may be configured to
translate received SYSLOG messages containing SNMP notifications back translate received SYSLOG messages containing SNMP notifications back
into the original SNMP notification. In this case, the relevant into the original SNMP notification. In this case, the relevant
tables of the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB will not be populated for SYSLOG tables of the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB will not be populated for SYSLOG
messages carrying SNMP notifications. This configuration allows messages carrying SNMP notifications. This configuration allows
operators to build a forwarding chain where SNMP notifications are operators to build a forwarding chain where SNMP notifications are
"tunneled" through SYSLOG messages. Due to size restrictions of the "tunneled" through SYSLOG messages. Due to size restrictions of the
SYSLOG transports and the more verbose textual encoding used by SYSLOG transports and the more verbose textual encoding used by
SYSLOG, there is a possibility that SNMP notification content gets SYSLOG, there is a possibility that SNMP notification content will
truncated while tunneled through SYSLOG and thus the resulting SNMP get truncated when tunneled through SYSLOG, and thus the resulting
notification may be incomplete. SNMP notification may be incomplete.
An SNMP management application supporting the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB and the An SNMP management application supporting the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB and the
mapping of SNMP notifications to SYSLOG messages may process mapping of SNMP notifications to SYSLOG messages may process
information from the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB in order to emit a SYSLOG message information from the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB in order to emit a SYSLOG message
representing the SYSLOG message recorded in the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB representing the SYSLOG message recorded in the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB
module. This configuration allows operators to build a forwarding module. This configuration allows operators to build a forwarding
chain where SYSLOG messages are "tunneled" through SNMP messages. A chain where SYSLOG messages are "tunneled" through SNMP messages. A
notification receiver can determine whether a syslogMsgNotification notification receiver can determine whether a syslogMsgNotification
contained all structured data element parameters of a SYSLOG message. contained all structured data element parameters of a SYSLOG message.
In case parameters are missing, a forwarding application MUST In case parameters are missing, a forwarding application MUST
retrieve the missing parameters from the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB. Regular retrieve the missing parameters from the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB. Regular
polling of the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB can be used to take care of any lost polling of the SYSLOG-MSG-MIB can be used to take care of any lost
SNMP notifications. SNMP notifications.
5. Usage Example 5. Usage Example
Here we provide an example how an SNMP linkUp trap message is mapped Here we provide an example of how an SNMP linkUp trap message is
into a SYSLOG message by using the mappings defined in Section 3.1 mapped into a SYSLOG message by using the mappings defined in
and Section 3.2. Section 3.1 and Section 3.2.
The linkUp notification is defined in [RFC2863] as follows: The linkUp notification is defined in [RFC2863] as follows:
linkUp NOTIFICATION-TYPE linkUp NOTIFICATION-TYPE
OBJECTS { ifIndex, ifAdminStatus, ifOperStatus } OBJECTS { ifIndex, ifAdminStatus, ifOperStatus }
STATUS current STATUS current
RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"A linkUp trap signifies that the SNMP entity, acting in an "A linkUp trap signifies that the SNMP entity, acting in an
agent role, has detected that the ifOperStatus object for agent role, has detected that the ifOperStatus object for
one of its communication links left the down state and one of its communication links left the down state and
transitioned into some other state (but not into the transitioned into some other state (but not into the
notPresent state). This other state is indicated by the notPresent state). This other state is indicated by the
included value of ifOperStatus." included value of ifOperStatus."
::= { snmpTraps 4 } ::= { snmpTraps 4 }
The scopedPDU portion of an SNMP linkUp trap sent using the SNMPv3 The scopedPDU portion of an SNMP linkUp trap sent using the SNMPv3
message format is shown below (left columns shows the BER encoding message format is shown below (the left column shows the Basic
while the right column indicates the corresponding ASN.1 Encoding Rules (BER) encoding, while the right column indicates the
definitions): corresponding ASN.1 definitions):
30:7C SEQUENCE { 30:7C SEQUENCE {
04:08:80:00:02:B8:04:61:62:63 800002b804616263 04:08:80:00:02:B8:04:61:62:63 800002b804616263
04:04:63:74:78:31 "ctx1" 04:04:63:74:78:31 "ctx1"
A7:6A SNMPv2-Trap-PDU { A7:6A SNMPv2-Trap-PDU {
02:03:6D:08:67 INTEGER 7145575 02:03:6D:08:67 INTEGER 7145575
02:01:00 INTEGER 0 02:01:00 INTEGER 0
02:01:00 INTEGER 0 02:01:00 INTEGER 0
30:5D SEQUENCE OF { 30:5D SEQUENCE OF {
30:0F SEQUENCE { 30:0F SEQUENCE {
skipping to change at page 12, line 15 skipping to change at page 12, line 4
The corresponding SYSLOG message generated by the SNMP-to-SYSLOG The corresponding SYSLOG message generated by the SNMP-to-SYSLOG
translator is shown below. (SYSLOG examples should be considered to translator is shown below. (SYSLOG examples should be considered to
be on one line. They are wrapped on multiple lines in this document be on one line. They are wrapped on multiple lines in this document
for readability purposes only.) for readability purposes only.)
<29>1 2003-10-11T22:14:15.003Z mymachine.example.com snmptrapd - ID47 <29>1 2003-10-11T22:14:15.003Z mymachine.example.com snmptrapd - ID47
[snmp ctxEngine="800002b804616263" ctxName="ctx1" [snmp ctxEngine="800002b804616263" ctxName="ctx1"
v1="1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0" l1="sysUpTime.0" d1="94860" v1="1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0" l1="sysUpTime.0" d1="94860"
v2="1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.4.1.0" l2="snmpTrapOID.0" v2="1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.4.1.0" l2="snmpTrapOID.0"
o2="1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4" a2="linkUp" o2="1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4" a2="linkUp"
RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
v3="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.3" d3="3" v3="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.3" d3="3"
v4="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.7.3" d4="1" a4="up" v4="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.7.3" d4="1" a4="up"
v5="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.8.3" d5="1" a5="up"] v5="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.8.3" d5="1" a5="up"]
The corresponding SYSLOG message has a priority value of 29 which The corresponding SYSLOG message has a priority value of 29, which
means a facility level of 3 (system daemons) and a severity level of means a facility level of 3 (system daemons) and a severity level of
5 (Notice: Normal but significant condition) according to the 5 (Notice: normal but significant condition) according to the
algorithm for calculation of priority value specified in Section algorithm for calculation of priority value specified in Section
6.2.1 of [RFC5424]. The rest of the fields in the header of the 6.2.1 of [RFC5424]. The rest of the fields in the header of the
SYSLOG message are parameters that are specific to the system running SYSLOG message are parameters that are specific to the system running
the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator. The SYSLOG version is 1 and the the SNMP-to-SYSLOG translator. The SYSLOG version is 1 and the
message was generated at 22:14:15.003Z on 2003-10-11T by the host message was generated at 22:14:15.003Z on 2003-10-11T by the host
"mymachine.example.com". The application on the SNMP-to-SYSLOG "mymachine.example.com". The application on the SNMP-to-SYSLOG
translator that generated the message was "snmptrapd", there is no translator that generated the message was "snmptrapd"; there is no
information about the process id and the message on the SNMP-to- information about the process id, and the message on the SNMP-to-
SYSLOG system is identified with the MSGID of ID47. SYSLOG system is identified with the MSGID of ID47.
The SYSLOG message contains one structured data element with a SD-ID The SYSLOG message contains one structured data element with an SD-ID
of "snmp" which means that this is the scopedPDU portion of an SNMP of "snmp", which means that this is the scopedPDU portion of an SNMP
event notification message. The data which is contained in the event notification message. The data that is contained in the
notification is associated with the ContextEngineID "123456" and notification is associated with the ContextEngineID "123456" and
ContextName "ctx1". The request-id of the SNMP notification message ContextName "ctx1". The request-id of the SNMP notification message
was "7145575". Then follows the data portion of the scopedPDU. The was "7145575". Then follows the data portion of the scopedPDU. The
first two variables contained in the data portion are always the first two variables contained in the data portion are always the
sysUpTime.0 and snmpTrapOID.0. An snmpTrapOID.0 with a value of sysUpTime.0 and snmpTrapOID.0. An snmpTrapOID.0 with a value of
"1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4" means that this is a linkUp trap. The "1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4" means that this is a linkUp trap. The
parameters v3="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.3" d3="3" mean that the SNMP parameters v3="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.3" d3="3" mean that the SNMP
notification message is carrying the ifIndex object which has a type notification message is carrying the ifIndex object, which has a type
INTEGER and has a value of 3. The parameters INTEGER and a value of 3. The parameters v4="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.7.3"
v4="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.7.3" d4="1" mean that the SNMP notification d4="1" mean that the SNMP notification message is carrying the object
message is carrying the object ifAdminStatus which has type INTEGER ifAdminStatus, which has a type INTEGER and a value of 1. The
and a value of 1. The parameters v5="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.8.3" d5="1" parameters v5="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.8.3" d5="1" mean that the SNMP
mean that the SNMP notification message is carrying the object notification message is carrying the object ifOperStatus, which has a
ifOperStatus which has type INTEGER and a value of "1". type INTEGER and a value of "1".
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
IANA is requested to register the SD-ID value "snmp" together with IANA registered the SD-ID value "snmp" together with the PARAM-NAME
the PARAM-NAME values specified in Section 3.2 in the registry for values specified in Section 3.2 in the registry for SYSLOG Structured
SYSLOG structured data id values according to Section 9 in [RFC5424]. Data ID Values according to Section 9 in [RFC5424]. The notation <N>
The notation <N> indicates a position number. indicates a position number.
SD-ID PARAM-NAME SD-ID PARAM-NAME
snmp OPTIONAL snmp OPTIONAL
ctxEngine OPTIONAL ctxEngine OPTIONAL
ctxName OPTIONAL ctxName OPTIONAL
v<N> OPTIONAL v<N> OPTIONAL
l<N> OPTIONAL l<N> OPTIONAL
RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
o<N> OPTIONAL o<N> OPTIONAL
x<N> OPTIONAL x<N> OPTIONAL
c<N> OPTIONAL c<N> OPTIONAL
C<N> OPTIONAL C<N> OPTIONAL
u<N> OPTIONAL u<N> OPTIONAL
d<N> OPTIONAL d<N> OPTIONAL
i<N> OPTIONAL i<N> OPTIONAL
n<N> OPTIONAL n<N> OPTIONAL
p<N> OPTIONAL p<N> OPTIONAL
t<N> OPTIONAL t<N> OPTIONAL
a<N> OPTIONAL a<N> OPTIONAL
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
The security considerations discussed in [RFC5424] apply to this The security considerations discussed in [RFC5424] apply to this
document. document.
The SNMP architecture supports an access control mechanism ensuring The SNMP architecture supports an access control mechanism, ensuring
that SNMP notifications are only sent to receivers who are authorized that SNMP notifications are only sent to receivers who are authorized
to receive the notification. Network operators using this mapping of to receive the notification. Network operators using this mapping of
SNMP notifications to SYSLOG messages should enforce a consistent SNMP notifications to SYSLOG messages should enforce a consistent
policy preventing people from accessing SNMP notifications via the policy, preventing people from accessing SNMP notifications via the
SYSLOG mapping that would otherwise not be accessible. SYSLOG mapping that would otherwise not be accessible.
8. Acknowledgments 8. Acknowledgments
The editors wish to thank the following individuals for providing The editors wish to thank the following individuals for providing
helpful comments on various versions of this document: Martin helpful comments on various versions of this document: Martin
Bjorklund, Washam Fan, Rainer Gerhards, Tom Petch, and Dan Romascanu. Bjorklund, Washam Fan, Rainer Gerhards, Tom Petch, and Dan Romascanu.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-opsawg-syslog-msg-mib] 9.1. Normative References
Schoenwaelder, J., Clemm, A., and A. Karmakar,
"Definitions of Managed Objects for Mapping SYSLOG
Messages to Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Notifications", Internet Draft (work in progress),
March 2009.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3411] Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen, "An [RFC3411] Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen, "An
Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks", STD 62, RFC 3411, Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks", STD 62, RFC 3411,
December 2002. December 2002.
[RFC3412] Case, J., Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen, [RFC3412] Case, J., Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen,
"Message Processing and Dispatching for the Simple Network "Message Processing and Dispatching for the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, RFC 3412, Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, RFC 3412,
December 2002. December 2002.
RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
[RFC3413] Levi, D., Meyer, P., and B. Stewart, "Simple Network [RFC3413] Levi, D., Meyer, P., and B. Stewart, "Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP) Applications", STD 62, Management Protocol (SNMP) Applications", STD 62,
RFC 3413, December 2002. RFC 3413, December 2002.
[RFC3416] Presuhn, R., "Version 2 of the Protocol Operations for the [RFC3416] Presuhn, R., "Version 2 of the Protocol Operations for the
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62,
RFC 3416, December 2002. RFC 3416, December 2002.
[RFC3418] Presuhn, R., "Management Information Base (MIB) for the [RFC3418] Presuhn, R., "Management Information Base (MIB) for the
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62,
RFC 3418, December 2002. RFC 3418, December 2002.
[RFC3584] Frye, R., Levi, D., Routhier, S., and B. Wijnen, [RFC3584] Frye, R., Levi, D., Routhier, S., and B. Wijnen,
"Coexistence between Version 1, Version 2, and Version 3 "Coexistence between Version 1, Version 2, and Version 3
of the Internet-standard Network Management Framework.", of the Internet-standard Network Management Framework",
BCP 74, RFC 3584, August 2003. BCP 74, RFC 3584, August 2003.
[RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO [RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003. 10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.
[RFC5234] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax [RFC5234] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Specifications: ABNF", RFC 5234, January 2008. Specifications: ABNF", RFC 5234, January 2008.
[RFC5424] Gerhards, R., "The Syslog Protocol", RFC 5424, March 2009. [RFC5424] Gerhards, R., "The Syslog Protocol", RFC 5424, March 2009.
[RFC5676] Schoenwaelder, J., Clemm, A., and A. Karmakar,
"Definitions of Managed Objects for Mapping SYSLOG
Messages to Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Notifications", RFC 5676, October 2009.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[RFC2578] McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder, [RFC2578] McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
"Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2)", "Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2)",
RFC 2578, STD 58, April 1999. RFC 2578, STD 58, April 1999.
[RFC2863] McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group [RFC2863] McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group
MIB", RFC 2863, June 2000. MIB", RFC 2863, June 2000.
[RFC3410] Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart, [RFC3410] Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart,
"Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet- "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet-
Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002. Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002.
RFC 5675 Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG October 2009
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Vladislav Marinov Vladislav Marinov
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
Campus Ring 1 Campus Ring 1
28725 Bremen 28725 Bremen
Germany Germany
Email: v.marinov@jacobs-university.de EMail: v.marinov@jacobs-university.de
Juergen Schoenwaelder Juergen Schoenwaelder
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
Campus Ring 1 Campus Ring 1
28725 Bremen 28725 Bremen
Germany Germany
Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de EMail: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de
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