Network Working Group                             Kireeti Kompella
Internet Draft                                    Juniper Networks
Expiration Date: February May 2002                            Yakov Rekhter
                                                  Juniper Networks

                 Signalling Unnumbered Links in RSVP-TE

                   draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-unnum-02.txt

                   draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-unnum-03.txt

1. Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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2. Abstract

   Current signalling used by MPLS TE doesn't provide support for
   unnumbered links. This document defines procedures and extensions to
   RSVP-TE, one of the MPLS TE signalling protocols, that are needed in
   order to support unnumbered links.

3. Overview

   Supporting MPLS TE over unnumbered links (i.e., links that do not
   have IP addresses) involves two components: (a) the ability to carry
   (TE) information about unnumbered links in IGP TE extensions (ISIS or
   OSPF), and (b) the ability to specify unnumbered links in MPLS TE
   signalling. The former is covered in [GMPLS-ISIS, GMPLS-OSPF].  The
   focus of this document is on the latter.

   Current signalling used by MPLS TE doesn't provide support for
   unnumbered links because the current signalling doesn't provide a way
   to indicate an unnumbered link in its Explicit Route and Record Route
   Objects. This document proposes simple procedures and extensions that
   allow RSVP-TE signalling [RSVP-TE] [GMPLS-RSVP] to be used with unnumbered
   links.

4. Interface Link Identifiers

   Since

   An unnumbered links are not identified by an IP address, then for
   the purpose of MPLS TE they need some other identifier. We assume
   that link has to be a point-to-point link. An LSR at each
   end of an unnumbered link on a Label Switched Router (LSR) assigns an identifier to that link. This
   identifier is given a
   unique non-zero 32-bit identifier. The number that is unique within the
   scope of this identifier is the LSR to
   which the link belongs; moreover, the that assigns it. The IS-IS and/or OSPF and RSVP
   modules on an LSR must agree on interface the identifiers.

   Note

   There is no a priori relationship between the identifiers assigned to
   a link by the LSRs at each end of that links are directed, i.e., link.

   LSRs at the two end points of an unnumbered link exchange with each
   other the identifiers they assign to the link. Exchanging the
   identifiers may be accomplished by configuration, by means of a
   protocol such as LMP ([LMP]), by means of RSVP/CR-LDP (especially in
   the case where a link l is from some LSR a Forwarding Adjacency, see below), or by
   means of IS-IS or OSPF extensions ([ISIS-GMPLS], [OSPF-GMPLS]).

   Consider an (unnumbered) link between LSRs A to
   some other LSR and B. LSR A chooses the interface identifier an
   idenfitier for link l.
   To be completely clear, we call this the "outgoing interface
   identifier from LSR A's point of view". If there that link. So is a reverse link
   from LSR B B.  From A's perspective we refer
   to LSR A (for example, a point-to-point SONET interface
   connecting LSRs the identifier that A assigned to the link as the "link local
   identifier" (or just "local identifier"), and to the identifier that
   B would be represented as two links, one from A assigned to B, and another the link as the "link remote identifier" (or just
   "remote identifier"). Likewise, from B's perspective the identifier
   that B assigned to A), B chooses the outgoing interface
   identifier for link is the reverse link; we call this local identifier, and the link's "incoming
   interface
   identifier from A's point of view". There that A assigned to the link is no a priori
   relationship between the two interface identifiers. remote identifier.

   This section is equally applicable to the case of unnumbered
   component links (see [LINK-BUNDLE]).

5. Unnumbered Forwarding Adjacencies

   If an LSR that originates an LSP advertises this LSP as an unnumbered
   Forwarding Adjacency in IS-IS or OSPF (see [LSP-HIER]), or the LSR
   uses the Forwarding Adjacency formed by this LSP as an unnumbered
   component link of a bundled link (see [BUNDLE]), [LINK-BUNDLE]), the LSR MUST
   allocate an interface identifier to that Forwarding Adjacency (just like for
   any other unnumbered link). Moreover, the Path message used for
   establishing the LSP that forms the Forwarding Adjacency MUST contain an
   the LSP_TUNNEL_INTERFACE_ID object (described below), with the LSR's
   Router ID set to the head end's Router ID, and the Interface ID set
   to the interface identifier that the LSR allocated to the Forwarding Adjacency.

   If the LSP is bidirectional, and the tail-end LSR (of the forward
   LSP) advertises the reverse LSP as an unnumbered Forwarding
   Adjacency, Path message contains the LSP_TUNNEL_INTERFACE_ID object, then
   the tail-end LSR MUST allocate an interface identifier to
   the reverse that Forwarding Adjacency.
   Adjacency (just like for any other unnumbered link).  Furthermore,
   the Resv message for the LSP MUST contain an LSP_TUNNEL_INTERFACE_ID
   object, with the LSR's Router ID set to the tail-end's Router ID, and
   the Interface ID set to the interface identifier allocated by the tail-end LSR.

   For the purpose of processing the ERO and the IF_ID RSVP_HOP objects,
   an unnumbered Forwarding Adjacency is treated as an unnumbered (TE)
   link or an unnumbered component link as follows. The LSR that
   originates the Adjacency sets the link local identifier for that link
   to the value that the LSR allocates to that Forwarding Adjacency, and
   the link remote identifier to the value carried in the Interface ID
   field of the Reverse Interface ID object. The LSR that is a tail-end
   of that Forwarding Adjacency sets the link local identifier for that
   link to the value that the LSR allocates to that Forwarding
   Adjacency, and the link remote identifier to the value carried in the
   Interface ID field of the Forward Interface ID object.

5.1. LSP_TUNNEL_INTERFACE_ID Object

   The LSP_TUNNEL_INTERFACE_ID object has a class number of type
   11bbbbbb (to be assigned by IANA), C-Type of 1 and length of 12. The
   format is given below.

   This object can optionally appear in either a Path message or a Resv
   message. In the former case, we call it the "Forward Interface ID"
   for that LSP; in the latter case, we call it the "Reverse Interface
   ID" for the LSP.

   Figure 1: LSP_TUNNEL_INTERFACE_ID Object

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        LSR's Router ID                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Interface ID (32 bits)                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   This object can optionally appear in either a Path message or a Resv
   message. In the former case, we call it the "Forward Interface ID"
   for that LSP; in the latter case, we call it the "Reverse Interface
   ID" for the LSP.

6. Signalling Unnumbered Links in EROs

   A new subobject of the Explicit Route Object (ERO) is used to specify
   unnumbered links. This subobject has the following format:

   Figure 2: Unnumbered Interface ID Subobject

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |L|    Type     |     Length    |    Reserved (MUST be zero)    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Router ID                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     Interface ID (32 bits)                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   This subobject MUST be strict (i.e., the L bit MUST be 0).

   The Type is 4 (Unnumbered Interface ID). The Length is 12.

   The Interface ID is the outgoing interface identifier with respect assigned to the link by the LSR
   specified by the router ID.

6.1. Processing the Unnumbered Interface ID Subobject

   First of all, the receiving LSR must validate that it received the
   Path message correctly. If the first subobject in the ERO is an
   Unnumbered Interface subobject, the check is done as follows (for
   other types of ERO subobjects, the rules in [RSVP-TE] apply).

   The PHOP or IF_ID RSVP_HOP object in the message MUST contain the
   same Router ID (IP Address) as the Router ID carried in the
   subobject.  If not, the receiving

   When an LSR MUST return receives a PathErr.  If Path message containing the IF_ID RSVP_HOP
   object is present, and it carries with the IF_INDEX TLV, the receiving LSR SHOULD check that the value carried in processes this TLV is
   the same as carried in the subobject. If the value is different, the
   receiving LSR MUST return a PathErr.

   If the above checks are passes, the LSR checks whether the tuple
   <Router ID, Interface ID> from the Unnumbered Interface subobject
   matches the tuple <Router ID, Forward Interface ID> of any of the
   LSPs for which the LSR is a tail-end. If a match is found, the match
   identifies the Forwarding Adjacency for which the LSR has to perform
   label allocation.

   Otherwise, the LSR MUST check whether the tuple <Router ID, Interface
   ID> from the Unnumbered Interface subobject matches the tuple <Router
   ID, Reverse Interface ID> of any of the bidirectional LSPs for which
   the LSR is the head-end. If a match is found, the match identifies
   the Forwarding Adjacency for which the LSR has to perform label
   allocation, namely, the reverse Forwarding Adjacency for the LSP
   identified by the match.

   Otherwise, the follows.
   The LSR must have information about the identifiers assigned by its
   neighbors to the unnumbered links (i.e., incoming
   interface identifiers from LSR's point of view). between the neighbors and the LSR.
   The LSR uses this information to find a link with tuple <Router ID, incoming interface
   local identifier> matching the tuple <Router ID, <IP Address, Interface ID> from the
   Unnumbered Interface subobject. If the matching tuple is found, and
   the link is not a bundled link, the match identifies the link for
   which the LSR has to perform label allocation. If the matching tuple
   is found, and the link is a bundled link, the LSR follows the
   procedures for label allocation as described
   carried in [LINK-BUNDLE].

   Otherwise, the LSR SHOULD return a "Bad initial subobject" error.

6.2. Selecting IF_INDEX TLV. If the Next Hop

   Once an LSR determines matching tuple is found, the
   match identifies the link for which the LSR has to perform label allocation,
   allocation.

   Otherwise, the LSR removes the initial subobject in the ERO,
   and computes SHOULD return an error.

6.2. Processing the next hop. ERO object

   The next hop for an Unnumbered Interface
   subobject is computed as follows. The Interface ID in the subobject
   MUST refer is defined to an outgoing interface identifier that this be a part of a
   particular abstract node
   allocated; if not, that node has the LSR SHOULD return a "Bad EXPLICIT_ROUTE
   object" error. The next hop Router ID that is equal
   to the LSR at Router ID field in the other end of subobject, and if the node has an
   (unnumbered) link or an (unnumbered) Forwarding Adjacency whose local
   identifier (from that node's point of view) is equal to the value
   carried in the Interface ID refers to. If field of the subobject.

   With this is in mind, the LSR itself, ERO processing in the
   subobject is removed, and presence of the process repeated. If
   Unnumbered Interface ID subobject follows the next hop is
   some other LSR, then this is rules specified in
   section 4.3.4.1 of [RSVP-TE].

   As part of the next hop ERO processing, or to which a Path message
   must be sent.

   When sending a Path message to more precise, as part of the
   next hop, hop selection, if the outgoing link is unnumbered, the Path
   message
   carries the PHOP object, then this object MUST contain that the LSR's
   Router ID. If node sends to the Path message carries next hop MUST include the IF_ID
   RSVP_HOP object, then this
   object MUST contain the IF_INDEX TLV, with the IP Address in address field of that TLV object set to the LSR's
   Router ID, ID of the node, and the Interface ID field of that object set
   to the Interface ID
   carried in identifier assigned to the first subobject of link by the ERO. node.

7. Record Route Object

   A new subobject of the Record Route Object (RRO) is used to record
   that the LSP path traversed an unnumbered link. This subobject has
   the following format:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |     Length    |     Flags     | Reserved (MBZ)|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                           Router ID                           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                     Interface ID (32 bits)                    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The Type is 4 (Unnumbered Interface ID); the Length is 12. Flags are
   defined below.

      0x01  Local protection available

            Indicates that the link downstream of this node is protected
            via a local repair mechanism.  This flag can only be set if
            the Local protection flag was set in the SESSION_ATTRIBUITE
            object of the cooresponding Path message.

      0x02  Local protection in use
            Indicates that a local repair mechanism is in use to
            maintain this tunnel (usually in the face a an outage of the
            link it was previously routed over).

7.1. Handling RRO

   If at an intermediate node (or at the head-end), the ERO subobject
   that was used to determine the next hop is of type Unnumbered
   Interface ID, and a RRO object was received in the Path message (or
   is desired in the original Path message), an RRO subobject of type
   Unnumbered Interface ID MUST be appended to the received RRO when
   sending a Path message downstream.

   If the ERO subobject that was used to determine the next hop is of
   any other type, the handling procedures of [RSVP-TE] apply. Also, if
   Label Recording is desired, the procedures of [RSVP-TE] apply.

8. Security Considerations

   This document raises no new security concerns for RSVP.

9. IANA Considerations

   The responsible Internet authority (presently called the IANA)
   assigns values to RSVP protocol parameters. The current document
   defines a new subobject for the EXPLICIT_ROUTE object and for the
   ROUTE_RECORD object. The rules for the assignment of subobject
   numbers have been defined in [RSVP-TE], using the terminology of BCP
   26 "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs".
   Those rules apply to the assignment of subobject numbers for the new
   subobject of the EXPLICIT_ROUTE and ROUTE_RECORD objects.

   Furthermore, the same Internet authority needs to assign a class
   number to the LSP_TUNNEL_INTERFACE_ID object. This must be of the
   form 11bbbbbb (i.e., this is an 8-bit number whose two most
   significant bits are 1).

10. Acknowledgments

   Thanks to Lou Berger and Markus Jork for pointing out that the RRO
   should be extended in like fashion to the ERO. Thanks also to Rahul
   Aggarwal and Alan Kullberg for their comments on the text. Finally,
   thanks to Bora Akyol and Vach Kompella.

11. References

   [BUNDLE]

   [LINK-BUNDLE] Kompella, K., Rekhter, Y., and Berger, L., "Link
   Bundling in MPLS Traffic Engineering", draft-kompella-mpls-bundle-05.txt (work in
   progress)

   [ISIS-TE] Smit, H., and Li, T., "IS-IS extensions for Traffic
   Engineering", draft-ietf-isis-traffic-02.txt draft-kompella-mpls-
   bundle-05.txt (work in progress)

   [LSP-HIER] Kompella, K., and Rekhter, Y., "LSP Hierarchy with MPLS
   TE", draft-ietf-mpls-lsp-hierarchy-02.txt (work in progress)

   [OSPF-TE] Katz, D., and Yeung, D., "Traffic Engineering Extensions to
   OSPF", draft-katz-yeung-ospf-traffic-04.txt (work in progress)

   [RSVP-TE] Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D. H., Li, T., Srinivasan,
   V., and Swallow, G., "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels",
   draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-lsp-tunnel-08.txt (work in progress)

   [GMPLS-ISIS] Kompella, K., Rekhter, Y., Banerjee, A. et al, "IS-IS
   Extensions in Support of Generalized MPLS", draft-ietf-isis-gmpls-
   extensions-02.txt (work in progress)

   [GMPLS-OSPF] Kompella, K., Rekhter, Y., Banerjee, A. et al, "OSPF
   Extensions in Support of Generalized MPLS", draft-ietf-ccamp-ospf-
   gmpls-extensions-00.txt (work in progress)

   [GMPLS-RSVP] Ashwood, P., et al., "Generalized MPLS Signalling RSVP-
   TE Extensions", draft-ietf-mpls-generalized-rsvp-te-04.txt

12. Author Information

Kireeti Kompella
Juniper Networks, Inc.
1194 N. Mathilda Ave.
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
e-mail: kireeti@juniper.net

Yakov Rekhter
Juniper Networks, Inc.
1194 N. Mathilda Ave.
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
e-mail: yakov@juniper.net