draft-ietf-mmusic-fid-03.txt   draft-ietf-mmusic-fid-04.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force Gonzalo Camarillo Internet Engineering Task Force Gonzalo Camarillo
Internet draft Jan Holler Internet draft Jan Holler
Goran AP Eriksson Goran AP Eriksson
Ericsson Ericsson
July 2001
Expires January 2002 Henning Schulzrinne
<draft-ietf-mmusic-fid-03.txt> Columbia University
August 2001
Expires February 2002
<draft-ietf-mmusic-fid-04.txt>
Grouping of media lines in SDP Grouping of media lines in SDP
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
Abstract Abstract
This document defines two SDP attributes: "group" and "mid". They This document defines two SDP attributes: "group" and "mid". They
allow to group together several "m" lines for two different allow to group together several "m" lines for two different
purposes: for lip synchronization and for receiving media from a purposes: for lip synchronization and for receiving media from a
single flow (several media streams), encoded in different formats single flow (several media streams), encoded in different formats
during a particular session, in different ports and host interfaces. during a particular session, in different ports and host interfaces.
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 1 Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 1
Grouping of media lines in SDP Grouping of media lines in SDP
TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 Terminology................................................2 1 Introduction...............................................2
2 Media stream identification attribute......................2 2 Terminology................................................3
3 Group attribute............................................2 3 Media stream identification attribute......................3
4 Lip Synchronization (LS)...................................3 4 Group attribute............................................3
5 Flow Identification (FID)..................................3 5 Use of "group" and "mid"...................................3
5.1 SIP and cellular access....................................4 6 Lip Synchronization (LS)...................................4
5.2 DTMF tones.................................................4 6.1 Example of LS..............................................4
5.3 Media flow definition......................................5 7 Flow Identification (FID)..................................5
5.4 FID semantics..............................................5 7.1 SIP and cellular access....................................5
5.4.1 Interactions of "group" with other media level attributes..6 7.2 DTMF tones.................................................5
5.4.2 Media in parallel..........................................7 7.3 Media flow definition......................................6
5.4.3 DTMF tones encoded as telephony events.....................8 7.4 FID semantics..............................................6
6 Usage of the "group" attribute in SIP......................8 7.4.1 Examples of FID............................................6
6.1 Media alignment............................................9 8 Scenarios that FID does not cover..........................9
6.2 Mid value in responses.....................................9 8.1 Parallel encoding using different codecs...................9
6.3 Group value in responses...................................9 8.2 Layered encoding..........................................10
6.4 Backward compatibility....................................10 8.3 Same IP address and port number...........................10
6.4.1 Client does not support "group"...........................11 9 Usage of the "group" attribute in SIP.....................11
6.4.2 Server does not support "group"...........................11 9.1 Mid value in responses....................................11
7 Acknoledgements...........................................11 9.1.1 Example...................................................11
8 References................................................11 9.2 Group value in responses..................................12
9 Authors³ Addresses........................................12 9.2.1 Example...................................................13
9.3 Capability negotiation....................................14
9.3.1 Example...................................................14
9.4 Backward compatibility....................................14
9.4.1 Client does not support "group"...........................15
9.4.2 Server does not support "group"...........................15
10 IANA considerations.......................................15
11 Acknowledgements..........................................15
12 References................................................15
13 Authors³ Addresses........................................16
1 Terminology 1 Introduction
An SDP session description typically contains a number (one or more)
of media lines - they are commonly known as "m" lines. When a
session description contains more than one "m" line, SDP does not
provide any means to express a particular relationship between two
or more of them. When an application receives an SDP session
description with more than one "m" line it is up to the application
what to do with them. SDP does not carry any information about
grouping media streams.
While in some environments this information can be carried out of
band, it would be desirable to have extensions to SDP that allowed
to express how different media streams within a session description
relate to each other. This document defines such extensions.
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 2
Grouping of media lines in SDP
2 Terminology
In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
"SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY",
and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1] and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1]
and indicate requirement levels for compliant implementations. and indicate requirement levels for compliant implementations.
2. Media stream identification attribute 3. Media stream identification attribute
A new "media stream identification" media attribute is defined. It A new "media stream identification" media attribute is defined. It
is used for identifying media streams within a session description. is used for identifying media streams within a session description.
Its formatting in SDP [2] is described by the following BNF: Its formatting in SDP [2] is described by the following BNF:
mid-attribute = "a=mid:" identification-tag mid-attribute = "a=mid:" identification-tag
identification-tag = token identification-tag = token
The identification tag MUST be unique within the SDP session The identification tag MUST be unique within an SDP session
description. description.
3. Group attribute 4. Group attribute
A new "group" session level attribute is defined. It is used for A new "group" session level attribute is defined. It is used for
grouping together different media streams. Its formatting in SDP is grouping together different media streams. Its formatting in SDP is
described by the following BNF: described by the following BNF:
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 2
Grouping of media lines in SDP
group-attribute = "a=group:" semantics group-attribute = "a=group:" semantics
2*(space identification-tag) *(space identification-tag)
semantics = "LS" | "FID" semantics = "LS" | "FID"
This document defines two standard semantics: LS (Lip This document defines two standard semantics: LS (Lip
Synchronization) and FID (Flow Identification). If in the future it Synchronization) and FID (Flow Identification). If in the future it
was needed to standardize further semantics they would need to be was needed to standardize further semantics they would need to be
defined in a standards track document. However, defining new defined in a standards track document. However, defining new
semantics apart from LS and FID is discouraged. Instead, it is semantics apart from LS and FID is discouraged. Instead, it is
RECOMMENDED to use other session description mechanisms such as RECOMMENDED to use other session description mechanisms such as
SDPng [3]. SDPng [3].
5. Use of "group" and "mid"
All the "m" lines of a session description that uses "group" MUST be
identified with an "mid" attribute regardless of whether they appear
or not in the group line(s). If a session description contains at
least one "m" line that has no "mid" identification the application
MUST NOT perform any grouping of media lines.
"a=group" lines are used to group together several "m" lines that
are identified by their "mid" attribute. "a=group" lines that
contain identification-tags that do not correspond to any "m" line
within the session description MUST be simply ignored. The
application acts as if the "a=group" line did not exist. The
behavior of an application receiving an SDP with grouped "m" lines
is defined by the semantics field in the "a=group" line.
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 3
Grouping of media lines in SDP
There MAY be several "a=group" lines in a session description. There MAY be several "a=group" lines in a session description.
"a=group" lines that contain identification-tags that are not An application that wants to be compliant to this specification MUST
present in the session description MUST be simply ignored. The support both "group" and "mid". An application that supported just
application acts as if the "a=group" line did not exist. one of them would not be compliant.
4. Lip Synchronization (LS) 6. Lip Synchronization (LS)
The play out of media streams that are grouped together using LS An application that receives a session description that contains "m"
semantics MUST be synchronized. Synchronization is typically lines that are grouped together using LS semantics MUST synchronize
performed using RTCP, which provides enough information to map time the play out of the corresponding media streams. Note that LS
stamps from the different streams into a wall clock. semantics not only apply to a video stream that has to be
synchronized with an audio stream. The play out of two streams of
the same type can perfectly be synchronized as well.
The following example shows a session description where the audio For RTP streams synchronization is typically performed using RTCP,
and the video stream have to be synchronized. which provides enough information to map time stamps from the
different streams into a wall clock. However, the concept of media
stream synchronization MAY also apply to media streams that do not
make use of RTP. If this is the case, the application MUST recover
the original timing relationship between the streams using whatever
available mechanism.
6.1 Example of LS
The following example shows a session description of a conference
that is being multicast. The first media stream (mid:1) contains the
voice of the speaker, who speaks in English. The second media stream
(mid:2) contains the video component and the third (mid:3) media
stream carries the translation to Spanish of what he is saying. The
first and the second media streams MUST be synchronized.
v=0 v=0
o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 first.example.com o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 one.example.com
t=0 0 t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112 c=IN IP4 224.2.17.12/127
a=group:LS 1 2 a=group:LS 1 2
m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0
a=mid:1 a=mid:1
m=video 30002 RTP/AVP 31 m=video 30002 RTP/AVP 31
a=mid:2 a=mid:2
m=audio 30004 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 30004 RTP/AVP 0
i=This media stream contains the Spanish translation
a=mid:3 a=mid:3
Note that although the third media stream is not present in the Note that although the third media stream is not present in the
group line it still contains an mid attribute (mid:3). All the "m" group line it still MUST contain an mid attribute (mid:3), as stated
lines of a session description that uses "group" MUST be identified before.
with an "mid" attribute regardless of whether they appear or not in
the group line(s).
5. Flow Identification (FID) Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 4
Grouping of media lines in SDP
7. Flow Identification (FID)
An "m" line in an SDP session description defines a media stream. An "m" line in an SDP session description defines a media stream.
However, SDP does not define what a media stream is. To find the However, SDP does not define what a media stream is. To find the
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 3
Grouping of media lines in SDP
definition of a media stream we have to go to the RTSP definition of a media stream we have to go to the RTSP
specification. The RTSP RFC [4] defines a media stream as "a single specification. The RTSP RFC [4] defines a media stream as "a single
media instance, e.g., an audio stream or a video stream as well as a media instance, e.g., an audio stream or a video stream as well as a
single whiteboard or shared application group. When using RTP, a single whiteboard or shared application group. When using RTP, a
stream consists of all RTP and RTCP packets created by a source stream consists of all RTP and RTCP packets created by a source
within an RTP session". within an RTP session".
This definition assumes that a single audio (or video) stream maps This definition assumes that a single audio (or video) stream maps
into an RTP session. To find the definition of an RTP session we go into an RTP session. To find the definition of an RTP session we go
to the RTP specification. The RTP RFC [5] defines an RTP session as to the RTP specification. The RTP RFC [5] defines an RTP session as
skipping to change at line 170 skipping to change at line 232
particular pair of destination transport addresses (one network particular pair of destination transport addresses (one network
address plus a port pair for RTP and RTCP)". address plus a port pair for RTP and RTCP)".
While the previous definitions cover the most common cases, there While the previous definitions cover the most common cases, there
are situations where a single media instance, (e.g., an audio stream are situations where a single media instance, (e.g., an audio stream
or a video stream) is sent using more than one RTP session. Two or a video stream) is sent using more than one RTP session. Two
examples (among many others) of this kind of situation are cellular examples (among many others) of this kind of situation are cellular
systems using SIP [6] and systems receiving DTMF tones on a systems using SIP [6] and systems receiving DTMF tones on a
different host than the voice. different host than the voice.
5.1 SIP and cellular access 7.1 SIP and cellular access
Systems using a cellular access and SIP as a signalling protocol Systems using a cellular access and SIP as a signalling protocol
need to receive media over the air. During a session the media can need to receive media over the air. During a session the media can
be encoded using different codecs. The encoded media has to traverse be encoded using different codecs. The encoded media has to traverse
the radio interface. The radio interface is generally characterized the radio interface. The radio interface is generally characterized
by being bit error prone and associated with relatively high packet by being bit error prone and associated with relatively high packet
transfer delays. In addition, radio interface resources in a transfer delays. In addition, radio interface resources in a
cellular environment are scarce and thus expensive, which calls for cellular environment are scarce and thus expensive, which calls for
special measures in providing a highly efficient transport [7]. In special measures in providing a highly efficient transport [7]. In
order to get an appropriate speech quality in combination with an order to get an appropriate speech quality in combination with an
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configured before transferring the media. These radio bearers are configured before transferring the media. These radio bearers are
dedicated bearers per media type, i.e. codec. dedicated bearers per media type, i.e. codec.
Cellular systems typically configure different radio bearers on Cellular systems typically configure different radio bearers on
different port numbers. Therefore, incoming media has to have different port numbers. Therefore, incoming media has to have
different destination port numbers for the different possible codecs different destination port numbers for the different possible codecs
in order to be routed properly to the correct radio bearer. Thus, in order to be routed properly to the correct radio bearer. Thus,
this is an example in which several RTP sessions are used to carry a this is an example in which several RTP sessions are used to carry a
single media instance (the encoded speech from the sender). single media instance (the encoded speech from the sender).
5.2 DTMF tones 7.2 DTMF tones
Some voice sessions include DTMF tones. Sometimes the voice handling Some voice sessions include DTMF tones. Sometimes the voice handling
is performed by a different host than the DTMF handling. [8] is performed by a different host than the DTMF handling. [8]
contains several examples of how application servers in the network contains several examples of how application servers in the network
gather DTMF tones for the user while the user receives the encoded
speech on his user agent. In this situations it is necessary to
establish two RTP sessions: one for the voice and the other for the
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 4 Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 5
Grouping of media lines in SDP Grouping of media lines in SDP
gather DTMF tones for the user while the user receives the encoded
speech on his user agent. In this situations it is necessary to
establish two RTP sessions: one for the voice and the other for the
DTMF tones. Both RTP sessions are logically part of the same media DTMF tones. Both RTP sessions are logically part of the same media
instance. instance.
5.3 Media flow definition 7.3 Media flow definition
The previous examples show that the definition of a media stream in The previous examples show that the definition of a media stream in
[4] do not cover some scenarios. It cannot be assumed that a single [4] do not cover some scenarios. It cannot be assumed that a single
media instance maps into a single RTP session. Therefore, we media instance maps into a single RTP session. Therefore, we
introduce the definition of a media flow: introduce the definition of a media flow:
Media flow consists of a single media instance, e.g., an audio Media flow consists of a single media instance, e.g., an audio
stream or a video stream as well as a single whiteboard or shared stream or a video stream as well as a single whiteboard or shared
application group. When using RTP, a media flow comprises one or application group. When using RTP, a media flow comprises one or
more RTP sessions. more RTP sessions.
For instance, in a two party call where the voice exchanged can be 7.4 FID semantics
encoded using GSM or PCM, the receiver wants to receive GSM on a
port number and PCM on a different port number. Two RTP sessions
will be established, one carrying GSM and the other carrying PCM.
At any particular moment just one codec is in use. Therefore, at any
moment one of the RTP sessions will not transport any voice. Here
the systems are dealing with a single media flow, but two RTP
sessions.
5.4 FID semantics
Several "m" lines grouped together using FID semantics form a media Several "m" lines grouped together using FID semantics form a media
flow. A media agent handling a media flow that comprises several "m" flow. A media agent handling a media flow that comprises several "m"
lines sends media to different destinations (IP address/port number) lines MUST send a copy of the media to every "m" line part of the
depending on the codec used at any moment. flow as long as the codecs and the direction attribute present in a
particular "m" line allow it.
For instance, a SIP user agent receives an INVITE with the following It is assumed that the application uses only one codec at a time to
body: encode the media produced. This codec MAY change dynamically during
the session, but at any certain moment only one codec is in use.
The application encodes the media using the current codec and checks
one by one all the "m" lines that are part of the flow. If a
particular "m" line contains the codec being used and the direction
attribute is "sendonly" or "sendrecv" a copy of the encoded media is
sent to the address/port specified in that particular media stream.
If either the "m" line does not contain the codec being used or the
direction attribute is neither "sendonly" nor "sendrecv" nothing is
sent over this media stream.
The application typically ends up sending media to different
destinations (IP address/port number) depending on the codec used at
any moment.
7.4.1 Examples of FID
The session description below would be the SDP sent by a SIP user
agent using a cellular access. The user agent supports GSM on port
30000 and AMR on port 30002. When the remote party sends GSM it will
send RTP packets to port number 30000. When AMR is the codec chosen,
packets will be sent to port 30002. Note that the remote party can
switch between both codecs dynamically in the middle of the session.
However, in this example, only one media stream at a time carries
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 6
Grouping of media lines in SDP
voice. The other remains "muted" while its corresponding codec is
not in use.
v=0 v=0
o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 second.example.com o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 two.example.com
t=0 0 t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112 c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112
a=group:FID 1 2 a=group:FID 1 2
m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 3 m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 3
a=rtpmap:3 GSM/8000 a=rtpmap:3 GSM/8000
a=mid:1 a=mid:1
m=audio 30002 RTP/AVP 97 m=audio 30002 RTP/AVP 97
a=rtpmap:97 AMR/8000 a=rtpmap:97 AMR/8000
a=fmtp:97 mode-set=0,2,5,7; mode-change-period=2; mode-change- a=fmtp:97 mode-set=0,2,5,7; mode-change-period=2; mode-change-
neighbor; maxframes=1 neighbor; maxframes=1
a=mid:2 a=mid:2
This would be the SDP sent by a terminal using a cellular access.
The terminal supports GSM on port 30000 and AMR on port 30002. When
the remote party sends GSM it will send RTP packets to port number
30000. When AMR is the codec chosen, packets will be sent to port
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 5
Grouping of media lines in SDP
30002. Note that the remote party can switch between both codecs
dynamically in the middle of the session.
In the previous example a system receives media on the same IP In the previous example a system receives media on the same IP
address on different port numbers. The following example shows how a address on different port numbers. The following example shows how a
system can receive different codecs on different IP addresses. system can receive different codecs on different IP addresses.
v=0 v=0
o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 third.example.com o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 three.example.com
t=0 0 t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112 c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112
a=group:FID 1 2 a=group:FID 1 2
m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.111 c=IN IP4 131.160.1.111
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
a=mid:1 a=mid:1
m=audio 30002 RTP/AVP 97 m=audio 30002 RTP/AVP 97
a=rtpmap:97 AMR/8000 a=rtpmap:97 AMR/8000
a=fmtp:97 mode-set=0,2,5,7; mode-change-period=2; mode-change- a=fmtp:97 mode-set=0,2,5,7; mode-change-period=2; mode-change-
skipping to change at line 294 skipping to change at line 366
The cellular terminal of this example only supports the AMR codec. The cellular terminal of this example only supports the AMR codec.
However, many current IP phones only support PCM (payload 0). In However, many current IP phones only support PCM (payload 0). In
order to be able to interoperate with them, the cellular terminal order to be able to interoperate with them, the cellular terminal
uses a transcoder whose IP address is 131.160.1.111. The cellular uses a transcoder whose IP address is 131.160.1.111. The cellular
terminal includes in its SDP support for PCM at that IP address. terminal includes in its SDP support for PCM at that IP address.
Remote systems will send AMR directly to the terminal but PCM will Remote systems will send AMR directly to the terminal but PCM will
be sent to the transcoder. The transcoder will be configured (using be sent to the transcoder. The transcoder will be configured (using
whatever method) to convert the incoming PCM audio to AMR and send whatever method) to convert the incoming PCM audio to AMR and send
it to the terminal. it to the terminal.
5.4.1 Interactions of "group" with other media level attributes The next example shows that the "group" attribute used with FID
semantics allows to express uni-directional codecs for a bi-
Media level attributes affect a media stream defined by an "m" line. directional media flow. That is, a codec that is only used in one
The presence of "group" does not modify this behavior. direction within a sendrecv media stream.
This property can be used for different purposes. The example below Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 7
shows one possible use of this. A SIP user agent receives an INVITE Grouping of media lines in SDP
with the following body:
v=0 v=0
o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 forth.example.com o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 four.example.com
t=0 0 t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112 c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112
a=group:FID 1 2 a=group:FID 1 2
m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0
a=mid:1 a=mid:1
m=audio 30002 RTP/AVP 8 m=audio 30002 RTP/AVP 8
a=recvonly a=recvonly
a=mid:2 a=mid:2
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 6 A user agent that receives the SDP above knows that at a certain
Grouping of media lines in SDP moment it can send either PCM u-law to port number 30000 or PCM A-
law to port number 30002. However, the media agent also knows that
The media agent knows that at a certain moment it can send either the other end will only send PCM u-law (payload 0).
PCM u-law to port number 30000 or PCM A-law to port number 30002.
However, the media agent also knows that the other end will only
send PCM u-law (payload 0).
Note that the "group" attribute used with FID semantics allows to
express uni-directional codecs for a bi-directional media flow, as
it is shown in the example above.
5.4.2 Media in parallel
It can happen that different "m" lines grouped together using FID The following example shows a session description with different "m"
semantics contain the same codec. The SDP below shows one example of lines grouped together using FID semantics that contain the same
this situation: codec.
v=0 v=0
o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 fifth.example.com o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 five.example.com
t=0 0 t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112 c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112
a=groupe:FID 1 2 3 a=groupe:FID 1 2 3
m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0
a=mid:1 a=mid:1
m=audio 30002 RTP/AVP 8 m=audio 30002 RTP/AVP 8
a=mid:2 a=mid:2
m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0 8 m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0 8
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.111 c=IN IP4 131.160.1.111
a=recvonly a=recvonly
a=mid:3 a=mid:3
If several "m" lines contain the codec used at a certain point of
time media MUST be sent to different destinations in parallel.
At a particular point of time, if the media agent is sending PCM u- At a particular point of time, if the media agent is sending PCM u-
law (payload 0) it sends RTP packets to 131.160.1.112 on port 30000 law (payload 0) it sends RTP packets to 131.160.1.112 on port 30000
and to 131.160.1.111 on port 20000 (first and third "m" lines). If and to 131.160.1.111 on port 20000 (first and third "m" lines). If
it is sending PCM A-law (payload 8) it sends RTP packets to it is sending PCM A-law (payload 8) it sends RTP packets to
131.160.1.112 on port 30002 and to 131.160.1.111 on port 20000 131.160.1.112 on port 30002 and to 131.160.1.111 on port 20000
(second and third "m" lines). (second and third "m" lines).
The system that generated the SDP above supports PCM u-law on port The system that generated the SDP above supports PCM u-law on port
30000 and PCM A-law on port 30002. Besides, it uses an application 30000 and PCM A-law on port 30002. Besides, it uses an application
server whose IP address is 131.160.1.111 that records all the server whose IP address is 131.160.1.111 that records all the
conversation. That is why the application server always receives a conversation. That is why the application server always receives a
copy of the audio stream regardless of the codec being used at any copy of the audio stream regardless of the codec being used at any
given moment (it receives both u-law and A-law). given moment (it actually performs an RTP dump, so it can
effectively receive any codec).
Note that if several "m" lines grouped together using FID semantics Remember that if several "m" lines grouped together using FID
contain the same codec the media agent MUST send media over several semantics contain the same codec the media agent MUST send media
RTP sessions at the same time. over several RTP sessions at the same time.
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 7 Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 8
Grouping of media lines in SDP Grouping of media lines in SDP
5.4.3 DTMF tones encoded as telephony events The last example of this section deals with DTMF tones. DTMF tones
can be transmitted using a regular voice codec or can be transmitted
DTMF tones can be transmitted using a regular voice codec or can be as telephony events. The RTP payload for DTMF tones treated as
transmitted as telephony events. The RTP payload for DTMF tones telephone events is described in RFC 2833 [9]. Below there is an
treated as telephone events is described in RFC 2833 [9]. Below example of an SDP session description using FID semantics and this
there is an example of an SDP session description using FID payload type.
semantics and this payload type.
v=0 v=0
o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 sixth.example.com o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 six.example.com
t=0 0 t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112 c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112
a=group:FID 1 2 a=group:FID 1 2
m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0
a=mid:1 a=mid:1
m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 97 m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 97
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.111 c=IN IP4 131.160.1.111
a=rtpmap:97 telephone-events a=rtpmap:97 telephone-events
a=mid:2 a=mid:2
The remote party would send PCM encoded voice (payload 0) to The remote party would send PCM encoded voice (payload 0) to
131.160.1.112 and DTMF tones encoded as telephony events to 131.160.1.112 and DTMF tones encoded as telephony events to
131.160.1.111. Note that only voice or DTMF is sent at a particular 131.160.1.111. Note that only voice or DTMF is sent at a particular
point of time. When DTMF tones are sent the first media stream does point of time. When DTMF tones are sent the first media stream does
not carry any data and when voice is sent there is no data in the not carry any data and when voice is sent there is no data in the
second media stream. FID semantics provide different destinations second media stream. FID semantics provide different destinations
for alternative codecs. for alternative codecs.
8 Scenarios that FID does not cover
It is worthwhile mentioning some scenarios where the "group"
attribute using existing semantics (particularly FID) might seem to
be applicable but it is not. This section has been included because
we have observed some confusion within the community regarding the
three scenarios described below. This section helps clarify them.
8.1 Parallel encoding using different codecs
FID semantics are useful when the application only uses one codec at
a time. When a particular application encodes the same media using
different codecs FID MUST NOT be used. Some systems that handle DTMF
tones are a typical example of parallel encoding using different
codecs.
Some systems implement the RTP payload defined in RFC 2833, but when Some systems implement the RTP payload defined in RFC 2833, but when
they send DTMF tones they do not mute the voice channel. Therefore, they send DTMF tones they do not mute the voice channel. Therefore,
effectively they are sending two copies of the same DTMF tone: effectively they are sending two copies of the same DTMF tone:
encoded as voice and encoded as a telephony event. When the receiver encoded as voice and encoded as a telephony event. When the receiver
gets both copies it typically uses the telephony event rather than gets both copies it typically uses the telephony event rather than
the tone encoded as voice. FID semantics MUST NOT be used in this the tone encoded as voice. FID semantics MUST NOT be used in this
context to group both media streams since such a system is not using context to group both media streams since such a system is not using
alternative codecs but rather different parallel encodings for the alternative codecs but rather different parallel encodings for the
same information. same information.
6. Usage of the "group" attribute in SIP Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 9
Grouping of media lines in SDP
8.2 Layered encoding
Layered encoding schemes encode media in different layers. Quality
at the receiver varies depending on the number of layers received.
SDP provides a means to group together contiguous multicast
addresses that transport different layers. The "c" line below:
c=IN IP4 224.2.1.1/127/3
is equivalent to the following three "c" lines:
c=IN IP4 224.2.1.1/127
c=IN IP4 224.2.1.2/127
c=IN IP4 224.2.1.3/127
FID MUST NOT be used to group "m" lines that contain the different
layers of layered encoding scheme. Besides, we do not define new
group semantics to provide a more flexible way of grouping different
layers because the already existing SDP mechanism covers the most
useful scenarios.
8.3 Same IP address and port number
If several codecs have to be sent to the same IP address and port,
the traditional SDP syntax of listing several codecs in the same "m"
line MUST be used. FID MUST NOT be used to group "m" lines with the
same IP address/port. Therefore, an SDP like the one below MUST NOT
be generated.
v=0
o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 six.example.com
t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112
a=group:FID 1 2
m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0
a=mid:1
m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 8
a=mid:2
The correct SDP for the session above would be the following one:
v=0
o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 six.example.com
t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112
m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0 8
9. Usage of the "group" attribute in SIP
SDP descriptions are used by several different protocols, SIP among SDP descriptions are used by several different protocols, SIP among
them. We include a section about SIP because the "group" attribute them. We include a section about SIP because the "group" attribute
will most likely be used mainly by SIP systems. will most likely be used mainly by SIP systems.
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 10
Grouping of media lines in SDP
SIP [6] is an application layer protocol for establishing, SIP [6] is an application layer protocol for establishing,
terminating and modifying multimedia sessions. SIP carries session terminating and modifying multimedia sessions. SIP carries session
descriptions in the bodies of the SIP messages but is independent descriptions in the bodies of the SIP messages but is independent
from the protocol used for describing sessions. SDP [2] is one of from the protocol used for describing sessions. SDP [2] is one of
the protocols that can be used for this purpose. the protocols that can be used for this purpose.
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 8 At session establishment SIP provides a three-way handshake (INVITE-
Grouping of media lines in SDP 200 OK-ACK) between end systems. However, just two of these three
messages carry SDP. SDPs MAY be present in INVITE and 200 OK or in
200 OK and ACK. The following sections assume that INVITE and 200 OK
are the ones carrying SDP for the shake of clarity, but everything
is also applicable to the other possible scenario (200 OK and ACK).
6.1 Media alignment 9.1 Mid value in responses
The "mid" attribute is an identifier for a particular media stream.
Therefore, the "mid" value in the response MUST be the same as the
"mid" value in the request. Besides, subsequent requests such as re-
INVITEs SHOULD use the same "mid" value for the already existing
media streams.
Appendix B of [6] describes the usage of SDP in relation to SIP. It Appendix B of [6] describes the usage of SDP in relation to SIP. It
states: "The caller and callee align their media description so that states: "The caller and callee align their media description so that
the nth media stream ("m=" line) in the caller³s session description the nth media stream ("m=" line) in the caller³s session description
corresponds to the nth media stream in the callee³s description." corresponds to the nth media stream in the callee³s description."
The presence of the "group" attribute in an SDP session description The presence of the "group" attribute in an SDP session description
does not modify this behavior. does not modify this behavior.
Since the "mid" attribute provides a means to label "m" lines it Since the "mid" attribute provides a means to label "m" lines it
would be possible to perform media alignment using "mid" labels would be possible to perform media alignment using "mid" labels
rather than matching nth "m" lines. However this would not bring any rather than matching nth "m" lines. However this would not bring any
gain and would add complexity to implementations. Therefore SIP gain and would add complexity to implementations. Therefore SIP
systems MUST perform media alignment matching nth lines regardless systems MUST perform media alignment matching nth lines regardless
of the presence of the "group" or "mid" attributes. of the presence of the "group" or "mid" attributes.
6.2 Mid value in responses If a media stream that contained a particular "mid" identifier in
the request contains a different identifier in the response the
application ignores all the "mid" and "group" lines that might
appear in the session description. The following example illustrates
this scenario:
The "mid" attribute is an identifier for a particular media stream. 9.1.1 Example
Therefore, the "mid" value in the response MUST be the same as the
"mid" value in the request. Besides, subsequent requests such as re-
INVITEs MUST use the same "mid" value for the already existing media
streams.
6.3 Group value in responses Two SIP entities exchange SDPs during session establishment. The
INVITE contained the SDP below:
The "group" attribute in a response will typically be the same as v=0
the one received in the request. However, there are situations when o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 seven.example.com
both are different. In these situations the "group" value to be used t=0 0
in the session is the one present in the response. c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112
a=groupe:FID 1 2
Note the "group value in the response" really refers to the Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 11
"group" value in the last SDP exchanged between both parties. Grouping of media lines in SDP
That is, if in the establishment of a particular session
(INVITE-200 OK-ACK) SDPs are present in the 200 OK and in the m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0 8
ACK (not in the INVITE), the "group" value to be used during a=mid:1
the session will be the one in the ACK. m=audio 30002 RTP/AVP 0 8
a=mid:2
The 200 OK response contains the following SDP:
v=0
o=Bob 289083122 289083122 IN IP4 eigth.example.com
t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.113
a=groupe:FID 1 2
m=audio 25000 RTP/AVP 0 8
a=mid:2
m=audio 25002 RTP/AVP 0 8
a=mid:1
Since alignment of "m" lines is performed based on matching of nth
lines, the first stream had "mid:1" in the INVITE and "mid:2" in the
200 OK. Therefore, the application MUST ignore every "mid" and
"group" lines contained in the SDP.
A well-behaved SIP user agent would have returned the SDP below in
the 200 OK:
v=0
o=Bob 289083122 289083122 IN IP4 nine.example.com
t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.113
a=groupe:FID 1 2
m=audio 25002 RTP/AVP 0 8
a=mid:1
m=audio 25000 RTP/AVP 0 8
a=mid:2
9.2 Group value in responses
A SIP entity that receives a request that contains an "a=group" line
with semantics that it does not understand MUST return a response
without the "group" line. Note that, as it was described in the
previous section, the "mid" lines MUST still be present in the
response.
A SIP entity that receives a request that contains an "a=group" line
which semantics that are understood MUST return a response that
contains an "a=group" line with the same semantics. The
identification-tags contained in this "a=group" lines MUST be the
same that were received in the request or a subset of them (zero
identification-tags is a valid subset). When the identification-tags
in the response are a subset the "group" value to be used in the
session MUST be the one present in the response.
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 12
Grouping of media lines in SDP
SIP entities refuse media streams by setting the port to zero in the
corresponding "m" line. "a=group" lines MUST no contain
identification-tags that correspond to "m" lines with port zero.
Note that grouping of m lines MUST always be requested by the issuer
of the request (the client), never by the issuer of the response
(the server). Since SIP provides a two-way SDP exchange, a server
that requested grouping in a response would not know whether the
"group" attribute was accepted by the client or not. A server that
wants to group media lines SHOULD issue another request after having
responded to the first one (a re-INVITE for instance).
Note that, as we mentioned previously, in this section we are
assuming that the SDPs are present in the INVITE and in the 200
OK. Applying the statement above to the scenario where SDPs are
present in the 200 OK and in the ACK, the entity requesting
grouping would be the server.
9.2.1 Example
The example below shows how the callee refuses a media stream The example below shows how the callee refuses a media stream
offered by the caller setting its port number to zero. The "mid" offered by the caller setting its port number to zero. The "mid"
value corresponding to that media stream is removed from the "group" value corresponding to that media stream is removed from the "group"
value in the response. value in the response.
SDP in the INVITE from caller to callee: SDP in the INVITE from caller to callee:
v=0 v=0
o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 seventh.example.com o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 ten.example.com
t=0 0 t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112 c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112
a=group:FID 1 2 3 a=group:FID 1 2 3
m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0
a=mid:1 a=mid:1
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 9
Grouping of media lines in SDP
m=audio 30002 RTP/AVP 8 m=audio 30002 RTP/AVP 8
a=mid:2 a=mid:2
m=audio 30004 RTP/AVP 3 m=audio 30004 RTP/AVP 3
a=mid:3 a=mid:3
SDP in the INVITE from callee to caller: SDP in the INVITE from callee to caller:
v=0 v=0
o=Bob 289083125 289083125 IN IP4 fifth.example.com o=Bob 289083125 289083125 IN IP4 eleven.example.com
t=0 0 t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.113 c=IN IP4 131.160.1.113
a=group:FID 1 3 a=group:FID 1 3
m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0
a=mid:1 a=mid:1
m=audio 0 RTP/AVP 8 m=audio 0 RTP/AVP 8
a=mid:2 a=mid:2
m=audio 20002 RTP/AVP 3 m=audio 20002 RTP/AVP 3
a=mid:3 a=mid:3
Note that although the media stream was refused the "mid" value was Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 13
still included. Grouping of media lines in SDP
6.4 Backward compatibility 9.3 Capability negotiation
An application that wants to be compliant to this specification MUST A client that understands "group" and "mid" but does not want to
support both "group" and "mid". Supporting just one of them would be make use of them in a particular session MAY want indicate that it
useless. supports them. If a client decides to do that, it SHOULD add an
"a=group" line with zero identification-tags for every semantics it
understands.
A SIP entity that receives a request that contains "group" and "mid" If a server receives a request that contains empty "a=group" lines
attributes, understands them and it is willing to use the grouping it SHOULD add its capabilities also in the form of empty "a=group"
semantics offered returns a response that also contains "group" and lines to its response.
"mid" attributes. This way, the client that issued the request knows
that the server understood this extension.
Note that grouping of m lines is always requested by the issuer of 9.3.1 Example
the request (the client), never by the issuer of the response (the
server). Since there is no response to a response in SIP, a server
that requested grouping in a response would not know whether the
"group" attribute was accepted by the client or not. A server that
wants to group media lines should issue another request after having
responded to the first one (a re-INVITE for instance).
This document does not define any SIP "Require" header. Therefore, A system that supports both LS and FID semantics but does not want
if one of the SIP user agents does not understand the "group" to group any media stream for this particular session generates the
attribute the standard SDP fall back mechanism is used. following SDP:
A client that does not want to perform grouping of media lines in a v=0
session SHOULD NOT add "mid" lines either. The presence of "mid" o=Bob 289083125 289083125 IN IP4 twelve.example.com
lines would not be of any use for the server. Even if the server can t=0 0
see that the client supported "mid" (and obviously "group" also) it c=IN IP4 131.160.1.113
would be impossible to know which particular semantics are supported a=group:LS
(LS or/and FID). a=group:FID
m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0 8
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 10 The server that receives that request supports FID but not LS. It
Grouping of media lines in SDP responds with the SDP below:
6.4.1 Client does not support "group" v=0
o=Laura 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 thirteen.example.com
t=0 0
c=IN IP4 131.160.1.112
a=group:FID
m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0
9.4 Backward compatibility
This document does not define any SIP "Require" header. Therefore,
if one of the SIP user agents does not understand the "group"
attribute the standard SDP fall back mechanism MUST be used
(attributes that are not understood are simply ignored).
9.4.1 Client does not support "group"
This situation does not represent a problem because grouping This situation does not represent a problem because grouping
requests is always performed by clients, not by servers. If the requests is always performed by clients, not by servers. If the
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 14
Grouping of media lines in SDP
client does not support "group" this attribute will just not be client does not support "group" this attribute will just not be
used. used.
6.4.2 Server does not support "group" 9.4.2 Server does not support "group"
The server will ignore the "group" attribute, since it does not The server will ignore the "group" attribute, since it does not
understand it (it will also ignore the "mid" attribute). For LS understand it (it will also ignore the "mid" attribute). For LS
semantics, the server might decide to perform or to not perform semantics, the server might decide to perform or to not perform
synchronization between media streams. synchronization between media streams.
For FID semantics, the server will consider that the session For FID semantics, the server will consider that the session
comprises several media streams. comprises several media streams.
Different implementations would behave in different ways. Different implementations would behave in different ways.
In the case of audio and different "m" lines for different codecs an In the case of audio and different "m" lines for different codecs an
implementation might decide to act as a mixer with the different implementation might decide to act as a mixer with the different
incoming RTP sessions, which is the correct behavior. incoming RTP sessions, which is the correct behavior.
An implementation might also decide to refuse the request (e.g. 488 An implementation might also decide to refuse the request (e.g. 488
Not acceptable here or 606 Not Acceptable) because it contains Not acceptable here or 606 Not Acceptable) because it contains
several "m" lines. In this case, the server does not support the several "m" lines. In this case, the server does not support the
type of session that the caller wanted to establish. In case the type of session that the caller wanted to establish. In case the
client is willing to establish a simpler session anyway, he should client is willing to establish a simpler session anyway, he SHOULD
re-try the request without "group" attribute and only one "m" line re-try the request without "group" attribute and only one "m" line
per flow. per flow.
7. Acknowledgments 10. IANA considerations
The authors would like to thank Jonathan Rosenberg, Adam Roach and As previously stated in section 4, this document defines two
Orit Levin for their feedback on this document. standard semantics related to the "group" attribute: LS (Lip
Synchronization) and FID (Flow Identification). If in the future it
was needed to standardize further semantics they would need to be
defined in a standards track document.
8. References 11. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Jonathan Rosenberg, Adam Roach, Orit
Levin and Joerg Ott for their feedback on this document.
12. References
[1] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [1] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", RFC 2119, IETF; March 1997. Levels", RFC 2119, IETF; March 1997.
[2] M. Handley/V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description Protocol", RFC [2] M. Handley/V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description Protocol", RFC
2327, IETF; April 1998. 2327, IETF; April 1998.
[3] D. Kutscher/J. Ott/C. Bormann, "Session Description and [3] D. Kutscher/J. Ott/C. Bormann, "Session Description and
Capability Negotiation", draft-ietf-mmusic-sdpng-00.txt, IETF; April Capability Negotiation", draft-ietf-mmusic-sdpng-00.txt, IETF; April
2001. Work in progress. 2001. Work in progress.
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 15
Grouping of media lines in SDP
[4] H. Schulzrinne/A. Rao/R. Lanphier, "Real Time Streaming Protocol [4] H. Schulzrinne/A. Rao/R. Lanphier, "Real Time Streaming Protocol
(RTSP)", RFC 2326, IETF; April 1998. (RTSP)", RFC 2326, IETF; April 1998.
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 11
Grouping of media lines in SDP
[5] H. Schulzrinne/S. Casner/R. Frederick/V. Jacobson, "RTP: A [5] H. Schulzrinne/S. Casner/R. Frederick/V. Jacobson, "RTP: A
Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", RFC 1889, IETF; Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", RFC 1889, IETF;
January 1996. January 1996.
[6] M. Handley/H. Schulzrinne/E. Schooler/J. Rosenberg, "SIP: [6] M. Handley/H. Schulzrinne/E. Schooler/J. Rosenberg, "SIP:
Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 2543, IETF; Mach 1999. Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 2543, IETF; Mach 1999.
[7] L. Westberg/M. Lindqvist, "Realtime Traffic over Cellular Access [7] L. Westberg/M. Lindqvist, "Realtime Traffic over Cellular Access
Networks", draft-westberg-realtime-cellular-04.txt, IETF; June 2001. Networks", draft-westberg-realtime-cellular-04.txt, IETF; June 2001.
Work in progress. Work in progress.
[8] J. Rosenberg/P.Mataga/H.Schulzrinne, "An Application Server [8] J. Rosenberg/P.Mataga/H.Schulzrinne, "An Application Server
Component Architecture for SIP", draft-rosenberg-sip-app-components- Component Architecture for SIP", draft-rosenberg-sip-app-components-
00.txt, IETF; November 2000. Work in progress. 00.txt, IETF; November 2000. Work in progress.
[9] H. Schulzrinne/S. Petrack, "RTP Payload for DTMF Digits, [9] H. Schulzrinne/S. Petrack, "RTP Payload for DTMF Digits,
Telephony Tones and Telephony Signals", RFC 2833, IETF; May 2000. Telephony Tones and Telephony Signals", RFC 2833, IETF; May 2000.
9. Authors³ Addresses 13. Authors³ Addresses
Gonzalo Camarillo Gonzalo Camarillo
Ericsson Ericsson
Advanced Signalling Research Lab. Advanced Signalling Research Lab.
FIN-02420 Jorvas FIN-02420 Jorvas
Finland Finland
Phone: +358 9 299 3371 Phone: +358 9 299 3371
Fax: +358 9 299 3052 Fax: +358 9 299 3052
Email: Gonzalo.Camarillo@ericsson.com Email: Gonzalo.Camarillo@ericsson.com
skipping to change at line 635 skipping to change at line 863
Email: Jan.Holler@era.ericsson.se Email: Jan.Holler@era.ericsson.se
Goran AP Eriksson Goran AP Eriksson
Ericsson Research Ericsson Research
S-16480 Stockholm S-16480 Stockholm
Sweden Sweden
Phone: +46 8 58531762 Phone: +46 8 58531762
Fax: +46 8 4047020 Fax: +46 8 4047020
Email: Goran.AP.Eriksson@era.ericsson.se Email: Goran.AP.Eriksson@era.ericsson.se
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson 12 Henning Schulzrinne
Dept. of Computer Science
Columbia University
1214 Amsterdam Avenue
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 16
Grouping of media lines in SDP
New York, NY 10027
USA
Email: schulzrinne@cs.columbia.edu
Camarillo/Holler/Eriksson/Schulzrinne 17
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