Network Working Group                                        A. Petrescu
Internet-Draft                                                 CEA, LIST
Intended status: Standards Track                              N. Benamar
Expires: May 4, June 3, 2017                           Moulay Ismail University
                                                               J. Haerri
                                                                 Eurecom
                                                              C. Huitema

                                                                  J. Lee
                                                    Sangmyung University
                                                                T. Ernst
                                                                  YoGoKo
                                                                   T. Li
                                                      Peloton Technology
                                                        October 31,
                                                       November 30, 2016

 Transmission of IP IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.11 in mode Outside the Context of a
                        Basic Service Set
                 draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-05.txt (OCB)
                 draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-06.txt

Abstract

   In order to transmit IPv6 packets on IEEE 802.11 networks run outside
   the context of a basic service set (OCB, earlier "802.11p") there is
   a need to define a few parameters such as the recommended Maximum
   Transmission Unit size, the header format preceding the IPv6 header,
   the Type value within it, and others.  This document describes these
   parameters for IPv6 and IEEE 802.11 OCB networks; it portrays the
   layering of IPv6 on 802.11 OCB similarly to other known 802.11 and
   Ethernet layers - by using an Ethernet Adaptation Layer.

   In addition, the document attempts to list what is different in
   802.11 OCB (802.11p) compared to more 'traditional' 802.11a/b/g/n
   layers, layers over which IPv6 protocols operates without issues.
   Most notably, the operation outside the context of a BSS (OCB) has
   impact on IPv6 handover behaviour and on IPv6 security.

   An example of an IPv6 packet captured while transmitted over an IEEE
   802.11 OCB link (802.11p) is given.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 4, June 3, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Communication Scenarios where IEEE 802.11p Links are Used . .   6
   4.  Aspects introduced by 802.11p the OCB mode to 802.11  . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Design Considerations .  Layering of IPv6 over 802.11p as over Ethernet  . . . . . . .   9
     5.1.  Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.1.  Vehicle ID .   9
     5.2.  Frame Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.2.  Non IP Communications . . . .
       5.2.1.  Ethernet Adaptation Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10  11
     5.3.  Reliability Requirements  . . . .  Link-Local Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.4.  Privacy requirements . . . . . .  13
     5.4.  Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.5.  Authentication requirements . . . . . . . . .  13
       5.4.1.  Address Mapping -- Unicast  . . . . . .  13
     5.6.  Multiple interfaces . . . . . . .  13
       5.4.2.  Address Mapping -- Multicast  . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.7.  MAC Address Generation  . .
     5.5.  Stateless Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     5.8.  Security Certificate Generation .
     5.6.  Subnet Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   6.  Layering of IPv4 and IPv6 over 802.11p as over Ethernet . . .  15
     6.1.  Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) . . . . .  15
   6.  Handovers between OCB links . . . . . . . .  15
     6.2.  Frame Format . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.  Example IPv6 Packet captured over a IEEE 802.11p link . . . .  17
     7.1.  Capture in Monitor Mode . . . . . . . . .  16
       6.2.1.  Ethernet Adaptation Layer . . . . . . . .  18
     7.2.  Capture in Normal Mode  . . . . . .  17
       6.2.2.  MAC Address Resolution . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   8.  Security Considerations . . . .  18
     6.3.  Link-Local Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   9.  IANA Considerations . . .  19
     6.4.  Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   10. Contributors  . . .  19
       6.4.1.  Address Mapping -- Unicast . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       6.4.2.  Address Mapping -- Multicast . . . . . . . .  24
   11. Acknowledgements  . . . .  19
     6.5.  Stateless Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     6.6.  Subnet Structure . . .  24
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   7.  Handovers between OCB links . . . . . . . .  25
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . .  22
   8.  Example IPv6 Packet captured over a IEEE 802.11p link . . . .  24
     8.1.  Capture in Monitor Mode . . . . .  25
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     8.2.  Capture in Normal Mode . . . . .  26
   Appendix A.  ChangeLog  . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . .  29
   Appendix B.  Explicit Prohibition of IPv6 on Channels
                Related to ITS Scenarios using 802.11p Networks
                - an Analysis  . . . . . . . . . .  29
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . .  31
     B.1.  Interpretation of FCC and ETSI documents             with
           respect to running IP on particular channels  . . . . . .  31
     B.2.  Interpretations of Latencies of IP datagrams  . . . . . .  30
   11. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   Appendix C.  Changes Needed on a software driver 802.11a to
                become a                       802.11-OCB driver . .  33
   Appendix D.  Design Considerations  . . . .  30
   12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     D.1.  Vehicle ID  . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   13. References . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     D.2.  Non IP Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . .  35
     D.3.  Reliability Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     13.2.  Informative References . . .  36
     D.4.  Privacy requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   Appendix A.  ChangeLog . . . .  36
     D.5.  Authentication requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     D.6.  Multiple interfaces . .  35
   Appendix B.  Explicit Prohibition of IPv6 on Channels
                Related to ITS Scenarios using 802.11p Networks
                - an Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     D.7.  MAC Address Generation  . .  37
     B.1.  Interpretation of FCC and ETSI documents             with
           respect to running IP on particular channels . . . . . .  37
     B.2.  Interpretations of Latencies of IP datagrams . . . . . .  38
   Appendix C.  Changes Needed on a software driver 802.11a to
                become a                       802.11p driver . . .  38
   Appendix D.  Use of IPv6 over 802.11p for distribution of
                certificates . . . . . . .
     D.8.  Security Certificate Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40  39
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41  39

1.  Introduction

   This document describes the transmission of IPv6 packets on IEEE Std
   802.11 OCB networks (earlier known as 802.11p).  This involves the
   layering of IPv6 networking on top of the IEEE 802.11 MAC layer (with
   an LLC layer).  Compared to running IPv6 over the Ethernet MAC layer,
   there is no modification required to the standards: IPv6 works fine
   directly over 802.11 OCB too (with an LLC layer).

   The term "802.11p" is an earlier definition.  As of year 2012, the
   behaviour of "802.11p" networks has been rolled in the document IEEE
   Std 802.11-2012.  In this document the term 802.11p disappears.
   Instead, each 802.11p feature is conditioned by a flag in the
   Management Information Base.  That flag is named "OCBActivated".
   Whenever OCBActivated is set to true the feature it relates to
   represents an earlier 802.11p feature.  For example, an 802.11
   STAtion operating outside the context of a basic service set has the
   OCBActivated flag set.  Such a station, when it has the flag set, it
   uses a BSS identifier equal to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.

   In the following text we use the term "802.11p" to mean 802.11-2012
   OCB, and vice-versa.

   As an overview, we illustrate how an IPv6 stack runs over 802.11p by
   layering different protocols on top of each other.  The IPv6
   Networking is layered on top of the IEEE 802.2 Logical-Link Control
   (LLC) layer; this is itself layered on top of the 802.11p MAC; this
   layering illustration is similar to that of running IPv6 over 802.2
   LLC over the 802.11 MAC, or over Ethernet MAC.

                          +-----------------+      +-----------------+
                          |       ...       |      |       ...       |
                          +-----------------+      +-----------------+
                          | IPv6 Networking |      | IPv6 Networking |
                          +-----------------+      +-----------------+
                          |    802.2 LLC    |  vs. |    802.2 LLC    |
                          +-----------------+      +-----------------+
                          |   802.11p MAC   |      |   802.11b MAC   |
                          +-----------------+      +-----------------+
                          |   802.11p PHY   |      |   802.11b PHY   |
                          +-----------------+      +-----------------+

   However, there are several deployment considerations to optimize the
   performances of running IPv6 over 802.11p (e.g. in the case of
   handovers between 802.11p Access Points, or the consideration of
   using the IP security layer).

   We briefly introduce the vehicular communication scenarios where IEEE
   802.11-OCB links are used.  This is followed by a description of
   differences in specification terms, between 802.11p and 802.11a/b/g/n
   (and the same differences expressed in terms of requirements to
   software implementation are listed in Appendix C.)

   The document then concentrates on the parameters of layering IP over
   802.11p as over Ethernet: MTU, Frame Format, Interface Identifier,
   Address Mapping, State-less Address Auto-configuration.  The values
   of these parameters are precisely the same as IPv6 over Ethernet
   [RFC2464]: the recommended value of MTU to be 1500 octets, the Frame
   Format containing the Type 0x86DD, the rules for forming an Interface
   Identifier, the Address Mapping mechanism and the Stateless Address
   Auto-Configuration.

   Similarly, for IPv4, the values of these parameters are precisely the
   same as IPv4 over Ethernet [RFC0894]: the recommended value of MTU to
   be 1500 octets, and the Frame Format containing the Type 0x0800.  For
   IPv4, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) [RFC0826] is used to
   determine the MAC address used for an IPv4 address, exactly as is
   done for Ethernet.

   As an example, these characteristics of layering IPv6 straight over
   LLC over 802.11p MAC are illustrated by dissecting an IPv6 packet
   captured over a 802.11p link; this is described in the section titled
   "Example of IPv6 Packet captured over an IEEE 802.11p link".

   A couple of points can be considered as different, although they are
   not required in order to have a working implementation of IPv6-over-
   802.11p.  These points are consequences of the OCB operation which is
   particular to 802.11p (Outside the Context of a BSS).  First, the
   handovers between OCB links need specific behaviour for IP Router
   Advertisements, or otherwise 802.11p's Time Advertisement, or of
   higher layer messages such as the 'Basic Safety Message' (in the US)
   or the 'Cooperative Awareness Message' (in the EU) or the 'WAVE
   Routing Advertisement'; second, the IP security mechanisms are
   necessary, since OCB means that 802.11p is stripped of all 802.11
   link-layer security; a small additional security aspect which is
   shared between 802.11p and other 802.11 links is the privacy concerns
   related to the address formation mechanisms.  The OCB handovers and
   security are described each in section Section 7 6 and Section 9 8
   respectively.

   In standards, the operation of IPv6 as a 'data plane' over 802.11p is
   specified at IEEE P1609 in [ieeep1609.3-D9-2010].  For example, it
   mentions that "Networking services also specifies the use of the
   Internet protocol IPv6, and supports transport protocols such as UDP
   and TCP. [...]  A Networking Services implementation shall support
   either IPv6 or WSMP or both." and "IP traffic is sent and received
   through the LLC sublayer as specified in [...]".  The layered stacks
   depicted in the "Architecture" document P1609.0 [ieeep1609.0-D2]
   suggest that WSMP messages may not be transmitted as payload of IPv6
   datagrams; WSMP and IPv6 are parallel (not stacked) layers.

   Also, the operation of IPv6 over a GeoNetworking layer and over G5 is
   described in [etsi-302663-v1.2.1p-2013].

   In the published literature, three documents describe aspects related
   to running IPv6 over 802.11p: [vip-wave], [ipv6-80211p-its] and
   [ipv6-wave].

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   RSU: Road Side Unit.

   OCB: Outside the Context of a Basic Service Set identifier.

   OCB - Outside the Context of a Basic-Service Set ID (BSSID).

   802.11-OCB - IEEE 802.11-2012 text flagged by "dot11OCBActivated".
   This means: IEEE 802.11e for quality of service; 802.11j-2004 for
   half-clocked operations; and 802.11p for operation in the 5.9 GHz
   band and in mode OCB.

3.  Communication Scenarios where IEEE 802.11p Links are Used

   The IEEE 802.11p Networks are used for vehicular communications, as
   'Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments'.  The IP communication
   scenarios for these environments have been described in several
   documents, among which we refer the reader to one recently updated
   [I-D.petrescu-its-scenarios-reqs], about scenarios and requirements
   for IP in Intelligent Transportation Systems.

4.  Aspects introduced by 802.11p the OCB mode to 802.11

   In the IEEE 802.11 OCB mode, all nodes in the wireless range can
   directly communicate with each other without authentication/
   association procedures.  Briefly, the IEEE 802.11 OCB mode has the
   following properties:

   o  Wildcard BSSID (i.e., all bits are set to 1) used by each node

   o  No beacons transmitted

   o  No authentication required

   o  No association needed

   o  No encryption provided

   o  dot11OCBActivated OID set to true

   The link 802.11p is specified in IEEE Std 802.11p(TM)-2010
   [ieee802.11p-2010] as an amendment to the 802.11 specifications,
   titled "Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments".
   Since then, these 802.11p amendments have been included in IEEE
   802.11(TM)-2012 [ieee802.11-2012], titled "IEEE Standard for
   Information technology--Telecommunications and information exchange
   between systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific
   requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and
   Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications"; the modifications are diffused
   throughout various sections (e.g. 802.11p's Time Advertisement
   message is described in section 'Frame formats', and the operation
   outside the context of a BSS described in section 'MLME').

   In document 802.11-2012, specifically anything referring
   "OCBActivated", or "outside the context of a basic service set" is
   actually referring to the 802.11p aspects introduced to 802.11.  Note
   in earlier 802.11p documents the term "OCBEnabled" was used instead.

   In order to delineate the aspects introduced by 802.11p to 802.11, we
   refer to the earlier [ieee802.11p-2010].  The amendment is concerned
   with vehicular communications, where the wireless link is similar to
   that of Wireless LAN (using a PHY layer specified by 802.11a/b/g/n),
   but which needs to cope with the high mobility factor inherent in
   scenarios of communications between moving vehicles, and between
   vehicles and fixed infrastructure deployed along roads.  While 'p' is
   a letter just like 'a, b, g' and 'n' are, 'p' is concerned more with
   MAC modifications, and a little with PHY modifications; the others
   are mainly about PHY modifications.  It is possible in practice to
   combine a 'p' MAC with an 'a' PHY by operating outside the context of
   a BSS with OFDM at 5.4GHz.

   The 802.11p links are specified to be compatible as much as possible
   with the behaviour of 802.11a/b/g/n and future generation IEEE WLAN
   links.  From the IP perspective, an 802.11p MAC layer offers
   practically the same interface to IP as the WiFi and Ethernet layers
   do (802.11a/b/g/n and 802.3).

   To support this similarity statement (IPv6 is layered on top of LLC
   on top of 802.11p similarly as on top of LLC on top of 802.11a/b/g/n,
   and as on top of LLC on top of 802.3) it is useful to analyze the
   differences between 802.11p and non-p 802.11 specifications.  Whereas
   the 802.11p amendment specifies relatively complex and numerous
   changes to the MAC layer (and very little to the PHY layer), we note
   there are only a few characteristics which may be important for an
   implementation transmitting IPv6 packets on 802.11p links.

   In the list below, the only 802.11p fundamental points which
   influence IPv6 are the OCB operation and the 12Mbit/s maximum which
   may be afforded by the IPv6 applications.

   o  Operation Outside the Context of a BSS (OCB): the 802.11p links
      are operated without a Basic Service Set (BSS).  This means that
      the messages Beacon, Association Request/Response, Authentication
      Request/Response, and similar, are not used.  The used identifier
      of BSS (BSSID) has a hexadecimal value always ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
      (48 '1' bits, or the 'wildcard' BSSID), as opposed to an arbitrary
      BSSID value set by administrator (e.g.  'My-Home-AccessPoint').
      The OCB operation - namely the lack of beacon-based scanning and
      lack of authentication - has a potentially strong impact on the
      use of the Mobile IPv6 protocol and on the protocols for IP layer
      security.

   o  Timing Advertisement: is a new message defined in 802.11p, which
      does not exist in 802.11a/b/g/n.  This message is used by stations
      to inform other stations about the value of time.  It is similar
      to the time as delivered by a GNSS system (Galileo, GPS, ...) or
      by a cellular system.  This message is optional for
      implementation.  At the date of writing, an experienced reviewer
      considers that currently no field testing has used this message.
      Another implementor considers this feature implemented in an
      initial manner.  In the future, it is speculated that this message
      may be useful for very simple devices which may not have their own
      hardware source of time (Galileo, GPS, cellular network), or by
      vehicular devices situated in areas not covered by such network
      (in tunnels, underground, outdoors but shaded by foliage or
      buildings, in remote areas, etc.)

   o  Frequency range: this is a characteristic of the PHY layer, with
      almost no impact to the interface between MAC and IP.  However, it
      is worth considering that the frequency range is regulated by a
      regional authority (ARCEP, ETSI, FCC, etc.); as part of the
      regulation process, specific applications are associated with
      specific frequency ranges.  In the case of 802.11p, the regulator
      associates a set of frequency ranges, or slots within a band, to
      the use of applications of vehicular communications, in a band
      known as "5.9GHz".  This band is "5.9GHz" which is different from
      the bands "2.4GHz" or "5GHz" used by Wireless LAN.  However, as
      with Wireless LAN, the operation of 802.11p in "5.9GHz" bands is
      exempt from owning a license in EU (in US the 5.9GHz is a licensed
      band of spectrum; for the the fixed infrastructure an explicit FCC
      autorization is required; for an onboard device a 'licensed-by-
      rule' concept applies: rule certification conformity is required);
      however technical conditions are different than those of the bands
      "2.4GHz" or "5GHz".  On one hand, the allowed power levels, and
      implicitly the maximum allowed distance between vehicles, is of
      33dBm for 802.11p (in Europe), compared to 20 dBm for Wireless LAN
      802.11a/b/g/n; this leads to a maximum distance of approximately
      1km, compared to approximately 50m.  On the hand, specific
      conditions related to congestion avoidance, jamming avoidance, and
      radar detection are imposed on the use of DSRC (in US) and on the
      use of frequencies for Intelligent Transportation Systems (in EU),
      compared to Wireless LAN (802.11a/b/g/n).

   o  Explicit prohibition of IPv6 on some channels relevant for the PHY
      of IEEE 802.11p, as opposed to IPv6 not being prohibited on any
      channel on which 802.11a/b/g/n runs; for example, IPv6 is
      prohibited on the 'Control Channel' (number 178 at FCC/IEEE, and
      180 at ETSI); for a detailed analysis of IEEE and ETSI prohibition
      of IP in particular channels see Appendix B.

   o  'Half-rate' encoding: as the frequency range, this parameter is
      related to PHY, and thus has not much impact on the interface
      between the IP layer and the MAC layer.  The standard IEEE 802.11p
      uses OFDM encoding at PHY, as other non-b 802.11 variants do.
      This considers 20MHz encoding to be 'full-rate' encoding, as the
      earlier 20MHz encoding which is used extensively by 802.11b.  In
      addition to the full-rate encoding, the OFDM rates also involve
      5MHz and 10MHz.  The 10MHz encoding is named 'half-rate'.  The
      encoding dictates the bandwidth and latency characteristics that
      can be afforded by the higher-layer applications of IP
      communications.  The half-rate means that each symbol takes twice
      the time to be transmitted; for this to work, all 802.11 software
      timer values are doubled.  With this, in certain channels of the
      "5.9GHz" band, a maximum bandwidth of 12Mbit/s is possible,
      whereas in other "5.9GHz" channels a minimal bandwidth of 1Mbit/s
      may be used.  It is worth mentioning the half-rate encoding is an
      optional feature characteristic of OFDM PHY (compared to 802.11b's
      full-rate 20MHz), used by 802.11a before 802.11p used it.  In
      addition to the half-rate (10MHz) used by 802.11p in some
      channels, some other 802.11p channels may use full-rate (20MHz) or
      quarter-rate(?) (5MHz) encoding instead.

   o  It is worth mentioning that more precise interpretations of the
      'half-rate' term suggest that a maximum throughput be 27Mbit/s
      (which is half of 802.11g's 54Mbit/s), whereas 6Mbit/s or 12Mbit/s
      throughputs represent effects of further 802.11p-specific PHY
      reductions in the throughput necessary to better accommodate
      vehicle-class speeds and distance ranges.

   o  In vehicular communications using 802.11p links, there are strong
      privacy concerns with respect to addressing.  While the 802.11p
      standard does not specify anything in particular with respect to
      MAC addresses, in these settings there exists a strong need for
      dynamic change of these addresses (as opposed to the non-vehicular
      settings - real wall protection - where fixed MAC addresses do not
      currently pose some privacy risks).  This is further described in
      section Section 9. 8.

   Other aspects particular to 802.11p which are also particular to
   802.11 (e.g. the 'hidden node' operation) may have an influence on
   the use of transmission of IPv6 packets on 802.11p networks.  The
   subnet structure which may be assumed in 802.11p networks is strongly
   influenced by the mobility of vehicles.

5.  Design Considerations

   The networks defined by 802.11-OCB are in many ways similar to other
   networks of the 802.11 family.  In theory, the encapsulation  Layering of IPv6 over 802.11-OCB could be very similar to 802.11p as over Ethernet

5.1.  Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)

   The default MTU for IP packets on 802.11p is 1500 octets.  It is the operation of
   same value as IPv6 over
   other networks packets on Ethernet links, as specified in
   [RFC2464].  This value of the 802.11 family.  However, the high mobility,
   strong link asymetry and very short connection makes MTU respects the 802.11-OCB recommendation that
   every link significantly different from other 802.11 networks.  Also, in the
   automotive applications Internet must have specific requirements for reliability,
   security a minimum MTU of 1280 octets
   (stated in [RFC2460], and privacy, which further add to the particularity recommendations therein, especially
   with respect to fragmentation).  If IPv6 packets of the
   802.11-OCB link.

   This section does not address safety-related applications, which size larger than
   1500 bytes are
   done sent on non-IP communications.  However, this section an 802.11-OCB interface then the IP stack will consider
   fragment.  In case there are IP fragments, the transmission field "Sequence
   number" of such non IP communication in the design
   specification 802.11 Data header containing the IP fragment field is
   increased.

   Non-IP packets such as WAVE Short Message Protocol (WSMP) can be
   delivered on 802.11-OCB links.  Specifications of IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB.

5.1.  Vehicle ID

   Automotive networks require these packets are
   out of scope of this document, and do not impose any limit on the unique representation MTU
   size, allowing an arbitrary number of each 'containers'.  Non-IP packets
   such as ETSI 'geonet' packets have an MTU of
   their node.  Accordingly, 1492 bytes.

   The Equivalent Transmit Time on Channel is a vehicle must concept that may be identified by at least
   one unique ID.  The current specification at ETSI and at IEEE 1609
   identifies a vehicle by its MAC address uniquely obtained from used
   as an alternative to the
   802.11-OCB NIC. MTU concept.  A MAC address uniquely obtained from a IEEE 802.11-OCB NIC
   implicitely generates multiple vehicle IDs in case rate of multiple
   802.11-OCB NICs.  A mechanims to uniquely identify a vehicle
   irrespectively to the different NICs and/or technologies is required.

5.2.  Non IP Communications

   In IEEE 1609 transmission may be
   specified as well.  The ETTC, rate and ETSI ITS, safety-related communications CANNOT MTU may be
   used with in direct
   relationship.

5.2.  Frame Format

   IP datagrams.  For example, Basic Safety Message (BSM, an
   IEEE 1609 datagram) and Cooperative Awareness Message (CAM, an ETSI
   ITS-G5 datagram), packets are each transmitted over 802.11p as a payload that is preceded
   by link-layer headers, without standard Ethernet packets.
   As with all 802.11 frames, an IP header.

   Each vehicle taking part of traffic (i.e. having its engine turned on
   and being located on a road) MUST use Non IP communication to
   periodically broadcast its status information (ID, GPS position,
   speed,..) Ethernet adaptation layer is used with
   802.11p as well.  This Ethernet Adaptation Layer 802.11-to-Ethernet
   is described in its immediate neighborhood.  Using these mechanisms,
   vehicles become 'aware' of Section 5.2.1.  The Ethernet Type code (EtherType)
   for IPv6 is 0x86DD (hexadecimal 86DD, or otherwise #86DD).

   The Frame format for transmitting IPv6 on 802.11p networks is the presence of other vehicles
   same as transmitting IPv6 on Ethernet networks, and is described in their
   immediate vicinity.  Therefore, IP communication being transmitted by
   vehicles taking part
   section 3 of traffic MUST co-exist with Non IP
   communication and SHOULD NOT break any Non IP mechanism, including
   'harmful' interference on the channel. [RFC2464].  The ID of the vehicle frame format for transmitting Non IP communication IPv6
   packets over Ethernet is
   transmitted in the src MAC address of the IEEE 1609 illustrated below:

                         0                   1
                         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
                         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                         |          Destination          |
                         +-                             -+
                         |            Ethernet           |
                         +-                             -+
                         |            Address            |
                         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                         |             Source            |
                         +-                             -+
                         |            Ethernet           |
                         +-                             -+
                         |            Address            |
                         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                         |1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1|
                         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                         |             IPv6              |
                         +-                             -+
                         |            header             |
                         +-                             -+
                         |             and               |
                         +-                             -+
                         / ETSI-ITS-G5
   datagrams.  Accordingly, non-IP communications expose the ID of each
   vehicle, which may be considered as            payload ...        /
                         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                         (Each tic mark represents one bit.)

5.2.1.  Ethernet Adaptation Layer

   In general, an 'adaptation' layer is inserted between a privacy breach.

   IEEE 802.11-OCB bypasses MAC layer and
   the authentication mechanisms of IEEE 802.11
   networks, in order Networking layer.  This is used to transmit non transform some parameters
   between their form expected by the IP communications to without any
   delay.  This may be considered as a security breach.

   IEEE 1609 stack and ETSI ITS the form provided strong security by
   the MAC layer.  For example, an 802.15.4 adaptation layer may perform
   fragmentation and privacy
   mechanisms for Non IP Communications.  Security (authentication,
   encryption) reassembly operations on a MAC whose maximum Packet
   Data Unit size is done smaller than the minimum MTU recognized by asymetric cryptography, where each vehicle
   attaches its public key the IPv6
   Networking layer.  Other examples involve link-layer address
   transformation, packet header insertion/removal, and its certificate so on.

   An Ethernet Adaptation Layer makes an 802.11 MAC look to all of its non IP
   messages.  Privacy is enforced through the use of Pseudonymes.  Each
   vehicle will be pre-loaded with a large number (>1000s) of
   pseudonymes generated by a PKI, which will uniquely assign a
   pseudonyme to a certificate (and thus to
   Networking layer as a public/private key pair).

   Non IP Communication being developped for safety-critical
   applications, complex mechanisms have been provided for their
   support.  These mechanisms are OPTIONAL for IP Communication, but
   SHOULD be used whenever possible.

5.3.  Reliability Requirements

   The dynamically changing topology, short connectivity, mobile
   transmitter more traditional Ethernet layer.  At reception,
   this layer takes as input the IEEE 802.11 Data Header and receivers, different antenna heights, the
   Logical-Link Layer Control Header and many-to-
   many communication types, make IEEE 802.11-OCB links significantly
   different from other IEEE produces an Ethernet II Header.
   At sending, the reverse operation is performed.

            +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
            | 802.11 links.  Any Data Header | LLC Header  | IPv6 mechanism operating
   on IEEE 802.11-OCB link MUST support strong link asymetry, spatio-
   temporal link quality, fast address resolution Header | Payload |
            +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
                                    ^
                                    |
                                    802.11-to-Ethernet Adaptation Layer
                                    |
                                    v

            +---------------------+-------------+---------+
            | Ethernet II Header  | IPv6 Header | Payload |
            +---------------------+-------------+---------+

   The Receiver and transmission.

   IEEE 802.11-OCB strongly differs from other Transmitter Address fields in the 802.11 systems to operate
   outside of Data Header
   contain the context of a Basic Service Set.  This means in
   practice that IEEE 802.11-OCB does not rely on a Base Station for all
   Basic Service Set management.  In particular, IEEE 802.11-OCB SHALL
   NOT use beacons.  Any IPv6 mechanism requiring L2 services from IEEE
   802.11 beacons MUST support an alternative service.

   Channel scanning being disabled, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB MUST
   implement a mechanism for transmitter and receiver to converge to a
   common channel.

   Authentication not being possible, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB MUST
   implement an distributed mechanism to authenticate transmitters and
   receivers without same values as the support of a DHCP server.

   Time synchronization not being available, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB
   MUST implement a higher layer mechanism for time synchronization
   between transmitters Destination and receivers without the support of a NTP
   server.

   The IEEE 802.11-OCB link being asymetic, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB
   MUST disable management mechanisms requesting acknowledgements or
   replies.

   The IEEE 802.11-OCB link having a short duration time, IPv6 over IEEE
   802.11-OCB MUST implement fast IPv6 mobility management mechanisms.

5.4.  Privacy requirements

   Vehicles will move.  As each vehicle moves, it needs to regularly
   announce its network interface and reconfigure its local and global
   view of its network.  L2 mechanisms of IEEE 802.11-OCB MAY be
   employed to assist IPv6 in discovering new network interfaces.  L3
   mechanisms over IEEE 802.11-OCB SHOULD be used to assist IPv6 Source Address
   fields in
   discovering new network interfaces. the Ethernet II Header, respectively.  The headers value of the L2 mechanisms of IEEE 802.11-OCB and L3 management
   mechanisms of IPv6 are not encrypted, and
   Type field in the LLC Header is the same as such expose at least the
   src MAC address value of the sender.  In Type
   field in the absence of mitigations,
   adversaries could monitor the L2 or L3 management headers, track Ethernet II Header.

   When the
   MAC Addresses, and through that track MTU value is smaller than the position size of vehicles over
   time; in some cases, it is possible to deduce the vehicle
   manufacturer name from IP packet to be
   sent, the OUI of IP layer fragments the MAC address of packet into multiple IP fragments.
   During this operation, the interface
   (with help of additional databases).  It is important that sniffers
   along roads not be able to easily identify private information "Sequence number" field of
   automobiles passing by.

   Similary to Non IP safety-critical communications, the obvious
   mitigation 802.11 Data
   Header is to use some form of MAC Address Randomization.  We increased.

   In OCB mode, IPv6 packets can
   assume that there will be "renumbering events" causing transmitted either as "IEEE 802.11
   Data" or alternatively as "IEEE 802.11 QoS Data", as illustrated in
   the MAC
   Addresses to change.  Clearly, a change of MAC Address should induce
   a simultaneous change of following figure:

            +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
            | 802.11 Data Header | LLC Header  | IPv6 Addresses, to prevent linkage of Header | Payload |
            +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+

                                       or

            +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
            | 802.11 QoS Data Hdr| LLC Header  | IPv6 Header | Payload |
            +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+

   The distinction between the
   old and new MAC Addresses through continuous use two formats is given by the value of the same IP
   Addresses.
   field "Type/Subtype".  The change value of an IPv6 address also implies the change field "Type/Subtype" in the
   802.11 Data header is 0x0020.  The value of the network
   prefix.  Prefix delegation mechanisms should be available to vehicles
   to obtain new prefixes during "renumbering events".

   Changing MAC and IPv6 addresses will disrupt communications, which
   goes against field "Type/Subtype"
   in the reliability requirements expressed 802.11 QoS header is 0x0028.

   The mapping between qos-related fields in [TS103097].
   We will assume that the renumbering events happen only during "safe"
   periods, e.g.  when IPv6 header (e.g.
   "Traffic Class", "Flow label") and fields in the vehicle has come to "802.11 QoS Data
   Header" (e.g.  "QoS Control") are not specified in this document.
   Guidance for a full stop. potential mapping is provided in
   [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11], although it is not specific to OCB
   mode.

5.3.  Link-Local Addresses

   The
   determination link-local address of such safe periods an 802.11p interface is formed in the responsibility same
   manner as on an Ethernet interface.  This manner is described in
   section 5 of
   implementors.  In automobile settings [RFC2464].

5.4.  Address Mapping

   For unicast as for multicast, there is no change from the unicast and
   multicast address mapping format of Ethernet interfaces, as defined
   by sections 6 and 7 of [RFC2464].

5.4.1.  Address Mapping -- Unicast

5.4.2.  Address Mapping -- Multicast

   IPv6 protocols often make use of IPv6 multicast addresses in the
   destination field of IPv6 headers.  For example, an ICMPv6 link-
   scoped Neighbor Advertisement is sent to the IPv6 address ff02::1
   denoted "all-nodes" address.  When transmitting these packets on
   802.11-OCB links it is common necessary to decide that
   certain operations (e.g. software update, or map update) must happen
   only during safe periods.

   MAC Address randomization will not prevent tracking if the addresses
   stay constant for long intervals.  Suppose for example that IPv6 address to a vehicle
   only renumbers MAC
   address.

   The same mapping requirement applies to the link-scoped multicast
   addresses of its interface when leaving other IPv6 protocols as well.  In DHCPv6, the
   vehicle owner's garage
   "All_DHCP_Servers" IPv6 multicast address ff02::1:2, and in OSPF the morning.  It would be trivial to
   observe the "number of the day" at the known garage location, and
   "All_SPF_Routers" IPv6 multicast address ff02::5, need to
   associate that be mapped
   on a multicast MAC address.

   An IPv6 packet with a multicast destination address DST, consisting
   of the vehicle's identity.  There sixteen octets DST[1] through DST[16], is clearly a
   tension there.  If renumbering events are too infrequent, they will
   not protect privacy, but if their are too frequent they will affect
   reliability.  We expect that implementors will eventually find transmitted to the
   right balance.

5.5.  Authentication requirements

   IEEE 802.11-OCB does not have L2 authentication mechanisms.
   Accordingly, a vehicle receiving a IPv6 over
   IEEE 802.11-OCB packet
   cannot check or be sure MAC multicast address whose first two octets are the legitimacy
   value 0x3333 and whose last four octets are the last four octets of
   DST.

                                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                 |0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1|0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1|
                                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                 |   DST[13]     |   DST[14]     |
                                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                 |   DST[15]     |   DST[16]     |
                                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   A Group ID TBD of length 112bits may be requested from IANA; this
   Group ID signifies "All 80211OCB Interfaces Address".  Only the src MAC (and associated
   ID).  This is a least
   32 significant breach bits of security.

   Similarly this "All 80211OCB Interfaces Address" will be
   mapped to Non IP safety-critical communications, and from a MAC multicast address.

   Transmitting IPv6 over
   802.11-OCB packets must contain a certificate, including at least the
   public key of the sender, that will allow the receiver to
   authenticate multicast destinations over 802.11 links
   proved to have some performance issues
   [I-D.perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802].  These issues may be
   exacerbated in OCB mode.  Solutions for these problems should
   consider the packet, and guarantee its legitimacy.

   To satisfy the privacy requiremrents of Section 5.4, the certificate
   SHALL be changed at each 'renumbering event'.

5.6.  Multiple interfaces

   There are considerations for 2 or more IEEE 802.11-OCB interface
   cards per vehicle.  For each vehicle taking part in road traffic, one
   IEEE 802.11-OCB interface card MUST be fully allocated for Non IP
   safety-critical communication.  Any other IEEE 802.11-OCB may be used
   for other type of traffic.

   The OCB mode of operation of these other wireless interfaces is not
   clearly defined yet.  One possibility is to consider each card as operation.

5.5.  Stateless Autoconfiguration

   The Interface Identifier for an
   independent network interface, with a specific MAC Address and a set
   of IPv6 addresses.  Another possibility 802.11p interface is to consider formed using the set of
   these wireless interfaces
   same rules as a single network interface (not
   including the IEEE 802.11-OCB interface used by Non IP safety
   critical communications).  This will require specific logic to
   ensure, for example, that packets meant Interface Identifier for a vehicle an Ethernet interface;
   this is described in front section 4 of [RFC2464].  No changes are
   actually sent by needed,
   but some care must be taken when considering the radio use of the SLAAC
   procedure.

   The bits in the front, or that multiple copies of the same packet received by multiple interfaces are interface identifier have no generic meaning and
   the identifier should be treated as a
   single packet.  Treating each wireless an opaque value.  The bits
   'Universal' and 'Group' in the identifier of an 802.11p interface are
   significant, as this is a separate
   network interface pushes such issues to the application layer. IEEE link-layer address.  The privacy requirements details of Section 5.4 imply that if these multiple
   interfaces
   this significance are represented by many network interface, a single
   renumbering event SHALL cause renumbering of described in [I-D.ietf-6man-ug].

   As with all these interfaces.
   If one MAC changed and another stayed constant, external observers
   would be able to correlate old and new values, Ethernet and 802.11 interface identifiers ([RFC7721]),
   the privacy
   benefits identifier of randomization would be lost.

   The an 802.11p interface may involve privacy requirements of Non IP safety-critical communications
   imply that if a change of pseudonyme occurs, renumbering risks.  A
   vehicle embarking an On-Board Unit whose egress interface is 802.11p
   may expose itself to eavesdropping and subsequent correlation of all other
   interfaces SHALL also occur.

5.7.  MAC Address Generation

   When designing
   data; this may reveal data considered private by the vehicle owner.

   If stable Interface Identifiers are needed in order to form IPv6 over 802.11-OCB address mapping, we will
   assume that the MAC Addresses will change during well defined
   "renumbering events".  The 48 bits randomized MAC
   addresses will have
   the following characteristics:

   o  Bit "Local/Global" set to "locally admninistered".

   o  Bit "Unicast/Multicast" set to "Unicast".

   o  46 remaining bits set on 802.11-OCB links, it is recommended to a random value, using a random number
      generator that meets follow the requirements of [RFC4086].
   recommendation in [I-D.ietf-6man-default-iids].

5.6.  Subnet Structure

   The way to meet 802.11 networks in OCB mode may be considered as 'ad-hoc'
   networks.  The addressing model for such networks is described in
   [RFC5889].

6.  Handovers between OCB links

   A station operating IEEE 802.11p in the randomization requirements 5.9 GHz band in US or EU is
   required to retain 46 bits
   from send data frames outside the output context of a strong hash function, such as SHA256, taking as
   input a 256 bit local secret, the "nominal" MAC Address of the
   interface, and a representation of the date and time of the
   renumbering event.

5.8.  Security Certificate Generation

   When designing the IPv6 over 802.11-OCB address mapping, we will
   assume that the MAC Addresses will change during well defined
   "renumbering events".  So MUST also the Security Certificates.
   Unless unavailable, BSS.  In this
   case, the Security Certificate Generation mechanisms
   SHOULD follow station does not utilize the specification in IEEE 1609.2 [ieee16094] 802.11 authentication,
   association, or ETSI TS
   103 097 [TS103097].  These security mechanisms have the following
   characteristics:

   o  Authentication - Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm
      (ECDSA) - A Secured Hash Function (SHA-256) will sign data confidentiality services.  This avoids the message
   latency associated with the public key of the sender.

   o  Encryption - Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) -
      A Key Derivation Function (KDF) between the sender's public key
      and the receiver's private key will generate establishing a symetric key used BSS and is particularly suited
   to encrypt communications between mobile stations or between a packet.

   If mobile station
   and a fixed one playing the mechanisms described in IEEE 1609.2 [ieee16094] or ETSI TS 103
   097 [TS103097] are either not supported or not capable role of running on the hardware, an alternative approach based on Pretty-Good-Privacy
   (PGP) MAY be used default router (e.g. a fixed
   Road-Side Unit a.k.a RSU acting as an alternative.

6.  Layering of IPv4 and IPv6 over 802.11p as over Ethernet

6.1.  Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) infrastructure router).

   The default MTU for IP packets on 802.11p is 1500 octets.  It process of movement detection is the
   same value as IPv6 packets described in section 11.5.1 of
   [RFC6275].  In the context of 802.11p deployments, detecting
   movements between two adjacent RSUs becomes harder for the moving
   stations: they cannot rely on Ethernet links, Layer-2 triggers (such as specified in
   [RFC2464].  This value L2
   association/de-association phases) to detect when they leave the
   vicinity of an RSU and move within coverage of another RSU.  In such
   case, the MTU respects movement detection algorithms require other triggers.  We
   detail below the recommendation potential other indications that
   every link can be used by a
   moving station in order to detect handovers between OCB ("Outside the Internet must have
   Context of a minimum MTU BSS") links.

   A movement detection mechanism may take advantage of 1280 octets
   (stated in [RFC2460], positioning data
   (latitude and longitude).

   Mobile IPv6 [RFC6275] specifies a new Router Advertisement option
   called the recommendations therein, especially
   with respect "Advertisement Interval Option".  It can be used by an RSU
   to fragmentation).  If IPv6 packets of size larger than
   1500 bytes are indicate the maximum interval between two consecutive unsolicited
   Router Advertisement messages sent on an 802.11-OCB interface then by this RSU.  With this option, a
   moving station can learn when it is supposed to receive the IP stack will
   fragment into more IP packets, depending on next RA
   from the initial size.  In
   case there are IP fragments, same RSU.  This can help movement detection: if the field "Sequence number"
   specified amount of time elapses without the
   802.11 Data header containing moving station receiving
   any RA from that RSU, this means that the IP fragment field is increased. RA has been lost.  It is possible up
   to send IP packets of size bigger than the MTU of 1500
   bytes without the IP fragmentation mechanism moving node to determine how many lost RAs from that RSU
   constitutes a handover trigger.

   In addition to the Mobile IPv6 "Advertisement Interval Option", the
   Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD) [RFC4861] can be involved.
   However, in such cases it is not safe used to assume that
   determine whether the on-link
   receiver understands it and does not send RSU is still reachable or not.  In this
   context, reachability confirmation would basically consist in
   receiving a "Packet too Big" ICMPv6 Neighbor Advertisement message back - it likely will.

   It is possible from a RSU, in response to set
   a Neighbor Solicitation message sent by the MTU value on an interface to moving station.  The RSU
   should also configure a low Reachable Time value
   smaller than 1500 bytes, and thus trigger IP fragmentation for
   packets larger than in its RA in order
   to ensure that value.  For example, set the MTU a moving station does not assume an RSU to 500
   bytes and the IP fragmentation will generate IP fragments be
   reachable for too long.

   The Mobile IPv6 "Advertisement Interval Option" as soon well as
   IP packets to be sent are larger than 500 bytes.  However, the lowest
   such limit NUD
   procedure only help knowing if the RSU is 255 bytes. still reachable by the
   moving station.  It is does not possible to set an MTU of 254
   bytes or lower on an interface.

   It provide the moving station with
   information about other potential RSUs that might be in range.  For
   this purpose, it is possible by increasing the RA frequency that the MAC layer fragments as well (in addition delay
   could be reduced to discover the IP layer performing fragmentation). next RSU.  The 802.11 Data Header
   includes a "Fragment number" field and a "More Fragments" field.
   This former is set Neighbor Discovery
   protocol [RFC4861] limits the unsolicited multicast RA interval to 0 usually.

   It a
   minimum of 3 seconds (the MinRtrAdvInterval variable).  This value is
   too high for dense deployments of Access Routers deployed along fast
   roads.  The protocol Mobile IPv6 [RFC6275] allows routers to send
   such RA more frequently, with a minimum possible that of 0.03 seconds (the
   same MinRtrAdvInterval variable): this should be preferred to ensure
   a faster detection of the application layer fragments.

   Non-IP potential RSUs in range.

   However, frequent RAs (every 0.03 seconds) may occupy the channel
   with too many packets such as WAVE Short Message Protocol (WSMP) can leading to other significant packets being
   lost.  There is a tradeoff to be
   delivered on 802.11-OCB links.  Specifications established: the more frequent the
   RAs the better handover performance but the more risks of these packets packet
   loss.

   If multiple RSUs are
   out of scope of this document, and do not impose any limit on in the MTU
   size, allowing an arbitrary number of 'containers'.  Non-IP packets
   such as ETSI 'geonet' packets have an MTU vicinity of 1492 bytes.

   The Equivalent Transmit Time on Channel is a concept that moving station at the same
   time, the station may not be used
   as an alternative able to choose the MTU concept. "best" one (i.e. the
   one that would afford the moving station spending the longest time in
   its vicinity, in order to avoid too frequent handovers).  In this
   case, it would be helpful to base the decision on the signal quality
   (e.g.  the RSSI of the received RA provided by the radio driver).  A rate
   better signal would probably offer a longer coverage.  If, in terms
   of transmission may be
   specified as well.  The ETTC, rate and MTU may RA frequency, it is not possible to adopt the recommendations of
   protocol Mobile IPv6 (but only the Neighbor Discovery specification
   ones, for whatever reason), then another message than the RA could be
   emitted periodically by the Access Router (provided its specification
   allows to send it very often), in direct
   relationship.

6.2.  Frame Format

   IP packets are transmitted over 802.11p as standard Ethernet packets.
   As with all 802.11 frames, an Ethernet adaptation order to help the Host determine
   the signal quality.  One such message may be the 802.11p's Time
   Advertisement, or higher layer is used with
   802.11p messages such as well.  This Ethernet Adaptation Layer 802.11-to-Ethernet
   is described in Section 6.2.1.  The Ethernet Type code (EtherType)
   for IPv6 is 0x86DD (hexadecimal 86DD, the "Basic Safety
   Message" (in the US) or otherwise #86DD).  The
   EtherType code for IPv4 is 0x0800.

   The Frame format the "Cooperative Awareness Message " (in the
   EU), that are usually sent several times per second.  Another
   alternative replacement for transmitting the IPv6 on 802.11p networks Router Advertisement may be the
   message 'WAVE Routing Advertisement' (WRA), which is part of the
   same as transmitting IPv6 on Ethernet networks, WAVE
   Service Advertisement and which may contain optionally the
   transmitter location; this message is described in section 3 8.2.5 of [RFC2464].  The Frame format for transmitting IPv4 on
   802.11p networks is
   [ieeep1609.3-D9-2010].

   Once the same as transmitting IPv4 on Ethernet
   networks and is described in [RFC0894].  For sake choice of completeness, the frame format for transmitting IPv6 over Ethernet is illustrated
   below:

                         0                   1
                         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
                         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                         |          Destination          |
                         +-                             -+
                         |            Ethernet           |
                         +-                             -+
                         |            Address            |
                         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                         |             Source            |
                         +-                             -+
                         |            Ethernet           |
                         +-                             -+
                         |            Address            |
                         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                         |1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1|
                         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                         |             IPv6              |
                         +-                             -+
                         |            header             |
                         +-                             -+
                         |             and               |
                         +-                             -+
                         /            payload ...        /
                         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                         (Each tic mark represents one bit.)

6.2.1.  Ethernet Adaptation Layer

   In general, an 'adaptation' layer is inserted between a MAC layer and default router has been performed by the Networking layer.  This is used
   moving node, it can be interesting to transform some parameters
   between their form expected by use Optimistic DAD [RFC4429] in
   order to speed-up the IP stack address auto-configuration and ensure the form provided
   fastest possible Layer-3 handover.

   To summarize, efficient handovers between OCB links can be performed
   by
   the MAC layer.  For example, an 802.15.4 adaptation layer may perform
   fragmentation and reassembly operations on using a MAC whose maximum Packet
   Data Unit size is smaller than combination of existing mechanisms.  In order to improve
   the minimum MTU recognized by default router unreachability detection, the IPv6
   Networking layer.  Other examples involve link-layer address
   transformation, packet header insertion/removal, RSU and so on.

   An Ethernet Adaptation Layer makes an 802.11 MAC look to IP
   Networking layer moving
   stations should use the Mobile IPv6 "Advertisement Interval Option"
   as a more traditional Ethernet layer.  At reception,
   this layer takes well as input the IEEE 802.11 Data Header and rely on the
   Logical-Link Layer Control Header and produces an Ethernet II Header.
   At sending, NUD mechanism.  In order to allow the reverse operation is performed.

            +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
            | 802.11 Data Header | LLC Header  | IPv6 Header | Payload |
            +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
                                    ^
                                    |
                                    802.11-to-Ethernet Adaptation Layer
                                    |
                                    v

            +---------------------+-------------+---------+
            | Ethernet II Header  | IPv6 Header | Payload |
            +---------------------+-------------+---------+

   The Receiver and Transmitter Address fields in the 802.11 Data Header
   contain moving
   station to detect potential default router faster, the same values RSU should
   also be able to be configured with a smaller minimum RA interval such
   as the Destination and the Source Address
   fields in the Ethernet II Header, respectively.  The value of the
   Type field in the LLC Header is one recommended by Mobile IPv6.  When multiple RSUs are
   available at the same as time, the value of moving station should perform the Type
   field in
   handover decision based on the Ethernet II Header. signal quality.  Finally, optimistic
   DAD can be used to reduce the handover delay.

   The other fields Received Frame Power Level (RCPI) defined in the Data and
   LLC Headers are not used IEEE Std
   802.11-2012, conditioned by the IPv6 stack.

   When the MTU value dotOCBActived flag, is smaller than the size of an information
   element which contains a value expressing the IP packet to power level at which
   that frame was received.  This value may be
   sent, the IP layer fragments the packet into multiple used in comparing power
   levels when triggering IP fragments.
   During this operation, the "Sequence number" field handovers.

7.  Example IPv6 Packet captured over a IEEE 802.11p link

   We remind that a main goal of the 802.11 Data
   Header this document is increased. to make the case that
   IPv6 packets can be transmitted as "IEEE 802.11 Data" or
   alternatively as "IEEE 802.11 QoS Data".

              IEEE 802.11 Data                   IEEE 802.11 QoS Data
              Logical-Link Control               Logical-Link Control
              IPv6 Header                        IPv6 Header

   The value of the field "Type/Subtype" in the 802.11 Data header works fine over 802.11p networks.  Consequently, this section is
   0x0020.  The value
   an illustration of this concept and thus can help the field "Type/Subtype" implementer
   when it comes to running IPv6 over IEEE 802.11p.  By way of example
   we show that there is no modification in the headers when transmitted
   over 802.11p networks - they are transmitted like any other 802.11 QoS
   header is 0x0028.

6.2.2.  MAC Address Resolution

   For IPv4, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) [RFC0826] is used to
   determine the MAC address used for
   and Ethernet packets.

   We describe an IPv4 address, exactly as is
   done for Ethernet.

6.3.  Link-Local Addresses

   For IPv6, the link-local address experiment of capturing an IPv6 packet captured on an
   802.11p interface is formed in link.  In this experiment, the same manner as on packet is an Ethernet interface. IPv6 Router
   Advertisement.  This manner packet is
   described in section 5 of [RFC2464].

   For IPv4, link-local addressing emitted by a Router on its 802.11p
   interface.  The packet is described captured on the Host, using a network
   protocol analyzer (e.g.  Wireshark); the capture is performed in [RFC3927].

6.4.  Address Mapping

   For unicast as for multicast, there two
   different modes: direct mode and 'monitor' mode.  The topology used
   during the capture is no change depicted below.

                 +--------+                                +-------+
                 |        |        802.11-OCB Link         |       |
              ---| Router |--------------------------------| Host  |
                 |        |                                |       |
                 +--------+                                +-------+

   During several capture operations running from a few moments to
   several hours, no message relevant to the unicast and
   multicast address mapping format of Ethernet interfaces, as defined
   by sections 6 and 7 BSSID contexts were
   captured (no Association Request/Response, Authentication Req/Resp,
   Beacon).  This shows that the operation of [RFC2464].

   (however, there 802.11p is discussion about geography, networking and IPv6
   multicast addresses: geographical dissemination outside the
   context of a BSSID.

   Overall, the captured message is identical with a capture of an IPv6 data over
   packet emitted on a 802.11b interface.  The contents are precisely
   similar.

   The popular wireshark network protocol analyzer is a free software
   tool for Windows and Unix.  It includes a dissector for 802.11p may be useful
   features along with all other 802.11 features (i.e. it displays these
   features in traffic jams, for example).

6.4.1.  Address Mapping -- Unicast

6.4.2.  Address Mapping -- Multicast

   IPv6 protocols often make use of a human-readable format).

7.1.  Capture in Monitor Mode

   The IPv6 multicast addresses RA packet captured in monitor mode is illustrated below.
   The radio tap header provides more flexibility for reporting the
   destination field
   characteristics of IPv6 headers.  For example, an ICMPv6 link-
   scoped Neighbor Advertisement frames.  The Radiotap Header is sent prepended by this
   particular stack and operating system on the Host machine to the IPv6 address ff02::1
   denoted "all-nodes" address.  When transmitting these packets on
   802.11-OCB links it RA
   packet received from the network (the Radiotap Header is necessary to map not present
   on the IPv6 address to a MAC
   address. air).  The same mapping requirement applies to implementation-dependent Radiotap Header is useful
   for piggybacking PHY information from the link-scoped multicast
   addresses of other IPv6 protocols chip's registers as well.  In DHCPv6, the
   "All_DHCP_Servers" IPv6 multicast address ff02::1:2, and data in OSPF the
   "All_SPF_Routers" IPv6 multicast address ff02::5, need to be mapped
   on
   a multicast MAC address.

   An IPv6 packet with a multicast destination address DST, consisting understandable by userland applications using Socket
   interfaces (the PHY interface can be, for example: power levels, data
   rate, ratio of the sixteen octets DST[1] through DST[16], is transmitted signal to noise).

   The packet present on the air is formed by IEEE 802.11-OCB MAC multicast address whose first two octets are the
   value 0x3333 802.11 Data Header,
   Logical Link Control Header, IPv6 Base Header and whose last four octets are the last four octets of
   DST.

                                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                 |0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1|0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1|
                                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ICMPv6 Header.

     Radiotap Header v0
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Header Revision|  Header Pad   |   DST[13]    Header length              |   DST[14]
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |
                                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                         Present flags                         |   DST[15]
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   DST[16] Data Rate     |
                                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Other than link-scope addressing, it may be possible to conceive
   other IPv6 multicast addresses for specific use in vehicular
   communication scenarios.  For example, certain vehicle types (or road
   infrastructure equipment) in a zone can be denoted by an IPv6
   multicast address: "all-yellow-taxis-in-street", or "all-uber-cars".
   This helps sending a message to these particular types of vehicles,
   instead of sending to all vehicles in that same street.  The
   protocols SDP             Pad                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     IEEE 802.11 Data Header
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Type/Subtype and LLDP could further be used in managing this as a
   service.

   It may be possible to map parts of other-than-link-scope Frame Ctrl  |          Duration             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Receiver Address...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ... Receiver Address           |      Transmitter Address...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ... Transmitter Address                                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                            BSS Id...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ... BSS Id                     |  Frag Number and Seq Number   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Logical-Link Control Header
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      DSAP   |I|     SSAP    |C| Control field | Org. code...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ... Organizational Code        |             Type              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     IPv6
   multicast address (e.g. parts of a global-scope IPv6 multicast
   address) into parts Base Header
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Version| Traffic Class |           Flow Label                  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Payload Length        |  Next Header  |   Hop Limit   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +                         Source Address                        +
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +                      Destination Address                      +
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Router Advertisement
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |     Code      |          Checksum             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Cur Hop Limit |M|O|  Reserved |       Router Lifetime         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                         Reachable Time                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          Retrans Timer                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Options ...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   The value of a 802.11-OCB MAC address. the Data Rate field in the Radiotap header is set to 6
   Mb/s.  This may help
   certain IPv6 operations.

   A Group ID TBD of length 112bits may be requested from IANA; this
   Group ID signifies "All 80211OCB Interfaces Address".  Only indicates the least
   32 significant bits of rate at which this "All 80211OCB Interfaces Address" will be
   mapped to and from a MAC multicast address.

   Alternatively, instead RA was received.

   The value of 0x3333 the Transmitter address other addresses reserved at
   IEEE can be considered.  The Group MAC addresses reserved at IEEE are
   listed at https://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/grpmac/
   public.html (address browsed in July 2016).

6.5.  Stateless Autoconfiguration

   The Interface Identifier for an 802.11p interface is formed using the
   same rules as the Interface Identifier for an Ethernet interface;
   this IEEE 802.11 Data Header
   is described in section 4 set to a 48bit value.  The value of [RFC2464].  No changes are needed,
   but some care must be taken when considering the use destination address is
   33:33:00:00:00:1 (all-nodes multicast address).  The value of the SLAAC
   procedure.

   For example, the Interface Identifier for an 802.11p interface whose
   built-in address is, in hexadecimal:

                                        30-14-4A-D9-F9-6C

   would be

                                     32-14-4A-FF-FE-D9-F9-6C.

   The bits in the the interface identifier have no generic meaning and BSS
   Id field is ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, which is recognized by the identifier should be treated network
   protocol analyzer as an opaque value. being "broadcast".  The bits
   'Universal' Fragment number and 'Group' in the identifier of an 802.11p interface
   sequence number fields are
   significant, as this is a IEEE link-layer address. together set to 0x90C6.

   The details value of
   this significance are described the Organization Code field in [I-D.ietf-6man-ug].

   As with all Ethernet and 802.11 interface identifiers, the identifier
   of an 802.11p interface may involve privacy risks.  A vehicle
   embarking an On-Board Unit whose egress interface Logical-Link Control
   Header is 802.11p may
   expose itself set to eavesdropping and subsequent correlation 0x0, recognized as "Encapsulated Ethernet".  The
   value of data;
   this may reveal data considered private by the vehicle owner.  The
   address generation mechanism should consider these aspects, Type field is 0x86DD (hexadecimal 86DD, or otherwise
   #86DD), recognized as
   described in [I-D.ietf-6man-ipv6-address-generation-privacy].

6.6.  Subnet Structure

   In this section the subnet structure may be described: "IPv6".

   A Router Advertisement is periodically sent by the addressing
   model (are multi-link subnets considered?), address resolution, router to
   multicast handling, group address ff02::1.  It is an icmp packet forwarding between IP subnets.
   Alternatively, this section may be spinned off into a separate
   document.

   The 802.11p networks, much like other 802.11 networks, may be
   considered as 'ad-hoc' networks. type 134.  The addressing model
   IPv6 Neighbor Discovery's Router Advertisement message contains an
   8-bit field reserved for such
   networks is single-bit flags, as described in [RFC5889]. [RFC4861].

   The SLAAC procedure makes IPv6 header contains the assumption that if a packet is
   retransmitted a fixed number of times (typically 3, but it is link
   dependent), any connected host receives the packet with high
   probability.  On ad-hoc links (when 802.11p is operated in OCB mode,
   the link can be considered as 'ad-hoc'), both local address of the hidden terminal
   problem router
   (source) configured via EUI-64 algorithm, and mobility-range considerations make this assumption
   incorrect.  Therefore, SLAAC should not be used when destination address
   collisions can induce critical errors in upper layers.

   Some aspects of multi-hop ad-hoc wireless communications which are
   relevant set
   to the use ff02::1.  Recent versions of 802.11p network protocol analyzers (e.g.
   Wireshark) provide additional informations for an IP address, if a
   geolocalization database is present.  In this example, the
   geolocalization database is absent, and the "GeoIP" information is
   set to unknown for both source and destination addresses (although
   the 'hidden' node) IPv6 source and destination addresses are described
   in [I-D.baccelli-multi-hop-wireless-communication].

   When operating in OCB mode, it may be appropriate set to use a 6LoWPAN
   adaptation layer [RFC6775].  However, it should useful values).
   This "GeoIP" can be noted that the use
   6lowpan adaptation layer is comparable with a useful information to look up the use of city,
   country, AS number, and other information for an IP address.

   The Ethernet to
   802.11 adaptation layer.

7.  Handovers between OCB links

   A station operating IEEE 802.11p Type field in the 5.9 GHz band in US or EU logical-link control header is
   required set to send data frames outside
   0x86dd which indicates that the context of a BSS. frame transports an IPv6 packet.  In this
   case, the station does not utilize
   the IEEE 802.11 authentication,
   association, or data confidentiality services.  This avoids data, the
   latency associated with establishing a destination address is 33:33:00:00:00:01
   which is he corresponding multicast MAC address.  The BSS and id is particularly suited a
   broadcast address of ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.  Due to communications between mobile stations or the short link
   duration between a mobile station vehicles and a fixed one playing the role of the default router (e.g. a fixed
   Road-Side Unit a.k.a RSU acting as an infrastructure router).

   The process of movement detection roadside infrastructure, there is described
   no need in section 11.5.1 of
   [RFC6275].  In the context of IEEE 802.11p deployments, detecting
   movements between two adjacent RSUs becomes harder for the moving
   stations: they cannot rely on Layer-2 triggers (such as L2
   association/de-association phases) to detect when they leave wait for the
   vicinity completion of an RSU association and move within coverage of another RSU.  In such
   case, the movement detection algorithms require other triggers.  We
   detail below the potential other indications that can be used by a
   moving station in order to detect handovers between OCB ("Outside
   authentication procedures before exchanging data.  IEEE 802.11p
   enabled nodes use the
   Context of a BSS") links.

   A movement detection mechanism may take advantage wildcard BSSID (a value of positioning data
   (latitude all 1s) and longitude).

   Mobile IPv6 [RFC6275] specifies a new Router Advertisement option
   called the "Advertisement Interval Option".  It can be used by an RSU
   to indicate may
   start communicating as soon as they arrive on the maximum interval between two consecutive unsolicited communication
   channel.

7.2.  Capture in Normal Mode

   The same IPv6 Router Advertisement messages sent by this RSU.  With this option, a
   moving station can learn when it packet described above (monitor
   mode) is supposed to receive the next RA
   from the same RSU.  This can help movement detection: if the
   specified amount of time elapses without captured on the moving station receiving
   any RA from that RSU, this means that Host, in the RA has been lost.  It is up
   to Normal mode, and depicted
   below.

     Ethernet II Header
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                       Destination...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ...Destination                 |           Source...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ...Source                                                      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type                 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     IPv6 Base Header
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Version| Traffic Class |           Flow Label                  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Payload Length        |  Next Header  |   Hop Limit   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +                         Source Address                        +
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +                      Destination Address                      +
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Router Advertisement
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |     Code      |          Checksum             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Cur Hop Limit |M|O|  Reserved |       Router Lifetime         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                         Reachable Time                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          Retrans Timer                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Options ...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   One notices that the moving node to determine how many lost RAs from Radiotap Header is not prepended, and that RSU
   constitutes the
   IEEE 802.11 Data Header and the Logical-Link Control Headers are not
   present.  On another hand, a handover trigger.

   In addition to new header named Ethernet II Header is
   present.

   The Destination and Source addresses in the Mobile IPv6 "Advertisement Interval Option", Ethernet II header
   contain the
   Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD) [RFC4861] can be used to
   determine whether same values as the RSU is still reachable or not.  In this
   context, reachability confirmation would basically consist fields Receiver Address and
   Transmitter Address present in
   receiving a Neighbor Advertisement message from a RSU, the IEEE 802.11 Data Header in response to
   a Neighbor Solicitation message sent by the moving station.
   "monitor" mode capture.

   The RSU
   should also configure a low Reachable Time value in its RA in order
   to ensure that a moving station does not assume an RSU to be
   reachable for too long.

   The Mobile IPv6 "Advertisement Interval Option" as well as of the NUD
   procedure only help knowing if Type field in the RSU Ethernet II header is 0x86DD
   (recognized as "IPv6"); this value is still reachable by the
   moving station.  It does not provide same value as the moving station with
   information about other potential RSUs that might be in range.  For
   this purpose, increasing value of
   the RA frequency could reduce field Type in the delay to
   discover Logical-Link Control Header in the next RSU. "monitor"
   mode capture.

   The Neighbor Discovery protocol [RFC4861]
   limits knowledgeable experimenter will no doubt notice the unsolicited multicast RA interval to a minimum of 3
   seconds (the MinRtrAdvInterval variable).  This value is too high for
   dense deployments of Access Routers deployed along fast roads.  The
   protocol Mobile IPv6 [RFC6275] allows routers to send such RA more
   frequently, with a minimum possible similarity of 0.03 seconds (the same
   MinRtrAdvInterval variable):
   this should be preferred to ensure Ethernet II Header with a
   faster detection of the potential RSUs in range.

   If multiple RSUs are capture in the vicinity of normal mode on a moving station at the same
   time, the station pure
   Ethernet cable interface.

   It may not be able to choose the "best" one (i.e. the
   one interpreted that would afford the moving station spending the longest time an Adaptation layer is inserted in
   its vicinity, a pure
   IEEE 802.11 MAC packets in order the air, before delivering to avoid too frequent handovers). the
   applications.  In detail, this
   case, it would be helpful to base the decision on the signal quality
   (e.g.  the RSSI of the received RA provided by the radio driver).  A
   better signal would probably offer a longer coverage.  If, adaptation layer may consist in terms
   elimination of RA frequency, it is not possible to adopt the recommendations Radiotap, 802.11 and LLC headers and insertion of
   protocol Mobile IPv6 (but only the Neighbor Discovery specification
   ones, for whatever reason), then another message than the RA could be
   emitted periodically by
   the Access Router (provided its specification
   allows to send Ethernet II header.  In this way, it very often), in order to help the Host determine
   the signal quality.  One such message may can be the 802.11p's Time
   Advertisement, or higher layer messages such as the "Basic Safety
   Message" (in the US) or the "Cooperative Awareness Message " (in the
   EU), stated that are usually sent several times per second.  Another
   alternative replacement for the IPv6 Router Advertisement may be runs
   naturally straight over LLC over the
   message 'WAVE Routing Advertisement' (WRA), which is part 802.11p MAC layer, as shown by
   the use of the WAVE
   Service Advertisement Type 0x86DD, and which may contain optionally assuming an adaptation layer
   (adapting 802.11 LLC/MAC to Ethernet II header).

8.  Security Considerations

   802.11p does not provide any cryptographic protection, because it
   operates outside the
   transmitter location; this message is described in section 8.2.5 context of
   [ieeep1609.3-D9-2010].

   Once a BSS (no Association Request/
   Response, no Challenge messages).  Any attacker can therefore just
   sit in the choice near range of vehicles, sniff the default router has been performed by network (just set the
   moving node, it can be interesting
   interface card's frequency to use Optimistic DAD [RFC4429] in
   order to speed-up the address auto-configuration proper range) and ensure the
   fastest possible Layer-3 handover.

   To summarize, efficient handovers between OCB perform attacks
   without needing to physically break any wall.  Such a link is way
   less protected than commonly used links (wired link or protected
   802.11).

   At the IP layer, IPsec can be performed
   by using a combination of existing mechanisms.  In order used to improve
   the default router unreachability detection, the RSU protect unicast communications,
   and moving
   stations should use the Mobile IPv6 "Advertisement Interval Option"
   as well as rely on the NUD mechanism.  In order to allow the moving
   station to detect potential default router faster, the RSU should
   also be able to SeND can be configured with a smaller minimum RA interval such
   as the one recommended used for multicast communications.  If no protection
   is used by Mobile IPv6.  When multiple RSUs are
   available at the same time, the moving station IP layer, upper layers should perform the
   handover decision based on be protected.
   Otherwise, the signal quality.  Finally, optimistic
   DAD can end-user or system should be used to reduce warned about the handover delay. risks
   they run.

   The Received Frame Power Level (RCPI) defined in IEEE Std
   802.11-2012, conditioned by WAVE protocol stack provides for strong security when using the dotOCBActived flag, is an information
   element which contains a value expressing
   WAVE Short Message Protocol and the power level at which
   that frame was received.  This value WAVE Service Advertisement
   [ieeep1609.2-D17].

   As with all Ethernet and 802.11 interface identifiers, there may be used
   exist privacy risks in comparing power
   levels when triggering IP handovers.

8.  Example IPv6 Packet captured over a IEEE the use of 802.11p link

   We remind that a main goal interface identifiers.
   However, in outdoors vehicular settings, the privacy risks are more
   important than in indoors settings.  New risks are induced by the
   possibility of attacker sniffers deployed along routes which listen
   for IP packets of vehicles passing by.  For this document is to make reason, in the case that
   IPv6 works fine over
   802.11p networks.  Consequently, this section deployments, there is
   an illustration of this concept and thus can a strong necessity to use protection
   tools such as dynamically changing MAC addresses.  This may help the implementer
   when it comes
   mitigate privacy risks to running IPv6 over IEEE 802.11p.  By a certain level.  On another hand, it may
   have an impact in the way of example
   we show that there typical IPv6 address auto-configuration is no modification
   performed for vehicles (SLAAC would rely on MAC addresses amd would
   hence dynamically change the affected IP address), in the headers when transmitted
   over 802.11p networks - they are transmitted like any other 802.11
   and Ethernet packets.

   We describe an experiment of capturing an way the
   IPv6 packet captured on an
   802.11p link.  In this experiment, Privacy addresses were used, and other effects.

9.  IANA Considerations

10.  Contributors

   Romain Kuntz contributed extensively the packet is an concepts described in
   Section 6 about IPv6 Router
   Advertisement.  This packet is emitted by a Router on its 802.11p
   interface.  The packet is captured on handovers between links running outside the Host, using
   context of a network
   protocol analyzer (e.g.  Wireshark); BSS (802.11p links).

   Tim Leinmueller contributed the capture is performed in two
   different modes: direct mode and 'monitor' mode.  The topology used
   during the capture is depicted below.

                 +--------+                                +-------+
                 |        |        802.11-OCB Link         |       |
              ---| Router |--------------------------------| Host  |
                 |        |                                |       |
                 +--------+                                +-------+

   During several capture operations running from a few moments to
   several hours, no message relevant to the BSSID contexts were
   captured (no Association Request/Response, Authentication Req/Resp,
   Beacon).  This shows that the operation of 802.11p is outside the
   context idea of a BSSID.

   Overall, the captured message is identical with a capture use of an IPv6
   packet emitted on a 802.11b interface.  The contents are precisely
   similar.

   The popular wireshark network protocol analyzer is a free software
   tool over
   802.11-OCB for Windows distribution of certificates.

   Marios Makassikis, Jose Santa Lozano, Albin Severinson and Unix.  It includes a dissector for 802.11p
   features along with all other 802.11 features (i.e. it displays these
   features in a human-readable format).

8.1.  Capture in Monitor Mode

   The IPv6 RA packet captured in monitor mode is illustrated below.
   The radio tap header provides more flexibility for reporting Alexey
   Voronov provided significant feedback on the
   characteristics experience of frames. using IP
   messages over 802.11-OCB in initial trials.

11.  Acknowledgements

   The Radiotap Header is prepended by this
   particular stack authors would like to thank Witold Klaudel, Ryuji Wakikawa,
   Emmanuel Baccelli, John Kenney, John Moring, Francois Simon, Dan
   Romascanu, Konstantin Khait, Ralph Droms, Richard Roy, Ray Hunter,
   Tom Kurihara, Michelle Wetterwald, Michal Sojka, Jan de Jongh, Suresh
   Krishnan, Dino Farinacci, Vincent Park, Jaehoon Paul Jeong and operating system on the Host machine Gloria
   Gwynne.  Their valuable comments clarified certain issues and
   generally helped to improve the RA
   packet received from document.

   Pierre Pfister, Rostislav Lisovy, and others, wrote 802.11-OCB
   drivers for linux and described how.

   For the network (the Radiotap Header is not present
   on multicast discussion, the air). authors would like to thank Owen
   DeLong, Joe Touch, Jen Linkova, Erik Kline, Brian Haberman and
   participants to discussions in network working groups.

   The implementation-dependent Radiotap Header is useful
   for piggybacking PHY information from authours would like to thank participants to the chip's registers as data Birds-of-
   a-Feather "Intelligent Transportation Systems" meetings held at IETF
   in
   a packet understandable by userland applications using Socket
   interfaces (the PHY interface can be, for example: power levels, data
   rate, ratio of signal to noise).

   The packet present 2016.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-6man-default-iids]
              Gont, F., Cooper, A., Thaler, D., and S. LIU,
              "Recommendation on the air is formed by IEEE 802.11 Data Header,
   Logical Link Control Header, Stable IPv6 Base Header Interface Identifiers",
              draft-ietf-6man-default-iids-16 (work in progress),
              September 2016.

   [I-D.ietf-6man-ug]
              Carpenter, B. and ICMPv6 Header.

     Radiotap Header v0
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Header Revision|  Header Pad   |    Header length              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                         Present flags                         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Data Rate     |             Pad                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ S. Jiang, "Significance of IPv6
              Interface Identifiers", draft-ietf-6man-ug-06 (work in
              progress), December 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11]
              Szigeti, T. and F. Baker, "DiffServ to IEEE 802.11 Data Header
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Type/Subtype
              Mapping", draft-ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11-01 (work in
              progress), November 2016.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and Frame Ctrl  |          Duration             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Receiver Address...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ... Receiver Address           |      Transmitter Address...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ... Transmitter Address                                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                            BSS Id...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ... BSS Id                     |  Frag Number and Seq Number   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Logical-Link Control Header
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      DSAP   |I|     SSAP    |C| Control field | Org. code...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ... Organizational Code        |             Type              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
              December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.

   [RFC2464]  Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Base Header
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Version| Traffic Class |           Flow Label                  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Payload Length        |  Next Header  |   Hop Limit   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +                         Source Packets over Ethernet
              Networks", RFC 2464, DOI 10.17487/RFC2464, December 1998,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2464>.

   [RFC4086]  Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
              "Randomness Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4086, June 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4086>.

   [RFC4429]  Moore, N., "Optimistic Duplicate Address                        +
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +                      Destination Detection (DAD)
              for IPv6", RFC 4429, DOI 10.17487/RFC4429, April 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4429>.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.

   [RFC5889]  Baccelli, E., Ed. and M. Townsley, Ed., "IP Addressing
              Model in Ad Hoc Networks", RFC 5889, DOI 10.17487/RFC5889,
              September 2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5889>.

   [RFC6275]  Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility
              Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, DOI 10.17487/RFC6275, July
              2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6275>.

   [RFC6775]  Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
              Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
              Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
              RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.

   [RFC7721]  Cooper, A., Gont, F., and D. Thaler, "Security and Privacy
              Considerations for IPv6 Address                      +
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Router Advertisement
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |     Code      |          Checksum             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Cur Hop Limit |M|O|  Reserved |       Router Lifetime         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                         Reachable Time                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          Retrans Timer                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Options ...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   The value of Generation Mechanisms",
              RFC 7721, DOI 10.17487/RFC7721, March 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7721>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [etsi-302663-v1.2.1p-2013]
              "Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Access layer
              specification for Intelligent Transport Systems operating
              in the Data Rate field 5 GHz frequency band, 2013-07, document
              en_302663v010201p.pdf, document freely available at URL
              http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_en/302600_302699/302663/
              01.02.01_60/en_302663v010201p.pdf downloaded on October
              17th, 2013.".

   [etsi-draft-102492-2-v1.1.1-2006]
              "Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters
              (ERM); Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Part 2:
              Technical characteristics for pan European harmonized
              communications equipment operating in the Radiotap header is set to 6
   Mb/s.  This indicates 5 GHz frequency
              range intended for road safety and traffic management, and
              for non-safety related ITS applications; System Reference
              Document, Draft ETSI TR 102 492-2 V1.1.1, 2006-07,
              document tr_10249202v010101p.pdf freely available at URL
              http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_tr/102400_102499/
              10249202/01.01.01_60/tr_10249202v010101p.pdf downloaded on
              October 18th, 2013.".

   [fcc-cc]   "'Report and Order, Before the rate Federal Communications
              Commission Washington, D.C. 20554', FCC 03-324, Released
              on February 10, 2004, document FCC-03-324A1.pdf, document
              freely available at which this RA was received.

   The value of URL
              http://www.its.dot.gov/exit/fcc_edocs.htm downloaded on
              October 17th, 2013.".

   [fcc-cc-172-184]
              "'Memorandum Opinion and Order, Before the Transmitter address Federal
              Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554', FCC
              06-10, Released on July 26, 2006, document FCC-
              06-110A1.pdf, document freely available at URL
              http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/
              FCC-06-110A1.pdf downloaded on June 5th, 2014.".

   [I-D.baccelli-multi-hop-wireless-communication]
              Baccelli, E. and C. Perkins, "Multi-hop Ad Hoc Wireless
              Communication", draft-baccelli-multi-hop-wireless-
              communication-06 (work in the progress), July 2011.

   [I-D.perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802]
              Perkins, C., Stanley, D., Kumari, W., and J. Zuniga,
              "Multicast Considerations over IEEE 802.11 Data Header
   is set to a 48bit value.  The value of the destination address is
   33:33:00:00:00:1 (all-nodes multicast address).  The value of the BSS
   Id field is ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, which is recognized by the network
   protocol analyzer as being "broadcast".  The Fragment number 802 Wireless Media",
              draft-perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802-01 (work in
              progress), September 2016.

   [I-D.petrescu-its-scenarios-reqs]
              Petrescu, A., Janneteau, C., Boc, M., and
   sequence number fields are together set to 0x90C6.

   The value of the Organization Code field W. Klaudel,
              "Scenarios and Requirements for IP in the Logical-Link Control
   Header is set to 0x0, recognized as "Encapsulated Ethernet".  The
   value of the Type field is 0x86DD (hexadecimal 86DD, or otherwise
   #86DD), recognized as "IPv6".

   A Router Advertisement is periodically sent by the router to
   multicast group address ff02::1.  It is an icmp packet type 134.  The
   IPv6 Neighbor Discovery's Router Advertisement message contains an
   8-bit field reserved Intelligent
              Transportation Systems", draft-petrescu-its-scenarios-
              reqs-03 (work in progress), October 2013.

   [ieee16094]
              "1609.2-2016 - IEEE Standard for single-bit flags, as described Wireless Access in [RFC4861].

   The IPv6 header contains the link local address of the router
   (source) configured via EUI-64 algorithm,
              Vehicular Environments--Security Services for Applications
              and destination address set
   to ff02::1.  Recent versions of network protocol analyzers (e.g.
   Wireshark) provide additional informations Management Messages; document freely available at URL
              https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
              standard/1609.2-2016.html retrieved on July 08th, 2016.".

   [ieee802.11-2012]
              "802.11-2012 - IEEE Standard for an IP address, if a
   geolocalization database is present.  In this example, the
   geolocalization database is absent, Information technology--
              Telecommunications and the "GeoIP" information is
   set to unknown for both source exchange between
              systems Local and destination addresses (although
   the IPv6 source metropolitan area networks--Specific
              requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
              (MAC) and destination addresses are set to useful values).
   This "GeoIP" can be a useful information to look up the city,
   country, AS number, Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications.  Downloaded
              on October 17th, 2013, from IEEE Standards, document
              freely available at URL
              http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
              standard/802.11-2012.html retrieved on October 17th,
              2013.".

   [ieee802.11p-2010]
              "IEEE Std 802.11p(TM)-2010, IEEE Standard for Information
              Technology - Telecommunications and other information for an IP address.

   The Ethernet Type field in the logical-link control header is set to
   0x86dd which indicates that the frame transports an IPv6 packet.  In
   the IEEE 802.11 data, the destination address is 33:33:00:00:00:01
   which is he corresponding multicast MAC address.  The BSS id is a
   broadcast address of ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.  Due to the short link
   duration exchange
              between vehicles systems - Local and the roadside infrastructure, there is
   no need metropolitan area networks -
              Specific requirements, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access
              Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications,
              Amendment 6: Wireless Access in IEEE 802.11p to wait Vehicular Environments;
              document freely available at URL
              http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/
              download/802.11p-2010.pdf retrieved on September 20th,
              2013.".

   [ieeep1609.0-D2]
              "IEEE P1609.0/D2 Draft Guide for the completion of association and
   authentication procedures before exchanging data.  IEEE 802.11p
   enabled nodes use the wildcard BSSID (a value of all 1s) Wireless Access in
              Vehicular Environments (WAVE) Architecture.  pdf, length
              879 Kb.  Restrictions apply.".

   [ieeep1609.2-D17]
              "IEEE P1609.2(tm)/D17 Draft Standard for Wireless Access
              in Vehicular Environments - Security Services for
              Applications and may
   start communicating as soon as they arrive on the communication
   channel.

8.2.  Capture Management Messages.  pdf, length 2558
              Kb.  Restrictions apply.".

   [ieeep1609.3-D9-2010]
              "IEEE P1609.3(tm)/D9, Draft Standard for Wireless Access
              in Normal Mode

   The same IPv6 Router Advertisement packet described above (monitor
   mode) is captured Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Networking Services,
              August 2010.  Authorized licensed use limited to: CEA.
              Downloaded on the Host, June 19, 2013 at 07:32:34 UTC from IEEE
              Xplore. Restrictions apply, document at persistent link
              http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/servlet/opac?punumber=5562705".

   [ieeep1609.4-D9-2010]
              "IEEE P1609.4(tm)/D9 Draft Standard for Wireless Access in the Normal mode, and depicted
   below.

     Ethernet II Header
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                       Destination...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ...Destination                 |           Source...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     ...Source                                                      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type                 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     IPv6 Base Header
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Version| Traffic Class |           Flow Label                  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Payload Length        |  Next Header  |   Hop Limit   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +                         Source Address                        +
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +                      Destination Address                      +
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Router Advertisement
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |     Code      |          Checksum             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Cur Hop Limit |M|O|  Reserved |       Router Lifetime         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                         Reachable Time                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          Retrans Timer                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Options ...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   One notices that the Radiotap Header is not prepended, and that the
              Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Multi-channel Operation.
              Authorized licensed use limited to: CEA. Downloaded on
              June 19, 2013 at 07:34:48 UTC from IEEE 802.11 Data Header Xplore.
              Restrictions apply.  Document at persistent link
              http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/servlet/opac?punumber=5551097".

   [ipv6-80211p-its]
              Shagdar, O., Tsukada, M., Kakiuchi, M., Toukabri, T., and the Logical-Link Control Headers are not
   present.  On another hand, a new header named Ethernet II Header is
   present.

   The Destination
              T. Ernst, "Experimentation Towards IPv6 over IEEE 802.11p
              with ITS Station Architecture", International Workshop on
              IPv6-based Vehicular Networks, (colocated with IEEE
              Intelligent Vehicles Symposium), URL:
               http://hal.inria.fr/hal-00702923/en, Downloaded on:  24
              October 2013, Availability: free at some sites, paying at
              others, May 2012.

   [ipv6-wave]
              Clausen, T., Baccelli, E., and Source addresses R. Wakikawa, "IPv6
              Operation for WAVE - Wireless Access in the Ethernet II Vehicular
              Environments", Rapport de Recherche INRIA, number 7383,
              URL:  http://hal.inria.fr/inria-00517909/, Downloaded on:
               24 October 2013, Availability: free at some sites,
              September 2010.

   [TS103097]
              "Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Security; Security
              header
   contain the same values as the fields Receiver Address and
   Transmitter Address present in the IEEE 802.11 Data Header in the
   "monitor" mode capture.

   The value of the Type field in the Ethernet II header is 0x86DD
   (recognized as "IPv6"); this value is the same value as the value of
   the field Type in the Logical-Link Control Header in the "monitor"
   mode capture.

   The knowledgeable experimenter will no doubt notice certificate formats; document freely available
              at URL http://www.etsi.org/deliver/
              etsi_ts/103000_103099/103097/01.01.01_60/
              ts_103097v010101p.pdf retrieved on July 08th, 2016.".

   [vip-wave]
              Cespedes, S., Lu, N., and X. Shen, "VIP-WAVE: On the similarity
              Feasibility of
   this Ethernet II Header with a capture in normal mode on a pure
   Ethernet cable interface.

   It may be interpreted that an Adaptation layer is inserted IP Communications in a pure 802.11p Vehicular
              Networks", IEEE 802.11 MAC packets Transactions on Intelligent Transportation
              Systems, Volume 14, Issue 1, URL and Digital Object
              Identifier:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TITS.2012.2206387,
              Downloaded on:  24 October 2013, Availability: free at
              some sites, paying at others, March 2013.

Appendix A.  ChangeLog

   The changes are listed in reverse chronological order, most recent
   changes appearing at the air, before delivering to the
   applications.  In detail, this adaptation layer may consist in
   elimination top of the Radiotap, list.

   From draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-05.txt to draft-petrescu-ipv6-
   over-80211p-06.txt:

   o  Removed IPv4 text.

   o  Added text about isues with multicast over 802.11 and LLC headers and insertion of
   the Ethernet II header.  In this way, it can be stated that IPv6 runs
   naturally straight over LLC over OCB mode.

   o  Shortened the 802.11p MAC layer, as shown subnet structure section, by
   the use of the Type 0x86DD, and assuming an adaptation layer
   (adapting 802.11 LLC/MAC referring to Ethernet II header).

9.  Security Considerations

   802.11p does not provide any cryptographic protection, because it
   operates outside an
      existing RFC.

   o  Removed the context appendix about distribution of a BSS (no Association Request/
   Response, no Challenge messages).  Any attacker can therefore just
   sit in the near range certificates.

   o  Added text about tradeoff of vehicles, sniff the network (just set the
   interface card's frequency to the proper range) too frequent RAs, handover
      performance and perform attacks
   without needing to physically break any wall.  Such a link is way
   less protected than commonly used links (wired link or protected
   802.11).

   At risks of packet loss.

   o  Removed discussion about other MTU possibilities, kept only the IP layer, IPsec can be used to protect unicast communications,
      1500 bytes MTU.

   o  Keep both header "802.11 Data" and SeND can be used for multicast communications.  If no protection
   is used by the IP layer, upper layers should be protected.
   Otherwise, header "802.11 QoS Data".

   o  Referred to default-iids recommendation of generating stable IIDs.

   o  Moved the end-user or system should be warned Design Considerations sections to an appendix.

   From draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-02.txt to draft-petrescu-ipv6-
   over-80211p-03.txt:

   o  Added clarification about the risks
   they run.

   The WAVE protocol stack provides for strong security when using "OCBActivated" qualifier in the
   WAVE Short Message Protocol and the WAVE Service Advertisement
   [ieeep1609.2-D17].

   As with
      new IEEE 802.11-2012 document; this IEEE document integrates now
      all Ethernet and 802.11 interface identifiers, there may
   exist privacy risks in earlier 802.11p features; this also signifies the use
      dissapearance of an IEEE IEEE 802.11p interface identifiers.
   However, document altogether.

   o  Added explanation about FCC not prohibiting IP on channels, and
      comments about engineering advice and reliability of IP messages.

   o  Added possibility to use 6lowpan adaptation layer when in outdoors vehicular settings, OCB
      mode.

   o  Added appendix about the privacy risks are more
   important than in indoors settings.  New risks are induced distribution of certificates to vehicles
      by using IPv6-over-802.11p single-hop communications.

   o  Refined the
   possibility of attacker sniffers deployed along routes which listen
   for IP packets explanation of vehicles passing by.  For this reason, in 'half-rate' mode.

   o  Added the
   802.11p deployments, there is a strong privacy concerns and necessity to use protection
   tools such as of and potential effects
      of dynamically changing MAC addresses.  This may help
   mitigate privacy risks

   From draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-01.txt to a certain level.  On another hand, it may
   have an impact in the way typical IPv6 address auto-configuration is
   performed for vehicles (SLAAC would rely on MAC addresses amd would
   hence dynamically change the affected draft-petrescu-ipv6-
   over-80211p-02.txt:

   o  updated authorship.

   o  added explanation about FCC not prohibiting IP address), in the way the
   IPv6 Privacy addresses were used, on channels, and other effects.

10.  IANA Considerations

11.  Contributors

   Romain Kuntz contributed extensively the concepts described
      comments about engineering advice and reliability of IP messages.

   o  added possibility to use 6lowpan adaptation layer when in
   Section 7 OCB
      mode.

   o  added appendix about IPv6 handovers between links running outside the
   context distribution of a BSS (802.11p links).

   Tim Leinmueller contributed certificates to vehicles
      by using IPv6-over-802.11p single-hop communications.

   o  refined the idea explanation of 'half-rate' mode.

   o  added the use of IPv6 over
   802.11-OCB for distribution of certificates.

   Marios Makassikis, Jose Santa Lozano, Albin Severinson privacy concerns and Alexey
   Voronov provided significant feedback on the experience necessity of using IPv4 and potential effects
      of dynamically changing MAC addresses.

   From draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-00.txt to draft-petrescu-ipv6-
   over-80211p-01.txt:

   o  updated one author's affiliation detail.

   o  added 2 more references to published literature about IPv6 messages over 802.11-OCB in initial trials.

12.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like
      802.11p.

   From draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-00.txt to thank Witold Klaudel, Ryuji Wakikawa,
   Emmanuel Baccelli, John Kenney, John Moring, Francois Simon, Dan
   Romascanu, Konstantin Khait, Ralph Droms, Richard Roy, Ray Hunter,
   Tom Kurihara, Michelle Wetterwald, Michal Sojka, Jan de Jongh, Suresh
   Krishnan, Dino Farinacci, Vincent Park and Gloria Gwynne.  Their
   valuable comments clarified certain issues draft-petrescu-ipv6-
   over-80211p-00.txt:

   o  first version.

Appendix B.  Explicit Prohibition of IPv6 on Channels Related to ITS
             Scenarios using 802.11p Networks - an Analysis

B.1.  Interpretation of FCC and generally helped ETSI documents with respect to
   improve running
      IP on particular channels

   o  The FCC created the document.

   Pierre Pfister, Rostislav Lisovy, and others, wrote 802.11-OCB
   drivers for linux and described how. term "Control Channel" [fcc-cc].  For it, it
      defines the multicast discussion, the authors would like channel number to thank Owen
   DeLong, Joe Touch, Jen Linkova, Erik Kline, Brian Haberman be 178 decimal, and
   participants positions it
      with a 10MHz width from 5885MHz to discussions in network working groups. 5895MHz.  The authours would like to thank participants FCC rules point
      to the Birds-of-
   a-Feather "Intelligent Transportation Systems" meetings held standards document ASTM-E2213 (not freely available at IETF
   in 2016.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-6man-ipv6-address-generation-privacy]
              Cooper, A., Gont, F., and D. Thaler, "Privacy
              Considerations for IPv6 Address Generation Mechanisms",
              draft-ietf-6man-ipv6-address-generation-privacy-08 (work
              in progress), September 2015.

   [I-D.ietf-6man-ug]
              Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Significance the time
      of IPv6
              Interface Identifiers", draft-ietf-6man-ug-06 (work writing of this draft); in
              progress), December 2013.

   [RFC0826]  Plummer, D., "Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: Or
              Converting Network Protocol Addresses an interpretation of a reviewer of
      this document, this means not making any restrictions to 48.bit Ethernet
              Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware", STD 37,
              RFC 826, DOI 10.17487/RFC0826, November 1982,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc826>.

   [RFC0894]  Hornig, C., "A Standard for the Transmission of IP
              Datagrams over Ethernet Networks", STD 41, RFC 894,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0894, April 1984,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc894>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
              December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.

   [RFC2464]  Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet
              Networks", RFC 2464, DOI 10.17487/RFC2464, December 1998,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2464>.

   [RFC3927]  Cheshire, S., Aboba, B., and E. Guttman, "Dynamic
              Configuration
      of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses", RFC 3927,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3927, May 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3927>.

   [RFC4086]  Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
              "Randomness Requirements IP on the control channel.

   o  The FCC created two more terms for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4086, June 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4086>.

   [RFC4429]  Moore, N., "Optimistic Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) particular channels
      [fcc-cc-172-184], among others.  The channel 172 (5855MHz to
      5865MHz)) is designated "exclusively for IPv6", RFC 4429, DOI 10.17487/RFC4429, April 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4429>.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery [V2V] safety
      communications for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.

   [RFC5889]  Baccelli, E., Ed. accident avoidance and M. Townsley, Ed., "IP Addressing
              Model in Ad Hoc Networks", RFC 5889, DOI 10.17487/RFC5889,
              September 2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5889>.

   [RFC6275]  Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., mitigation, and J. Arkko, "Mobility
              Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, DOI 10.17487/RFC6275, July
              2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6275>.

   [RFC6775]  Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., safety
      of life and C.
              Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization property applications", and the channel 184 (5915MHz
      to 5925MHz) is designated "exclusively for IPv6 over
              Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
              RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.

13.2.  Informative References

   [etsi-302663-v1.2.1p-2013]
              "Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Access layer
              specification high-power, longer-
      distance communications to be used for Intelligent Transport Systems operating
              in public-safety applications
      involving safety of life and property, including road-intersection
      collision mitigation".  However, they are not named "control"
      channels, and the 5 GHz frequency band, 2013-07, document
              en_302663v010201p.pdf, document freely available does not mention any particular
      restriction on the use of IP on either of these channels.

   o  On another hand, at URL
              http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_en/302600_302699/302663/
              01.02.01_60/en_302663v010201p.pdf downloaded IEEE, IPv6 is explicitely prohibited on October
              17th, 2013.".

   [etsi-draft-102492-2-v1.1.1-2006]
              "Electromagnetic compatibility
      channel number 178 decimal - the FCC's 'Control Channel'.  The
      document [ieeep1609.4-D9-2010] prohibits upfront the use of IPv6
      traffic on the Control Channel: 'data frames containing IP
      datagrams are only allowed on service channels'.  Other 'Service
      Channels' are allowed to use IP, but the Control Channel is not.

   o  In Europe, basically ETSI considers FCC's "Control Channel" to be
      a "Service Channel", and Radio spectrum Matters
              (ERM); Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Part 2:
              Technical characteristics for pan European harmonized
              communications equipment operating defines a "Control Channel" to be in the 5 GHz frequency
              range intended for road safety a
      slot considered by FCC as a "Service Channel".  In detail, FCC's
      "Control Channel" number 178 decimal with 10MHz width (5885MHz to
      5895MHz) is defined by ETSI to be a "Service Channel", and is
      named 'G5-SCH2' [etsi-302663-v1.2.1p-2013].  This channel is
      dedicated to 'ITS Road Safety' by ETSI.  Other channels are
      dedicated to 'ITS road traffic management, efficiency' by ETSI.  The ETSI's
      "Control Channel" - the "G5-CCH" - number 180 decimal (not 178) is
      reserved as a 10MHz-width centered on 5900MHz (5895MHz to 5905MHz)
      (the 5895MHz-5905MHz channel is a Service Channel for FCC).
      Compared to IEEE, ETSI makes no upfront statement with respect to
      IP and particular channels; yet it relates the 'In car Internet'
      applications ('When nearby a stationary public internet access
      point (hotspot), application can use standard IP services for non-safety related
      applications.') to the 'Non-safety-related ITS applications; System Reference
              Document, Draft application'
      [etsi-draft-102492-2-v1.1.1-2006].  Under an interpretation of an
      author of this Internet Draft, this may mean ETSI TR 102 492-2 V1.1.1, 2006-07,
              document tr_10249202v010101p.pdf freely available at URL
              http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_tr/102400_102499/
              10249202/01.01.01_60/tr_10249202v010101p.pdf downloaded may forbid IP on
              October 18th, 2013.".

   [fcc-cc]   "'Report and Order, Before
      the Federal Communications
              Commission Washington, D.C. 20554', FCC 03-324, Released 'ITS Road Safety' channels, but may allow IP on 'ITS road
      traffic efficiency' channels, or on other 5GHz channels re-used
      from BRAN (also dedicated to Broadband Radio Access Networks).

   o  At EU level in ETSI (but not some countries in EU with varying
      adoption levels) the highest power of transmission of 33 dBm is
      allowed, but only on February 10, 2004, document FCC-03-324A1.pdf, document
              freely available at URL
              http://www.its.dot.gov/exit/fcc_edocs.htm downloaded two separate 10Mhz-width channels centered on
              October 17th, 2013.".

   [fcc-cc-172-184]
              "'Memorandum Opinion
      5900MHz and Order, Before the Federal
              Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554', FCC
              06-10, Released on July 26, 2006, document FCC-
              06-110A1.pdf, document freely available at URL
              http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/
              FCC-06-110A1.pdf downloaded 5880MHz respectively.  It may be that IPv6 is not
      allowed on June 5th, 2014.".

   [I-D.baccelli-multi-hop-wireless-communication]
              Baccelli, E. these channels (in the other 'ITS' channels where IP
      may be allowed, the levels vary between 20dBm, 23 dBm and C. Perkins, "Multi-hop Ad Hoc Wireless
              Communication", draft-baccelli-multi-hop-wireless-
              communication-06 (work 30 dBm;
      in progress), July 2011.

   [I-D.petrescu-its-scenarios-reqs]
              Petrescu, A., Janneteau, C., Boc, M., and W. Klaudel,
              "Scenarios and Requirements for some of these channels IP in Intelligent
              Transportation Systems", draft-petrescu-its-scenarios-
              reqs-03 (work in progress), October 2013.

   [ieee16094]
              "1609.2-2016 - IEEE Standard for Wireless Access in
              Vehicular Environments--Security Services is allowed).  A high-power of
      transmission means that vehicles may be distanced more
      (intuitively, for Applications 33 dBm approximately 2km is possible, and Management Messages; document freely available at URL
              https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
              standard/1609.2-2016.html retrieved for 20
      dBm approximately 50meter).

B.2.  Interpretations of Latencies of IP datagrams

   IPv6 may be "allowed" on July 08th, 2016.".

   [ieee802.11-2012]
              "802.11-2012 - IEEE Standard any channel.  Certain interpretations
   consider that communicating IP datagrams may involve longer latencies
   than non-IP datagrams; this may make them little adapted for Information technology--
              Telecommunications and information exchange between
              systems Local safety
   applications which require fast reaction.  Certain other views
   disagree with this, arguing that IP datagrams are transmitted at the
   same speed as any other non-IP datagram and metropolitan area networks--Specific
              requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
              (MAC) may thus offer same level
   of reactivity for safety applications.

Appendix C.  Changes Needed on a software driver 802.11a to become a
             802.11-OCB driver

   The 802.11p amendment modifies both the 802.11 stack's physical and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications.  Downloaded
   MAC layers but all the induced modifications can be quite easily
   obtained by modifying an existing 802.11a ad-hoc stack.

   Conditions for a 802.11a hardware to be 802.11p compliant:

   o  The chip must support the frequency bands on October 17th, 2013, from which the regulator
      recommends the use of ITS communications, for example using IEEE Standards, document
              freely available at URL
              http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
              standard/802.11-2012.html retrieved on October 17th,
              2013.".

   [ieee802.11p-2010]
              "IEEE Std 802.11p(TM)-2010,
      802.11p layer, in France: 5875MHz to 5925MHz.

   o  The chip must support the half-rate mode (the internal clock
      should be able to be divided by two).

   o  The chip transmit spectrum mask must be compliant to the "Transmit
      spectrum mask" from the IEEE Standard for Information
              Technology - Telecommunications and information exchange
              between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks -
              Specific requirements, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access
              Control (MAC) 802.11p amendment (but experimental
      environments tolerate otherwise).

   o  The chip should be able to transmit up to 44.8 dBm when used by
      the US government in the United States, and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications,
              Amendment 6: Wireless Access up to 33 dBm in Vehicular Environments;
              document freely available at URL
              http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/
              download/802.11p-2010.pdf retrieved
      Europe; other regional conditions apply.

   Changes needed on September 20th,
              2013.".

   [ieeep1609.0-D2]
              "IEEE P1609.0/D2 Draft Guide for Wireless Access the network stack in
              Vehicular Environments (WAVE) Architecture.  pdf, length
              879 Kb.  Restrictions apply.".

   [ieeep1609.2-D17]
              "IEEE P1609.2(tm)/D17 Draft Standard for Wireless OCB mode:

   o  Physical layer:

      *  The chip must use the Orthogonal Frequency Multiple Access
         (OFDM) encoding mode.

      *  The chip must be set in Vehicular Environments - Security Services for
              Applications half-mode rate mode (the internal clock
         frequency is divided by two).

      *  The chip must use dedicated channels and Management Messages.  pdf, length 2558
              Kb.  Restrictions apply.".

   [ieeep1609.3-D9-2010]
              "IEEE P1609.3(tm)/D9, Draft Standard should allow the use
         of higher emission powers.  This may require modifications to
         the regulatory domains rules, if used by the kernel to enforce
         local specific restrictions.  Such modifications must respect
         the location-specific laws.

      MAC layer:

      *  All management frames (beacons, join, leave, and others)
         emission and reception must be disabled except for Wireless Access frames of
         subtype Action and Timing Advertisement (defined below).

      *  No encryption key or method must be used.

      *  Packet emission and reception must be performed as in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Networking Services,
              August 2010.  Authorized licensed use limited to: CEA.
              Downloaded on June 19, 2013 at 07:32:34 UTC from IEEE
              Xplore. Restrictions apply, document at persistent link
              http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/servlet/opac?punumber=5562705".

   [ieeep1609.4-D9-2010]
              "IEEE P1609.4(tm)/D9 Draft Standard ad-hoc
         mode, using the wildcard BSSID (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff).

      *  The functions related to joining a BSS (Association Request/
         Response) and for Wireless Access authentication (Authentication Request/Reply,
         Challenge) are not called.

      *  The beacon interval is always set to 0 (zero).

      *  Timing Advertisement frames, defined in
              Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Multi-channel Operation.
              Authorized licensed use limited to: CEA. Downloaded on
              June 19, 2013 at 07:34:48 UTC from IEEE Xplore.
              Restrictions apply.  Document at persistent link
              http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/servlet/opac?punumber=5551097".

   [ipv6-80211p-its]
              Shagdar, O., Tsukada, M., Kakiuchi, M., Toukabri, T., the amendment, should
         be supported.  The upper layer should be able to trigger such
         frames emission and
              T. Ernst, "Experimentation Towards to retrieve information contained in
         received Timing Advertisements.

Appendix D.  Design Considerations

   The networks defined by 802.11-OCB are in many ways similar to other
   networks of the 802.11 family.  In theory, the encapsulation of IPv6
   over IEEE 802.11p
              with ITS Station Architecture", International Workshop on
              IPv6-based Vehicular Networks, (colocated with IEEE
              Intelligent Vehicles Symposium), URL:
               http://hal.inria.fr/hal-00702923/en, Downloaded on:  24
              October 2013, Availability: free at some sites, paying at
              others, May 2012.

   [ipv6-wave]
              Clausen, T., Baccelli, E., and R. Wakikawa, "IPv6
              Operation for WAVE - Wireless Access in Vehicular
              Environments", Rapport de Recherche INRIA, number 7383,
              URL:  http://hal.inria.fr/inria-00517909/, Downloaded on:
               24 October 2013, Availability: free at some sites,
              September 2010.

   [TS103097]
              "Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Security; Security
              header 802.11-OCB could be very similar to the operation of IPv6 over
   other networks of the 802.11 family.  However, the high mobility,
   strong link asymetry and certificate formats; document freely available
              at URL http://www.etsi.org/deliver/
              etsi_ts/103000_103099/103097/01.01.01_60/
              ts_103097v010101p.pdf retrieved on July 08th, 2016.".

   [vip-wave]
              Cespedes, S., Lu, N., very short connection makes the 802.11-OCB
   link significantly different from other 802.11 networks.  Also, the
   automotive applications have specific requirements for reliability,
   security and X. Shen, "VIP-WAVE: On privacy, which further add to the
              Feasibility particularity of the
   802.11-OCB link.

   This section does not address safety-related applications, which are
   done on non-IP communications.  However, this section will consider
   the transmission of such non IP Communications communication in 802.11p Vehicular
              Networks", the design
   specification of IPv6 over IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation
              Systems, Volume 14, Issue 1, URL and Digital Object
              Identifier:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TITS.2012.2206387,
              Downloaded on:  24 October 2013, Availability: free at
              some sites, paying 802.11-OCB.

D.1.  Vehicle ID

   Automotive networks require the unique representation of each of
   their node.  Accordingly, a vehicle must be identified by at others, March 2013.

Appendix A.  ChangeLog least
   one unique ID.  The changes are listed in reverse chronological order, most recent
   changes appearing current specification at ETSI and at IEEE 1609
   identifies a vehicle by its MAC address uniquely obtained from the top
   802.11-OCB NIC.

   A MAC address uniquely obtained from a IEEE 802.11-OCB NIC
   implicitely generates multiple vehicle IDs in case of the list.

   From draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-02.txt multiple
   802.11-OCB NICs.  A mechanims to uniquely identify a vehicle
   irrespectively to draft-petrescu-ipv6-
   over-80211p-03.txt:

   o  Added clarification about the "OCBActivated" qualifier in the the
      new different NICs and/or technologies is required.

D.2.  Non IP Communications

   In IEEE 802.11-2012 document; this 1609 and ETSI ITS, safety-related communications CANNOT be
   used with IP datagrams.  For example, Basic Safety Message (BSM, an
   IEEE document integrates now
      all earlier 802.11p features; this also signifies the
      dissapearance of 1609 datagram) and Cooperative Awareness Message (CAM, an ETSI
   ITS-G5 datagram), are each transmitted as a payload that is preceded
   by link-layer headers, without an IEEE IEEE 802.11p document altogether.

   o  Added explanation about FCC not prohibiting IP header.

   Each vehicle taking part of traffic (i.e. having its engine turned on channels, and
      comments about engineering advice
   and reliability of being located on a road) MUST use Non IP messages.

   o  Added possibility communication to use 6lowpan adaptation layer when
   periodically broadcast its status information (ID, GPS position,
   speed,..) in OCB
      mode.

   o  Added appendix about its immediate neighborhood.  Using these mechanisms,
   vehicles become 'aware' of the distribution presence of certificates to other vehicles in their
   immediate vicinity.  Therefore, IP communication being transmitted by using IPv6-over-802.11p single-hop communications.

   o  Refined
   vehicles taking part of traffic MUST co-exist with Non IP
   communication and SHOULD NOT break any Non IP mechanism, including
   'harmful' interference on the explanation channel.

   The ID of 'half-rate' mode.

   o  Added the privacy concerns and necessity vehicle transmitting Non IP communication is
   transmitted in the src MAC address of and potential effects the IEEE 1609 / ETSI-ITS-G5
   datagrams.  Accordingly, non-IP communications expose the ID of dynamically changing MAC addresses.

   From draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-01.txt each
   vehicle, which may be considered as a privacy breach.

   IEEE 802.11-OCB bypasses the authentication mechanisms of IEEE 802.11
   networks, in order to draft-petrescu-ipv6-
   over-80211p-02.txt:

   o  updated authorship.

   o  added explanation about FCC not prohibiting transmit non IP on channels, communications to without any
   delay.  This may be considered as a security breach.

   IEEE 1609 and
      comments about engineering advice ETSI ITS provided strong security and reliability privacy
   mechanisms for Non IP Communications.  Security (authentication,
   encryption) is done by asymetric cryptography, where each vehicle
   attaches its public key and its certificate to all of its non IP
   messages.

   o  added possibility to use 6lowpan adaptation layer when in OCB
      mode.

   o  added appendix about the distribution of certificates to vehicles
      by using IPv6-over-802.11p single-hop communications.

   o  refined the explanation of 'half-rate' mode.

   o  added  Privacy is enforced through the privacy concerns and necessity use of and potential effects Pseudonymes.  Each
   vehicle will be pre-loaded with a large number (>1000s) of dynamically changing MAC addresses.

   From draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-00.txt
   pseudonymes generated by a PKI, which will uniquely assign a
   pseudonyme to draft-petrescu-ipv6-
   over-80211p-01.txt:

   o  updated one author's affiliation detail.

   o  added 2 more references a certificate (and thus to published literature about a public/private key pair).

   Non IP Communication being developped for safety-critical
   applications, complex mechanisms have been provided for their
   support.  These mechanisms are OPTIONAL for IP Communication, but
   SHOULD be used whenever possible.

D.3.  Reliability Requirements

   The dynamically changing topology, short connectivity, mobile
   transmitter and receivers, different antenna heights, and many-to-
   many communication types, make IEEE 802.11-OCB links significantly
   different from other IEEE 802.11 links.  Any IPv6 over
      802.11p.

   From draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-00.txt mechanism operating
   on IEEE 802.11-OCB link MUST support strong link asymetry, spatio-
   temporal link quality, fast address resolution and transmission.

   IEEE 802.11-OCB strongly differs from other 802.11 systems to draft-petrescu-ipv6-
   over-80211p-00.txt:

   o  first version.

Appendix B.  Explicit Prohibition operate
   outside of IPv6 the context of a Basic Service Set.  This means in
   practice that IEEE 802.11-OCB does not rely on Channels Related to ITS
             Scenarios using 802.11p Networks - a Base Station for all
   Basic Service Set management.  In particular, IEEE 802.11-OCB SHALL
   NOT use beacons.  Any IPv6 mechanism requiring L2 services from IEEE
   802.11 beacons MUST support an Analysis

B.1.  Interpretation of FCC alternative service.

   Channel scanning being disabled, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB MUST
   implement a mechanism for transmitter and ETSI documents with respect receiver to running
      IP on particular channels

   o  The FCC created the term "Control Channel" [fcc-cc].  For it, it
      defines the channel number converge to be 178 decimal, and positions it
      with a 10MHz width from 5885MHz to 5895MHz.  The FCC rules point
   common channel.

   Authentication not being possible, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB MUST
   implement an distributed mechanism to standards document ASTM-E2213 (not freely available at authenticate transmitters and
   receivers without the time
      of writing of this draft); in an interpretation support of a reviewer of
      this document, this means DHCP server.

   Time synchronization not making any restrictions to being available, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB
   MUST implement a higher layer mechanism for time synchronization
   between transmitters and receivers without the use support of IP on the control channel.

   o a NTP
   server.

   The FCC created two more terms for particular channels
      [fcc-cc-172-184], among others. IEEE 802.11-OCB link being asymetic, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB
   MUST disable management mechanisms requesting acknowledgements or
   replies.

   The channel 172 (5855MHz IEEE 802.11-OCB link having a short duration time, IPv6 over IEEE
   802.11-OCB MUST implement fast IPv6 mobility management mechanisms.

D.4.  Privacy requirements

   Vehicles will move.  As each vehicle moves, it needs to
      5865MHz)) is designated "exclusively for [V2V] safety
      communications for accident avoidance and mitigation, and safety
      of life and property applications", regularly
   announce its network interface and the channel 184 (5915MHz
      to 5925MHz) is designated "exclusively for high-power, longer-
      distance communications reconfigure its local and global
   view of its network.  L2 mechanisms of IEEE 802.11-OCB MAY be
   employed to assist IPv6 in discovering new network interfaces.  L3
   mechanisms over IEEE 802.11-OCB SHOULD be used for public-safety applications
      involving safety to assist IPv6 in
   discovering new network interfaces.

   The headers of life the L2 mechanisms of IEEE 802.11-OCB and property, including road-intersection
      collision mitigation".  However, they L3 management
   mechanisms of IPv6 are not named "control"
      channels, encrypted, and as such expose at least the document does not mention any particular
      restriction on the use of IP on either
   src MAC address of these channels.

   o  On another hand, at IEEE, IPv6 is explicitely prohibited on
      channel number 178 decimal - the FCC's 'Control Channel'.  The
      document [ieeep1609.4-D9-2010] prohibits upfront sender.  In the use absence of IPv6
      traffic on mitigations,
   adversaries could monitor the Control Channel: 'data frames containing IP
      datagrams are only allowed on service channels'.  Other 'Service
      Channels' are allowed to use IP, but L2 or L3 management headers, track the Control Channel is not.

   o  In Europe, basically ETSI considers FCC's "Control Channel" to be
      a "Service Channel", and defines a "Control Channel" to be in a
      slot considered by FCC as a "Service Channel".  In detail, FCC's
      "Control Channel" number 178 decimal with 10MHz width (5885MHz to
      5895MHz) is defined by ETSI to be a "Service Channel",
   MAC Addresses, and is
      named 'G5-SCH2' [etsi-302663-v1.2.1p-2013].  This channel is
      dedicated to 'ITS Road Safety' by ETSI.  Other channels are
      dedicated to 'ITS road traffic efficiency' by ETSI.  The ETSI's
      "Control Channel" - through that track the "G5-CCH" - number 180 decimal (not 178) position of vehicles over
   time; in some cases, it is
      reserved as a 10MHz-width centered on 5900MHz (5895MHz possible to 5905MHz)
      (the 5895MHz-5905MHz channel deduce the vehicle
   manufacturer name from the OUI of the MAC address of the interface
   (with help of additional databases).  It is a Service Channel for FCC).
      Compared important that sniffers
   along roads not be able to IEEE, ETSI makes no upfront statement with respect easily identify private information of
   automobiles passing by.

   Similary to Non IP and particular channels; yet it relates safety-critical communications, the 'In car Internet'
      applications ('When nearby a stationary public internet access
      point (hotspot), application can use standard IP services for
      applications.') obvious
   mitigation is to use some form of MAC Address Randomization.  We can
   assume that there will be "renumbering events" causing the 'Non-safety-related ITS application'
      [etsi-draft-102492-2-v1.1.1-2006].  Under an interpretation MAC
   Addresses to change.  Clearly, a change of an
      author MAC Address should induce
   a simultaneous change of this Internet Draft, this may mean ETSI may forbid IP on
      the 'ITS Road Safety' channels, but may allow IP on 'ITS road
      traffic efficiency' channels, or on other 5GHz channels re-used
      from BRAN (also dedicated IPv6 Addresses, to Broadband Radio Access Networks).

   o  At EU level in ETSI (but not some countries in EU with varying
      adoption levels) prevent linkage of the highest power
   old and new MAC Addresses through continuous use of transmission the same IP
   Addresses.

   The change of 33 dBm is
      allowed, but only on two separate 10Mhz-width channels centered on
      5900MHz and 5880MHz respectively.  It may be that an IPv6 is not
      allowed on these channels (in address also implies the change of the other 'ITS' channels where IP
      may network
   prefix.  Prefix delegation mechanisms should be allowed, the levels vary between 20dBm, 23 dBm available to vehicles
   to obtain new prefixes during "renumbering events".

   Changing MAC and 30 dBm; IPv6 addresses will disrupt communications, which
   goes against the reliability requirements expressed in some [TS103097].
   We will assume that the renumbering events happen only during "safe"
   periods, e.g.  when the vehicle has come to a full stop.  The
   determination of these channels IP such safe periods is allowed).  A high-power the responsibility of
      transmission means that vehicles may be distanced more
      (intuitively, for 33 dBm approximately 2km
   implementors.  In automobile settings it is possible, and for 20
      dBm approximately 50meter).

B.2.  Interpretations of Latencies of IP datagrams

   IPv6 may be "allowed" on any channel.  Certain interpretations
   consider common to decide that communicating IP datagrams may involve longer latencies
   than non-IP datagrams; this may make them little adapted
   certain operations (e.g. software update, or map update) must happen
   only during safe periods.

   MAC Address randomization will not prevent tracking if the addresses
   stay constant for safety
   applications which require fast reaction.  Certain other views
   disagree with this, arguing long intervals.  Suppose for example that IP datagrams are transmitted at a vehicle
   only renumbers the
   same speed as any other non-IP datagram and may thus offer same level addresses of reactivity for safety applications.

Appendix C.  Changes Needed on a software driver 802.11a its interface when leaving the
   vehicle owner's garage in the morning.  It would be trivial to become a
             802.11p driver

   The 802.11p amendment modifies both
   observe the "number of the day" at the 802.11 stack's physical known garage location, and
   MAC layers to
   associate that with the vehicle's identity.  There is clearly a
   tension there.  If renumbering events are too infrequent, they will
   not protect privacy, but all if their are too frequent they will affect
   reliability.  We expect that implementors will eventually find the induced modifications can be quite easily
   obtained by modifying an existing 802.11a ad-hoc stack.

   Conditions for
   right balance.

D.5.  Authentication requirements

   IEEE 802.11-OCB does not have L2 authentication mechanisms.
   Accordingly, a 802.11a hardware to vehicle receiving a IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB packet
   cannot check or be 802.11p compliant:

   o  The chip must support the frequency bands on which sure the regulator
      recommends legitimacy of the use src MAC (and associated
   ID).  This is a significant breach of ITS communications, for example using IEEE
      802.11p layer, in France: 5875MHz security.

   Similarly to 5925MHz.

   o  The chip Non IP safety-critical communications, IPv6 over
   802.11-OCB packets must support contain a certificate, including at least the half-rate mode (the internal clock
      should be able to be divided by two).

   o  The chip transmit spectrum mask must be compliant
   public key of the sender, that will allow the receiver to
   authenticate the "Transmit
      spectrum mask" from packet, and guarantee its legitimacy.

   To satisfy the privacy requiremrents of Appendix D.4, the certificate
   SHALL be changed at each 'renumbering event'.

D.6.  Multiple interfaces

   There are considerations for 2 or more IEEE 802.11p amendment (but experimental
      environments tolerate otherwise).

   o  The chip should 802.11-OCB interface
   cards per vehicle.  For each vehicle taking part in road traffic, one
   IEEE 802.11-OCB interface card MUST be fully allocated for Non IP
   safety-critical communication.  Any other IEEE 802.11-OCB may be able to transmit up to 44.8 dBm when used by
      the US government in the United States, and up to 33 dBm in
      Europe;
   for other regional conditions apply.

   Changes needed on the network stack in OCB mode:

   o  Physical layer:

      *  The chip must use the Orthogonal Frequency Multiple Access
         (OFDM) encoding mode.

      * type of traffic.

   The chip must be set in half-mode rate mode (the internal clock
         frequency of operation of these other wireless interfaces is divided by two).

      *  The chip must use dedicated channels not
   clearly defined yet.  One possibility is to consider each card as an
   independent network interface, with a specific MAC Address and should allow a set
   of IPv6 addresses.  Another possibility is to consider the use set of higher emission powers.
   these wireless interfaces as a single network interface (not
   including the IEEE 802.11-OCB interface used by Non IP safety
   critical communications).  This may will require modifications specific logic to
         the regulatory domains rules, if used
   ensure, for example, that packets meant for a vehicle in front are
   actually sent by the kernel radio in the front, or that multiple copies of
   the same packet received by multiple interfaces are treated as a
   single packet.  Treating each wireless interface as a separate
   network interface pushes such issues to enforce
         local specific restrictions.  Such modifications must respect the location-specific laws.

      MAC layer:

      *  All management frames (beacons, join, leave, and others)
         emission and reception must be disabled except for frames application layer.

   The privacy requirements of Appendix D.4 imply that if these multiple
   interfaces are represented by many network interface, a single
   renumbering event SHALL cause renumbering of
         subtype Action all these interfaces.
   If one MAC changed and Timing Advertisement (defined below).

      *  No encryption key or method must another stayed constant, external observers
   would be used.

      *  Packet emission able to correlate old and new values, and reception must be performed as in ad-hoc
         mode, using the wildcard BSSID (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff).

      * privacy
   benefits of randomization would be lost.

   The functions related to joining privacy requirements of Non IP safety-critical communications
   imply that if a BSS (Association Request/
         Response) and for authentication (Authentication Request/Reply,
         Challenge) are not called.

      * change of pseudonyme occurs, renumbering of all other
   interfaces SHALL also occur.

D.7.  MAC Address Generation

   When designing the IPv6 over 802.11-OCB address mapping, we will
   assume that the MAC Addresses will change during well defined
   "renumbering events".  The beacon interval is always 48 bits randomized MAC addresses will have
   the following characteristics:

   o  Bit "Local/Global" set to 0 (zero).

      *  Timing Advertisement frames, defined in the amendment, should
         be supported.  The upper layer should be able "locally admninistered".

   o  Bit "Unicast/Multicast" set to trigger such
         frames emission and "Unicast".

   o  46 remaining bits set to retrieve information contained in
         received Timing Advertisements.

Appendix D.  Use of IPv6 over 802.11p for distribution of certificates

   Security a random value, using a random number
      generator that meets the requirements of vehicular communications [RFC4086].

   The way to meet the randomization requirements is one of to retain 46 bits
   from the challenging tasks
   in output of a strong hash function, such as SHA256, taking as
   input a 256 bit local secret, the Intelligent Transport Systems.  The adoption "nominal" MAC Address of security
   procedures becomes an indispensable feature that cannot be neglected
   when designing new protocols.  One the
   interface, and a representation of the interesting use cases date and time of
   transmitting the
   renumbering event.

D.8.  Security Certificate Generation

   When designing the IPv6 packets over IEEE 802.11p links is 802.11-OCB address mapping, we will
   assume that the distribution
   of certificates between road side infrastructure and MAC Addresses will change during well defined
   "renumbering events".  So MUST also the vehicule
   (Figure below).

                  ###########
                  #         #
                  # Server  #
                  #(backend)#
                  #         #
                  ###########
                       |
                       |
                       |  <-- link  (depending on Security Certificates.
   Unless unavailable, the infrastructure)
                       |
                       |
                       |
                       |
                   ##########                    #############
                   #        #                    #           #
                   #  RSU   # - - - - - - - - - -#   Router  #
                   #        #    802.11p Link    # in-vehicle#
                   ##########                    #############
                                                      o  o

   Many Security Certificate Generation mechanisms
   SHOULD follow the specification in IEEE 1609.2 [ieee16094] or ETSI TS
   103 097 [TS103097].  These security mechanisms have been proposed for the vehicular
   environment, mechanisms often relying on following
   characteristics:

   o  Authentication - Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm
      (ECDSA) - A Secured Hash Function (SHA-256) will sign the message
      with the public key algorithms.
   Public key algorithms necessitate a of the sender.

   o  Encryption - Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) -
      A Key Derivation Function (KDF) between the sender's public key infrastructure (PKI)
   to distribute
      and revoke certificates.  The server backend in the
   figure can play the role of a Certification Authority which receiver's private key will send
   certificates and revocation lists generate a symetric key used
      to encrypt a packet.

   If the RSU which in turn
   retransmits certificates mechanisms described in messages directed to passing-by vehicles.
   The initiation distribution IEEE 1609.2 [ieee16094] or ETSI TS 103
   097 [TS103097] are either not supported or not capable of certificates as IPv6 messages over
   802.11p links may running on
   the hardware, an alternative approach based on Pretty-Good-Privacy
   (PGP) MAY be realized by WSA messages (WAVE Service
   Announcement, a non-IP message).  The certificate is sent used as an IPv6
   messages over a single-hop 802.11p link. alternative.

Authors' Addresses

   Alexandre Petrescu
   CEA, LIST
   CEA Saclay
   Gif-sur-Yvette , Ile-de-France   91190
   France

   Phone: +33169089223
   Email: Alexandre.Petrescu@cea.fr
   Nabil Benamar
   Moulay Ismail University
   Morocco

   Phone: +212670832236
   Email: benamar73@gmail.com

   Jerome Haerri
   Eurecom
   Sophia-Antipolis   06904
   France

   Phone: +33493008134
   Email: Jerome.Haerri@eurecom.fr

   Christian Huitema
   Friday Harbor, WA  98250
   U.S.A.

   Email: huitema@huitema.net

   Jong-Hyouk Lee
   Sangmyung University
   31, Sangmyeongdae-gil, Dongnam-gu
   Cheonan   31066
   Republic of Korea

   Email: jonghyouk@smu.ac.kr

   Thierry Ernst
   YoGoKo
   France

   Email: thierry.ernst@yogoko.fr

   Tony Li
   Peloton Technology
   1060 La Avenida St.
   Mountain View, California   94043
   United States

   Phone: +16503957356
   Email: tony.li@tony.li