draft-ietf-ipsecme-ipsecha-protocol-05.txt   draft-ietf-ipsecme-ipsecha-protocol-06.txt 
Network Working Group R. Singh, Ed. Network Working Group R. Singh, Ed.
Internet-Draft G. Kalyani Internet-Draft G. Kalyani
Intended status: Standards Track Cisco Intended status: Standards Track Cisco
Expires: September 30, 2011 Y. Nir Expires: November 7, 2011 Y. Nir
Check Point Check Point
Y. Sheffer Y. Sheffer
Independent Porticor
D. Zhang D. Zhang
Huawei Huawei
March 29, 2011 May 6, 2011
Protocol Support for High Availability of IKEv2/IPsec Protocol Support for High Availability of IKEv2/IPsec
draft-ietf-ipsecme-ipsecha-protocol-05 draft-ietf-ipsecme-ipsecha-protocol-06
Abstract Abstract
The IPsec protocol suite is widely used for business-critical network The IPsec protocol suite is widely used for business-critical network
traffic. In order to make IPsec deployments highly available, more traffic. In order to make IPsec deployments highly available, more
scalable and failure-resistant, they are often implemented as IPsec scalable and failure-resistant, they are often implemented as IPsec
High Availability (HA) clusters. However there are many issues in High Availability (HA) clusters. However there are many issues in
IPsec HA clustering, and in particular in IKEv2 clustering. An IPsec HA clustering, and in particular in IKEv2 clustering. An
earlier document, "IPsec Cluster Problem Statement", enumerates the earlier document, "IPsec Cluster Problem Statement", enumerates the
issues encountered in the IKEv2/IPsec HA cluster environment. This issues encountered in the IKEv2/IPsec HA cluster environment. This
skipping to change at page 2, line 4 skipping to change at page 2, line 4
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 30, 2011. This Internet-Draft will expire on November 7, 2011.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Issues Resolved from IPsec Cluster Problem Statement . . . . . 6 3. Issues Resolved from IPsec Cluster Problem Statement . . . . . 7
3.1. Large Amount of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Large Amount of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2. Multiple Members Using the Same SA . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. Multiple Members Using the Same SA . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3. Avoiding Collisions in SPI Number Allocation . . . . . . . 7 3.3. Avoiding Collisions in SPI Number Allocation . . . . . . . 8
3.4. Interaction with Counter Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.4. Interaction with Counter Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4. The IKEv2/IPsec SA Counter Synchronization Problem . . . . . . 8 4. The IKEv2/IPsec SA Counter Synchronization Problem . . . . . . 9
5. SA Counter Synchronization Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. SA Counter Synchronization Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1. Processing Rules for IKE Message ID Synchronization . . . 11 5.1. Processing Rules for IKE Message ID Synchronization . . . 12
5.2. Processing Rules for IPsec Replay Counter 5.2. Processing Rules for IPsec Replay Counter
Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6. IKEv2/IPsec Synchronization Notification Payloads . . . . . . 12 6. IKEv2/IPsec Synchronization Notification Payloads . . . . . . 13
6.1. The IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC_SUPPORTED Notification . . . . . 12 6.1. The IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC_SUPPORTED Notification . . . . . 14
6.2. The IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC_SUPPORTED Notification . . . 13 6.2. The IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC_SUPPORTED Notification . . . 14
6.3. The IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC Notification . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.3. The IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC Notification . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.4. The IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC Notification . . . . . . . . 14 6.4. The IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC Notification . . . . . . . . 15
7. Implementation Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7. Implementation Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8. IKE SA and IPsec SA Message Sequencing . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8. IKE SA and IPsec SA Message Sequencing . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8.1. Handling of Pending IKE Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.1. Handling of Pending IKE Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8.2. Handling of Pending IPsec Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.2. Handling of Pending IPsec Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8.3. IKE SA Inconsistencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.3. IKE SA Inconsistencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
9. Step by Step Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9. Step by Step Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
10. Interaction with other drafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 10. Interaction with other specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
14. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 14. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
14.1. Draft -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 14.1. Draft -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
14.2. Draft -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 14.2. Draft -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
14.3. Draft -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 14.3. Draft -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
14.4. Draft -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 14.4. Draft -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
14.5. Draft -00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 14.5. Draft -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
15. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 14.6. Draft -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
15.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 14.7. Draft -00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
15.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 15. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Appendix A. IKEv2 Message ID Sync Examples . . . . . . . . . . . 21 15.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
A.1. Normal Failover - Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 15.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
A.2. Normal Failover - Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Appendix A. IKEv2 Message ID Sync Examples . . . . . . . . . . . 23
A.3. Simultaneous Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A.1. Normal Failover - Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A.2. Normal Failover - Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
A.3. Normal Failover - Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
A.4. Simultaneous Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The IPsec protocol suite, including IKEv2, is a major building block The IPsec protocol suite, including IKEv2, is a major building block
of virtual private networks (VPNs). In order to make such VPNs of virtual private networks (VPNs). In order to make such VPNs
highly available, more scalable and failure-resistant, these VPNs are highly available, more scalable and failure-resistant, these VPNs are
implemented as IKEv2/IPsec Highly Available (HA) clusters. However implemented as IKEv2/IPsec Highly Available (HA) clusters. However
there are many issues with the IKEv2/IPsec HA cluster. Section 4 there are many issues with the IKEv2/IPsec HA cluster. Section 3 and
below enumerates the issues around the IKEv2/IPsec HA cluster Section 4 below expand on the issues around the IKEv2/IPsec HA
solution. cluster solution, issues which were first described in the Problem
Statement [4].
In the case of a hot-standby cluster implementation of IKEv2/IPsec In the case of a hot-standby cluster implementation of IKEv2/IPsec
based VPNs, the IKEv2/IPsec session is first established between the based VPNs, the IKEv2/IPsec session is first established between the
peer and the active member of the cluster. Later, the active member peer and the active member of the cluster. Later, the active member
continuously syncs/updates the IKE/IPsec SA state to the standby continuously syncs/updates the IKE/IPsec SA state to the standby
member of the cluster. This primary SA state sync-up takes place member of the cluster. This primary SA state sync-up takes place
upon each SA bring-up and/or rekey. Performing the SA state upon each SA bring-up and/or rekey. Performing the SA state
synchronization/update for every single IKE and IPsec message is very synchronization/update for every single IKE and IPsec message is very
costly, so normally it is done periodically. As a result, when the costly, so normally it is done periodically. As a result, when the
failover event happens, this is first detected by the standby member failover event happens, this is first detected by the standby member
and, possibly after a considerable amount of time, it becomes the and, possibly after a considerable amount of time, it becomes the
active member. During this failover process the peer is unaware of active member. During this failover process the peer is unaware of
the failover event, and keeps sending IKE requests and IPsec packets the failover event, and keeps sending IKE requests and IPsec packets
to the cluster, as in fact it is allowed to do because of the IKEv2 to the cluster, as in fact it is allowed to do because of the IKEv2
windowing feature. After the newly-active member starts, it detects windowing feature. After the newly-active member starts, it detects
the mismatch in IKE Message ID values and IPsec replay counters and the mismatch in IKE Message ID values and IPsec replay counters and
needs to resolve this situation. Please see Section 4 for more needs to resolve this situation. Please see Section 4 for more
details of the problem. details of the problem.
This document proposes an extension to the IKEv2 protocol to solve This document defines an extension to the IKEv2 protocol to solve the
the main issues of IKE Message ID synchronization and IPsec SA replay main issues of IKE Message ID synchronization and IPsec SA replay
counter synchronization and gives implementation advice for others. counter synchronization, and gives implementation advice to address
Following is a summary of the solutions provided in this document: other issues. Following is a summary of the solutions provided in
this document:
o IKEv2 Message ID synchronization: this is done by syncing up the o IKEv2 Message ID synchronization: this is done by syncing up the
expected send and receive Message ID values with the peer, and expected send and receive Message ID values with the peer, and
updating the values at the newly active cluster member. updating the values at the newly active cluster member.
o IPsec Replay Counter synchronization: this is done by incrementing o IPsec Replay Counter synchronization: this is done by incrementing
the cluster's outgoing SA replay counter values by a "large" the cluster's outgoing SA replay counter values by a "large"
number; in addition, the newly-active member requests the peer to number; in addition, the newly-active member requests the peer to
increment the replay counter values it is using for the peer's increment the replay counter values it is using for the peer's
outgoing traffic. outgoing traffic.
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be able to handle simultaneous failover. be able to handle simultaneous failover.
The generic term "IKEv2/IPsec SA Counters" is used throughout this The generic term "IKEv2/IPsec SA Counters" is used throughout this
document. This term refers to both IKEv2 Message ID counters and document. This term refers to both IKEv2 Message ID counters and
IPsec replay counters. According to the IPsec standards, the IKEv2 IPsec replay counters. According to the IPsec standards, the IKEv2
Message ID counter is mandatory, and used to ensure reliable delivery Message ID counter is mandatory, and used to ensure reliable delivery
as well as to protect against message replay in IKEv2; the IPsec SA as well as to protect against message replay in IKEv2; the IPsec SA
replay counters are optional, and are used to provide the IPsec anti- replay counters are optional, and are used to provide the IPsec anti-
replay feature. replay feature.
Some of these terms are used in the following architectural diagram.
+---------------+
| |
| Hot Standby |
| Cluster |
| |
| +---------+ |
| | | |
| | Active | |
| | | |
| | Member | |
| | | |
| +---------+ |
| ^ |
+---------+ | Sync | |
| | | Channel | |
| IPsec | IKE/IPsec Traffic | | |
| | <=============================> | | |
| Peer | | | |
| | | | |
+---------+ | | |
| v |
| +---------+ |
| | | |
| | Standby | |
| | | |
| | Member | |
| | | |
| +---------+ |
+---------------+
An IPsec Hot Standby Cluster
3. Issues Resolved from IPsec Cluster Problem Statement 3. Issues Resolved from IPsec Cluster Problem Statement
The IPsec Cluster Problem Statement [4] enumerates the problems The IPsec Cluster Problem Statement [4] enumerates the problems
raised by IPsec clusters. The following table lists the problem raised by IPsec clusters. The following table lists the problem
statement's sections that are resolved by this document. statement's sections that are resolved by this document.
o 3.2. Lots of Long Lived State o 3.2. Lots of Long Lived State
o 3.3. IKE Counters o 3.3. IKE Counters
o 3.4. Outbound SA Counters o 3.4. Outbound SA Counters
o 3.5. Inbound SA Counters o 3.5. Inbound SA Counters
o 3.6. Missing Synchronization Messages o 3.6. Missing Synchronization Messages
o 3.7. Simultaneous use of IKE and IPsec SAs by Different Members o 3.7. Simultaneous use of IKE and IPsec SAs by Different Members
* 3.7.1. Outbound SAs using counter modes * 3.7.1. Outbound SAs using counter modes
o 3.8. Different IP addresses for IKE and IPsec o 3.8. Different IP addresses for IKE and IPsec
o 3.9. Allocation of SPIs o 3.9. Allocation of SPIs
The main problem areas are solved using the protocol extension The main problem areas are solved using the protocol extension
defined below, starting with Section 5; additionally, this section defined below, starting with Section 5; additionally, this section
provides implementation advice for other issues in the following provides implementation advice for other issues in the following
subsections. subsections. Implementers should note that these subsections include
a number of new security-critical requirements.
3.1. Large Amount of State 3.1. Large Amount of State
Section 3.2 of the Problem Statement mentions that a lot of state Section 3.2 of the Problem Statement mentions that a lot of state
needs to be synchronized for a cluster to be transparent. The actual needs to be synchronized for a cluster to be transparent. The actual
volume of that data is very much implementation-dependent, and even volume of that data is very much implementation-dependent, and even
for the same implementation, the amounts of data may vary wildly. An for the same implementation, the amounts of data may vary wildly. An
IPsec gateway used for inter-domain VPN with a dozen other gateways, IPsec gateway used for inter-domain VPN with a dozen other gateways,
and having SAs that are rekeyed every 8 hours, will need a lot less and having SAs that are rekeyed every 8 hours, will need a lot less
synchronization traffic than a similar gateway used for remote synchronization traffic than a similar gateway used for remote
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that would impose unreasonable requirements on the synch connection. that would impose unreasonable requirements on the synch connection.
A far better solution would be to not synchronize the outbound SA, A far better solution would be to not synchronize the outbound SA,
and create multiple outbound SAs, one for each member. The problem and create multiple outbound SAs, one for each member. The problem
with this option is that the peer might view these multiple parallel with this option is that the peer might view these multiple parallel
SAs as redundant, and tear down all but one of them. SAs as redundant, and tear down all but one of them.
Section 2.8 of [2] specifically allows multiple parallel SAs, but the Section 2.8 of [2] specifically allows multiple parallel SAs, but the
reason given for this is to have multiple SAs with different QoS reason given for this is to have multiple SAs with different QoS
attributes. So while this is not a new requirement of IKEv2 attributes. So while this is not a new requirement of IKEv2
implementations, we re-iterate here that IPsec peers MUST accept the implementations working with QoS, we re-iterate here that IPsec peers
long-term existence of multiple parallel SAs, even when QoS MUST accept the long-term existence of multiple parallel SAs, even
mechanisms are not in use. when QoS mechanisms are not in use.
3.3. Avoiding Collisions in SPI Number Allocation 3.3. Avoiding Collisions in SPI Number Allocation
Section 3.9 of the problem statement describes the problem of two Section 3.9 of the problem statement describes the problem of two
cluster members allocating the same SPI number for two different SAs. cluster members allocating the same SPI number for two different SAs.
This would violate section 4.4.2.1 of [3]. There are several schemes This would violate section 4.4.2.1 of [3]. There are several schemes
to allow implementations to avoid such collisions, such as to allow implementations to avoid such collisions, such as
partitioning the SPI space, a request-response over the synch partitioning the SPI space, a request-response over the synch
channel, and locking mechanisms. We believe that these are channel, and locking mechanisms. We believe that these are
sufficiently robust and available so that we don't need to make an sufficiently robust and available so that we don't need to make an
exception to RFC 4301, and we can leave this problem for the exception to RFC 4301, and we can leave this problem for the
implementations to solve. Cluster members MUST NOT generate multiple implementations to solve. Cluster members must not generate multiple
inbound SAs with the same SPI. inbound SAs with the same SPI.
3.4. Interaction with Counter Modes 3.4. Interaction with Counter Modes
For SAs involving counter mode ciphers such as CTR [7] or GCM [8] For SAs involving counter mode ciphers such as CTR [7] or GCM [8]
there is yet another complication. The initial vector for such modes there is yet another complication. The initial vector for such modes
MUST NOT be repeated, and senders use methods such as counters or MUST NOT be repeated, and senders may use methods such as counters or
LFSRs to ensure this property. For an SA shared between multiple LFSRs to ensure this property. For an SA shared between multiple
active members (load sharing cases), implementations MUST ensure that active members (load sharing cases), implementations MUST ensure that
no initial vector is ever repeated. Similar concerns apply to an SA no initial vector is ever repeated. Similar concerns apply to an SA
failing over from one member to another. See [9] for a discussion of failing over from one member to another. See [9] for a discussion of
this problem in another context. this problem in another context.
Just as in the SPI collision problem, there are ways to avoid a Just as in the SPI collision problem, there are ways to avoid a
collision of initial vectors, and this is left up to implementations. collision of initial vectors, and this is left up to implementations.
In the context of load sharing, parallel SAs are a simple solution to In the context of load sharing, parallel SAs are a simple solution to
this problem as well. this problem as well.
skipping to change at page 9, line 22 skipping to change at page 10, line 11
mismatch and retransmission of requests, negating the benefits of the mismatch and retransmission of requests, negating the benefits of the
high availability cluster despite the periodic update between the high availability cluster despite the periodic update between the
cluster members. cluster members.
A similar issue is also observed with IPsec anti-replay counters if A similar issue is also observed with IPsec anti-replay counters if
anti-replay protection is enabled, which is commonly the case. anti-replay protection is enabled, which is commonly the case.
Regardless of how well the ESP and AH SA counters are synchronized Regardless of how well the ESP and AH SA counters are synchronized
from the active to the standby member, there is a chance that the from the active to the standby member, there is a chance that the
standby member would end up with stale counter values. The standby standby member would end up with stale counter values. The standby
member would then use those stale counter values when sending IPsec member would then use those stale counter values when sending IPsec
packets. The peer would reject/drop such packets since when the packets. The peer would drop such packets since when the anti-replay
anti-replay protection feature is enabled, duplicate use of counters protection feature is enabled, duplicate use of counters is not
is not allowed. Note that IPsec allows the sender to skip some allowed. Note that IPsec allows the sender to skip some counter
counter values and continue sending with higher counter values. values and continue sending with higher counter values.
We conclude that a mechanism is required to ensure that the standby We conclude that a mechanism is required to ensure that the standby
member has correct Message ID and IPsec counter values when it member has correct Message ID and IPsec counter values when it
becomes active, so that sessions are not torn down as a result of becomes active, so that sessions are not torn down as a result of
mismatched counters. mismatched counters.
5. SA Counter Synchronization Solution 5. SA Counter Synchronization Solution
This document proposes two separate approaches to resolving the This document defines two separate approaches to resolving the issues
issues of mismatched IKE Message ID values and IPsec counter values. of mismatched IKE Message ID values and IPsec counter values.
o In the case of IKE Message ID values, the newly active cluster o In the case of IKE Message ID values, the newly active cluster
member and the peer negotiate a pair of new values so that future member and the peer negotiate a pair of new values so that future
IKE messages will not be dropped. IKE messages will not be dropped.
o For IPsec counter values, the newly-active member and the peer o For IPsec counter values, the newly-active member and the peer
both increment their respective counter values, "skipping forward" both increment their respective counter values, "skipping forward"
by a large number, to ensure that no IPsec counters are ever by a large number, to ensure that no IPsec counters are ever
reused. reused.
Although conceptually separate, the two synchronization processes Although conceptually separate, the two synchronization processes
would typically take place simultaneously. would typically take place simultaneously.
First, the peer and the active member of the cluster negotiate their First, the peer and the active member of the cluster negotiate their
ability to support IKEv2 Message ID synchronization and/or IPsec ability to support IKEv2 Message ID synchronization and/or IPsec
Replay Counter synchronization. This is done by exchanging one or Replay Counter synchronization. This is done by exchanging one or
both of the IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC_SUPPORTED and both of the IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC_SUPPORTED and
IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC_SUPPORTED notifications during the IKE_AUTH IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC_SUPPORTED notifications during the IKE_AUTH
exchange. When negotiating these capabilities, the responder MUST exchange. When negotiating these capabilities, the responder MUST
NOT assert support of a capability unless such support was asserted NOT assert support of a capability unless such support was asserted
by the initiator. Only a capability whose support was asserted by by the initiator. Only a capability whose support was asserted by
both parties can be used during the lifetime of the SA. both parties can be used during the lifetime of the SA. The peer's
capabilities with regard to this extension are part of the IKEv2 SA
state, and thus MUST be shared between the cluster members.
This per-IKE SA information is shared with the other cluster members. This per-IKE SA information is shared with the other cluster members.
Peer Active Member Peer Active Member
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
HDR, SK {IDi, [CERT], [CERTREQ], [IDr], AUTH, HDR, SK {IDi, [CERT], [CERTREQ], [IDr], AUTH,
[N(IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC_SUPPORTED),] [N(IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC_SUPPORTED),]
[N(IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC_SUPPORTED),] [N(IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC_SUPPORTED),]
SAi2, TSi, TSr} ----------> SAi2, TSi, TSr} ---------->
skipping to change at page 10, line 31 skipping to change at page 11, line 24
[N(IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC_SUPPORTED),] SAr2, TSi, TSr} [N(IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC_SUPPORTED),] SAr2, TSi, TSr}
After a failover event, the standby member MAY use the IKE Message ID After a failover event, the standby member MAY use the IKE Message ID
and/or IPsec Replay Counter synchronization capability when it and/or IPsec Replay Counter synchronization capability when it
becomes the active member, and provided support for the capabilities becomes the active member, and provided support for the capabilities
used has been negotiated. Following that, the peer MUST respond to used has been negotiated. Following that, the peer MUST respond to
any synchronization message it receives from the newly-active cluster any synchronization message it receives from the newly-active cluster
member, subject to the rules noted below. member, subject to the rules noted below.
After the failover event, when the standby member becomes active, it After the failover event, when the standby member becomes active, it
has to synchronize its SA counters with the peer. There are now has to synchronize its SA counters with the peer. There are now four
three possible cases: possible cases:
1. The cluster member wishes to only perform IKE Message ID value 1. The cluster member wishes to only perform IKE Message ID value
synchronization. In this case it initiates an Informational synchronization. In this case it initiates an Informational
exchange, with Message ID zero and the sole notification exchange, with Message ID zero and the sole notification
IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC. IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC.
2. If the newly-active member wishes to perform only IPsec replay 2. If the newly-active member wishes to perform only IPsec replay
counter synchronization, it generates a regular IKEv2 counter synchronization, it generates a regular IKEv2
Informational exchange using the current Message ID values, and Informational exchange using the current Message ID values, and
containing the IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC notification. containing the IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC notification.
3. If synchronization of both counters is needed, the cluster member 3. If synchronization of both counters is needed, the cluster member
generates a zero-Message ID message as in case #1, and includes generates a zero-Message ID message as in case #1, and includes
both notifications in this message. both notifications in this message.
4. Lastly, the peer may not support this extension. This is known
to the newly-active member (because the cluster members must
share this information, as noted earlier). This case is the
existing IKEv2 behavior, and the IKE and IPsec SAs may or may not
survive the failover, depending on the exact state on the peer
and the cluster member.
This figure contains the IKE message exchange used for SA counter This figure contains the IKE message exchange used for SA counter
synchronization. The following subsections describe the details of synchronization. The following subsections describe the details of
the sender and receiver processing of each message. the sender and receiver processing of each message.
Standby [Newly Active] Member Peer Standby [Newly Active] Member Peer
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
HDR, SK {N(IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC), HDR, SK {N(IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC),
[N(IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC)]} --------> [N(IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC)]} -------->
skipping to change at page 11, line 24 skipping to change at page 12, line 24
ID is non-zero: ID is non-zero:
Standby [Newly Active] Member Peer Standby [Newly Active] Member Peer
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
HDR, SK{N(IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC)} --------> HDR, SK{N(IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC)} -------->
<--------- HDR <--------- HDR
5.1. Processing Rules for IKE Message ID Synchronization 5.1. Processing Rules for IKE Message ID Synchronization
The newly-active member sends a request containing two counter value, The newly-active member sends a request containing two counter
one for the member (itself) and another for the peer, as well as a values, one for the member (itself) and another for the peer, as well
random nonce. We denote the values M1 and P1. The peer responds as a random nonce. We denote the values M1 and P1. The peer
with a message containing two counter values, M2 and P2. The goal of responds with a message containing two counter values, M2 and P2
the rules below is to prevent an attacker from replaying a (note that the values appear in the opposite order in the
synchronization message, thereby invalidating IKE messages that are notification's payload). The goal of the rules below is to prevent
currently in process. an attacker from replaying a synchronization message, thereby
invalidating IKE messages that are currently in process.
o M1 is the next sender's Message ID to be used by the member. M1 o M1 is the next sender's Message ID to be used by the member. M1
MUST be chosen so that it is larger than any value known to have MUST be chosen so that it is larger than any value known to have
been used. It is RECOMMENDED to increment the known value at been used. It is RECOMMENDED to increment the known value at
least by the size of the IKE sender window. least by the size of the IKE sender window.
o P1 SHOULD be 1 more than the last Message ID value received from o P1 SHOULD be 1 more than the last Message ID value received from
the peer, but may be any higher value. the peer, but may be any higher value.
o The member SHOULD communicate the sent values to the other cluster o The member SHOULD communicate the sent values to the other cluster
members, so that if a second failover event takes place, the members, so that if a second failover event takes place, the
synchronization message is not replayed. Such a replay would synchronization message is not replayed. Such a replay would
result in the eventual deletion of the IKE SA (see below). result in the eventual deletion of the IKE SA (see below).
o The peer MUST reject any received synchronization message if M1 is o The peer MUST silently drop any received synchronization message
lower than or equal to the highest value it has seen from the if M1 is lower than or equal to the highest value it has seen from
cluster. This includes any previous received synchronization the cluster. This includes any previous received synchronization
messages. messages.
o M2 MUST be at least the higher of the received M1, and one more o M2 MUST be at least the higher of the received M1, and one more
than the highest sender value received from the cluster. This than the highest sender value received from the cluster. This
includes any previous received synchronization messages. includes any previous received synchronization messages.
o P2 MUST be the higher of the received P1 value, and one more than o P2 MUST be the higher of the received P1 value, and one more than
the highest sender value used by the peer. the highest sender value used by the peer.
o The request contains a Nonce field. This field MUST be returned o The request contains a Nonce field. This field MUST be returned
in the response, unchanged. A response MUST be silently dropped in the response, unchanged. A response MUST be silently dropped
if the received Nonce does not match the one that was sent. if the received Nonce does not match the one that was sent.
skipping to change at page 12, line 46 skipping to change at page 13, line 46
notification first (which might cause the entire message to be notification first (which might cause the entire message to be
dropped as a replay). Then, it MUST increment the replay counters dropped as a replay). Then, it MUST increment the replay counters
for all Child SAs associated with the current IKE SA by the amount for all Child SAs associated with the current IKE SA by the amount
requested by the cluster member. requested by the cluster member.
6. IKEv2/IPsec Synchronization Notification Payloads 6. IKEv2/IPsec Synchronization Notification Payloads
This section lists the new notification payload types defined by this This section lists the new notification payload types defined by this
extension. extension.
All multi-octet fields representing integers are laid out in big
endian order (also known as "most significant byte first", or
"network byte order").
6.1. The IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC_SUPPORTED Notification 6.1. The IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC_SUPPORTED Notification
This notification payload is included in the IKE_AUTH request/ This notification payload is included in the IKE_AUTH request/
response to indicate support of the IKEv2 Message ID synchronization response to indicate support of the IKEv2 Message ID synchronization
mechanism described in this document. mechanism described in this document.
1 2 3 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Next Payload |C| RESERVED | Payload Length | | Next Payload |C| RESERVED | Payload Length |
skipping to change at page 14, line 41 skipping to change at page 15, line 49
6.4. The IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC Notification 6.4. The IPSEC_REPLAY_COUNTER_SYNC Notification
This notification payload type (value TBD by IANA) is defined to This notification payload type (value TBD by IANA) is defined to
synchronize the IPsec SA Replay Counters between the newly-active synchronize the IPsec SA Replay Counters between the newly-active
(formerly standby) cluster member and the peer. Since there may be (formerly standby) cluster member and the peer. Since there may be
numerous IPsec SAs established under a single IKE SA, we do not numerous IPsec SAs established under a single IKE SA, we do not
directly synchronize the value of each one. Instead, a delta value directly synchronize the value of each one. Instead, a delta value
is sent and all Replay Counters for Child SAs of this IKE SA are is sent and all Replay Counters for Child SAs of this IKE SA are
incremented by the same value. Note that this solution requires that incremented by the same value. Note that this solution requires that
all these Child SAs either use or do not use Extended Sequence either all Child SAs use Extended Sequence Numbers or else that no
Numbers [3]. This notification is only sent by the cluster. Child SA uses Extended Sequence Numbers [3]. This notification is
only sent by the cluster.
1 2 3 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Next Payload |C| RESERVED | Payload Length | | Next Payload |C| RESERVED | Payload Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Protocol ID(=0)| SPI Size (=0) | Notify Message Type | |Protocol ID(=0)| SPI Size (=0) | Notify Message Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Incoming IPsec SA delta value | | Incoming IPsec SA delta value |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The notification payload contains the following data. The notification payload contains the following data.
o Incoming IPsec SA delta value (4 or 8 octets): The sender requests o Incoming IPsec SA delta value (4 or 8 octets): The sender requests
that the peer should increment all the Child SA Replay Counters that the peer should increment all the Child SA Replay Counters
for the sender's incoming (the peer's outgoing) traffic by this for the sender's incoming (the peer's outgoing) traffic by this
skipping to change at page 15, line 40 skipping to change at page 16, line 43
The standby member can initiate the synchronization of IKEv2 Message The standby member can initiate the synchronization of IKEv2 Message
ID's under different circumstances. ID's under different circumstances.
o When it receives a problematic IKEv2/IPsec packet, i.e. a packet o When it receives a problematic IKEv2/IPsec packet, i.e. a packet
outside its expected receive window. outside its expected receive window.
o When it has to send the first IKEv2/IPsec packet after a failover o When it has to send the first IKEv2/IPsec packet after a failover
event. event.
o When it has just received control from the active member and o When it has just received control from the active member and
wishes to update the values proactively, so that it need not start wishes to update the values proactively, so that it need not start
this exchange later, when sending or receiving the request. this exchange later, when sending or receiving the request.
To clarify the first alternative: the normal IKE behavior of
rejecting out-of-window messages is not changed, but such messages
can still be a valid trigger for the exchange defined in this
document. To avoid DoS attacks resulting from replayed messages, the
peer MUST NOT initiate counter synchronization for any particular IKE
SA more than once per failover event.
The standby member can initiate the synchronization of IPsec SA The standby member can initiate the synchronization of IPsec SA
Replay Counters: Replay Counters:
o If there has been traffic using the IPsec SA in the recent past o If there has been traffic using the IPsec SA in the recent past
and the standby member suspects that its Replay Counter may be and the standby member suspects that its Replay Counter may be
stale. stale.
Since there can be a large number of sessions at the standby member, Since there can be a large number of sessions at the standby member,
and sending synchronization exchanges for all of them may result in and sending synchronization exchanges for all of them may result in
overload, the standby member can choose to initiate the exchange in a overload, the standby member can choose to initiate the exchange in a
"lazy" fashion: only when it has to send or receive the request. In "lazy" fashion: only when it has to send or expects to receive
general, the standby member is free to initiate this exchange at its traffic from each peer. In general, the standby member is free to
discretion. initiate this exchange at its discretion. Implementation
considerations include the ability to survive a certain amount of
traffic loss, and the capacity of a cluster member to initiate
counter synchronization simultaneously with a large number of peers.
8. IKE SA and IPsec SA Message Sequencing 8. IKE SA and IPsec SA Message Sequencing
The straightforward definitions of message sequence numbers, The straightforward definitions of message sequence numbers,
retransmissions and replay protection in IPsec and IKEv2 are strained retransmissions and replay protection in IPsec and IKEv2 are strained
by the failover scenarios described in this document. This section by the failover scenarios described in this document. This section
describes some policy choices that need to be made by implementations describes some policy choices that need to be made by implementations
in this setting. in this setting.
8.1. Handling of Pending IKE Messages 8.1. Handling of Pending IKE Messages
After sending its "receive" counter, the cluster member MUST reject After sending its "receive" counter, the cluster member MUST reject
any incoming IKE messages that are outside its declared window. A (silently drop) any incoming IKE messages that are outside its
similar rule applies to the peer. Local policies vary, and strict declared window. A similar rule applies to the peer. Local policies
implementations will reject any incoming IKE message arriving before vary, and strict implementations will reject any incoming IKE message
Message ID synchronization is complete. arriving before Message ID synchronization is complete.
8.2. Handling of Pending IPsec Messages 8.2. Handling of Pending IPsec Messages
For IPsec, there is often a trade-off between security and For IPsec, there is often a trade-off between security and
reliability of the protected protocols. Here again there is some reliability of the protected protocols. Here again there is some
leeway for local policy. Some implementations might accept incoming leeway for local policy. Some implementations might accept incoming
traffic that is outside the replay window for some time after the traffic that is outside the replay window for some time after the
failover event. Strict implementations will only accept traffic failover event, and until the counters had been synchronized. Strict
that's inside the "safe" window. implementations will only accept traffic that's inside the "safe"
window.
8.3. IKE SA Inconsistencies 8.3. IKE SA Inconsistencies
IKEv2 is normally a reliable protocol. As long as an IKE SA is IKEv2 is normally a reliable protocol. As long as an IKE SA is
valid, both peers share a single, consistent view of the IKE SA and valid, both peers share a single, consistent view of the IKE SA and
all associated Child SAs. Failover situations as described in this all associated Child SAs. Failover situations as described in this
document may involve forced deletion of IKE messages, resulting in document may involve forced deletion of IKE messages, resulting in
inconsistencies, such as Child SAs that exist on only one of the inconsistencies, such as Child SAs that exist on only one of the
peers. Such SAs would cause an INVALID_SPI to be returned when used peers. Such SAs might cause an INVALID_SPI to be returned when used
by that peer. by that peer. Note that Sec. 1.5 of [2] allows but does not mandate
sending an INVALID_SPI notification in this case.
The Working Group discussed at some point a proposed set of rules for The Working Group discussed at some point a proposed set of rules for
dealing with such situations. However we believe that these dealing with such situations. However we believe that these
situations should be rare in practice; as a result the "default" situations should be rare in practice; as a result the "default"
behavior of tearing down the entire IKE SA is to be preferred over behavior of tearing down the entire IKE SA is to be preferred over
the complexity of dealing with a multitude of edge cases. the complexity of dealing with a multitude of edge cases.
9. Step by Step Details 9. Step by Step Details
This section goes through the sequence of steps of a typical failover This section goes through the sequence of steps of a typical failover
skipping to change at page 17, line 31 skipping to change at page 18, line 46
6, 7 but not for 3, then it should include the value 8 in its 6, 7 but not for 3, then it should include the value 8 in its
EXPECTED_SEND_REQ_MESSAGE_ID payload and should not wait for a EXPECTED_SEND_REQ_MESSAGE_ID payload and should not wait for a
response to message 3 anymore. response to message 3 anymore.
o Similarly, the peer should also not wait for pending (incoming) o Similarly, the peer should also not wait for pending (incoming)
requests. For example if the window size is 5 and the peer's requests. For example if the window size is 5 and the peer's
window is 3-7 and if the peer has received requests 4, 5, 6, 7 but window is 3-7 and if the peer has received requests 4, 5, 6, 7 but
not 3, then it should send the value 8 in the not 3, then it should send the value 8 in the
EXPECTED_RECV_REQ_MESSAGE_ID payload, and should not expect to EXPECTED_RECV_REQ_MESSAGE_ID payload, and should not expect to
receive message 3 anymore. receive message 3 anymore.
10. Interaction with other drafts 10. Interaction with other specifications
The usage scenario of the IKEv2/IPsec SA counter synchronization The usage scenario of this IKEv2/IPsec SA counter synchronization
proposal is that an IKEv2 SA has been established between the active solution is that an IKEv2 SA has been established between the active
member of a hot-standby cluster and a peer, then a failover event member of a hot-standby cluster and a peer, followed by a failover
occurred with the standby member becoming active. The proposal event occurring and the standby member becoming active. The solution
further assumes that the IKEv2 SA state was continuously synchronized further assumes that the IKEv2 SA state was continuously synchronized
between the active and standby members of the cluster before the between the active and standby members of the cluster before the
failover event. failover event.
o Session resumption [10] assumes that a peer (client or initiator) o Session resumption [10] assumes that a peer (client or initiator)
detects the need to re-establish the session. In IKEv2/IPsec SA detects the need to re-establish the session. In IKEv2/IPsec SA
counter synchronization, it is the newly-active member (a gateway counter synchronization, it is the newly-active member (a gateway
or responder) that detects the need to synchronize the SA counter or responder) that detects the need to synchronize the SA counter
after the failover event. Also in a hot-standby cluster, the peer after the failover event. Also in a hot-standby cluster, the peer
establishes the IKEv2/IPsec session with a single IP address that establishes the IKEv2/IPsec session with a single IP address that
represents the whole cluster, so the peer normally does not detect represents the whole cluster, so the peer normally does not detect
the event of failover in the cluster unless the standby member the event of failover in the cluster unless the standby member
takes too long to become active and the IKEv2 SA times out by use takes too long to become active and the IKEv2 SA times out by use
of the IKEv2 liveness check mechanism. To conclude, session of the IKEv2 liveness check mechanism. To conclude, session
resumption and SA counter synchronization after failover are resumption and SA counter synchronization after failover are
mutually exclusive. mutually exclusive: they are not expected to be used together, and
both features can coexist within the same implementation without
affecting each other.
o The IKEv2 Redirect mechanism for load-balancing [11] can be used o The IKEv2 Redirect mechanism for load-balancing [11] can be used
either during the initial stages of SA setup (the IKE_SA_INIT and either during the initial stages of SA setup (the IKE_SA_INIT and
IKE_AUTH exchanges) or after session establishment. SA counter IKE_AUTH exchanges) or after session establishment. SA counter
synchronization is only useful after the IKE SA has been synchronization is only useful after the IKE SA has been
established and a failover event has occurred. So, unlike established and a failover event has occurred. So, unlike
Redirect, it is irrelevant during the first two exchanges. Redirect, it is irrelevant during the first two exchanges.
Redirect after the session has been established is mostly useful Redirect after the session has been established is mostly useful
for timed or planned shutdown/maintenance. A real failover event for timed or planned shutdown/maintenance. A real failover event
cannot be detected by the active member ahead of time, and so cannot be detected by the active member ahead of time, and so
using Redirect after session establishment is not possible in the using Redirect after session establishment is not possible in the
case of failover. So, Redirect and SA counter synchronization case of failover. So, Redirect and SA counter synchronization
after failover are mutually exclusive. after failover are mutually exclusive, in the sense described
above.
o IKEv2 Failure Detection [6] solves a similar problem where the o IKEv2 Failure Detection [6] solves a similar problem where the
peer can rapidly detect that a cluster member has crashed based on peer can rapidly detect that a cluster member has crashed based on
a token. It is unrelated to the current scenario because the goal a token. It is unrelated to the current scenario because the goal
in failover is for the peer not to notice that a failure has in failover is for the peer not to notice that a failure has
occurred. occurred.
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
Since Message ID synchronization messages need to be sent with Since Message ID synchronization messages need to be sent with
Message ID zero, they are potentially vulnerable to replay attacks. Message ID zero, they are potentially vulnerable to replay attacks.
skipping to change at page 18, line 40 skipping to change at page 20, line 12
the requirement that the Send counter sent by the cluster member the requirement that the Send counter sent by the cluster member
should always be monotonically increasing, a rule that the peer should always be monotonically increasing, a rule that the peer
enforces by silently dropping messages that contradict it. enforces by silently dropping messages that contradict it.
o Replay of the Message ID synchronization response: This is o Replay of the Message ID synchronization response: This is
countered by sending the nonce data along with the synchronization countered by sending the nonce data along with the synchronization
payload. The same nonce data has to be returned in the response. payload. The same nonce data has to be returned in the response.
Thus the standby member will accept a reply only for the current Thus the standby member will accept a reply only for the current
request. After it receives a valid response, it MUST NOT process request. After it receives a valid response, it MUST NOT process
the same response again and MUST discard any additional responses. the same response again and MUST discard any additional responses.
As mentioned in Section 7, trigerring counter synchronization by out-
of-window, potentially replayed messages, could open a DoS
vulnerability. This risk is mitigated by the solution described in
that section.
12. IANA Considerations 12. IANA Considerations
This document introduces four new IKEv2 Notification Message types as This document introduces four new IKEv2 Notification Message types as
described in Section 6. The new Notify Message Types must be described in Section 6. The new Notify Message Types must be
assigned values between 16396 and 40959. assigned values between 16396 and 40959.
+-------------------------------------+-------------+ +-------------------------------------+-------------+
| Name | Value | | Name | Value |
+-------------------------------------+-------------+ +-------------------------------------+-------------+
| IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC_SUPPORTED | TBD by IANA | | IKEV2_MESSAGE_ID_SYNC_SUPPORTED | TBD by IANA |
skipping to change at page 19, line 31 skipping to change at page 21, line 5
order) for their review comments and valuable suggestions: Dan order) for their review comments and valuable suggestions: Dan
Harkins, Paul Hoffman, Steve Kent, Tero Kivinen, David McGrew, and Harkins, Paul Hoffman, Steve Kent, Tero Kivinen, David McGrew, and
Pekka Riikonen. Pekka Riikonen.
14. Change Log 14. Change Log
This section lists all the changes in this document. This section lists all the changes in this document.
NOTE TO RFC EDITOR: Please remove this section before publication. NOTE TO RFC EDITOR: Please remove this section before publication.
14.1. Draft -04 14.1. Draft -06
Applied multiple review comments, from Pekka Riikonen, Alexey
Melnikov, Stephen Farrel, Robert Sparks, Pete Resnick, Russ Housley
and Adrian Farrel. Added an architectural reference diagram. Added
a MUST requirement for cluster members to share peers' support of
this protocol, which had been implicit in previous versions.
14.2. Draft -05
Applied Sean Turner's review comments.
14.3. Draft -04
Extended Sec. 3 for better coverage of other IPsec cluster-related Extended Sec. 3 for better coverage of other IPsec cluster-related
issues, and how they are resolved within the existing standards. issues, and how they are resolved within the existing standards.
14.2. Draft -03 14.4. Draft -03
Clarified the rules for Message ID sync, so that replay attacks can Clarified the rules for Message ID sync, so that replay attacks can
be avoided without a failover counter. be avoided without a failover counter.
Added wording regarding inconsistent IKE state (basically choosing to Added wording regarding inconsistent IKE state (basically choosing to
ignore the problem) and further rules dealing with pending traffic. ignore the problem) and further rules dealing with pending traffic.
The IPsec replay counter delta value now refers to incoming traffic. The IPsec replay counter delta value now refers to incoming traffic.
The associated notification is only sent from the cluster to the The associated notification is only sent from the cluster to the
peer, and not back. peer, and not back.
14.3. Draft -02 14.5. Draft -02
Addressed comments by Yaron Sheffer posted on the WG mailing list. Addressed comments by Yaron Sheffer posted on the WG mailing list.
Numerous editorial changes. Numerous editorial changes.
14.4. Draft -01 14.6. Draft -01
Added "Multiple and Simultaneous failover' scenarios as pointed out Added "Multiple and Simultaneous failover" scenarios as pointed out
by Pekka Riikonen. by Pekka Riikonen.
Now document provides a mechanism to sync either IKEv2 message or Now document provides a mechanism to sync either IKEv2 message or
IPsec replay counter or both to cater different types of IPsec replay counter or both to cater different types of
implementations. implementations.
HA cluster's "failover count' is used to encounter replay of sync HA cluster's "failover count' is used to encounter replay of sync
requests by attacker. requests by attacker.
The sync of IPsec SA replay counter optimized to to have just one The sync of IPsec SA replay counter optimized to to have just one
global bumped-up outgoing IPsec SA counter of ALL Child SAs under an global bumped-up outgoing IPsec SA counter of ALL Child SAs under an
IKEv2 SA. IKEv2 SA.
The examples added for IKEv2 Message ID sync to provide more clarity. The examples added for IKEv2 Message ID sync to provide more clarity.
Some edits as per comments on mailing list to enhance clarity. Some edits as per comments on mailing list to enhance clarity.
14.5. Draft -00 14.7. Draft -00
Version 00 is identical to Version 00 is identical to
draft-kagarigi-ipsecme-ikev2-windowsync-04, started as WG document. draft-kagarigi-ipsecme-ikev2-windowsync-04, started as WG document.
Added IPSECME WG HA design team members as authors. Added IPSECME WG HA design team members as authors.
Added comment in Introduction to discuss the window sync process on Added comment in Introduction to discuss the window sync process on
WG mailing list to solve some concerns. WG mailing list to solve some concerns.
15. References 15. References
skipping to change at page 21, line 16 skipping to change at page 22, line 44
15.2. Informative References 15.2. Informative References
[4] Nir, Y., "IPsec Cluster Problem Statement", RFC 6027, [4] Nir, Y., "IPsec Cluster Problem Statement", RFC 6027,
October 2010. October 2010.
[5] Nadas, S., "Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) Version 3 [5] Nadas, S., "Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) Version 3
for IPv4 and IPv6", RFC 5798, March 2010. for IPv4 and IPv6", RFC 5798, March 2010.
[6] Nir, Y., Wierbowski, D., Detienne, F., and P. Sethi, "A Quick [6] Nir, Y., Wierbowski, D., Detienne, F., and P. Sethi, "A Quick
Crash Detection Method for IKE", Crash Detection Method for IKE",
draft-ietf-ipsecme-failure-detection-07 (work in progress), draft-ietf-ipsecme-failure-detection-08 (work in progress),
March 2011. April 2011.
[7] Housley, R., "Using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Counter [7] Housley, R., "Using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Counter
Mode With IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", Mode With IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
RFC 3686, January 2004. RFC 3686, January 2004.
[8] Viega, J. and D. McGrew, "The Use of Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) [8] Viega, J. and D. McGrew, "The Use of Galois/Counter Mode (GCM)
in IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC 4106, in IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC 4106,
June 2005. June 2005.
[9] McGrew, D. and B. Weis, "Using Counter Modes with Encapsulating [9] McGrew, D. and B. Weis, "Using Counter Modes with Encapsulating
skipping to change at page 21, line 43 skipping to change at page 23, line 25
[11] Devarapalli, V. and K. Weniger, "Redirect Mechanism for the [11] Devarapalli, V. and K. Weniger, "Redirect Mechanism for the
Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)", RFC 5685, Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)", RFC 5685,
November 2009. November 2009.
Appendix A. IKEv2 Message ID Sync Examples Appendix A. IKEv2 Message ID Sync Examples
This (non-normative) section presents some examples that illustrate This (non-normative) section presents some examples that illustrate
how the IKEv2 Message ID values are synchronized. We use a tuple how the IKEv2 Message ID values are synchronized. We use a tuple
notation, denoting the two counters EXPECTED_SEND_REQ_MESSAGE_ID and notation, denoting the two counters EXPECTED_SEND_REQ_MESSAGE_ID and
EXPECTED_RECV_REQ_MESSAGE_ID on a member as EXPECTED_RECV_REQ_MESSAGE_ID on each protocol party as
(EXPECTED_SEND_REQ_MESSAGE_ID, EXPECTED_RECV_REQ_MESSAGE_ID). (EXPECTED_SEND_REQ_MESSAGE_ID, EXPECTED_RECV_REQ_MESSAGE_ID).
Note that if the IKE message counters are already synchronized (as in
the first example), we expect the numbers to be reversed between the
two sides. If one protocol party intends to send the next request as
4, then the other expects the next received request to be 4.
A.1. Normal Failover - Example 1 A.1. Normal Failover - Example 1
Standby (Newly Active) Member Peer Standby (Newly Active) Member Peer
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Sync Request (0, 5) -------->
Peer has the values (5, 0) so it sends
<------------- (5, 0) as the Sync Response
In this example, the peer has most recently sent an IKE request with
Message ID 4, and has never received a request. So the peer's
expected values for the next pair of messages are (5, 0). These are
the same values as received from the member and therefore they are
sent as-is.
A.2. Normal Failover - Example 2
Standby (Newly Active) Member Peer
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Sync Request (2, 3) --------> Sync Request (2, 3) -------->
Peer has the values (4, 5) so it sends Peer has the values (4, 5) so it sends
<------------- (4, 5) as the Sync Response <------------- (4, 5) as the Sync Response
A.2. Normal Failover - Example 2 In this example, the peer has most recently sent an IKE message with
the Message ID 3, and received one with ID 4. So the peer's expected
values for the next pair of messages are (4, 5). These are both
higher than the corresponding values just received from the member
(the order of tuple members is reversed when doing this comparison!),
and therefore they are sent as-is.
A.3. Normal Failover - Example 3
Standby (Newly Active) Member Peer Standby (Newly Active) Member Peer
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Sync Request (2, 5) --------> Sync Request (2, 5) -------->
Peer has the values (2, 4) so it sends Peer has the values (2, 4) so it sends
<-------------(5, 4) as the Sync Response <-------------(5, 4) as the Sync Response
A.3. Simultaneous Failover In this example, the newly active member expects to send the next IKE
message with ID 2. It sends an expected receive value of 5, which is
higher than the last ID value it has seen from the peer, because it
believes some incoming messages may have been lost. The peer has
last sent a message with ID 1, and received one with ID 3, indicating
that the a couple of messages sent by the previously active member
had not been synchronized into the other member. So the peer's next
expected (send, receive) values are (2, 4). The peer replies with
the maximum of the received and the expected value for both send and
receive counters: (max(2, 5), max(4, 2)) = (5, 4).
In the case of simultaneous failover, both sides send the A.4. Simultaneous Failover
synchronization request, but whichever side has the higher value will
be eventually synchronized. In the case of simultaneous failover, both sides send their
synchronization requests simultaneously. The eventual outcome of
synchronization consists of the higher counter values. This is
demonstrated in the following figure.
Standby (Newly Active) Member Peer Standby (Newly Active) Member Peer
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Sync Request (4,4) -----> Sync Request (4,4) ----->
<-------------- Sync Request (5,5) <-------------- Sync Request (5,5)
Sync Response (5,5) ----> Sync Response (5,5) ---->
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Phone: +91 80 4426 4831 Phone: +91 80 4426 4831
Email: kagarigi@cisco.com Email: kagarigi@cisco.com
Yoav Nir Yoav Nir
Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. Check Point Software Technologies Ltd.
5 Hasolelim St. 5 Hasolelim St.
Tel Aviv 67897 Tel Aviv 67897
Israel Israel
Email: ynir@checkpoint.com Email: ynir@checkpoint.com
Yaron Sheffer Yaron Sheffer
Independent Porticor Cloud Security
Email: yaronf.ietf@gmail.com Email: yaronf.ietf@gmail.com
Dacheng Zhang Dacheng Zhang
Huawei Technologies Ltd. Huawei Technologies Ltd.
Email: zhangdacheng@huawei.com Email: zhangdacheng@huawei.com
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