draft-ietf-ippm-rate-problem-10.txt   rfc7497.txt 
Network Working Group A. Morton Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) A. Morton
Internet-Draft AT&T Labs Request for Comments: 7497 AT&T Labs
Intended status: Informational February 5, 2015 Category: Informational April 2015
Expires: August 9, 2015 ISSN: 2070-1721
Rate Measurement Test Protocol Problem Statement and Requirements Rate Measurement Test Protocol Problem Statement and Requirements
draft-ietf-ippm-rate-problem-10
Abstract Abstract
This memo presents an access rate-measurement problem statement for This memo presents a problem statement for access rate measurement
test protocols to measure IP Performance Metrics. Key rate for test protocols to measure IP Performance Metrics (IPPM). Key
measurement test protocol aspects include the ability to control rate measurement test protocol aspects include the ability to control
packet characteristics on the tested path, such as asymmetric rate packet characteristics on the tested path, such as asymmetric rate
and asymmetric packet size. and asymmetric packet size.
Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. published for informational purposes.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not all documents
approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 9, 2015. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7497.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Purpose and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Purpose and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Active Rate Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Active Rate Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Measurement Method Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Measurement Method Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. Test Protocol Control & Generation Requirements . . . . . . . 9 5. Test Protocol Control and Generation Requirements . . . . . . 9
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7. Operational Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7. Operational Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
There are many possible rate measurement scenarios. This memo There are many possible rate measurement scenarios. This memo
describes one rate measurement problem and presents a rate- describes one rate measurement problem and presents a rate
measurement problem statement for test protocols to measure IP measurement problem statement for test protocols to measure IP
Performance Metrics (IPPM). Performance Metrics (IPPM).
When selecting a form of access to the Internet, subscribers are When selecting a form of access to the Internet, subscribers are
interested in the performance characteristics of the various interested in the performance characteristics of the various
alternatives. Standardized measurements can be a basis for alternatives. Standardized measurements can be a basis for
comparison between these alternatives. There is an underlying need comparison between these alternatives. There is an underlying need
to coordinate measurements that support such comparisons, and test to coordinate measurements that support such comparisons and to test
control protocols to fulfill this need. The figure below depicts control protocols to fulfill this need. The figure below depicts
some typical measurement points of access networks. some typical measurement points of access networks.
User /====== Fiber ======= Access Node \ User /====== Fiber ======= Access Node \
Device -|------ Copper ------- Access Node -|-- Infrastructure -- GW Device -|------ Copper ------- Access Node -|-- Infrastructure -- GW
or Host \------ Radio ------- Access Node / or Host \------ Radio ------- Access Node /
The access-rate scenario or use case has received wide-spread GW = Gateway
attention of Internet access subscribers and seemingly all Internet
The access rate scenario or use case has received widespread
attention of Internet-access subscribers and seemingly all Internet-
industry players, including regulators. This problem is being industry players, including regulators. This problem is being
approached with many different measurement methods. The eventual approached with many different measurement methods. The eventual
protocol solutions to this problem (and the systems that utilize the protocol solutions to this problem (and the systems that utilize the
protocol) may not directly involve users, such as when tests reach protocol) may not directly involve users, such as when tests reach
from the Infrastructure to a service-specific device, such as a from the infrastructure to a service-specific device, such as a
residential gateway. However, no aspect of the problem precludes residential gateway. However, no aspect of the problem precludes
users from developing a test protocol controlled via command line users from developing a test protocol controlled via command line
interfaces on both ends. Thus, a very wide range of test protocols, interfaces on both ends. Thus, a very wide range of test protocols,
active measurement methods and system solutions are the possible active measurement methods, and system solutions are the possible
outcomes of this problem statement. outcomes of this problem statement.
1.1. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
2. Purpose and Scope 2. Purpose and Scope
The scope and purpose of this memo is to define the measurement The scope and purpose of this memo is to define the measurement
problem statement for test protocols conducting access rate problem statement for test protocols conducting access rate
measurement on production networks. Relevant test protocols include measurement on production networks. Relevant test protocols include
[RFC4656] and [RFC5357], but the problem is stated in a general way [RFC4656] and [RFC5357], but the problem is stated in a general way
so that it can be addressed by any existing test protocol, such as so that it can be addressed by any existing test protocol, such as
[RFC6812]. [RFC6812].
This memo discusses possibilities for methods of measurement, but This memo discusses possible measurement methods but does not specify
does not specify exact methods which would normally be part of the exact methods that would normally be part of the solution.
solution, not the problem.
We are interested in access measurement scenarios with the following We are interested in access measurement scenarios with the following
characteristics: characteristics:
o The Access portion of the network is the focus of this problem o The access portion of the network is the focus of this problem
statement. The user typically subscribes to a service with bi- statement. The user typically subscribes to a service with
directional access partly described by rates in bits per second. bidirectional access partly described by rates in bits per second.
The rates may be expressed as raw capacity or restricted capacity The rates may be expressed as raw capacity or restricted capacity,
as described in [RFC6703]. These are the quantities that must be as described in [RFC6703]. These are the quantities that must be
measured according to one or more standard metrics, and for which measured according to one or more standard metrics and for which
measurement methods must also be agreed as a part of the solution. measurement methods must also be agreed on as a part of the
solution.
o Referring to the reference path illustrated below and defined in o Referring to the reference path illustrated below and defined in
[I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path], possible measurement points include a [RFC7398], possible measurement points include a subscriber's
Subscriber's host, the access service demarcation point, Intra IP host, the access service demarcation point, intra IP access (where
access where a globally routable address is present, or the a globally routable address is present), or the gateway between
gateway between the measured access network and other networks. the measured access network and other networks.
Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Access -- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Access -- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit
device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW
GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway
o Rates at some links near the edge of the provider's network can o Rates at some links near the edge of the provider's network can
often be several orders of magnitude less than link rates in the often be several orders of magnitude less than link rates in the
aggregation and core portions of the network. aggregation and core portions of the network.
o Asymmetrical access rates on ingress and egress are prevalent. o Asymmetrical access rates on ingress and egress are prevalent.
o In many scenarios of interest, extremely large scale of access o In many scenarios of interest, services of extremely large-scale
services requires low complexity devices participating at the user access require low-complexity devices participating at the user
end of the path, and those devices place limits on clock and end of the path, and those devices place limits on clock and
control timing accuracy. control timing accuracy.
This problem statement assumes that the most-likely bottleneck device This problem statement assumes that the most likely bottleneck device
or link is adjacent to the remote (user-end) measurement device, or or link is adjacent to the remote (user-end) measurement device or is
is within one or two router/switch hops of the remote measurement within one or two router/switch hops of the remote measurement
device. device.
Other use cases for rate measurement involve situations where the Other use cases for rate measurement involve situations where the
packet switching and transport facilities are leased by one operator packet switching and transport facilities are leased by one operator
from another and the link capacity available cannot be directly from another, and the link capacity available cannot be directly
determined (e.g., from device interface utilization). These determined (e.g., from device-interface utilization). These
scenarios could include mobile backhaul, Ethernet Service access scenarios could include mobile backhaul, Ethernet service access
networks, and/or extensions of layer 2 or layer 3 networks. The networks, and/or extensions of layer 2 or layer 3 networks. The
results of rate measurements in such cases could be employed to results of rate measurements in such cases could be employed to
select alternate routing, investigate whether capacity meets some select alternate routing, investigate whether capacity meets some
previous agreement, and/or adapt the rate of traffic sources if a previous agreement, and/or adapt the rate of traffic sources if a
capacity bottleneck is found via the rate measurement. In the case capacity bottleneck is found via the rate measurement. In the case
of aggregated leased networks, available capacity may also be of aggregated leased networks, available capacity may also be
asymmetric. In these cases, the tester is assumed to have a sender asymmetric. In these cases, the tester is assumed to have a sender
and receiver location under their control. We refer to this scenario and receiver location under their control. We refer to this scenario
below as the aggregated leased network case. below as the aggregated leased-network case.
This memo describes protocol support for active measurement methods, This memo describes protocol support for active measurement methods
consistent with the IPPM working group's traditional charter. Active consistent with the IPPM working group's traditional charter. Active
measurements require synthetic traffic streams dedicated to testing, measurements require synthetic traffic streams dedicated to testing
and do not make measurements on user traffic. See section 2 of and do not make measurements on user traffic. See Section 2 of
[RFC2679], where the concept of a stream is first introduced in IPPM [RFC2679], where the concept of a stream is first introduced in IPPM
literature as the basis for collecting a sample (defined in section literature as the basis for collecting a sample (defined in
11 of [RFC2330]). Section 11 of [RFC2330]).
As noted in [RFC2330] the focus of access traffic management may As noted in [RFC2330], the focus of access traffic management may
influence the rate measurement results for some forms of access, as influence the rate measurement results for some forms of access, as
it may differ between user and test traffic if the test traffic has it may differ between user and test traffic if the test traffic has
different characteristics, primarily in terms of the packets different characteristics, primarily in terms of the packets
themselves (see section 13 of [RFC2330] for the considerations on themselves (see Section 13 of [RFC2330] for the considerations on
packet type, or Type-P). packet type, or Type-P).
There are several aspects of Type-P where user traffic may be There are several aspects of Type-P where user traffic may be
examined and selected for special treatment that may affect examined and selected for special treatment that may affect
transmission rates. Various aspects of Type-P are known to influence transmission rates. Various aspects of Type-P are known to influence
Equal-Cost Multi-Path (ECMP) routing with possible rate measurement Equal-Cost Multipath (ECMP) routing with possible rate measurement
variability across parallel paths. Without being exhaustive, the variability across parallel paths. Without being exhaustive, the
possibilities include: possibilities include:
o Packet length o Packet length
o IP addresses o IP addresses
o Transport protocol (e.g. where TCP packets may be routed o Transport protocol (e.g., where TCP packets may be routed
differently from UDP) differently from UDP)
o Transport Protocol port numbers o Transport-protocol port numbers
This issue requires further discussion when specific solutions/ This issue requires further discussion when specific solutions/
methods of measurement are proposed, but for this problem statement methods of measurement are proposed; for this problem statement, it
it is sufficient to identify the problem and indicate that the is sufficient to identify the problem and indicate that the solution
solution may require an extremely close emulation of user traffic, in may require an extremely close emulation of user traffic, in terms of
terms of one or more factors above. one or more factors above.
Although the user may have multiple instances of network access Although the user may have multiple instances of network access
available to them, the primary problem scope is to measure one form available to them, the primary problem scope is to measure one form
of access at a time. It is plausible that a solution for the single of access at a time. It is plausible that a solution for the single
access problem will be applicable to simultaneous measurement of access problem will be applicable to simultaneous measurement of
multiple access instances, but treatment of this scenario is beyond multiple access instances, but treatment of this scenario is beyond
the current scope this document. the current scope this document.
A key consideration is whether active measurements will be conducted A key consideration is whether or not active measurements will be
with user traffic present (In-Service testing), or not present (Out- conducted with user traffic present. In-Service testing takes place
of-Service testing), such as during pre-service testing or with user traffic present. Out-of-Service testing occurs during pre-
maintenance that interrupts service temporarily. Out-of-Service service assessment or during maintenance that interrupts service
testing includes activities described as "service commissioning", temporarily. Out-of-Service testing includes activities described as
"service activation", and "planned maintenance". Opportunistic In- "service commissioning", "service activation", and "planned
Service testing when there is no user traffic present (e.g., outside maintenance". Opportunistic In-Service testing (when there is no
normal business hours) throughout the test interval is essentially user traffic present throughout the test interval, such as outside
equivalent to Out-of-Service testing. Both In-Service and Out-of- normal business hours) is essentially equivalent to Out-of-Service
Service testing are within the scope of this problem. testing. Both In-Service and Out-of-Service testing are within the
scope of this problem.
It is a non-goal to solve the measurement protocol specification It is a non-goal to solve the measurement protocol specification
problem in this memo. problem in this memo.
It is a non-goal to standardize methods of measurement in this memo. It is a non-goal to standardize methods of measurement in this memo.
However, the problem statement mandates support for one category of However, the problem statement mandates support for one category of
rate measurement methods in the test protocol and adequate control rate measurement methods in the test protocol and adequate control
features for the methods in the control protocol (assuming the features for the methods in the control protocol (assuming the
control and test protocols are separate). control and test protocols are separate).
3. Active Rate Measurement 3. Active Rate Measurement
This section lists features of active measurement methods needed to This section lists features of active measurement methods needed to
measure access rates in production networks. measure access rates in production networks.
Coordination between source and destination devices through control Coordination between source and destination devices through control
messages and other basic capabilities described in the methods of messages and other basic capabilities described in the methods of
IPPM RFCs [RFC2679][RFC2680], and assumed for test protocols such as IPPM RFCs [RFC2679] [RFC2680], and assumed for test protocols such as
[RFC5357] and [RFC4656], are taken as given. [RFC5357] and [RFC4656], are taken as given.
Most forms of active testing intrude on user performance to some Most forms of active testing intrude on user performance to some
degree, especially In-Service testing. One key tenet of IPPM methods degree, especially In-Service testing. One key tenet of IPPM methods
is to minimize test traffic effects on user traffic in the production is to minimize test traffic effects on user traffic in the production
network. Section 5 of [RFC2680] lists the problems with high network. Section 5 of [RFC2680] lists the problems with high
measurement traffic rates ("too much traffic"), and the most relevant measurement traffic rates ("too much" traffic); the most relevant for
for rate measurement is the tendency for measurement traffic to skew rate measurement is the tendency for measurement traffic to skew the
the results, followed by the possibility of introducing congestion on results, followed by the possibility of introducing congestion on the
the access link. Section 4 of [RFC3148] provides additional access link. Section 4 of [RFC3148] provides additional
considerations. The user of protocols for In-Service testing MUST considerations. The user of protocols for In-Service testing MUST
respect these traffic constraints. Obviously, categories of rate respect these traffic constraints. Obviously, categories of rate
measurement methods that use less active test traffic than others measurement methods that use less active test traffic than others
with similar accuracy are preferred for In-Service testing, and the with similar accuracy are preferred for In-Service testing, and the
specifications of this memo encourage traffic reduction through specifications of this memo encourage traffic reduction through
asymmetric control capabilities. asymmetric control capabilities.
Out-of-Service tests where the test path shares no links with In- Out-of-Service tests where the test path shares no links with In-
Service user traffic, have none of the congestion or skew concerns. Service user traffic, have none of the congestion or skew concerns.
Both types should address practical matters common to all test Both types should address practical matters common to all test
efforts, such as conducting measurements within a reasonable time efforts, such as conducting measurements within a reasonable time
from the tester's point of view, and ensuring that timestamp accuracy from the tester's point of view and ensuring that timestamp accuracy
is consistent with the precision needed for measurement [RFC2330]. is consistent with the precision needed for measurement [RFC2330].
Out-of-Service tests where some part of the test path is shared with Out-of-Service tests where some part of the test path is shared with
In-Service traffic MUST respect the In-Service constraints described In-Service traffic MUST respect the In-Service constraints described
above. above.
The intended metrics to be measured have strong influence over the The intended metrics to be measured have strong influence over the
categories of measurement methods required. For example, using the categories of measurement methods required. For example, using the
terminology of [RFC5136], it may be possible to measure a Path terminology of [RFC5136], it may be possible to measure a path
Capacity Metric while In-Service if the level of background (user) capacity metric while In-Service if the level of background (user)
traffic can be assessed and included in the reported result. traffic can be assessed and included in the reported result.
The measurement *architecture* MAY be either of one-way (e.g., The measurement architecture MAY be either of one-way (e.g.,
[RFC4656]) or two-way (e.g., [RFC5357]), but the scale and complexity [RFC4656]) or two-way (e.g., [RFC5357]), but the scale and complexity
aspects of end-user or aggregated access measurement clearly favor aspects of end-user or aggregated access measurement clearly favor
two-way (with low-complexity user-end device and round-trip results two-way (with a low-complexity user-end device and round-trip results
collection, as found in [RFC5357]). However, the asymmetric rates of collection, as found in [RFC5357]). However, the asymmetric rates of
many access services mean that the measurement system MUST be able to many access services mean that the measurement system MUST be able to
evaluate performance in each direction of transmission. In the two- evaluate performance in each direction of transmission. In the two-
way architecture, both end devices MUST include the ability to launch way architecture, both end devices MUST include the ability to launch
test streams and collect the results of measurements in both (one- test streams and collect the results of measurements in both (one-
way) directions of transmission (this requirement is consistent with way) directions of transmission (this requirement is consistent with
previous protocol specifications, and it is not a unique problem for previous protocol specifications, and it is not a unique problem for
rate measurements). rate measurements).
The following paragraphs describe features for the roles of test The following paragraphs describe features for the roles of test
packet SENDER, RECEIVER, and results REPORTER. packet SENDER, RECEIVER, and results REPORTER.
SENDER: SENDER:
Generate streams of test packets with various characteristics as Generate streams of test packets with various characteristics as
desired (see Section 4). The SENDER MAY be located at the user end desired (see Section 4). The SENDER MAY be located at the user end
of the access path or elsewhere in the production network, such as at of the access path or elsewhere in the production network, such as at
one end of an aggregated leased network segment. one end of an aggregated leased-network segment.
RECEIVER: RECEIVER:
Collect streams of test packets with various characteristics (as Collect streams of test packets with various characteristics (as
described above), and make the measurements necessary to support rate described above), and make the measurements necessary to support rate
measurement at the receiving end of an access or aggregated leased measurement at the receiving end of an access or aggregated leased-
network segment. network segment.
REPORTER: REPORTER:
Use information from test packets and local processes to measure Use information from test packets and local processes to measure
delivered packet rates, and prepare results in the required format delivered packet rates and prepare results in the required format
(the REPORTER role may be combined with another role, most likely the (the REPORTER role may be combined with another role, most likely the
SENDER). SENDER).
4. Measurement Method Categories 4. Measurement Method Categories
A protocol that addresses the rate measurement problem MUST serve the A protocol that addresses the rate measurement problem MUST serve the
test stream generation and measurement functions (SENDER and test stream generation and measurement functions (SENDER and
RECEIVER). The follow-up phase of analyzing the measurement results RECEIVER). The follow-up phase of analyzing the measurement results
to produce a report is outside the scope of this problem and memo to produce a report is outside the scope of this problem and memo
(REPORTER). (REPORTER).
For the purposes of this problem statement, we categorize the many For the purposes of this problem statement, we categorize the many
possibilities for rate measurement stream generation as follows; possibilities for rate measurement stream generation as follows:
1. Packet pairs, with fixed intra-pair packet spacing and fixed or 1. Packet pairs, with fixed intra-pair packet spacing and fixed or
random time intervals between pairs in a test stream. random time intervals between pairs in a test stream.
2. Multiple streams of packet pairs, with a range of intra-pair 2. Multiple streams of packet pairs, with a range of intra-pair
spacing and inter-pair intervals. spacing and inter-pair intervals.
3. One or more packet ensembles in a test stream, using a fixed 3. One or more packet ensembles in a test stream, using a fixed
ensemble size in packets and one or more fixed intra-ensemble ensemble size in packets and one or more fixed intra-ensemble
packet spacings (including zero spacing, meaning that back-to- packet spacings (including zero spacing, meaning that back-to-
skipping to change at page 8, line 18 skipping to change at page 8, line 24
packets represents a rate for testing purposes. packets represents a rate for testing purposes.
The test protocol SHALL support test packet ensemble generation The test protocol SHALL support test packet ensemble generation
(category 3), as this appears to minimize the demands on measurement (category 3), as this appears to minimize the demands on measurement
accuracy. Other stream generation categories are OPTIONAL. accuracy. Other stream generation categories are OPTIONAL.
For all supported categories, the following is a list of additional For all supported categories, the following is a list of additional
variables that the protocol(s) MUST be able to specify, control, and variables that the protocol(s) MUST be able to specify, control, and
generate: generate:
a. Variable payload lengths among packet streams a. variable payload lengths among packet streams;
b. Variable length (in packets) among packet streams or ensembles b. variable length (in packets) among packet streams or ensembles;
c. Variable IP header markings among packet streams c. variable IP header markings among packet streams;
d. Choice of UDP transport and variable port numbers, OR, choice of d. choice of UDP transport and variable port numbers, or choice of
TCP transport and variable port numbers for two-way architectures TCP transport and variable port numbers for two-way architectures
only, OR BOTH. See below for additional requirements on TCP only, or both (see below for additional requirements on TCP
transport generation. transport generation); and
e. Variable number of packet-pairs, ensembles, or streams used in a e. variable number of packet pairs, ensembles, or streams used in a
test session. test session.
The ability to revise these variables during an established test The ability to revise these variables during an established test
session is OPTIONAL, as multiple test sessions could serve the same session is OPTIONAL, as multiple test sessions could serve the same
purpose. Another OPTIONAL feature is the ability to generate streams purpose. Another OPTIONAL feature is the ability to generate streams
with VLAN tags and other markings. with VLAN tags and other markings.
For measurement systems employing TCP as the transport protocol, the For measurement systems employing TCP as the transport protocol, the
ability to generate specific stream characteristics requires a sender ability to generate specific stream characteristics requires a sender
with the ability to establish and prime the connection such that the with the ability to establish and prime the connection such that the
desired stream characteristics are allowed. See Mathis' work in desired stream characteristics are allowed. See [IPPM-METRICS] for
progress for more background [I-D.ietf-ippm-model-based-metrics]. more background.
Beyond simple connection handshake and options establishment, an Beyond a simple connection handshake and the options establishment,
"open-loop" TCP sender requires the SENDER ability to: an "open-loop" TCP sender requires the SENDER ability to:
o generate TCP packets with well-formed headers (all fields valid), o generate TCP packets with well-formed headers (all fields valid),
including Acknowledgement aspects. including Acknowledgement aspects;
o produce packet streams at controlled rates and variable inter- o produce packet streams at controlled rates and variable inter-
packet spacings, including packet ensembles (back-to-back at packet spacings, including packet ensembles (back-to-back at
server rate). server rate); and
o continue the configured sending stream characteristics despite all o continue the configured sending stream characteristics despite all
control indications except receive window exhaust. control indications except receive-window exhaust.
The corresponding TCP RECEIVER performs normally, having some ability The corresponding TCP RECEIVER performs normally, having some ability
to configure the receive window sufficiently large so as to allow the to configure the receive window sufficiently large so as to allow the
SENDER to transmit at will (up to a configured target). SENDER to transmit at will (up to a configured target).
It may also be useful (for diagnostic purposes) to provide a control It may also be useful (for diagnostic purposes) to provide a control
for Bulk Transfer Capacity measurement with fully-specified (and for the bulk transfer capacity measurement with fully-specified (and
congestion-controlled) TCP senders and receivers, as envisioned in congestion-controlled) TCP senders and receivers, as envisioned in
[RFC3148], but this would be a brute-force assessment which does not [RFC3148], but this would be a brute-force assessment, which does not
follow the conservative tenets of IPPM measurement [RFC2330]. follow the conservative tenets of IPPM measurement [RFC2330].
Measurements for each UDP test packet transferred between SENDER and Measurements for each UDP test packet transferred between SENDER and
RECEIVER MUST be compliant with the singleton measurement methods RECEIVER MUST be compliant with the singleton measurement methods
described in IPPM RFCs [RFC2679][RFC2680]. The time-stamp described in IPPM RFCs [RFC2679][RFC2680]. The timestamp information
information or loss/arrival status for each packet MUST be available or loss/arrival status for each packet MUST be available for
for communication to the REPORTER function. communication to the REPORTER function.
5. Test Protocol Control & Generation Requirements 5. Test Protocol Control and Generation Requirements
In summary, the test protocol must support the measurement features In summary, the test protocol must support the measurement features
described in the sections above. This requires: described in the sections above. This requires:
1. Communicating all test variables to the SENDER and RECEIVER 1. Communicating all test variables to the SENDER and RECEIVER;
2. Results collection in a one-way architecture 2. Results collection in a one-way architecture;
3. Remote device control for both one-way and two-way architectures 3. Remote device control for both one-way and two-way architectures;
and
4. Asymmetric packet rates in a two-way measurement architecture, or 4. Asymmetric packet rates in a two-way measurement architecture, or
coordinated one-way test capabilities with the same effect coordinated one-way test capabilities with the same effect
(asymmetric rates may be achieved through directional control of (asymmetric rates may be achieved through directional control of
packet rate or packet size) packet rate or packet size).
The ability to control and generate asymmetric rates in a two-way The ability to control and generate asymmetric rates in a two-way
architecture is REQUIRED. Two-way architectures are RECOMMENDED to architecture is REQUIRED. Two-way architectures are RECOMMENDED to
include control and generation capability for both asymmetric and include control and generation capability for both asymmetric and
symmetric packet sizes, because packet size often matters in the symmetric packet sizes because packet size often matters in the scope
scope of this problem and test systems SHOULD be equipped to detect of this problem and test systems SHOULD be equipped to detect
directional size dependency through comparative measurements. directional size dependency through comparative measurements.
Asymmetric packet size control is indicated when the result of a Asymmetric packet size control is indicated when the result of a
measurement may depend on the size of the packets used in each measurement may depend on the size of the packets used in each
direction, i.e. when any of the following conditions hold: direction, i.e., when any of the following conditions hold:
o there is a link in the path with asymmetrical capacity in opposite o there is a link in the path with asymmetrical capacity in opposite
directions (in combination with one or more of the conditions directions (in combination with one or more of the conditions
below, but their presence or specific details may be unknown to below, but their presence or specific details may be unknown to
the tester), the tester);
o there is a link in the path which aggregates (or divides) packets o there is a link in the path that aggregates (or divides) packets
into link-level frames, and may have a capacity that depends on into link-level frames and may have a capacity that depends on
packet size, rate, or timing, packet size, rate, or timing;
o there is a link in the path where transmission in one direction o there is a link in the path where transmission in one direction
influences performance in the opposite direction, influences performance in the opposite direction;
o there is a device in the path where transmission capacity depends o there is a device in the path where transmission capacity depends
on packet header processing capacity (in other words, the capacity on packet header processing capacity (in other words, the capacity
is sensitive to packet size), is sensitive to packet size);
o the target application stream is nominally MTU size packets in one o the target application stream is nominally MTU size packets in one
direction vs. ACK stream in the other, (noting that there are a direction versus ACK stream in the other (noting that there are a
vanishing number of symmetrical-rate application streams for which vanishing number of symmetrical rate application streams for which
rate measurement is wanted or interesting, but such streams might rate measurement is wanted or interesting but such streams might
have some relevance at this time), have some relevance at this time);
o the distribution of packet losses is critical to rate assessment, o the distribution of packet losses is critical to rate assessment;
and possibly other circumstances revealed by measurements comparing and possibly other circumstances revealed by measurements comparing
streams with symmetrical size and asymmetrical size. streams with symmetrical size and asymmetrical size.
Implementations may support control and generation for only symmetric Implementations may support control and generation for only symmetric
packet sizes when none of the above conditions hold. packet sizes when none of the above conditions hold.
The test protocol SHOULD enable measurement of the [RFC5136] Capacity The test protocol SHOULD enable measurement of the capacity metric
metric, either Out-of-Service, In-Service, or both. Other [RFC5136] [RFC5136] either Out-of-Service, In-Service, or both; other metrics
metrics are OPTIONAL. [RFC5136] are OPTIONAL.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
The security considerations that apply to any active measurement of The security considerations that apply to any active measurement of
live networks are relevant here as well. See [RFC4656] and live networks are relevant here as well. See [RFC4656] and
[RFC5357]. [RFC5357].
Privacy considerations for measurement systems, particularly when Privacy considerations for measurement systems, particularly when
Internet users participate in the tests in some way, are described in Internet users participate in the tests in some way, are described in
[I-D.ietf-lmap-framework]. [LMAP-FRAMEWORK].
There may be a serious issue if a proprietary Service Level Agreement There may be a serious issue if a proprietary service level agreement
involved with the access network segment provider were somehow leaked involved with the access network segment provider were somehow leaked
in the process of rate measurement. To address this, test protocols in the process of rate measurement. To address this, test protocols
SHOULD NOT convey this information in a way that could be discovered SHOULD NOT convey this information in a way that could be discovered
by unauthorized parties. by unauthorized parties.
7. Operational Considerations 7. Operational Considerations
All forms of testing originate traffic on the network, through their All forms of testing originate network traffic, either through their
communications for control and results collection, or from dedicated communications for control and results collection, from dedicated
measurement packet streams, or both. Testing traffic primarily falls measurement packet streams, or from a combination of both types of
in one of two categories, subscriber traffic or network management traffic. Testing traffic primarily falls in one of two categories:
traffic. There is an on-going need to engineer networks so that subscriber traffic or network management traffic. There is an
various forms of traffic are adequately served, and publication of ongoing need to engineer networks so that various forms of traffic
this memo does not change this need. Service subscribers and are adequately served, and publication of this memo does not change
authorized users SHOULD obtain their network operator's or service this need. Service subscribers and authorized users SHOULD obtain
provider's permission before conducting tests. Likewise, a service their network operator's or service provider's permission before
provider or third party SHOULD obtain the subscriber's permission to conducting tests. Likewise, a service provider or third party SHOULD
conduct tests, since they might temporarily reduce service quality. obtain the subscriber's permission to conduct tests, since they might
The protocol SHOULD communicate the permission status once the temporarily reduce service quality. The protocol SHOULD communicate
overall system has obtained it, either explicitly or through other the permission status once the overall system has obtained it, either
means. explicitly or through other means.
Subscribers, their service providers and network operators, and Subscribers, their service providers and network operators, and
sometimes third parties, all seek to measure network performance. sometimes third parties, all seek to measure network performance.
Capacity testing with active traffic often affects the packet Capacity testing with active traffic often affects the packet
transfer performance of streams traversing shared components of the transfer performance of streams traversing shared components of the
test path, to some degree. The degradation can be minimized by test path, to some degree. The degradation can be minimized by
scheduling such tests infrequently, and restricting the amount of scheduling such tests infrequently and restricting the amount of
measurement traffic required to assess capacity metrics. As a measurement traffic required to assess capacity metrics. As a
result, occasional short-duration estimates with minimal traffic are result, occasional short-duration estimates with minimal traffic are
preferred to measurements based on frequent file transfers of many preferred to measurements based on frequent file transfers of many
Megabytes with similar accuracy. New measurement methodologies megabytes with similar accuracy. New measurement methodologies
intended for standardization should be evaluated individually for intended for standardization should be evaluated individually for
potential operational issues. However, the scheduled frequency of potential operational issues. However, the scheduled frequency of
testing is as important as the methods used (and schedules are not testing is as important as the methods used (and schedules are not
typically submitted for standardization). typically submitted for standardization).
The new test protocol feature of asymmetrical packet size generation The new test protocol feature of asymmetrical packet size generation
in two-way testing is recommended in this memo. It can appreciably in two-way testing is recommended in this memo. It can appreciably
reduce the load and packet processing demands of each test and reduce the load and packet processing demands of each test and
therefore reduce the likelihood of degradation in one direction of therefore reduce the likelihood of degradation in one direction of
the tested path. Current IETF standardized test protocols (e.g., the tested path. Current IETF standardized test protocols (e.g.,
[RFC5357], also [RFC6812]) do not possess the asymmetric size [RFC5357] and [RFC6812]) do not possess the asymmetric size
generation capability with two-way testing. generation capability with two-way testing.
8. IANA Considerations 8. References
This memo makes no requests of IANA.
9. Acknowledgements
Dave McDysan provided comments and text for the aggregated leased use
case. Yaakov Stein suggested many considerations to address,
including the In-Service vs. Out-of-Service distinction and its
implication on test traffic limits and protocols. Bill Cerveny,
Marcelo Bagnulo, Kostas Pentikousis (a persistent reviewer), and
Joachim Fabini have contributed insightful, clarifying comments that
made this a better draft. Barry Constantine also provided
suggestions for clarification.
10. References
10.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis, [RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis,
"Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, May "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, May
1998. 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2330>.
[RFC2679] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A One-way [RFC2679] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A One-way
Delay Metric for IPPM", RFC 2679, September 1999. Delay Metric for IPPM", RFC 2679, September 1999,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2679>.
[RFC2680] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A One-way [RFC2680] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A One-way
Packet Loss Metric for IPPM", RFC 2680, September 1999. Packet Loss Metric for IPPM", RFC 2680, September 1999,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2680>.
[RFC4656] Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B., Karp, A., Boote, J., and M. [RFC4656] Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B., Karp, A., Boote, J., and M.
Zekauskas, "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol Zekauskas, "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol
(OWAMP)", RFC 4656, September 2006. (OWAMP)", RFC 4656, September 2006,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4656>.
[RFC5357] Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J. [RFC5357] Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J.
Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)", Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)",
RFC 5357, October 2008. RFC 5357, October 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5357>.
[RFC6703] Morton, A., Ramachandran, G., and G. Maguluri, "Reporting [RFC6703] Morton, A., Ramachandran, G., and G. Maguluri, "Reporting
IP Network Performance Metrics: Different Points of View", IP Network Performance Metrics: Different Points of View",
RFC 6703, August 2012. RFC 6703, August 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6703>.
10.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path] 8.2. Informative References
Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T., Crawford, S., Eardley, P., and
A. Morton, "A Reference Path and Measurement Points for
Large-Scale Measurement of Broadband Performance", draft-
ietf-ippm-lmap-path-07 (work in progress), October 2014.
[I-D.ietf-ippm-model-based-metrics] [IPPM-METRICS]
Mathis, M. and A. Morton, "Model Based Bulk Performance Mathis, M. and A. Morton, "Model Based Bulk Performance
Metrics", draft-ietf-ippm-model-based-metrics-03 (work in Metrics", Work in Progress, draft-ietf-ippm-model-based-
progress), July 2014. metrics-04, March 2015.
[I-D.ietf-lmap-framework] [LMAP-FRAMEWORK]
Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T.,
Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A framework for large-scale Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A framework for Large-Scale
measurement platforms (LMAP)", draft-ietf-lmap- Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP)", Work in
framework-10 (work in progress), January 2015. Progress, draft-ietf-lmap-framework-12, March 2015.
[RFC3148] Mathis, M. and M. Allman, "A Framework for Defining [RFC3148] Mathis, M. and M. Allman, "A Framework for Defining
Empirical Bulk Transfer Capacity Metrics", RFC 3148, July Empirical Bulk Transfer Capacity Metrics", RFC 3148, July
2001. 2001, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3148>.
[RFC5136] Chimento, P. and J. Ishac, "Defining Network Capacity", [RFC5136] Chimento, P. and J. Ishac, "Defining Network Capacity",
RFC 5136, February 2008. RFC 5136, February 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5136>.
[RFC6812] Chiba, M., Clemm, A., Medley, S., Salowey, J., Thombare, [RFC6812] Chiba, M., Clemm, A., Medley, S., Salowey, J., Thombare,
S., and E. Yedavalli, "Cisco Service-Level Assurance S., and E. Yedavalli, "Cisco Service-Level Assurance
Protocol", RFC 6812, January 2013. Protocol", RFC 6812, January 2013,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6812>.
[RFC7398] Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T., Crawford, S., Eardley, P., and
A. Morton, "A Reference Path and Measurement Points for
Large-Scale Measurement of Broadband Performance", RFC
7398, February 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7398>.
Acknowledgements
Dave McDysan provided comments and text for the aggregated leased use
case. Yaakov Stein suggested many considerations to address,
including the In-Service vs. Out-of-Service distinction and its
implication on test traffic limits and protocols. Bill Cerveny,
Marcelo Bagnulo, Kostas Pentikousis (a persistent reviewer), and
Joachim Fabini have contributed insightful, clarifying comments that
made this a better document. Barry Constantine also provided
suggestions for clarification.
Author's Address Author's Address
Al Morton Al Morton
AT&T Labs AT&T Labs
200 Laurel Avenue South 200 Laurel Avenue South
Middletown,, NJ 07748 Middletown, NJ 07748
USA United States
Phone: +1 732 420 1571 Phone: +1 732 420 1571
Fax: +1 732 368 1192 Fax: +1 732 368 1192
Email: acmorton@att.com EMail: acmorton@att.com
URI: http://home.comcast.net/~acmacm/ URI: http://home.comcast.net/~acmacm/
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