draft-ietf-ippm-lmap-path-05.txt   draft-ietf-ippm-lmap-path-06.txt 
Network Working Group M. Bagnulo Network Working Group M. Bagnulo
Internet-Draft UC3M Internet-Draft UC3M
Intended status: Informational T. Burbridge Intended status: Informational T. Burbridge
Expires: February 6, 2015 BT Expires: March 21, 2015 BT
S. Crawford S. Crawford
SamKnows SamKnows
P. Eardley P. Eardley
BT BT
A. Morton A. Morton
AT&T Labs AT&T Labs
August 5, 2014 September 17, 2014
A Reference Path and Measurement Points for LMAP A Reference Path and Measurement Points for Large-Scale Measurement of
draft-ietf-ippm-lmap-path-05 Broadband Performance
draft-ietf-ippm-lmap-path-06
Abstract Abstract
This document defines a reference path for Large-scale Measurement of This document defines a reference path for Large-scale Measurement of
Broadband Access Performance (LMAP) and measurement points for Broadband Access Performance (LMAP) and measurement points for
commonly used performance metrics. Other similar measurement commonly used performance metrics. Other similar measurement
projects may also be able to use the extensions described here for projects may also be able to use the extensions described here for
measurement point location. measurement point location. The purpose is to create an efficient
way to describe the location of the measurement point(s) used to
conduct a particular measurement.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on February 6, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on March 21, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 20 skipping to change at page 2, line 28
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Purpose and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Purpose and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. Reference Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Reference Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. Subscriber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. Subscriber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.3. Dedicated Component (Links or Nodes) . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.3. Dedicated Component (Links or Nodes) . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.4. Shared Component (Links or Nodes) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.4. Shared Component (Links or Nodes) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.5. Resource Transition Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.5. Resource Transition Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.6. Managed and Un-Managed Sub-paths . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.6. Service Demarcation Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Reference Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.7. Managed and Un-Managed Sub-paths . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5. Measurement Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Reference Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6. Translation Between Reference Path and Various Technologies . 10 5. Measurement Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. Translation Between Reference Path and Various Technologies . 11
7. Example Resource Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. Example Resource Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
8. Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document defines a reference path for Large-scale Measurement of This document defines a reference path for Large-scale Measurement of
Broadband Access Performance (LMAP) or similar measurement projects. Broadband Access Performance (LMAP) or similar measurement projects.
The series of IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) RFCs have developed terms The series of IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) RFCs have developed terms
that are generally useful for path description (section 5 of that are generally useful for path description (section 5 of
[RFC2330]). There are a limited number of additional terms needing [RFC2330]). There are a limited number of additional terms needing
definition here, and they will be defined in this memo. definition here, and they will be defined in this memo.
The reference path is usually needed when attempting to communicate The reference path (See section 3.1 and Figure 1 of [Y.1541],
precisely about the components that comprise the path, often in terms including the accompanying discussion) is usually needed when
of their number (hops) and geographic location. This memo takes the attempting to communicate precisely about the components that
path definition further, by establishing a set of measurement points comprise the path, often in terms of their number (hops) and
along the path and ascribing a unique designation to each point. geographic location. This memo takes the path definition further, by
This topic has been previously developed in section 5.1 of [RFC3432], establishing a set of measurement points along the path and ascribing
and as part of the updated framework for composition and aggregation, a unique designation to each point. This topic has been previously
section 4 of [RFC5835] (which may also figure in the LMAP work developed in section 5.1 of [RFC3432], and as part of the updated
effort). Section 4.1 of [RFC5835] defines the term "measurement framework for composition and aggregation, section 4 of [RFC5835].
point". Section 4.1 of [RFC5835] defines the term "measurement point".
Measurement points and the paths they cover are often described in Measurement points and the paths they inhabit are often described in
general terms, like "end-to-end", "user-to-user", or "access". These general terms, like "end-to-end", "user-to-user", or "access". These
terms alone are insufficient for scientific method: What is an end? terms alone are insufficient for scientific method: What is an end?
Where is a user located? Is the home network included? Where is a user located? Is the home network included?
As an illustrative example, consider a measurement agent in an LMAP
system. When it reports its measurement results, rather than
detailing its IP address and that of its measurement peer, it may
prefer to describe the measured path segment abstractly (perhaps for
privacy reasons). For instance "from a measurement agent at a home
gateway to a measurement peer at a DSLAM". This memo provides the
definition for such abstract 'measurement points' and therefore the
portion of 'reference path' between them.
The motivation for this memo is to provide an unambiguous framework The motivation for this memo is to provide an unambiguous framework
to describe measurement coverage, or scope of the reference path. to describe measurement coverage, or scope of the reference path.
This is an essential part of the meta-data to describe measurement This is an essential part of the meta-data to describe measurement
results. Measurements conducted over different path scopes are not a results. Measurements conducted over different path scopes are not a
valid basis for performance comparisons. We note that additional valid basis for performance comparisons. We note that additional
measurement context information may be necessary to support a valid measurement context information may be necessary to support a valid
comparison of results. comparison of results.
1.1. Requirements Language 1.1. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
2. Purpose and Scope 2. Purpose and Scope
The scope of this memo is to define a reference path for LMAP The scope of this memo is to define a reference path for LMAP
activities with sufficient level of detail to determine the location activities with sufficient level of detail to determine the location
of different measurement points along a path without ambiguity. of different measurement points along a path without ambiguity.
These conventions are likely to be useful in other measurement These conventions are likely to be useful in other measurement
projects as well. projects as well, and in describing the applicable measurement scope
for some metrics.
The connection between the reference path and specific network The connection between the reference path and specific network
technologies (with differing underlying architectures) is within the technologies (with differing underlying architectures) is within the
scope of this method, and examples are provided. Both wired and scope of this method, and examples are provided. Both wired and
wireless technologies are in-scope. wireless technologies are in-scope.
The purpose is to create an efficient way to describe the location of The purpose is to create an efficient way to describe the location of
the measurement point(s) used to conduct a particular measurement so the measurement point(s) used to conduct a particular measurement so
that the measurement result will adequately described in terms of that the measurement result will adequately described in terms of
scope or coverage. This should serve many measurement uses, scope or coverage. This should serve many measurement uses,
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compare the performance of wired and wireless home network compare the performance of wired and wireless home network
technologies. technologies.
3. Terms and Definitions 3. Terms and Definitions
This section defines key terms and concepts for the purposes of this This section defines key terms and concepts for the purposes of this
memo. memo.
3.1. Reference Path 3.1. Reference Path
A reference path is a serial combination of routers, switches, links, A reference path is a serial combination of hosts, routers, switches,
radios, and processing elements that comprise all the network links, radios, and processing elements that comprise all the network
elements traversed by each packet between the source and destination elements traversed by each packet in a flow between the source and
hosts. The reference path is intended to be equally applicable to destination hosts. A reference path also indicates the various
all networking technologies, therefore the components are generically boundaries present, such as administrative boundaries. A reference
defined, but their functions should have a clear counterpart or be path is intended to be equally applicable to all IP and link-layer
obviously omitted in any network technology. networking technologies. Therefore, the components are generically
defined but their functions should have a clear counterpart or be
obviously omitted in any network architecture.
3.2. Subscriber 3.2. Subscriber
An entity (associated with one or more users) that is engaged in a An entity (associated with one or more users) that is engaged in a
subscription with a service provider. The subscriber is allowed to subscription with a service provider. The subscriber is allowed to
subscribe and un-subscribe to services, and to register a user or a subscribe and un-subscribe to services, and to register a user or a
list of users authorized to enjoy these services. [Q1741] Both the list of users authorized to enjoy these services. [Q1741] Both the
subscriber and service provider are allowed to set the limits subscriber and service provider are allowed to set the limits
relative to the use that associated users make of subscribed relative to the use that associated users make of subscribed
services. services.
3.3. Dedicated Component (Links or Nodes) 3.3. Dedicated Component (Links or Nodes)
All resources of a Dedicated component (typically a link or node on All resources of a Dedicated Component (typically a link or node on
the Reference Path) are allocated to serving the traffic of an the Reference Path) are allocated to serving the traffic of an
individual Subscriber. Resources include transmission time-slots, individual Subscriber. Resources include transmission time-slots,
queue space, processing for encapsulation and address/port queue space, processing for encapsulation and address/port
translation, and others. A Dedicated component can affect the translation, and others. A Dedicated Component can affect the
performance of the Reference Path, or the performance of any sub-path performance of the Reference Path, or the performance of any sub-path
where the component is involved. where the component is involved.
3.4. Shared Component (Links or Nodes) 3.4. Shared Component (Links or Nodes)
A component on the Reference Path is designated a Shared component A component on the Reference Path is designated a Shared Component
when the traffic associated with multiple Subscribers is served by when the traffic associated with multiple Subscribers is served by
common resources. common resources.
3.5. Resource Transition Point 3.5. Resource Transition Point
A point between Dedicated and Shared components on a Reference Path A point between Dedicated and Shared Components on a Reference Path
that may be a point of significance, and is identified as a that may be a point of significance, and is identified as a
transition between two types of resources. transition between two types of resources.
3.6. Managed and Un-Managed Sub-paths 3.6. Service Demarcation Point
This is the point where service managed by the service provider
begins (or ends), and varies by technology. For example, this point
is usually defined as the Ethernet interface on a residential gateway
or modem where the scope of a packet transfer service begins and
ends. In the case of a WiFi Service, this would be an Air Interface
within the intended service boundary (e.g., walls of the coffee
shop). The Demarcation Point may be within an integrated endpoint
using an Air Interface (e.g., Long-Term Evolution User Equipment, LTE
UE). Ownership does not necessarily affect the demarcation point; a
Subscriber may own all equipment on their premises, but it is likely
that the service provider will certify such equipment for connection
to their network, or a third-party will certify standards compliance.
3.7. Managed and Un-Managed Sub-paths
Service providers are responsible for the portion of the path they Service providers are responsible for the portion of the path they
manage. However, most paths involve a sub-path which is beyond the manage. However, most paths involve a sub-path which is beyond the
management of the subscriber's service provider. This means that management of the subscriber's service provider. This means that
private networks, wireless networks using unlicensed frequencies, and private networks, wireless networks using unlicensed frequencies, and
the networks of other service are designated as un-managed sub-paths. the networks of other service are designated as Un-managed sub-paths.
The Service demarcation point always divides managed and un-managed The Service Demarcation Point always divides Managed and Un-managed
sub-paths. sub-paths.
4. Reference Path 4. Reference Path
This section defines a reference path for Internet communication. This section defines a reference path for Internet communication.
Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Service-- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ... Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Service-- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ...
device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW
... Transit -- GRA -- Service -- Private -- Private -- Destination ... Transit -- GRA -- Service -- Private -- Private -- Destination
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originates and terminates communications conducted over the IP originates and terminates communications conducted over the IP
packet transfer service. packet transfer service.
o Private Net #x - This is a network of devices owned and operated o Private Net #x - This is a network of devices owned and operated
by the Internet Service Subscriber. In some configurations, one by the Internet Service Subscriber. In some configurations, one
or more private networks and the device that provides the Service or more private networks and the device that provides the Service
Demarcation point are collapsed in a single device (and ownership Demarcation point are collapsed in a single device (and ownership
may shift to the service provider), and this should be noted as may shift to the service provider), and this should be noted as
part of the path description. part of the path description.
o Service Demarcation point - This is the point where service
managed by the service provider begins (or ends), and varies by
technology. For example, this point is usually defined as the
Ethernet interface on a residential gateway or modem where the
scope of a packet transfer service begins and ends. In the case
of a WiFi Service, this would be an Air Interface within the
intended service boundary (e.g., walls of the coffee shop). The
Demarcation point may be within an integrated endpoint using an
Air Interface (e.g., LTE UE). Ownership does not necessarily
affect the demarcation point; a Subscriber may own all equipment
on their premises, but it is likely that the service provider will
certify such equipment for connection to their network, or a
third-party will certify standards compliance.
o Intra IP Access - This is the first point in the access o Intra IP Access - This is the first point in the access
architecture beyond the Service Demarc. where a globally routable architecture beyond the Service Demarc. where a globally routable
IP address is exposed and used for routing. In architectures that IP address is exposed and used for routing. In architectures that
use tunneling, this point may be equivalent to the GRA GW. This use tunneling, this point may be equivalent to the Globally
point could also collapse to the device providing the Service Routable Address Gateway (GRA GW). This point could also collapse
Demarc., in principle. Only one Intra IP Access point is shown, to the device providing the Service Demarc., in principle. Only
but they can be identified in any access network. one Intra IP Access point is shown, but they can be identified in
any access network.
o GRA GW - the point of interconnection between a Service Provider's o GRA GW - the point of interconnection between a Service Provider's
administrative domain and the rest of the Internet, where routing administrative domain and the rest of the Internet, where routing
will depend on the GRAs in the IP header. will depend on the GRAs in the IP header.
o Transit GRA GW - If one or more networks intervene between the o Transit GRA GW - If one or more networks intervene between the
Service Provider's access networks of the Subscriber and of the Service Provider's access networks of the Subscriber and of the
Destination Host, then such networks are designated "transit" and Destination Host, then such networks are designated "transit" and
are bounded by two Transit GRA GW. are bounded by two Transit GRA GW.
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A. 00 SHOULD be used for a measurement point at the Subscriber's A. 00 SHOULD be used for a measurement point at the Subscriber's
device and at the Service Demarcation point or GW nearest to device and at the Service Demarcation point or GW nearest to
the Subscriber's device for Transit Networks. the Subscriber's device for Transit Networks.
B. 90 SHOULD be used for a measurement point at the GW of a B. 90 SHOULD be used for a measurement point at the GW of a
network (opposite from the Subscriber's device or Service network (opposite from the Subscriber's device or Service
Demarc.). Demarc.).
C. In most networks, measurement point numbers SHOULD C. In most networks, measurement point numbers SHOULD
monotonically increase from point nearest the Subscriber's monotonically increase from the point nearest the
device to the opposite network boundary on the path (see Subscriber's device to the opposite network boundary on the
below). path (see below).
D. When a Destination host is part of the path, 00 SHOULD be D. When a Destination host is part of the path, 00 SHOULD be
used for a measurement point at the Destination host and at used for a measurement point at the Destination host and at
the Destination's Service Demarcation point. Measurement the Destination's Service Demarcation point. Measurement
point numbers SHOULD monotonically increase from point point numbers SHOULD monotonically increase from the point
nearest the Destination's host to the opposite network nearest the Destination's host to the opposite network
boundary on the path ONLY in these networks. This boundary on the path ONLY in these networks. This
directional numbering reversal allows consistent 00 directional numbering reversal allows consistent 00
designation for end hosts and Service Demarcs. designation for end hosts and Service Demarcs.
E. 50 MAY be used for an intermediate measurement point of E. 50 MAY be used for an intermediate measurement point of
significance, such as a Network Address Translator (NAT). significance, such as a Network Address Translator (NAT).
F. 20 MAY be used for a traffic aggregation point such as a F. 20 MAY be used for a traffic aggregation point such as a
DSLAM within a network. DSLAM within a network.
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location (similar to the technology-specific examples in Section 6 of location (similar to the technology-specific examples in Section 6 of
this document). this document).
If the number of intermediate networks (between the source and If the number of intermediate networks (between the source and
destination) is not known or is unstable, then this SHOULD be destination) is not known or is unstable, then this SHOULD be
indicated on the diagram and results from measurement points within indicated on the diagram and results from measurement points within
those networks need to be treated with caution. those networks need to be treated with caution.
Notes: Notes:
o Some use the terminology "on-net" and "off-net" when referring to o The terminology "on-net" and "off-net" is sometimes used when
the Subscriber's Internet Service Provider (ISP) measurement referring to the Subscriber's Internet Service Provider (ISP)
coverage. With respect to the reference path, tests between mp100 measurement coverage. With respect to the reference path, tests
and mp190 are "on-net". between mp100 and mp190 are "on-net".
o Widely deployed broadband Internet access measurements have used o Widely deployed broadband Internet access measurements have used
pass-through devices[SK] (at the subscriber's location) directly pass-through devices[SK] (at the subscriber's location) directly
connected to the service demarcation point: this would be located connected to the service demarcation point: this would be located
at mp100. at mp100.
o The networking technology must be indicated for the measurement o The networking technology must be indicated for the measurement
points used, especially the interface standard and configured points used, especially the interface standard and configured
speed (because the measurement connectivity itself can be a speed (because the measurement connectivity itself can be a
limiting factor for the results). limiting factor for the results).
o If it can be shown that a link connecting to a measurement point o If it can be shown that a link connecting to a measurement point
has reliably deterministic performance or negligible impairments, has reliably deterministic performance or negligible impairments,
then the remote end of the connecting link is an equivalent point then the remote end of the connecting link is an equivalent point
for some methods of measurement (To Be Specified Elsewhere). In for some methods of measurement (although those methods should
any case, the presence of a link and claimed equivalent describe this possibility in detail; it is not in-scope to provide
measurement point must be reported. such methods here). In any case, the presence of a link and
claimed equivalent measurement point must be reported.
o Some access network architectures may have an additional traffic o Some access network architectures may have an additional traffic
aggregation device between mp100 and mp150. Use of a measurement aggregation device between mp100 and mp150. Use of a measurement
point at this location would require a local number and diagram. point at this location would require a local number and diagram.
o A Carrier Grade NAT (CGN) deployed in the Service Provider's o A Carrier Grade NAT (CGN) deployed in the Service Provider's
access network would be positioned between mp100 and mp190, and access network would be positioned between mp100 and mp190, and
the egress side of the CGN may be designated mp150. mp150 is the egress side of the CGN may be designated mp150. mp150 is
generally an intermediate measurement point in the same address generally an intermediate measurement point in the same address
space as mp190. space as mp190.
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architecture, then mp100 may need to use the same address space as architecture, then mp100 may need to use the same address space as
its "on-net" measurement point counterpart, so that a test between its "on-net" measurement point counterpart, so that a test between
these points produces a useful assessment of network performance. these points produces a useful assessment of network performance.
Tests between mp000 and mp100 could use a different private Tests between mp000 and mp100 could use a different private
address space, and when the globally-routable side of a CGN is at address space, and when the globally-routable side of a CGN is at
mp150, then the private address side of the CGN could be mp150, then the private address side of the CGN could be
designated mp149 for tests with mp100. designated mp149 for tests with mp100.
o Measurement points at Transit GRA GWs are numbered mpX00 and o Measurement points at Transit GRA GWs are numbered mpX00 and
mpX90, where X is the lowest positive integer not already used in mpX90, where X is the lowest positive integer not already used in
the path. The GW of first transit network is shown, with point the path. The GW of the first transit network is shown, with
mp200 and the last transit network GW with mpX90. point mp200 and the last transit network GW with mpX90.
6. Translation Between Reference Path and Various Technologies 6. Translation Between Reference Path and Various Technologies
This section and those that follow are intended to provide example This section and those that follow are intended to provide example
mappings between particular network technologies and the reference mappings between particular network technologies and the reference
path. path.
We provide an example for 3G Cellular access below. We provide an example for 3G Cellular access below.
Subscriber -- Private --- Service ------------- GRA --- Transit ... Subscriber -- Private --- Service ------------- GRA --- Transit ...
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GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway
7. Example Resource Transition 7. Example Resource Transition
This section gives an example of Shared and Dedicated portions with This section gives an example of Shared and Dedicated portions with
the reference path. This example shows two Resource Transition the reference path. This example shows two Resource Transition
Points. Points.
Consider the case where: Consider the case where:
o The CPE is wired Residential GW and modem (Private Net#2) o The CPE consists of a wired Residential GW and modem (Private
connected to a WiFi access point (Private Net#1). The Subscriber Net#2) connected to a WiFi access point (Private Net#1). The
device (UE) attaches to the CPE though the WiFi access. Subscriber device (UE) attaches to the CPE though the WiFi access.
o The Wi-Fi subnetwork (Private Net#1) shares unlicensed radio o The WiFi subnetwork (Private Net#1) shares unlicensed radio
channel resources with other W-Fi access networks (and potentially channel resources with other WiFi access networks (and potentially
other sources of interference), thus this is a Shared portion of other sources of interference), thus this is a Shared portion of
the path. the path.
o The wired subnetwork (Private Net#2) and a portion of the Service o The wired subnetwork (Private Net#2) and a portion of the Service
Provider's Network are Dedicated Resources (for a single Provider's Network are Dedicated Resources (for a single
Subscriber), thus there is a Resource Transition Point between Subscriber), thus there is a Resource Transition Point between
(Private Net#1) and (Private Net#2). (Private Net#1) and (Private Net#2).
o Subscriber traffic shares common resources with other subscribers o Subscriber traffic shares common resources with other subscribers
upon reaching the Carrier Grade NAT (CGN), thus there is a upon reaching the Carrier Grade NAT (CGN), thus there is a
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We believe this is a fairly common configuration in parts of the We believe this is a fairly common configuration in parts of the
world. world.
This case would map into the defined reference measurement points as This case would map into the defined reference measurement points as
follows: follows:
Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Access -- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ... Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Access -- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ...
device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW
mp000 mp100 mp150 mp190 mp200 mp000 mp100 mp150 mp190 mp200
|--UE--|------------CPE/NAT--------|------|-CGN-|------| |--UE--|------------CPE/NAT--------|------|-CGN-|------|
| Wi-Fi | 1000Base-T |--Access Network---| | WiFi | 1000Base-T |--Access Network---|
|-Shared--|RT|------Dedicated------| RT |-----Shared------... |-Shared--|RT|------Dedicated------| RT |-----Shared------...
|_______Un-managed sub-path________|_Managed sub-path__| |_______Un-managed sub-path________|_Managed sub-path__|
GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway, RT = Resource GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway, RT = Resource
Transition Point Transition Point
8. Security considerations 8. Security considerations
Specification of a Reference Path and identification of measurement Specification of a Reference Path and identification of measurement
points on the path represent agreements among interested parties, and points on the path represent agreements among interested parties, and
they present no threat to the readers of this memo or to the Internet they present no threat to the implementors of this memo, or to the
itself. Internet resulting from implementation of the guidelines provided
here.
Attacks at end hosts or identified measurement points are possible.
However, there is no requirement to include IP addresses of hosts or
other network devices in a reference path with measurement points
that is compliant with this memo. As a result, the path diagrams
with measurement point designation numbers do not aid such attacks.
Most network operators' diagrams of reference paths will bear a close
to the similar diagrams in relevant standards or other publicly
available documents. However, when an operator must include atypical
network details in their diagram, e.g., to explain why a longer
latency measurement is expected, then the diagram reveals some
topological details and should be marked as confidential and shared
with others under a specific agreement.
When considering privacy of those involved in measurement or those When considering privacy of those involved in measurement or those
whose traffic is measured, there is sensitive information whose traffic is measured, there may be sensitive information
communicated to recipients of the network diagrams illustrating paths communicated to recipients of the network diagrams illustrating paths
and measurement points described above. We refer the reader to the and measurement points described above. We refer the reader to the
privacy considerations described in the Large Scale Measurement of privacy considerations described in the Large Scale Measurement of
Broadband Performance (LMAP) Framework [I-D.ietf-lmap-framework], Broadband Performance (LMAP) Framework [I-D.ietf-lmap-framework],
which covers active and passive measurement techniques and supporting which covers active and passive measurement techniques and supporting
material on measurement context. material on measurement context. For example, the value of sensitive
information can be further diluted by summarising measurement results
over many individuals or areas served by the provider. There is an
opportunity enabled by forming anonymity sets described in [RFC6973]
based on the reference path and measurement points in this memo. For
example, all measurements from the Subscriber device can be
identified as "mp000", instead of using the IP address or other
device information. The same anonymisation applies to the Internet
Service Provider, where their Internet gateway would be referred to
as "mp190".
9. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
This memo makes no requests for IANA consideration. This memo makes no requests for IANA consideration.
10. Acknowledgements 10. Acknowledgements
Thanks to Matt Mathis, Charles Cook, Dan Romascanu, and Lingli Deng Thanks to Matt Mathis, Charles Cook, Dan Romascanu, Lingli Deng, and
for review and comments. Spencer Dawkins for review and comments.
11. References 11. References
11.1. Normative References 11.1. Normative References
[RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis, [RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis,
"Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, May "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, May
1998. 1998.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
skipping to change at page 14, line 21 skipping to change at page 15, line 9
[RFC5835] Morton, A. and S. Van den Berghe, "Framework for Metric [RFC5835] Morton, A. and S. Van den Berghe, "Framework for Metric
Composition", RFC 5835, April 2010. Composition", RFC 5835, April 2010.
11.2. Informative References 11.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-lmap-framework] [I-D.ietf-lmap-framework]
Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T.,
Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A framework for large-scale Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A framework for large-scale
measurement platforms (LMAP)", draft-ietf-lmap- measurement platforms (LMAP)", draft-ietf-lmap-
framework-07 (work in progress), June 2014. framework-08 (work in progress), August 2014.
[RFC6973] Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J.,
Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy
Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973, July
2013.
[SK] Crawford, Sam., "Test Methodology White Paper", SamKnows [SK] Crawford, Sam., "Test Methodology White Paper", SamKnows
Whitebox Briefing Note Whitebox Briefing Note
http://www.samknows.com/broadband/index.php, July 2011. http://www.samknows.com/broadband/index.php, July 2011.
[Q1741] Q.1741.7, , "IMT-2000 references to Release 9 of GSM- [Q1741] Q.1741.7, , "IMT-2000 references to Release 9 of GSM-
evolved UMTS core network", evolved UMTS core network",
http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Q.1741.7/en, November 2011. http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Q.1741.7/en, November 2011.
[Y.1541] Y.1541, , "Network performance objectives for IP-based
services", http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Y.1541/en,
November 2011.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Marcelo Bagnulo Marcelo Bagnulo
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
Av. Universidad 30 Av. Universidad 30
Leganes, Madrid 28911 Leganes, Madrid 28911
SPAIN SPAIN
Phone: 34 91 6249500 Phone: 34 91 6249500
Email: marcelo@it.uc3m.es Email: marcelo@it.uc3m.es
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