draft-ietf-idr-route-filter-14.txt   draft-ietf-idr-route-filter-15.txt 
Network Working Group Enke Chen Network Working Group E. Chen
Internet Draft Cisco Systems Internet Draft Cisco Systems
Expiration Date: December 2006 Yakov Rekhter Expiration Date: January 2007 Y. Rekhter
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
Cooperative Route Filtering Capability for BGP-4 Outbound Route Filtering Capability for BGP-4
draft-ietf-idr-route-filter-14.txt draft-ietf-idr-route-filter-15.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
Drafts. Drafts.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
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Abstract Abstract
This document defines a BGP-based mechanism that allows a BGP speaker This document defines a BGP-based mechanism that allows a BGP speaker
to send to its BGP peer a set of route filters that the peer would to send to its BGP peer a set of route filters that the peer would
use to constrain/filter its outbound routing updates to the speaker. use to constrain/filter its outbound routing updates to the speaker.
1. Specification of Requirements 1. Specification of Requirements
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC-2119].
2. Introduction 2. Introduction
Currently it is not uncommon for a BGP speaker to receive, and then Currently it is not uncommon for a BGP speaker to receive, and then
filter out some unwanted routes from its peers based on its local filter out some unwanted routes from its peers based on its local
routing policy. Since the generation and transmission of routing routing policy. Since the generation and transmission of routing
updates by the sender, as well as the processing of routing updates updates by the sender, as well as the processing of routing updates
by the receiver consume resources, it may be beneficial if the by the receiver consume resources, it may be beneficial if the
generation of such unwanted routing updates can be avoided in the generation of such unwanted routing updates can be avoided in the
first place. first place.
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the previously installed entries in the specified ORF on the remote the previously installed entries in the specified ORF on the remote
peer. peer.
The "Match" component is used if support matching granularity on a The "Match" component is used if support matching granularity on a
per ORF entry basis is needed, in which case the "Match" component per ORF entry basis is needed, in which case the "Match" component
can be one of PERMIT or DENY. The semantics of PERMIT is to ask the can be one of PERMIT or DENY. The semantics of PERMIT is to ask the
peer to pass updates for the set of routes that match the ORF entry. peer to pass updates for the set of routes that match the ORF entry.
The semantics of DENY is to ask the peer not to pass updates for the The semantics of DENY is to ask the peer not to pass updates for the
set of routes that match the ORF entry. set of routes that match the ORF entry.
4. Carrying ORF entries in BGP 4. Carrying ORF Entries in BGP
ORF entries are carried in the BGP ROUTE-REFRESH message [BGP-RR]. ORF entries are carried in the BGP ROUTE-REFRESH message [BGP-RR].
A BGP speaker can distinguish an incoming ROUTE-REFRESH message that A BGP speaker can distinguish an incoming ROUTE-REFRESH message that
carries one or more ORF entries from an incoming plain ROUTE-REFRESH carries one or more ORF entries from an incoming plain ROUTE-REFRESH
message by using the Message Length field in the BGP message header. message by using the Message Length field in the BGP message header.
A single ROUTE-REFRESH message could carry multiple ORF entries, as A single ROUTE-REFRESH message MAY carry multiple ORF entries, as
long as all these entries share the same AFI/SAFI. long as all these entries share the same AFI/SAFI.
From the encoding point of view each ORF entry consists of a common From the encoding point of view each ORF entry consists of a common
part and type-specific part. part and type-specific part as shown in Figure 1.
The common part consists of <AFI/SAFI, ORF-Type, Action, Match>, and The common part consists of <AFI/SAFI, ORF-Type, Action, Match>, and
is encoded as follows: is encoded as follows:
The AFI/SAFI component of an ORF entry is encoded in the AFI/SAFI The AFI/SAFI component of an ORF entry is encoded in the AFI/SAFI
field of the ROUTE-REFRESH message. field of the ROUTE-REFRESH message.
Following the AFI/SAFI component is the one-octet When-to-refresh Following the AFI/SAFI component is the one-octet When-to-refresh
field. The value of this field can be one of IMMEDIATE (0x01) or field. The value of this field can be one of IMMEDIATE (0x01) or
DEFER (0x02). The semantics of IMMEDIATE and DEFER are discussed DEFER (0x02). The semantics of IMMEDIATE and DEFER are discussed
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| When-to-refresh (1 octet) | | When-to-refresh (1 octet) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| ORF Type (1 octet) | | ORF Type (1 octet) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| Length of ORFs (2 octets) | | Length of ORFs (2 octets) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| First ORF entry (variable) | | First ORF entry (variable) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| Second ORF entry (variable) | | Second ORF entry (variable) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
......... | ... |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| N-th ORF entry (variable) | | N-th ORF entry (variable) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| ORF Type (1 octet) | | ORF Type (1 octet) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| Length of ORFs (2 octets) | | Length of ORFs (2 octets) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| First ORF entry (variable) | | First ORF entry (variable) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| Second ORF entry (variable) | | Second ORF entry (variable) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
......... | ... |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| N-th ORF entry (variable) | | N-th ORF entry (variable) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
......... | ... |
+--------------------------------------------------+
Fig 1. Carrying ORF entries in the ROUTE-REFRESH message Figure 1: Carrying ORF Entries in the ROUTE-REFRESH Message
The rest of the components in the common part are encoded in first The rest of the components in the common part are encoded in the
octet of each ORF-entry as follows (from the most significant to the first octet of each ORF-entry (from the most significant to the least
least significant bit): significant bit) as shown in Figure 2:
Action is a two-bit field. The value of this field is 0 for ADD, 1 Action is a two-bit field. The value of this field is 0 for ADD, 1
for REMOVE, and 2 for REMOVE-ALL. for REMOVE, and 2 for REMOVE-ALL.
Match is a one-bit field. The value of this field is 0 for PERMIT Match is a one-bit field. The value of this field is 0 for PERMIT
and 1 for DENY. This field is significant only when the value of and 1 for DENY. This field is significant only when the value of
the Action field is either ADD or REMOVE. the Action field is either ADD or REMOVE.
Reserved is a 5-bit field. It is set to 0 on transmit and ignored Reserved is a 5-bit field. It is set to 0 on transmit and ignored
on receive. on receive.
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+---------------------------------+ +---------------------------------+
| Action (2 bit) | | Action (2 bit) |
+---------------------------------+ +---------------------------------+
| Match (1 bit) | | Match (1 bit) |
+---------------------------------+ +---------------------------------+
| Reserved (5 bits) | | Reserved (5 bits) |
+---------------------------------+ +---------------------------------+
| Type specific part (variable) | | Type specific part (variable) |
+---------------------------------+ +---------------------------------+
Fig 2. ORF entry encoding Figure 2: ORF Entry Encoding
When the Action component of an ORF entry specifies REMOVE-ALL, When the Action component of an ORF entry specifies REMOVE-ALL,
the entry consists of only the common part. the entry consists of only the common part.
5. Cooperative Route Filtering Capability 5. Outbound Route Filtering Capability
A BGP speaker that is willing to receive ORF entries from its peer, A BGP speaker that is willing to receive ORF entries from its peer,
or a BGP speaker that would like to send ORF entries to its peer or a BGP speaker that would like to send ORF entries to its peer
advertises this to the peer by using the Cooperative Route Filtering advertises this to the peer by using the Outbound Route Filtering
Capability, as described below. Capability, as described below.
The Cooperative Route Filtering Capability is a new BGP capability The Outbound Route Filtering Capability is a new BGP capability [BGP-
[BGP-CAP] defined as follows: CAP] defined as follows:
Capability code: 3 Capability code: 3
Capability length: variable Capability length: variable
Capability value: one or more of the following entries: Capability value: one or more of the entries as shown in Figure 3.
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| Address Family Identifier (2 octets) | | Address Family Identifier (2 octets) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| Reserved (1 octet) | | Reserved (1 octet) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| Subsequent Address Family Identifier (1 octet) | | Subsequent Address Family Identifier (1 octet) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| Number of ORFs (1 octet) | | Number of ORFs (1 octet) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
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+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| Send/Receive (1 octet) | | Send/Receive (1 octet) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| ... | | ... |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| ORF Type (1 octet) | | ORF Type (1 octet) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
| Send/Receive (1 octet) | | Send/Receive (1 octet) |
+--------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------+
Fig 4. Capability encoding Figure 3: Outbound Route Filtering Capability Encoding
The use and meaning of these fields are as follows: The use and meaning of these fields are as follows:
Address Family Identifier (AFI): Address Family Identifier (AFI):
This field carries the identity of the Network Layer protocol This field carries the identity of the Network Layer protocol
associated with the Network Address that follows. Presently associated with the Network Address that follows. Presently
defined values for this field are specified in RFC1700 (see the defined values for this field are specified in RFC 1700 (see
Address Family Numbers section). the Address Family Numbers section).
Subsequent Address Family Identifier (SAFI): Subsequent Address Family Identifier (SAFI):
This field provides additional information about the type of This field provides additional information about the type of
the Network Layer Reachability Information carried in the the Network Layer Reachability Information carried in the
attribute. attribute.
Number of ORF Types: Number of ORF Types:
This field contains the number of Filter Types to be listed in This field contains the number of Filter Types to be listed in
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This field indicates whether the sender is (a) willing to This field indicates whether the sender is (a) willing to
receive ORF entries from its peer (value 1), (b) would like to receive ORF entries from its peer (value 1), (b) would like to
send ORF entries to its peer (value 2), or (c) both (value 3) send ORF entries to its peer (value 2), or (c) both (value 3)
for the ORF Type that follows. for the ORF Type that follows.
6. Operation 6. Operation
A BGP speaker that is willing to receive ORF entries from its peer, A BGP speaker that is willing to receive ORF entries from its peer,
or would like to send ORF entries to its peer SHOULD advertise the or would like to send ORF entries to its peer SHOULD advertise the
Cooperative Route Filtering Capability to the peer using BGP Outbound Route Filtering Capability to the peer using BGP
Capabilities advertisement [BGP-CAP]. Capabilities advertisement [BGP-CAP].
A BGP speaker that implements the Cooperative Route Filtering A BGP speaker that implements the Outbound Route Filtering Capability
Capability must support BGP ROUTE-REFRESH message, as defined in MUST support the BGP ROUTE-REFRESH message, as defined in [BGP-RR]. A
[BGP-RR]. A BGP speaker that advertises the Cooperative Route BGP speaker that advertises the Outbound Route Filtering Capability
Filtering Capability to a peer using BGP Capabilities advertisement to a peer using BGP Capabilities advertisement [BGP-CAP] does not
[BGP-CAP] doesn't have to advertise the BGP Route Refresh capability have to advertise the BGP Route Refresh capability to that peer.
to that peer.
Consider a BGP speaker that advertises the Cooperative Route Consider a BGP speaker that advertises the Outbound Route Filtering
Filtering Capability indicating its willingness to receive a Capability indicating its willingness to receive a particular set of
particular set of <AFI, SAFI, ORF-Type> from its peer, and that <AFI, SAFI, ORF-Type> from its peer, and that receives the Outbound
receives the Cooperative Route Filtering Capability indicating the Route Filtering Capability indicating the desire of the peer to send
desire of the peer to send a particular set <AFI, SAFI, ORF-Type> to a particular set <AFI, SAFI, ORF-Type> to the speaker. If for a given
the speaker. If for a given <AFI, SAFI> the intersection between <AFI, SAFI> the intersection between these two sets are not-empty,
these two sets are not-empty, the speaker SHOULD NOT advertise to the the speaker SHOULD NOT advertise to the peer any routes with that
peer any routes with that <AFI, SAFI> prior to receiving from the <AFI, SAFI> prior to receiving from the peer any ROUTE-REFRESH
peer any ROUTE-REFRESH message carrying that <AFI, SAFI>, where the message carrying that <AFI, SAFI>, where the message could be either
message could be either without any ORF entries, or with one or more without any ORF entries, or with one or more ORF entry and When-to-
ORF entry and When-to-refresh field set to IMMEDIATE. If, on the refresh field set to IMMEDIATE. If, on the other hand, for a given
other hand, for a given <AFI, SAFI> the intersection between these <AFI, SAFI> the intersection between these two sets is empty, the
two sets is empty, the speaker SHOULD follow normal BGP procedures. speaker SHOULD follow normal BGP procedures.
A BGP speaker may send a ROUTE-REFRESH message with one or more ORF A BGP speaker may send a ROUTE-REFRESH message with one or more ORF
entries to its peer only if the peer advertises to the speaker the entries to its peer only if the peer advertises to the speaker the
Cooperative Route Filtering Capability indicating its willingness to Outbound Route Filtering Capability indicating its willingness to
receive ORF entries from the speaker, and the speaker advertises to receive ORF entries from the speaker, and the speaker advertises to
the peer the Cooperative Route Filtering Capability indicating its the peer the Outbound Route Filtering Capability indicating its
desire to send ORF entries to the peer. The message may contain only desire to send ORF entries to the peer. The message may contain only
ORF entries of <AFI, SAFI, ORF-type> that the peer is willing to ORF entries of <AFI, SAFI, ORF-type> that the peer is willing to
receive, as advertised to the speaker in the Cooperative Route receive, as advertised to the speaker in the Outbound Route Filtering
Filtering Capability. Capability.
When a BGP speaker receives a ROUTE-REFRESH message with one or more When a BGP speaker receives a ROUTE-REFRESH message with one or more
ORF entries from its peer, then the speaker performs the following ORF entries from its peer, then the speaker performs the following
actions. If the <AFI, SAFI, ORF-type> carried by the message doesn't actions. If the <AFI, SAFI, ORF-type> carried by the message does not
match <AFI, SAFI, ORF-type> that the speaker is willing to receive match <AFI, SAFI, ORF-type> that the speaker is willing to receive
from the peer (as advertised to the peer in the Cooperative Route from the peer (as advertised to the peer in the Outbound Route
Filtering Capability), the specified ORF is ignored. Otherwise, the Filtering Capability), the specified ORF is ignored. Otherwise, the
speaker modifies the specified ORF, as specified in the ORF entries speaker modifies the specified ORF, as specified in the ORF entries
carried by the message. If any of the fields within an ORF entry carried by the message. If any of the fields within an ORF entry
contain an unrecognized value, the whole specified ORF is removed. contain an unrecognized value, the whole specified ORF is removed.
If the Action component of an ORF entry is REMOVE, but the ORF If the Action component of an ORF entry is REMOVE, but the ORF does
doesn't contain the specified entry, the entry is ignored. not contain the specified entry, the entry is ignored.
ORF entries with either REMOVE or REMOVE-ALL can not remove locally ORF entries with either REMOVE or REMOVE-ALL can not remove locally
configured outbound route filters. configured outbound route filters.
If the When-to-refresh indicates IMMEDIATE, then after processing all If the When-to-refresh indicates IMMEDIATE, then after processing all
the ORF entries carried in the message the speaker re-advertises to the ORF entries carried in the message the speaker re-advertises to
the peer routes from the Adj-RIB-Out associated with the peer that the peer routes from the Adj-RIB-Out associated with the peer that
have the same AFI/SAFI as what is carried in the message, and taking have the same AFI/SAFI as what is carried in the message, and taking
into account all the ORF entries for that AFI/SAFI received from the into account all the ORF entries for that AFI/SAFI received from the
peer. The speaker MUST re-advertise all the routes that have been peer. The speaker MUST re-advertise all the routes that have been
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message for the same AFI/SAFI either without any ORF entries, or with message for the same AFI/SAFI either without any ORF entries, or with
one or more ORF entries and When-to-refresh set to IMMEDIATE. one or more ORF entries and When-to-refresh set to IMMEDIATE.
If the speaker receives from the peer a ROUTE-REFRESH message without If the speaker receives from the peer a ROUTE-REFRESH message without
any ORF entries, then the speaker sends to the peer all routes from any ORF entries, then the speaker sends to the peer all routes from
the Adj-RIB-Out associated with the peer whose AFI/SAFI is the same the Adj-RIB-Out associated with the peer whose AFI/SAFI is the same
as what is carried in the message and taking into account the ORF as what is carried in the message and taking into account the ORF
received from the peer. received from the peer.
The set of ORF entries that the speaker sends to the peer expresses The set of ORF entries that the speaker sends to the peer expresses
the speaker's local preference, that the peer may or may not decide the speaker's local preference, that the peer MAY or MAY NOT decide
to honor. to honor.
During a single BGP session the speaker may pass multiple ORF entries During a single BGP session the speaker MAY pass multiple ORF entries
to the peer. to the peer.
After a BGP speaker makes changes to the ORF entries previously sent After a BGP speaker makes changes to the ORF entries previously sent
to a peer, the speaker SHOULD send to the peer the updated ORF to a peer, the speaker SHOULD send to the peer the updated ORF
entries with either (a) When-to-refresh set to IMMEDIATE, or (b) entries with either (a) When-to-refresh set to IMMEDIATE, or (b)
When-to-refresh set to DEFER followed by a ROUTE-REFRESH message. The When-to-refresh set to DEFER followed by a ROUTE-REFRESH message. The
latter SHALL be used by the speaker when there are other policy latter SHALL be used by the speaker when there are other policy
changes (in addition to the ORF entries) that require the peer to re- changes (in addition to the ORF entries) that require the peer to re-
advertise all the routes. advertise all the routes.
The lifetime of an ORF is the duration of the BGP session during The lifetime of an ORF is the duration of the BGP session during
which the ORF is exchanged. which the ORF is exchanged.
An ORF is removed when the last ORF entry is remove (either via An ORF is removed when the last ORF entry is removed (either via
REMOVE-ALL, or via a sequence of REMOVE). REMOVE-ALL, or via a sequence of REMOVE).
If a particular route maintained by a BGP speaker doesn't match any If a particular route maintained by a BGP speaker does not match any
of the ORF entries of any of the (non-empty) ORFs associated with a of the ORF entries of any of the (non-empty) ORFs associated with a
particular peer, then this route SHOULD NOT be advertised to the particular peer, then this route SHOULD NOT be advertised to the
peer. peer.
If a BGP speaker maintains multiple ORFs of different ORF-Types for a If a BGP speaker maintains multiple ORFs of different ORF-Types for a
particular peer, then the decision by the speaker to advertise a particular peer, then the decision by the speaker to advertise a
route to the peer is determined by passing the route through each route to the peer is determined by passing the route through each
such ORF, and and-ing the results (and-ing of PERMIT and DENY results such ORF, and and-ing the results (and-ing of PERMIT and DENY results
in DENY). in DENY).
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
This document defines a new BGP Capability - Outbound Route Filtering
Capability. The Capability Code for the Outbound Route Filtering
Capability is 3.
As specified in this document, an ORF entry contains the ORF-Type As specified in this document, an ORF entry contains the ORF-Type
field for which IANA is to create and maintain a registry entitled field for which IANA is to create and maintain a registry entitled
"BGP ORF Type". "BGP ORF Type".
IANA will maintain and register values for ORF-Type field as follows: IANA will maintain and register values for ORF-Type field as follows:
- ORF-Type value 0 is reserved. - ORF-Type value 0 is reserved.
- ORF-Type values 1 through 63 are to be assigne dby IANA using - ORF-Type values 1 through 63 are to be assigne dby IANA using
either the Standards Action process defined in RFC2434, or the either the Standards Action process defined in RFC2434, or the
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This document and the information contained herein are provided on an This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
11. Acknowledgements 11. Acknowledgements
Some of the material in the document is "borrowed" from a proposal Some of the material in the document is adapted from a proposal for
for selective updates by Yakov Rekhter, Kannan Varadhan, and Curtis selective updates by Yakov Rekhter, Kannan Varadhan, and Curtis
Villamizar. Villamizar.
12. Normative References 12. Normative References
[BGP-4] Rekhter, Y., and T. Li, "A Border Gateway Protocol 4 [BGP-4] Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway Protocol
(BGP-4)", RFC4271, January 2006. 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006.
[BGP-MP] Bates, T., Chandra, R., Katz, D., and Rekhter, Y., [BGP-MP] Bates, T., Rekhter, Y., Chandra, R., and D. Katz,
"Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", RFC2858, June 2000. "Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", RFC2858, June 2000.
[BGP-CAP] Chandra, R., Scudder, J., "Capabilities Advertisement with [BGP-CAP] Chandra, R., Scudder, J., "Capabilities Advertisement with
BGP-4", RFC3392, November 2002. BGP-4", RFC3392, November 2002.
[BGP-RR] Chen, E., "Route Refresh Capability for BGP-4", RFC2918, [BGP-RR] Chen, E., "Route Refresh Capability for BGP-4", RFC2918,
September 2000. September 2000.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC-2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
13. Author Information 13. Author Information
Enke Chen Enke Chen
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
e-mail: enkechen@cisco.com 170 W. Tasman Dr.
San Jose, CA 95134
Email: enkechen@cisco.com
Yakov Rekhter Yakov Rekhter
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
e-mail: yakov@juniper.net 1194 N. Mathilda Ave
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Email: yakov@juniper.net
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