draft-ietf-grow-large-communities-usage-01.txt   draft-ietf-grow-large-communities-usage-02.txt 
Global Routing Operations J. Snijders Global Routing Operations J. Snijders
Internet-Draft NTT Internet-Draft J. Heasley
Intended status: Informational M. Schmidt Intended status: Informational NTT
Expires: June 10, 2017 i3D.net Expires: August 20, 2017 M. Schmidt
December 7, 2016 i3D.net
February 16, 2017
Usage of Large BGP Communities Usage of BGP Large Communities
draft-ietf-grow-large-communities-usage-01 draft-ietf-grow-large-communities-usage-02
Abstract Abstract
Examples and inspiration for operators on how to use Large BGP Examples and inspiration for operators for the use of BGP Large
Communities. Communities.
Requirements Language Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
skipping to change at page 1, line 38 skipping to change at page 1, line 39
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on June 10, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 20, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
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5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8.2. URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8.2. URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Large BGP Communities [I-D.ietf-idr-large-community] provide a BGP Large Communities [RFC8092] provide a mechanism to signal opaque
mechanism to signal opaque information between Autonomous Systems. information between Autonomous Systems. This document presents a set
This document presents a set of examples on how Large BGP Communities of examples of how Large BGP Communities could be employed by an
could be implemented by an operator to achieve various goals. This operator to achieve various goals. This document draws from
document draws from experience in Operational Communities such as experience in Operational Communities such as NANOG [1] and NLNOG
NANOG [1] and NLNOG [2]. [2].
The opaque nature of Large BGP Communities allows for rapid The opaque nature of BGP Large Communities allows for rapid
deployment of new features or changes to the product. Operators are deployment of new features or changes to the product. Operators are
encouraged to publicly publish an up to date version of their routing encouraged to publicly publish and maintain documentation of the
policy in which they document what each Large BGP Community means. purpose of each Large BGP Community, both informational and action,
that they support or are visible in looking glasses.
2. The Generic Design Pattern 2. The Generic Design Pattern
Large BGP Communities are composed of a 4-octet Global Administrator BGP Large Communities are composed of a 4-octet Global Administrator
field followed by two 4-octet Local Data fields. The design pattern field followed by two 4-octet Local Data fields. Large BGP
described in this document uses a "ASN:Function:Parameter"-approach Communities are compose three 4-octet fields. The first is the
to fill the three fields. Global Administrator field, whose value is the ASN of AS that has
defined the meaning of the remaining two 4-octet fields, the Local
Data fields. This document describes an approach defining these
fields as "ASN:Function:Parameter"-approach to fill the three fields.
In deployments of both BGP Communities [RFC1997] and Large BGP In deployments of both BGP Communities [RFC1997] and BGP Large
Communities, two categories of Communities are recognised: Communities, two categories of Communities exist:
o Informational Communities o Informational Communities
o Action Communities o Action Communities
For each context ideas are provided regarding the contents of each of For each, ideas are provided regarding the contents of each of the
the three fields in Large BGP Communities. three fields in BGP Large Communities.
Throughout the document a topology of four Autonomous Systems is used Throughout the document a topology of four Autonomous Systems is used
to illustrate the usage of Communities in the following to illustrate the usage of Communities in the following
configuration: configuration:
AS 65551 AS 65551
| |
^ ^
| |
AS 64497 AS 64497
/ \ / \
^ \ ^ \
/ ^ / ^
AS 64498 \ AS 64498 \
| | | |
`<->- AS 64499 `<->- AS 64499
AS 64497 obtains transit services from AS 65551. AS 64497 provides AS 64497 obtains transit services from AS 65551, a 32-bit ASN. AS
transit services to both AS 64498 and AS 64499. AS 64498 and AS 64497 provides transit services to both AS 64498 and AS 64499. AS
64499 maintain a peering relation in which they only exchange their 64498 and AS 64499 maintain a peering relationship in which they only
customer routes. exchange their customer routes.
2.1. Informational Communities 2.1. Informational Communities
Informational Communites serve as markers regarding the origin of the Informational Communites are labels for attributes such as origin of
route announcement, the relation with the EBGP neighbor or for the route announcement, the relation with the EBGP neighbor or for
instance the intended propagation audience. Informational instance the intended propagation audience. Informational
Communities also assist in network operations such as debugging. Communities also assist in network operations such as debugging.
The Global Administrator field is set to the ASN which is marking the The Global Administrator field is set to the ASN which is marking the
routes with the Informational Communities. As an example: on a route routes with the Informational Communities. For example, AS 64497
which AS 64497 announces to AS 64498, AS 64497 might add the Large might add a community with the GA 64497 to a route learned from an
BGP Community 64497:100:31 to signal to AS 64498 that the route was iBGP or eBGP peer that means that the route was learned from or
learned in the Netherlands. originated by a device in the Netherlands.
In general the intended audience of Informational Communities are In general the intended audience of Informational Communities are
downstream networks, but any adjacent Autonomous System could benefit downstream networks and the Global Administrator itself, but any
from receiving these communities. Autonomous System could benefit from receiving these communities.
2.2. Action Communities 2.2. Action Communities
Action Communities are attached to routes to request non-default Action Communities are attached to routes to request non-default
behaviour in an adjacent Autonomous System. For instance, Action behaviour in this, a conferation or an external AS. Action
Communities are used to change the route's propagation Communities could be used to change the route's propagation
characteristics, the route's LOCAL_PREF value or the amount of characteristics, the LOCAL_PREFENCE or the number of AS_PATH prepends
AS_PATH prepends that should be added when exporting or importing a to add when exporting or importing a route.
route.
The Global Administrator field is set to the ASN which is expected to The Global Administrator field is set to the ASN which is expected to
perform a non-default action upon receiving the route. For instance, perform the action. For instance, AS 64499 might add a Large
if AS 64499 would want to request AS 64497 to lower the Community with the GA 64497 to signal AS 64497 to perform an action
LOCAL_PREFERENCE below the default, AS 64499 could tag the route with upon that route.
64497:20:50.
In general the intended audience of Action Communities is an upstream In general the intended audience of Action Communities is an upstream
provider. provider, but realistically could be any AS willing to act upon it.
3. Examples of Informational Communities 3. Examples of Informational Communities
3.1. Location 3.1. Location
AS 64497 can inform its downstream networks about the geographical AS 64497 can inform its downstream networks about the geographical
entity where AS 64497 learned a route by marking the route with Large entity where AS 64497 learned a route by marking the route with BGP
BGP Communities following one or a combination of the following Large Communities following one or a combination of the following
schemes. schemes.
3.1.1. An ISO 3166-1 numeric function 3.1.1. An ISO 3166-1 numeric function
AS 64497 could assign a value of 1 to the first Local Data field to AS 64497 could assign a value of 1 to the first Local Data field to
designate the function of the parameter in the second Local Data designate the function of the second Local Data field as ISO-3166-1
field as ISO-3166-1 numeric country identifiers. numeric country identifiers.
+---------------------+-------------------------------------------+ +---------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Large BGP Community | Meaning | | BGP Large Community | Description |
+---------------------+-------------------------------------------+ +---------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| 64497:1:528 | Route learned in Netherlands | | 64497:1:528 | Route learned in Netherlands |
| 64497:1:392 | Route learned in Japan | | 64497:1:392 | Route learned in Japan |
| 64497:1:840 | Route learned in United States of America | | 64497:1:840 | Route learned in United States of America |
+---------------------+-------------------------------------------+ +---------------------+-------------------------------------------+
Example documentation for AS 64497 using Informational Communties Example documentation for AS 64497 using Informational Communities
describing the origin of routes using ISO 3166-1 numeric identifiers. describing the origin of routes using ISO 3166-1 numeric identifiers.
Table 1: Information: ISO 3166-1 Table 1: Information: ISO 3166-1
3.1.2. An UNSD region function 3.1.2. An UNSD region function
AS 64497 could assign a value of 2 to the first Local Data field to AS 64497 could assign a value of 2 to the first Local Data field to
designate the function of the parameter in the second Local Data designate the function of the parameter in the second Local Data
field as an identifier for the macro geographical (continental) field as an identifier for the macro geographical (continental)
regions, geographical sub-regions, or selected economic and other regions, geographical sub-regions, or selected economic and other
groupings following a set of published identifiers by the United groupings following a set of published identifiers by the United
Nations Statistics Division [3]. Nations Statistics Division [3].
+---------------------+-------------------------------+ +---------------------+-------------------------------+
| Large BGP Community | Meaning | | BGP Large Community | Description |
+---------------------+-------------------------------+ +---------------------+-------------------------------+
| 64497:2:2 | Route learned in Africa | | 64497:2:2 | Route learned in Africa |
| 64497:2:9 | Route learned in Oceania | | 64497:2:9 | Route learned in Oceania |
| 64497:2:145 | Route learned in Western Asia | | 64497:2:145 | Route learned in Western Asia |
| 64497:2:150 | Route learned in Europe | | 64497:2:150 | Route learned in Europe |
+---------------------+-------------------------------+ +---------------------+-------------------------------+
Example documentation for AS 64497 using Informational Communties Example documentation for AS 64497 using Informational Communities
describing the origin of routes using numeric identifiers provided by describing the origin of routes using numeric identifiers provided by
the UN Statistics Division. the UN Statistics Division.
Table 2: Information: Regions Table 2: Information: Regions
3.2. Relation 3.2. Relation
AS 64497 could assign a value of 3 to the first Local Data field to AS 64497 could assign a value of 3 to the first Local Data field to
designate that the second Local Data field contains an identifier designate that the second Local Data field contains an identifier
showing the relation with the EBGP neighbor from whom the route was showing the relation with the EBGP neighbor from whom the route was
received. received.
+---------------------+-----------------------------------------+ +---------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| Large BGP Community | Meaning | | BGP Large Community | Description |
+---------------------+-----------------------------------------+ +---------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| 64497:3:1 | Route learned from a customer | | 64497:3:1 | Route learned from a customer |
| 64497:3:2 | Route learned from a peering partner | | 64497:3:2 | Route learned from a peering partner |
| 64497:3:3 | Route learned from an upstream provider | | 64497:3:3 | Route learned from an upstream provider |
+---------------------+-----------------------------------------+ +---------------------+-----------------------------------------+
Example documentation for AS 64497 using Informational Communties Example documentation for AS 64497 using Informational Communities
describing the relation with the ASN from which the route was describing the relation with the ASN from which the route was
received. received.
Table 3: Information: Relation Table 3: Information: Relation
3.3. Combining Informational Communities 3.3. Combining Informational Communities
Multiple Informational Communities can be tagged on a route, for Multiple Informational Communities can be tagged on a route, for
example: a route learned in the Netherlands from a customer can example: a route learned in the Netherlands from a customer can
contain both 64497:1:528 and 64497:2:150 and 64497:3:1. contain both 64497:1:528 and 64497:2:150 and 64497:3:1.
skipping to change at page 6, line 41 skipping to change at page 6, line 41
such as selectively not export routes learned from 64498 to certain such as selectively not export routes learned from 64498 to certain
EBGP neighbors of AS 64497. EBGP neighbors of AS 64497.
4.1.1. Peer ASN Based Selective NO_EXPORT 4.1.1. Peer ASN Based Selective NO_EXPORT
AS 64497 might assign function identifier 4 to allow preventing AS 64497 might assign function identifier 4 to allow preventing
propagation of routes to the ASN listed in the second Local Data propagation of routes to the ASN listed in the second Local Data
field. field.
+---------------------+---------------------------------+ +---------------------+---------------------------------+
| Large BGP Community | Meaning | | BGP Large Community | Description |
+---------------------+---------------------------------+ +---------------------+---------------------------------+
| 64497:4:2914 | Do not export route to AS 2914 | | 64497:4:2914 | Do not export route to AS 2914 |
| 64497:4:7018 | Do not export route to AS 7018 | | 64497:4:7018 | Do not export route to AS 7018 |
| 64497:4:65551 | Do not export route to AS 65551 | | 64497:4:65551 | Do not export route to AS 65551 |
+---------------------+---------------------------------+ +---------------------+---------------------------------+
Example documentation for AS 64497 offering Action Communties to Example documentation for AS 64497 offering Action Communities to
limit propagation of routes based on the Peer ASN described in the limit propagation of routes based on the Peer ASN described in the
third field. third field.
Table 4: Action: Peer ASN NO_EXPORT Table 4: Action: Peer ASN NO_EXPORT
4.1.2. Location Based Selective NO_EXPORT 4.1.2. Location Based Selective NO_EXPORT
AS 64497 might assign function identifier 5 to allow its customers to AS 64497 might assign function identifier 5 to allow its customers to
request selectively not exporting routes on EBGP sessions within a request selectively not exporting routes on EBGP sessions within a
certain geographical area. This example follows the ISO 3166-1 certain geographical area. This example follows the ISO 3166-1
numeric encoding. numeric encoding.
+------------------+------------------------------------------------+ +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
| Large BGP | Meaning | | BGP Large | Description |
| Community | | | Community | |
+------------------+------------------------------------------------+ +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
| 64497:5:528 | Do not export to EBGP neighbors in the | | 64497:5:528 | Do not export to EBGP neighbors in the |
| | Netherlands | | | Netherlands |
| 64497:5:392 | Do not export to EBGP neighbors in Japan | | 64497:5:392 | Do not export to EBGP neighbors in Japan |
| 64497:5:840 | Do not export to EBGP neighbors in United | | 64497:5:840 | Do not export to EBGP neighbors in United |
| | States of America | | | States of America |
+------------------+------------------------------------------------+ +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
Example documentation for AS 64497 offering Action Communties to Example documentation for AS 64497 offering Action Communities to
trigger NO_EXPORT on routes only when propagating the route to a trigger NO_EXPORT on routes only when propagating the route to a
certain geographical region. certain geographical region.
Table 5: Action: NO_EXPORT in Region Table 5: Action: NO_EXPORT in Region
4.2. Selective AS_PATH Prepending 4.2. Selective AS_PATH Prepending
As part of the commercial agreement between AS 64497 and AS 64498, AS As part of the commercial agreement between AS 64497 and AS 64498, AS
64497 might offer AS 64498 certain BGP Traffic Engineering features 64497 might offer AS 64498 certain BGP Traffic Engineering features
such as selectively prepending the AS_PATH with 64497's ASN to such as selectively prepending the AS_PATH with 64497's ASN to
certain EBGP neighbors of AS 64497. certain EBGP neighbors of AS 64497.
4.2.1. Peer ASN Based Selective AS_PATH Prepending 4.2.1. Peer ASN Based Selective AS_PATH Prepending
AS 64497 might assign function identifier 6 to allow prepending the AS 64497 might assign function identifier 6 to allow prepending the
AS_PATH on propagation of routes to the ASN listed in the second AS_PATH on propagation of routes to the ASN listed in the second
Local Data field. Local Data field.
+---------------------+------------------------------------------+ +---------------------+------------------------------------------+
| Large BGP Community | Meaning | | BGP Large Community | Description |
+---------------------+------------------------------------------+ +---------------------+------------------------------------------+
| 64497:6:2914 | Prepend 64497 once on export to AS 2914 | | 64497:6:2914 | Prepend 64497 once on export to AS 2914 |
| 64497:6:7018 | Prepend 64497 once on export to AS 7018 | | 64497:6:7018 | Prepend 64497 once on export to AS 7018 |
| 64497:6:65551 | Prepend 64497 once on export to AS 65551 | | 64497:6:65551 | Prepend 64497 once on export to AS 65551 |
+---------------------+------------------------------------------+ +---------------------+------------------------------------------+
Example documentation for AS 64497 offering Action Communties to Example documentation for AS 64497 offering Action Communities to
trigger prepending of the AS_PATH only when propagating the route to trigger prepending of the AS_PATH only when propagating the route to
a certain Peer ASN. a certain Peer ASN.
Table 6: Action: Prepend to Peer ASN Table 6: Action: Prepend to Peer ASN
4.2.2. Location Based Selective AS_PATH Prepending 4.2.2. Location Based Selective AS_PATH Prepending
AS 64497 might assign function identifier 7 to allow prepending of AS 64497 might assign function identifier 7 to allow prepending of
the AS_PATH on propagation of routes to on any EBGP neighbor's the AS_PATH on propagation of routes to on any EBGP neighbor's
interconnection in the geographical entity listed in the second Local interconnection in the geographical entity listed in the second Local
Data field. This example follows the ISO 3166-1 numeric regions Data field. This example follows the ISO 3166-1 numeric regions
codes in the Local Data 2 field. codes in the Local Data 2 field.
+------------------+------------------------------------------------+ +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
| Large BGP | Meaning | | BGP Large | Description |
| Community | | | Community | |
+------------------+------------------------------------------------+ +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
| 64497:7:528 | Prepend once to EBGP neighbors in the | | 64497:7:528 | Prepend once to EBGP neighbors in the |
| | Netherlands | | | Netherlands |
| 64497:7:392 | Prepend once to EBGP neighbors in Japan | | 64497:7:392 | Prepend once to EBGP neighbors in Japan |
| 64497:7:840 | Prepend once to EBGP neighbors in United | | 64497:7:840 | Prepend once to EBGP neighbors in United |
| | States of America | | | States of America |
+------------------+------------------------------------------------+ +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
Example documentation for AS 64497 offering Action Communties to Example documentation for AS 64497 offering Action Communities to
trigger prepending of the AS_PATH only when propagating the route to trigger prepending of the AS_PATH only when propagating the route to
a certain geographical region. a certain geographical region.
Table 7: Action: Prepend in Region Table 7: Action: Prepend in Region
4.3. Location based manipulation of LOCAL_PREF 4.3. Location based manipulation of LOCAL_PREF
In some cases, it can be desirable for an autonomous system to allow In some cases, it can be desirable for an autonomous system to allow
adjacent Autonomous Systems to directly influence the degree of adjacent Autonomous Systems to directly influence the degree of
preference associated with a route, usually expressed within the preference associated with a route, usually expressed within the
skipping to change at page 10, line 6 skipping to change at page 10, line 6
+----------+-----------------------------------------------+ +----------+-----------------------------------------------+
Table 8: Action: Preference Function Identifiers Table 8: Action: Preference Function Identifiers
Once established, these route preference setting functions can be Once established, these route preference setting functions can be
linked with a scoping operand such as per-peer or per-location based linked with a scoping operand such as per-peer or per-location based
identifiers in order to provide AS64497's customers with a identifiers in order to provide AS64497's customers with a
comprehensive and rich toolset to influence route preference. comprehensive and rich toolset to influence route preference.
+--------------------+----------------------------------------------+ +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+
| Large BGP | Meaning | | BGP Large | Description |
| Community | | | Community | |
+--------------------+----------------------------------------------+ +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+
| 64497:15:528 | Set as peer route in Netherlands | | 64497:15:528 | Set as peer route in Netherlands |
| 64497:19:840 | Set as backup route in United States of | | 64497:19:840 | Set as backup route in United States of |
| | America | | | America |
+--------------------+----------------------------------------------+ +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+
Table 9: Action: Regional Preference Communities Table 9: Action: Regional Preference Communities
Since the degree of preference influences BGP best path selection Since the degree of preference influences BGP best path selection
skipping to change at page 10, line 34 skipping to change at page 10, line 34
BGP Operations and Security [RFC7454]. BGP Operations and Security [RFC7454].
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
None. None.
7. Acknowledgements 7. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the insightful The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the insightful
comments, contributions, critique and support from John Heasley, Adam comments, contributions, critique and support from John Heasley, Adam
Chappell and Jonathan Stewart. Chappell, Jonathan Stewart, and Will Hargrave.
8. References 8. References
8.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-idr-large-community]
Heitz, J., Snijders, J., Patel, K., Bagdonas, I., and N.
Hilliard, "BGP Large Communities", draft-ietf-idr-large-
community-11 (work in progress), December 2016.
[RFC1997] Chandra, R., Traina, P., and T. Li, "BGP Communities [RFC1997] Chandra, R., Traina, P., and T. Li, "BGP Communities
Attribute", RFC 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC1997, August 1996, Attribute", RFC 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC1997, August 1996,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1997>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1997>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC4264] Griffin, T. and G. Huston, "BGP Wedgies", RFC 4264, [RFC4264] Griffin, T. and G. Huston, "BGP Wedgies", RFC 4264,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4264, November 2005, DOI 10.17487/RFC4264, November 2005,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4264>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4264>.
[RFC7454] Durand, J., Pepelnjak, I., and G. Doering, "BGP Operations [RFC7454] Durand, J., Pepelnjak, I., and G. Doering, "BGP Operations
and Security", BCP 194, RFC 7454, DOI 10.17487/RFC7454, and Security", BCP 194, RFC 7454, DOI 10.17487/RFC7454,
February 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7454>. February 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7454>.
[RFC8092] Heitz, J., Ed., Snijders, J., Ed., Patel, K., Bagdonas,
I., and N. Hilliard, "BGP Large Communities Attribute",
RFC 8092, DOI 10.17487/RFC8092, February 2017,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8092>.
8.2. URIs 8.2. URIs
[1] http://nanog.net [1] http://nanog.net
[2] http://nlnog.net [2] http://nlnog.net
[3] http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm [3] http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Job Snijders Job Snijders
NTT Communications NTT Communications
Theodorus Majofskistraat 100 Theodorus Majofskistraat 100
Amsterdam 1065 SZ Amsterdam 1065 SZ
NL The Netherlands
Email: job@ntt.net Email: job@ntt.net
John Heasley
NTT Communications
12160 NW Coleman Drive
Portland, OR 97229
United States of America
Email: heas@shrubbery.net
Martijn Schmidt Martijn Schmidt
i3D.net i3D.net
Rivium 1e Straat 1 Rivium 1e Straat 1
Capelle aan den IJssel 2909 LE Capelle aan den IJssel 2909 LE
NL NL
Email: martijnschmidt@i3d.net Email: martijnschmidt@i3d.net
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