draft-ietf-geopriv-radius-lo-00.txt   draft-ietf-geopriv-radius-lo-01.txt 
Geopriv H. Tschofenig Geopriv H. Tschofenig
Internet-Draft Siemens Internet-Draft Siemens
Expires: April 5, 2005 F. Adrangi Expires: April 21, 2005 F. Adrangi
Intel Intel
A. Lior A. Lior
M. Jones M. Jones
Bridgewater Bridgewater
October 5, 2004 October 21, 2004
Carrying Location Objects in RADIUS Carrying Location Objects in RADIUS
draft-ietf-geopriv-radius-lo-00.txt draft-ietf-geopriv-radius-lo-01.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
of section 3 of RFC 3667. By submitting this Internet-Draft, each of section 3 of RFC 3667. By submitting this Internet-Draft, each
author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of
which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of
which he or she become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with which he or she become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with
RFC 3668. RFC 3668.
skipping to change at page 1, line 40 skipping to change at page 1, line 40
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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This Internet-Draft will expire on April 5, 2005. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 21, 2005.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).
Abstract Abstract
This document describes RADIUS attributes for conveying the Access This document describes RADIUS attributes for conveying the Access
Network's operational ownership and location information based on a Network's operational ownership and location information based on a
civil and geospatial location location format. civil and geospatial location format.
The distribution of location information is privacy sensitive. The distribution of location information is privacy sensitive.
Dealing with mechanisms to preserve the user's privacy is important Dealing with mechanisms to preserve the user's privacy is important
and addressed in this document. and addressed in this document.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Delivery Methods for Location Information . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Delivery Methods for Location Information . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1 Authentication/Authorization Phase Delivery . . . . . . . 6 3.1 Authentication/Authorization Phase Delivery . . . . . . . 5
3.2 Mid-session Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2 Mid-session Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1 Use Case 1 - Use of Location Information in AAA . . . . . 9 4.1 Scenario 1 - Use of Location Information in AAA . . . . . 8
4.2 Scenario 2 - Use of Location Information for other 4.2 Scenario 2 - Use of Location Information for other
Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1 Operator-Name Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.1 Operator-Name Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.2 Location-Information Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2 Location-Information Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.2.1 Civil Location Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.2.1 Civil Location Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2.2 Geospatial Location Information . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2.2 Geospatial Location Information . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6. Basic- and Extended-Policy-Rule Attributes . . . . . . . . . . 15 6. Basic- and Extended-Policy-Rule Attributes . . . . . . . . . . 14
7. Location-Type Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. Location-Type Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8. Billing-Description Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8. Diameter RADIUS Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9. Diameter RADIUS Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 9. Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10. Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9.1 Operator-Name Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10.1 Operator-Name Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9.2 Location-Information Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10.2 Location-Information Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9.3 Basic Policy Rules Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
10.3 Basic Policy Rules Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 9.4 Extended Policy Rules Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
10.4 Extended Policy Rules Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 9.5 Location-Type Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
10.5 Location-Type Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 10. Table of Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
10.6 Billing-Description Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
11. Table of Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 12. Matching with Geopriv Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 12.1 Distribution of Location Information at the User's
13. Matching with Geopriv Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
13.1 Distribution of Location Information at the User's 12.2 Distribution of Location Information at the Visited
Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
13.2 Distribution of Location Information at the Visited 12.3 Requirements matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 13. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
13.3 Requirements matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 14. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
14. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 14.1 Entity in the visited network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
15. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 14.2 Entity in the home network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
15.1 Entity in the visited network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 15. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
15.2 Entity in the home network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 16. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
16. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 17. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
17. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 17.1 Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
18. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 17.2 Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
18.1 Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
18.2 Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 45
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 47
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Wireless LAN (WLAN) Access Networks (AN) are being deployed in public Wireless LAN (WLAN) Access Networks (AN) are being deployed in public
places such as airports, hotels, shopping malls, and coffee shops by places such as airports, hotels, shopping malls, and coffee shops by
a diverse set of incumbent operators such as cellular carriers (GSM a diverse set of operators such as cellular carriers (GSM and CDMA),
and CDMA), Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISP), and fixed Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISP), and fixed broadband
broadband operators. operators.
When a user executes the network access authentication procedure to When a user executes the network access authentication procedure to
such a network, information about the location and operational such a network, information about the location and operational
ownership of this network needs to be conveyed to the users's home ownership of this network needs to be conveyed to the user's home
network to which the user has a contractal relationship. The main network to which the user has a contractal relationship. The main
intent of this document is to enable location aware billing (e.g., intent of this document is to enable location aware billing (e.g.,
determine the appropriate tariff and taxation), location aware determine the appropriate tariff and taxation in dependence of the
subscriber authentication and authorization for roaming environments location of the access network/user), location aware subscriber
and to enable location aware services. authentication and authorization for roaming environments and to
enable location aware services.
This document describes AAA attributes that are used by a AAA client This document describes AAA attributes that are used by a AAA client
or a local AAA server in an access network for conveying or a local AAA server in an access network for conveying
location-related information to the user's home AAA server. This location-related information to the user's home AAA server. This
document defines attributes for RADIUS [1]. document defines attributes for RADIUS [1].
Although the proposed attributes in this draft are intended for Although the proposed attributes in this draft are intended for
wireless LAN deployments, they can also be used in other wireless and wireless LAN deployments, they can also be used in other wireless and
wired networks where location-aware services are required. wired networks where location-aware services are required.
Location information needs to be protected against unauthorized Location information needs to be protected against unauthorized
access and distribution to preserve privacy of the owner of the access and distribution to preserve the user's privacy with regard to
location information. With [8] requirements for a location information. With [8] requirements for a
protocol-independent model for the access to geographic location protocol-independent model for the access to geographic location
information was defined. The model includes a Location Generator information was defined. The model includes a Location Generator
(LG) that creates Location Information, a Location Server (LS) that (LG) that creates location information, a Location Server (LS) that
authorizes access to Location Information, a Location Recipient (LR) authorizes access to location information, a Location Recipient (LR)
that requests and receives information, and a Rule Maker (RM) that that requests and receives information, and a Rule Maker (RM) that
provides authorization policies to the LS which enforce access provides authorization policies to the LS which enforces access
control policies on access to a target. control policies on requests to location information of a target.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [2]. document are to be interpreted as described in [2].
RADIUS specific terminology is reused from [1] and [3]. RADIUS specific terminology is reused from [1] and [3].
Terminology related to privacy issues, location information and Terminology related to privacy issues, location information and
authorization policy rules are taken from [8]. authorization policy rules are taken from [8].
3. Delivery Methods for Location Information 3. Delivery Methods for Location Information
Location Infomation Objects defined in this document are transported Location Objects, which consist of location information and privacy
over RADIUS protocol from visited access network to the AAA server. rules, are transported over the RADIUS protocol from visited access
The information can be delivered to the RADIUS server during the network to the home AAA server. To embedd a Location Object into
authentication/authorization phase described in Section 3.1, or in RADIUS a number of AVPs are used, such as Location-Information AVP,
the mid-session using the dynamic authorization protocol framework Basic-Policy-Rules AVP, Extended-Policy-Rules AVP, Location-Type AVP
described in Section 3.2. This section describes messages flow for and Operator-Name AVP. These AVPs can be delivered to the RADIUS
both delivery methods. server during the authentication/authorization phase described in
Section 3.1, or in the mid-session using the dynamic authorization
protocol framework described in Section 3.2. This section describes
messages flow for both delivery methods.
3.1 Authentication/Authorization Phase Delivery 3.1 Authentication/Authorization Phase Delivery
Figure 1 shows an example message flow for delivering Location Figure 1 shows an example message flow for delivering location
Information during the network access authentication/authorization information during the network access authentication/authorization
procedure. Upon a network authentication request from an access procedure. Upon a network authentication request from an access
network client, the NAS submits a RADIUS Access-Request message which network client, the NAS submits a RADIUS Access-Request message which
contains location information attributes among other required contains location information attributes among other required
attributes. The authentication and/or authorization procedure is attributes. The authentication and/or authorization procedure is
completed based on a number of criteria, including the newly defined completed based on a number of criteria, including the newly defined
Location-Information, Operator-Name, Location-Type, Location-Information, Operator-Name, Location-Type,
Policy-Information attributes. A RADIUS Accounting Request message Policy-Information attributes. A RADIUS Accounting Request message
is again allowed to carry location specific attributes. is also allowed to carry location specific attributes.
+---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+
| Access | | Network | | AAA | | Access | | Network | | AAA |
| Network | | Access | | Server | | Network | | Access | | Server |
| Client | | Server | | | | Client | | Server | | |
+---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+
| | | | | |
| Authentication phase | | | Authentication phase | |
| begin | | | begin | |
|---------------------->| | |---------------------->| |
skipping to change at page 6, line 48 skipping to change at page 5, line 51
| | | | | |
| | RADIUS | | | RADIUS |
| | Access-Request | | | Access-Request |
| | + Location-Information | | | + Location-Information |
| | attributes | | | attributes |
| |----------------------------->| | |----------------------------->|
| | | | | |
: : : : : :
: Multiple Protocol Exchanges to perform : : Multiple Protocol Exchanges to perform :
: Authentication, Key Exchange and Authorization : : Authentication, Key Exchange and Authorization :
: : :
: ...continued... : : ...continued... :
: | |
: : :
| | RADIUS | | | RADIUS |
| | Access-Accept | | | Access-Accept |
| | + Rule set Information | | | + Rule set Information |
| |<-----------------------------| | |<-----------------------------|
| Authentication | | | Authentication | |
| Accept | | | Accept | |
|<----------------------| | |<----------------------| |
| | | | | |
| | RADIUS | | | RADIUS |
| | Accounting Request | | | Accounting Request |
| | + Location-Information | | | + Location-Information |
| | attributes | | | attributes |
| |----------------------------->| | |----------------------------->|
| | | | | |
Figure 1: Message Flow: Authentication/Authorization Phase Delivery Figure 1: Message Flow: Authentication/Authorization Phase Delivery
3.2 Mid-session Delivery 3.2 Mid-session Delivery
Mid-session delivery method uses the Change of Authorization (COA) Mid-session delivery method uses the Change of Authorization (COA)
message as defined in [4]. In accordance to [4], at anytime during message as defined in [4]. At anytime during the session the AAA
the session the AAA server may send the access network a COA message server may send the access network a COA message containing session
containing session identification attributes (see [4] for the identification attributes. The COA message may instruct the access
possible options). The COA message may instruct the access network network to generate an Authorize-Only Access-Request (Access-Request
to generate an Authorize-Only Access-Request (Access-Request with with Service-Type set to "Authorize-Only") in which case it is
Service-Type set to "Authorize-Only") in which case it is instructing instructing the access network to send the location information
the access network to send the location information attributes. attributes.
Figure 2 shows the approach graphically. Figure 2 shows the approach graphically.
Access network AAA server Access network AAA server
| | | |
| COA + Service-Type "Authorize Only" | | COA + Service-Type "Authorize Only" |
|<----------------------------------------------| |<----------------------------------------------|
| | | |
| COA NAK + Service-Type "Authorize Only" | | COA NAK + Service-Type "Authorize Only" |
| + Error-Cause "Request Initiated" | | + Error-Cause "Request Initiated" |
skipping to change at page 8, line 25 skipping to change at page 7, line 25
| + Location Information attributes | | + Location Information attributes |
| + Location Information policy | | + Location Information policy |
|---------------------------------------------->| |---------------------------------------------->|
| | | |
| Access-Accept | | Access-Accept |
|<----------------------------------------------| |<----------------------------------------------|
| | | |
Figure 2: Message Flow: Mid-session Delivery Figure 2: Message Flow: Mid-session Delivery
Upon receiving the Authorize-Only message from the Access network, Upon receiving the Authorize-Only message from the access network,
the AAA server MUST respond with either an Access-Accept message or the AAA server MUST respond with either an Access-Accept message or
an Access-Reject message. an Access-Reject message.
4. Scenarios 4. Scenarios
In the following subsections we describe two scenarios for use of In the following subsections we describe two scenarios for use of
location information. The location infomration may refer to network location information. The location infomration may refer to network
or user location information which in some cases may be identical. or user location information which in some cases may be identical.
How the network obtains the user's location information is out of How the network obtains the user's location information is out of
scope of this document. There are two consumers of the location scope of this document. There are two consumers of the location
information: the AAA servers and other location-based services. The information: the AAA servers and other location-based services. The
privacy implications of these scenarios are described in Section 15. privacy implications of these scenarios are described in Section 14.
4.1 Use Case 1 - Use of Location Information in AAA 4.1 Scenario 1 - Use of Location Information in AAA
An Operator requires Location Informaion for Authorization and The home network operator requires location informaion for
Billing purposes. The operator may deny service if Location authorization and billing purposes. The operator may deny service if
Information is not available. Or it may offer limited service. The location information is not available. Or it may offer limited
NAS delivers Location Information to the Home AAA server. service. The NAS delivers location information to the home AAA
server.
The user's location is transferred from the NAS to the RADIUS server The user's location is transferred from the NAS to the RADIUS server.
and the NAS and intermediaries (if any) are not allowed to use that The NAS and intermediaries (if any) are not allowed to use that
information other then to forward it to the home network. information other then to forward it to the home network.
The RADIUS server authenticates and authorizes the session. If the The RADIUS server authenticates and authorizes the session. If the
user's location policies are available to the RADIUS server, the user's location policies are available to the RADIUS server, the
RADIUS server may deliver those policies in an Access Accept. This RADIUS server must deliver those policies in an Access Accept to the
information may be needed if intermediaries or other elements want to RADIUS client. This information may be needed if intermediaries or
act as Location Servers (see Section 4.2). In the absence of other elements want to act as Location Servers (see Section 4.2). In
receiving the policies intermediaries MUST NOT divulge the location the absence of receiving the policies intermediaries MUST NOT divulge
information. the location information.
Location Information may also be reported in accouning messages. Location Information may also be reported in accouning messages.
Accounting messages are generated when the session starts, stops and Accounting messages are generated when the session starts, stops and
periodically. Accounting messages may also be generated when the periodically. Accounting messages may also be generated when the
user roams during handoff. This information may be needed by the user roams during handoff. This information may be needed by the
billing system to calculate the users bill. For example, there may billing system to calculate the user's bill. For example, there may
be different tarrif rates applied based on the location and their be different a rates applied based on the location and there may be
maybe different tax rates applied based on the location. Unless different tax rates applied based on the location. Unless otherwise
otherwise specified, location information in the accounting stream specified by authorization rules, location information in the
may not be transmitted to third parties. accounting stream may not be transmitted to third parties.
The location information in the accounting stream MUST only be sent The location information in the accounting stream MUST only be sent
in the proxy chain to the home network (unless specified otherwise). in the proxy chain to the home network (unless specified otherwise).
4.2 Scenario 2 - Use of Location Information for other Services 4.2 Scenario 2 - Use of Location Information for other Services
Location Servers are entities that receive the user's location Location Servers are entities that receive the user's location
information and transmit it to other entities. For the purpose of information and transmit it to other entities. In this second
this scenario Location servers are the NAS, and RADIUS servers. The scenario, Location Servers comprise also the NAS and RADIUS server
RADIUS servers are in the home network, in the visited network, or in roles. The RADIUS servers are in the home network, in the visited
broker networks. network, or in broker networks.
Unless otherwise specified, excluding the proxy chain from the NAS to The Location Server MUST NOT transmit location information to parties
the Home RADIUS, the Location Server may not transmit the location other than members of the proxy chain from the NAS to the home RADIUS
information to other parties. server.
Upon authentication and authorization, the Home RADIUS may transmit Upon authentication and authorization, the home RADIUS server must
the Rule set in an Access-Accept to the other Location Server transmit the ruleset (if available) in an Access-Accept. The RADIUS
allowing them to transmit Location Information. Then and only then client, intermediate proxies are allowed to share location
they are allowed to share the information. information if they received ruleset indicates that it is allowed.
Note that the NAS is the source of all Location Information that is Note that the NAS is the source of all location information that is
disseminated by RADIUS, the NAS could tag the Location Information disseminated by RADIUS, the NAS could tag the location information
with the policy rules or a reference for the policy rules received in with the policy rules or a reference for the policy rules received in
an Access-Accept. All Location Information in the accounting stream an Access-Accept. All location information in the accounting stream
will now be tagged. will now be tagged.
5. Overview 5. Overview
Location Information and operational ownership of the access network Location information and ownership of the access network is conveyed
is conveyed in the following RADIUS attributes: Operator-Name, in the following RADIUS attributes: Operator-Name,
Location-Information, Location-Type and Billing-Description. Location-Information and Location-Type. Furthermore, the
Furthermore, the Basic-Policy-Rules and the Extended-Policy-Rules Basic-Policy-Rules and the Extended-Policy-Rules attributes are
attributes are attached to the Location-Information attribute turning attached to the Location-Information attribute turning location
Location Information into a Location Object as defined in [8]. information into a Location Object as defined in [8].
5.1 Operator-Name Attribute 5.1 Operator-Name Attribute
This attribute contains an operator name which uniquely identifies This attribute contains an operator name which uniquely identifies
the ownership of an access network. The Attribute value is a the ownership of an access network. The attribute value is a
non-NULL terminated string whose Length MUST NOT exceed 253 bytes. non-NULL terminated string whose Length MUST NOT exceed 253 bytes.
The attribute value is comprised of the prefix and the identity, The attribute value is comprised of a prefix and an identity,
separated by a colon. The prefix identifies the operator type; separated by a colon. The prefix identifies the operator type;
example: GSM, CDMA, and REALM. The identity uniquely identifies the example: GSM, CDMA, and REALM. The identity uniquely identifies the
operator name within the scope of the operator type. operator name within the scope of the operator type.
As an example consider the string 'GSM:TADIG' where GSM is a prefix As an example consider the string 'GSM:TADIG' where GSM is a prefix
indicating an operator type and TADIC is a unique globally known GSM indicating an operator type and TADIC is a unique globally known GSM
operator ID. operator ID.
This document defines three operator type prefixes which are: GSM, This document defines three operator type prefixes which are: GSM,
CDMA, and REALM. The GSM prefix can be used to indicate operator CDMA, and REALM. The GSM prefix can be used to indicate operator
names based on GSMA TADIG codes. REALM can be used by any domain names based on GSMA TADIG codes. REALM can be used by any domain
name acquired from IANA. Possible forthcoming operator types MUST be name acquired from IANA. Possible forthcoming operator types MUST be
associated with an ogranization responsible for assigning/managing associated with an organization responsible for assigning/managing
operator names. operator names.
5.2 Location-Information Attribute 5.2 Location-Information Attribute
This document describes two formats for conveying location This document describes two formats for conveying location
information: civil and geospatial location information. Section information: civil and geospatial location information. Section
5.2.1 defines the civil location information format. Section 5.2.2 5.2.1 defines the civil location information format. Section 5.2.2
defines the geospatial location information format. defines the geospatial location information format.
Additionally, a few additional fields provide more details about the Additionally, the following fields provide more details about the
transmitted Location Information. transmitted location information.
The 'Precision' field provides information about the accuracy The 'Precision' field provides information of the accuracy about
about the provided Location Information. When the user's home the provided location information. Location information can refer
network receives a Location Object within RADIUS then this field to the Access Point, the user, the or the RADIUS server or the
gives further indication about the accuracy. Location information network itself. With large networks the location information of
can refer to the Access Point, the user, the or the RADIUS server each of these entities might be different. The 'Precision' field
or the network itself. With large networks the Location allows to give a hint about the precision of the provided location
Information of each of these entities might be different. The information.
'Precision' field allows to give a hint about the precision of the
provided location information.
The 'Method' field describes the way that the location information The 'Method' field describes the way that the location information
was derived or discovered. Possible values for this field was derived or discovered. Possible values for this field
include, as an example GPS or manual configuration. The inclusion include, as an example GPS or manual configuration. The inclusion
of this field should help the user's home network deduce further of this field should help the user's home network deduce further
information about the accuracy and to provide an easier information about the accuracy and to provide an easier
translation into a Geopriv Location Object for transmission to translation into a Location Object for transmission to third party
third party entities. Note that the values for this field are entities (e.g., using SIP). Note that the values for this field
reused from [9]. are reused from [9].
5.2.1 Civil Location Information 5.2.1 Civil Location Information
Civil location is a popular way to describe the location of an Civil location is a popular way to describe the location of an
entity. Using an unstructured (as a text string) or a custom format entity. Using an unstructured (as a text string) or a custom format
for civil location format is dangerous since the automatic processing for civil location format is dangerous since the automatic processing
capabilities are limited. capabilities are limited.
For this document we reuse the civil location format defined in [5]. For this document, we reuse the civil location format defined in [5].
The civil location format includes a number of fields, including the The civil location format includes a number of fields, including the
country (expressed as a two-letter ISO 3166 code) and the country (expressed as a two-letter ISO 3166 code) and the
administrative units of [5] A1 through A6. This designation offers administrative units A1 through A6 of [5] . This designation offers
street-level precision. street-level precision.
For completeness we include more detailed information from [5] with For completeness we include more detailed information from [5] with
regard to the defined civil location elements (A1 through A6): regard to the defined civil location elements:
+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+ +----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+
| Label | Description | Example | | Label | Description | Example |
+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+ +----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+
| country | The country is | US | | country | The country is | US |
| | identified by the | | | | identified by the | |
| | two-letter ISO 3166 | | | | two-letter ISO 3166 | |
| | code. | | | | code. | |
| | | | | | | |
| A1 | national | New York | | A1 | national | New York |
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| | | | | | | |
| NAM | Name (residence, | Joe's Barbershop | | NAM | Name (residence, | Joe's Barbershop |
| | business or office | | | | business or office | |
| | occupant) | | | | occupant) | |
| | | | | | | |
| PC | Postal code | 10027-0401 | | PC | Postal code | 10027-0401 |
+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+ +----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+
Table 1 Table 1
Additional CA types are defined in Section 3.4 of [5]. These types More description of these civil location elements can be found in
are useful to express further information about the location, Section 3.4 of [5]. These elements can be used to express further
language specific settings via the 'language' item and encoding information about the location, language specific settings via the
information via the 'script' item. Section 14 shows usage examples 'language' item and encoding information via the 'script' item.
of this attribute. Section 13 shows usage examples of this attribute.
All attributes are optional and can appear in any order. The values All attributes are optional and can appear in any order. The values
are encoded using UTF-8 [6]. are encoded using UTF-8 [6].
5.2.2 Geospatial Location Information 5.2.2 Geospatial Location Information
This document reusing geospatial location information from [7] which This document reuses geospatial location information from [7] which
defines latitude, longitude, and altitude, with resolution indicators defines latitude, longitude, and altitude, with resolution indicators
for each. The value in the Altitude field either indicates meters or for each. The value in the Altitude field either indicates meters or
floors (via the Altitude Type field). As a coordinate reference floors (via the Altitude Type field). As a coordinate reference
system Section 2.1 of [7] defines (via extensible mechanism using system Section 2.1 of [7] defines (via extensible mechanism using
IANA registration) three values in the Datum field: WGS 84, NAD 83 IANA registration) three values in the Datum field: WGS 84, NAD 83
(with the associated vertical datum for the North American Vertical (with the associated vertical datum for the North American Vertical
Datum of 1988), NAD 83 (with the associated vertical datum for the Datum of 1988), NAD 83 (with the associated vertical datum for the
Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW). WGS 84 is used by the GPS system. Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW). WGS 84 is used by the GPS system.
During a protocol run it is possible to return Location-Information During a protocol run it is possible to return Location-Information
skipping to change at page 15, line 17 skipping to change at page 14, line 17
In some environments it is possible for the user to attach In some environments it is possible for the user to attach
information about its privacy preferences. These preferences allow information about its privacy preferences. These preferences allow
the visited network, intermediate RADIUS proxies and the home network the visited network, intermediate RADIUS proxies and the home network
to authorize the distribution of the user's location information. to authorize the distribution of the user's location information.
Without the user providing authorization information two approaches Without the user providing authorization information two approaches
are possible: are possible:
o The user hides its location information from the access network o The user hides its location information from the access network
and from intermediate networks using the appropriate network and from intermediate networks using the appropriate network
access authentication mechanism. Section 15 discusses these access authentication mechanism. Section 14 discusses these
issues in more details. issues in more details.
o The access network attaches default authorization policies which o The access network attaches default authorization policies which
prevents intermediate networks and the home network to distribute prevents intermediate networks and the home network to distribute
the location information to other entities. Additionally, the the location information to other entities. Additionally, the
home network might have authorization policies which control home network might have authorization policies which control
distribution of location information. Users can dynamically distribution of location information. Users can dynamically
change their policies using the authroization framework defined in change their policies using the authroization framework defined in
[10] and [11]. [10] and [11].
With regard to authorization policies this document reuses work done With regard to authorization policies this document reuses work done
in [9] and encodes it in an non-XML format. Two fields ('sighting in [9] and encodes it in an non-XML format. Two fields ('sighting
time' and 'time-to-live') are additionally included in the time' and 'time-to-live') are additionally included in the
Location-Information attribute to conform to the Geopriv Requirements Location-Information attribute to conform to the Geopriv Requirements
[8], Section 2.7. Two RADIUS attributes are used for this purpose: [8], Section 2.7. Two RADIUS attributes are used for this purpose:
Basic-Policy-Rule and Extended-Policy-Rule attribute; The Basic-Policy-Rule and Extended-Policy-Rule attribute. The
Basic-Policy-Rule attribute contains a fixed set of privacy relevant Basic-Policy-Rule attribute contains a fixed set of privacy relevant
fields whereas the Extended-Policy-Rule attribute contains a fields whereas the Extended-Policy-Rule attribute contains a
reference to a more extensive authorization rule set. reference to a more extensive authorization rule set.
7. Location-Type Attribute 7. Location-Type Attribute
This document defines a separate attribute for the type of the This document defines a separate attribute for the type of the
location. Instead of the values of the 'type-of-place' attribute location. Instead of the values of the 'type-of-place' attribute
defined in Section 4.6 of [12] which is reused by [5] we define our defined in Section 4.6 of [12] which is reused by [5] we define our
own list of values for the Location-Type attribute. The reason for own list of values for the Location-Type attribute. The reason for
skipping to change at page 17, line 5 skipping to change at page 16, line 5
11 Airplane 11 Airplane
12 Train 12 Train
13 Ship 13 Ship
14 Educational Institute 14 Educational Institute
15 Public Place 15 Public Place
16 Other 16 Other
Using these attribute types it is possible to describe the area in Using these attribute types it is possible to describe the area in
more detail. more detail.
8. Billing-Description Attribute 8. Diameter RADIUS Interoperability
The Billing-Description Attribute contains unstructured text to be
printed on the users bill.
9. Diameter RADIUS Interoperability
In deployments where both RADIUS clients talking with Diameter In deployments where RADIUS clients talk with DIAMETER servers or
Servers or Diameter Client talking with RADIUS server then a DIAMETER clients talk with RADIUS servers then a translation agent
translation agent will be deployed and operate in accordance to the will be deployed and operate in accordance to the NASREQ
NASREQ specification [13]. specification [13].
10. Attributes 9. Attributes
This section defines attributes for access network operational This section defines the Operator-Name AVP, Location-Information AVP,
ownership, Location Name, Location Information and Billing Basic Policy Rules AVP, Extended Policy Rules AVP and the
Description. Location-Type AVP.
10.1 Operator-Name Attribute 9.1 Operator-Name Attribute
Operator-Name Attribute SHOULD be sent in Access-Request, and Operator-Name Attribute SHOULD be sent in Access-Request, and
Accounting-Request records where the Acc-Status-Type is set to Start, Accounting-Request records where the Acc-Status-Type is set to Start,
Interim, or Stop. Interim, or Stop.
A summary of the Operator-Name Attribute is shown below. A summary of the Operator-Name Attribute is shown below.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
skipping to change at page 19, line 33 skipping to change at page 17, line 33
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: Type:
To Be Assigned by IANA - Operator-Name To Be Assigned by IANA - Operator-Name
Length: Length:
>= 3 Bytes >= 3 Bytes
Operator-Name: Operator-Name:
The text field contains an Access Network Operator Name in The text field contains an Access Network Operator Name in
prefix-based format as describe above. prefix-based format.
Example: REALM:anyisp.com Example: REALM:anyisp.com
10.2 Location-Information Attribute 9.2 Location-Information Attribute
Location-Information attribute SHOULD be sent in Access-Request, and Location-Information attribute SHOULD be sent in Access-Request, and
Accounting-Request records where the Acc-Status-Type is set to Start, Accounting-Request records where the Acc-Status-Type is set to Start,
Interim or Stop if available. Interim or Stop if available.
The Location-Information Attribute has two variations depending on The Location-Information Attribute has two variations depending on
civil or geospatial location information. The format is shown below. civil or geospatial location information. The format is shown below.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
skipping to change at page 21, line 13 skipping to change at page 19, line 13
(0) Global Positioning System (GPS) (0) Global Positioning System (GPS)
(1) GPS with assistance (A-GPS) (1) GPS with assistance (A-GPS)
(2) Manual configured information (2) Manual configured information
(3) Provided by DHCP (3) Provided by DHCP
(4) Triangulation: triangulated from time-of-arrival, (4) Triangulation: triangulated from time-of-arrival,
signal strength or similar measurements signal strength or similar measurements
(5) Cell: location of the cellular radio antenna (5) Cell: location of the cellular radio antenna
(6) IEEE 802.11 WLAN access point (6) IEEE 802.11 WLAN access point
Location-Info (variable): Location-Info (variable):
Contains either civil or Contains either civic or
geospatial location information attributes. geospatial location information attributes.
The following two fields need some explanation: The following two fields need some explanation:
sighting time: This field indicates when the Location Information was sighting time: This field indicates when the Location Information was
accurate. The data type of this field is a string and the format accurate. The data type of this field is a string and the format
is a 64 bit NTP timestamp [14]. is a 64 bit NTP timestamp [14].
time-to-live: This field gives a hint until when it should be time-to-live: This field gives a hint until when it should be
considered current. Note that the time-to-live field is different considered current. Note that the time-to-live field is different
than the 'retention-expires' rule. The data type of this field is than the 'retention-expires' rule. The data type of this field is
a string and the format is a 64 bit NTP timestamp [14]. a string and the format is a 64 bit NTP timestamp [14].
skipping to change at page 21, line 35 skipping to change at page 19, line 35
For civil location information the Location-Info field in the above For civil location information the Location-Info field in the above
structure is defined as followed: structure is defined as followed:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Countrycode | Civic address elements ... | Countrycode | Civic address elements ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Countrycode (16 bits): Countrycode (16 bits):
Two-letter ISO 3166 country code in capital ASCII leters. Two-letter ISO 3166 country code in capital ASCII letters.
Civic address elements (variable): Civic address elements (variable):
The text field contains location information element. The text field contains location information element.
The format of the civic address elements is described in Section 3.3 The format of the civic address elements is described in Section 3.3
of [5] with a TLV pair (whereby the Type and Length fields are of [5] with a TLV pair (whereby the Type and Length fields are
one-octed long). An example is given in Section 14. one-octet long). An example is given in Section 13.
For geospatial location information the Location-Info field is For geospatial location information the Location-Info field is
defined as follows: defined as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| LaRes | Latitude + | LaRes | Latitude +
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Latitude | LoRes | Longitude + | Latitude | LoRes | Longitude +
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Altitude Type for altitude. The following codes are defined: Altitude Type for altitude. The following codes are defined:
(1) Meters (1) Meters
(2) Floors (2) Floors
Datum (8 bits): Datum (8 bits):
Coordinate reference system Coordinate reference system
The following codes for the this field are defined: The following codes for the this field are defined:
(1) WGS 84 (1) WGS 84
(2) NAD 83 (2) NAD 83 (with the associated vertical datum for
(3) NAD 83 the North American Vertical Datum of 1988)
(3) NAD 83 (with the associated vertical datum for
the Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW))
The length of the Location-Information Attribute MUST NOT exceed 253 The length of the Location-Information Attribute MUST NOT exceed 253
octets. The length of the geospatial location information format is octets. The length of the geospatial location information format is
fixed with 16 bytes plus a four byte header. fixed with 16 bytes plus a four byte header.
The Datum field contains an identifier for the coordinate system used The Datum field contains an identifier for the coordinate system used
to interpret the values of Latitude, Longitude and Altitude. The to interpret the values of Latitude, Longitude and Altitude. The
field with value (2) and the value (3) both represent the NAD 83 field with value (2) and the value (3) both represent the NAD 83
coordinate reference system but they differ from each other with coordinate reference system but they differ from each other with
regard to their vertical datum representation as briefly noted in regard to their vertical datum representation as briefly noted in
Section 5.2.2 and described in more detail in [7]. Section 5.2.2 and described in more detail in [7].
10.3 Basic Policy Rules Attribute 9.3 Basic Policy Rules Attribute
The Basic-Policy-Rules attribute MUST be sent in Access-Accept, The Basic-Policy-Rules attribute MUST be sent in Access-Accept,
Access-Challenge, Access-and Access-Reject messages if Location Access-Challenge, Access-and Access-Reject messages if location
Information is transmitted with this exchange. If authorization information is transmitted with this exchange. If authorization
policy rules are available to the RADIUS client then the policy rules are available to the RADIUS client then the
Access-Request MUST carry the Basic-Policy-Rules attribute to to the Access-Request MUST carry the Basic-Policy-Rules attribute to to the
RADIUS server. RADIUS server.
A summary of the Basic-Policy-Rules attribute is shown below. A summary of the Basic-Policy-Rules attribute is shown below.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length |R| Flags | | Type | Length |R| Flags |
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+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Note Well ... | Note Well ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type : Type :
To Be Assigned by IANA - Basic-Policy-Rules To Be Assigned by IANA - Basic-Policy-Rules
Length: Length:
> 3 Bytes > 3 Bytes
Flag (16 bits) Flag (16 bits):
Only the first bit (R) is defined an corresponds to the Only the first bit (R) is defined an corresponds to the
retransmission-allowed field. All other bits are reserved. retransmission-allowed field. All other bits are reserved.
Retention Expires (64 bits) Retention Expires (64 bits):
NTP timestamp for the 'retention-expires' field. NTP timestamp for the 'retention-expires' field.
Note Well (variable) Note Well (variable):
Contains a text with human readable privacy instructions. This field contains a URI with human readable
Its length MUST NOT exceed 64 octets. privacy instructions.
For this document we reuse the following fields of the 'usage-rules' This document reuses fields of the 'usage-rules' element, described
element, described in [9]: in [9]. These fields have the following meaning:
retransmission-allowed: When the value of this element is '0', then retransmission-allowed: When the value of this element is '0', then
the recipient of this Location Object is not permitted to share the recipient of this Location Object is not permitted to share
the enclosed Location Information, or the object as a whole, with the enclosed location information, or the object as a whole, with
other parties. The value of '1' allows to share the Location other parties. The value of '1' allows to share the location
Information with other parties by considering the extended policy information with other parties by considering the extended policy
rules. rules.
retention-expires: This field specifies an absolute date at which retention-expires: This field specifies an absolute date at which
time the Recipient is no longer permitted to possess the location time the Recipient is no longer permitted to possess the location
information. The data type of this field is a string and the information. The data type of this field is a string and the
format is a 64 bit NTP timestamp [14]. format is a 64 bit NTP timestamp [14].
note-well: This field contains a block of text with generic privacy note-well: This field contains a URI with human readable privacy
directives which are human-readable only. This field is useful instructions. This field is useful when location information is
when Location Information is distributed to third party entities, distributed to third party entities, which can include humans in a
which can include humans in a location based service. RADIUS location based service. RADIUS entities are not supposed to
entities are not supposed to process this field. process this field.
10.4 Extended Policy Rules Attribute 9.4 Extended Policy Rules Attribute
The Extended-Policy-Rules attribute SHOULD be sent in Access-Accept, The Extended-Policy-Rules attribute SHOULD be sent in Access-Accept,
Access-Challenge, Access-and Access-Reject messages if Location Access-Challenge, Access-and Access-Reject messages if location
Information is transmitted with this exchange. If authorization information is transmitted with this exchange. If authorization
policy rules are available to the RADIUS client then the policy rules are available to the RADIUS client then the
Access-Request MUST carry the Basic-Policy-Rules attribute to to the Access-Request MUST carry the Basic-Policy-Rules attribute to to the
RADIUS server. RADIUS server.
This attribute contains a variable length ruleset reference. This Ruleset reference field of this attribute is of variable length. It
attribute contains a URI that indicates where a fuller ruleset of contains a URI that indicates where a richer ruleset is available.
policies related to this object can be found. The full ruleset The full ruleset SHOULD be fetched using Transport Layer Security
SHOULD be fetched using Transport Layer Security (TLS). As a (TLS). As a deviation from [9] this field only contains a reference
deviation from [9] this field only contains a reference and does not and does not carry an attached rule set. This modification is
carry an attached rule set. This modification is motivated by the motivated by the size limitations imposed by RADIUS.
size limitations imposed by RADIUS.
A summary of the Extended-Policy-Rules attribute is shown below. A summary of the Extended-Policy-Rules attribute is shown below.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | Ruleset reference ... | Type | Length | Ruleset reference ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type : Type :
To Be Assigned by IANA - Extended-Policy-Rules To Be Assigned by IANA - Extended-Policy-Rules
Length: Length:
> 3 Bytes > 3 Bytes
Ruleset reference: Ruleset reference:
The text field contains a reference to the policy rules The text field contains a reference to the policy rules.
(see 'usage-rules' field description).
Its length MUST NOT exceed 64 octets.
10.5 Location-Type Attribute 9.5 Location-Type Attribute
Location-Type Attribute SHOULD be sent in Access-Request, and Location-Type Attribute SHOULD be sent in Access-Request, and
Accounting-Request records where the Acc-Status-Type is set to Start, Accounting-Request records where the Acc-Status-Type is set to Start,
Interim, or Stop if available. Interim, or Stop if available.
A summary of the Location-Type Attribute is shown below. A summary of the Location-Type Attribute is shown below.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
skipping to change at page 25, line 29 skipping to change at page 23, line 29
Type (8 bits): Type (8 bits):
To Be Assigned by IANA - Location-Name To Be Assigned by IANA - Location-Name
Length (8 bits): Length (8 bits):
4 Bytes 4 Bytes
Loc-Type (16 bits): Loc-Type (16 bits):
The content of this field corresponds to the integer codes for The content of this field corresponds to the integer codes for
access network location type. access network location type.
10.6 Billing-Description Attribute These integer codes for the location type can be found in Section 7.
The Billing-Description attribute contains unstructured text to be
printed on the users bill.
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | Billing-Text ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type (8 bits):
To Be Assigned by IANA - Billing-Description
Length (8 bits):
>= 3 Bytes
Billing-Text (variable):
The content of this field contains text for billing purpose.
The length of the Billing-Description attribute MUST NOT exceed 32
octets.
11. Table of Attributes 10. Table of Attributes
The following table provides a guide to which attributes may be found The following table provides a guide which attributes may be found in
in which kinds of packets, and in what quantity. which RADIUS messages, and in what quantity.
Request Accept Reject Challenge Accounting # Attribute Request Accept Reject Challenge Accounting # Attribute
Request Request
0-1 0 0 0 0-1 TBD Operator-Name 0-1 0 0 0 0-1 TBD Operator-Name
0+ 0 0 0 0+ TBD Location-Information 0+ 0 0 0 0+ TBD Location-Information
0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 TBD Basic-Policy-Rules 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 TBD Basic-Policy-Rules
0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 TBD Extended-Policy-Rules 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 TBD Extended-Policy-Rules
0-1 0 0 0 0-1 TBD Location-Type 0-1 0 0 0 0-1 TBD Location-Type
0-1 0 0 0 0-1 TBD Billing-Description
The Location-Information attribute may appear more than once. This The Location-Information attribute may appear more than once. This
is useful if the size of one Location-Information attribute exceeds is useful if the size of one Location-Information attribute exceeds
the maximum size of an AVP. This might happen in case of civil the maximum size of an AVP. This might happen in case of civil
location which has a variable number of fields. The fields used for location information which has a variable number of fields. The
the civil location information format of the Location-Information AVP fields used for the civil location information format of the
(see Section 5.2.1 MUST NOT appear more than once. Location-Information AVP (see Section 5.2.1 MUST NOT appear more than
once.
12. IANA Considerations 11. IANA Considerations
This document requires the assignment of four new RADIUS attribute This document requires the assignment of four new RADIUS attribute
numbers for the following attributes: numbers for the following attributes:
Operator-Name Operator-Name
Location-Information Location-Information
Basic-Policy-Rules Basic-Policy-Rules
Extended-Policy-Rules Extended-Policy-Rules
Location-Name Location-Name
Billing-Description
Please refer to Section 11 for the registered list of numbers. Please refer to Section 10 for the registered list of numbers.
13. Matching with Geopriv Requirements 12. Matching with Geopriv Requirements
This section compares the Geopriv requirements described in [8] and This section compares the Geopriv requirements described in [8] and
the approach of distributing Location Objects with RADIUS. the approach of distributing Location Objects with RADIUS.
First, we differentiate between the two scenarios in Section 13.1 and The main usage scenario aimed for Location Object transport in RADIUS
Section 13.2. These two scenarios focus on the privacy related assumes that the Location Server and the Location Recipient are
aspects descrbed in Section 4. Section 13.3 then matches the Geopriv co-located at a single entity with regard to location based network
requirements against these two scenarios. access authorization, taxation and billing. In Section 12.1 and
Section 12.2 we discuss privacy implications when RADIUS is not used
according to these usage scenario.
13.1 Distribution of Location Information at the User's Home Network In Section 12.3 Geopriv requirements are matched against these two
scenarios.
This paragraph focuses on a scenario whereby the RADIUS protocol 12.1 Distribution of Location Information at the User's Home Network
transport iocation information from the Location Generator (e.g.,
local AAA server) to the Location Server (e.g., home AAA server). To This section focuses on location information transport from the local
use a more generic scenario we assume that the visited AAA and the AAA server (acting as the Location Generator) to the home AAA server
home AAA server belong to different administrative domains. The (acting as the Location Server). To use a more generic scenario we
Location Recipient obtains location information about a particular assume that the visited AAA and the home AAA server belong to
Target via protocols specified outside the scope this document (e.g., different administrative domains. The Location Recipient obtains
SIP, HTTP or an API). location information about a particular Target via protocols
specified outside the scope this document (e.g., SIP, HTTP or an
API).
Please note that the main usage scenario defined in this document Please note that the main usage scenario defined in this document
assumes that the Location Server and the Location Recipient are assumes that the Location Server and the Location Recipient are
co-located into a single entity with regard to location based network co-located into a single entity with regard to location based network
access authorization, taxation and billing. The usage of SIP or HTTP access authorization, taxation and billing.
to distribute location information to third party entities is not the
main envised use case. However, the authors are aware of the fact
that the user's location information might be used in a non-intended
way. To reflect the users privacy even in these cases it is
necessary to offer appropriate mechanisms also for this environments.
The Target is the user requesting network access.
The subsequent figure shows the interacting entities graphically. The subsequent figure shows the interacting entities graphically.
visited network | home network visited network | home network
| |
| +----------+ | +----------+
| | Rule | | | Rule |
| | Holder | | | Holder |
| | | | | |
| +----+-----+ | +----+-----+
skipping to change at page 29, line 25 skipping to change at page 27, line 25
+----------+ | +----------+ +----------+ +----------+ | +----------+ +----------+
|Location | publication | Location | notification |Location | |Location | publication | Location | notification |Location |
|Generator |<------------->| Server |<------------->|Recipient | |Generator |<------------->| Server |<------------->|Recipient |
| | interface | | interface | | | | interface | | interface | |
+----------+ | +----------+ +----------+ +----------+ | +----------+ +----------+
| |
Local AAA RADIUS Home AAA SIP/HTTP/API/etc. Local AAA RADIUS Home AAA SIP/HTTP/API/etc.
Server | Server Server | Server
| |
Figure 15: Location Server at the Home Network Figure 14: Location Server at the Home Network
13.2 Distribution of Location Information at the Visited Network The term 'Rule Holder' in Figure 14 denotes the entity which creates
the authorization ruleset.
This paragraph describes a scenario which might happen during the 12.2 Distribution of Location Information at the Visited Network
deployment but is not within the focus of this document.
This section describes a scenario where Location Information is
distributed by the visited network.
In order for this scenario to be applicable a few assumptions must In order for this scenario to be applicable a few assumptions must
hold: hold:
o The visited network deploys a Location Server and wants to o The visited network deploys a Location Server and wants to
distribute Location Objects of a user distribute Location Objects of a user
o The visited network is able to learn the user identity of the user o The visited network is able to learn the user identity of the user
The visited network provides location information to a Location The visited network provides location information to a Location
Recipient (e.g., via SIP or HTTP). During the network access Recipient (e.g., via SIP or HTTP). During the network access
authentication procedure the visited network is able to retrieve authentication procedure the visited network is able to retrieve
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| | | | | |
| | rule|interface | | rule|interface
v | V v | V
+----------+ | +----------+ +----------+ | +----------+
|Location | Rule Transport| Home AAA | |Location | Rule Transport| Home AAA |
|Generator |<------------->| Server | |Generator |<------------->| Server |
|& Server | RADIUS | | |& Server | RADIUS | |
+----------+ | +----------+ +----------+ | +----------+
| |
Figure 16: Location Server at the Visited Network Figure 15: Location Server at the Visited Network
13.3 Requirements matching 12.3 Requirements matching
Section 7.1 of [8] details the requirements of a "Location Object". Section 7.1 of [8] details the requirements of a "Location Object".
There are: There are:
Req. 1. (Location Object generalities): Req. 1. (Location Object generalities):
* Regarding requirement 1.1, the Location Object has to be * Regarding requirement 1.1, the Location Object has to be
understood by the RADIUS server (and possibly a Diameter server understood by the RADIUS server (and possibly a Diameter server
in case of interworking between the two) as defined in this in case of interworking between the two) as defined in this
document. Due to the encoding of the Location Object it is document. Due to the encoding of the Location Object it is
skipping to change at page 31, line 11 skipping to change at page 29, line 11
This attribute can be seen as an extension. This attribute can be seen as an extension.
* Regarding requirement 1.4, the Location Object is extensible in * Regarding requirement 1.4, the Location Object is extensible in
the same fashion as RADIUS is extensible. the same fashion as RADIUS is extensible.
* Regarding requirement 1.5, the Location Object is useful for * Regarding requirement 1.5, the Location Object is useful for
both receiving and sending location information as described in both receiving and sending location information as described in
this document. this document.
* Regarding requirement 1.6, the Location Object contains both, * Regarding requirement 1.6, the Location Object contains both,
location information and privacy rules. Location information location information and privacy rules. Location information
is described in Section 5.2 and the corresponding privacy rules is described in Section 5.2 and the corresponding privacy rules
are detailed in Section 10.3 and in Section 10.4. are detailed in Section 9.3 and in Section 9.4.
* Regarding requirement 1.7, the Location Object is usable in a * Regarding requirement 1.7, the Location Object is usable in a
variety of protocols. The format of the object is reused from variety of protocols. The format of the object is reused from
other documents as detailed in the respective sections (see other documents as detailed in the respective sections (see
Section 5.2, Section 10.3 and in Section 10.4). Section 5.2, Section 9.3 and in Section 9.4).
* Regarding requirement 1.8, the encoding of the Location Object * Regarding requirement 1.8, the encoding of the Location Object
has an emphasis on a lighweight encoding format. As such it is has an emphasis on a lightweight encoding format. As such it
useable on constrained devices. is useable on constrained devices.
Req. 2. (Location Object fields): Req. 2. (Location Object fields):
* Regarding requirement 2.1, the Target Identifier is carried * Regarding requirement 2.1, the Target Identifier is carried
within the network access authentication protocol (e.g., within within the network access authentication protocol (e.g., within
the EAP-Identity Response when EAP is used and/or within the the EAP-Identity Response when EAP is used and/or within the
EAP method itself). As described in Section 15 it has a number EAP method itself). As described in Section 14 it has a number
of advantages if this identifier is not carried in clear text. of advantages if this identifier is not carried in clear text.
This is possible with cetain EAP methods whereby the identity This is possible with certain EAP methods whereby the identity
in the EAP-Identity Response only contains information relevant in the EAP-Identity Response only contains information relevant
for routing the response to the users home network. The true for routing the response to the users home network. The true
user identity is protected by the authentication and key user identity is protected by the authentication and key
exchange protocol. exchange protocol.
* Regarding requirement 2.2, the Location Recipient Identity is, * Regarding requirement 2.2, the Location Recipient Identity is,
in the main scenario the home AAA server. This entity is in the main scenario the home AAA server. This entity is
located using the structure of the Network Access Identifier. located using the structure of the Network Access Identifier.
For a scenario where the Location Recipient is obtaining For a scenario where the Location Recipient is obtaining
Location Information from the Location Server via HTTP or SIP Location Information from the Location Server via HTTP or SIP
the respective mechanisms defined in these protocols are used the respective mechanisms defined in these protocols are used
to identify the recipient. The Location Generator cannot, a to identify the recipient. The Location Generator cannot, a
priori, know the recipients if they are not defined in this priori, know the recipients if they are not defined in this
protocol. protocol.
* Regarding requirement 2.3, the credentials of the Location * Regarding requirement 2.3, the credentials of the Location
Recipient are known to the RADIUS entities based on the Recipient are known to the RADIUS entities based on the
security mechanisms defined in the RADIUS protocol itself. security mechanisms defined in the RADIUS protocol itself.
Section 16 describes these security mechanisms offered by the Section 15 describes these security mechanisms offered by the
RADIUS protocol. The same is true for requirement 2.4. RADIUS protocol. The same is true for requirement 2.4.
* Regarding requirement 2.5, Section 5.2 describes the content of * Regarding requirement 2.5, Section 5.2 describes the content of
the Location Field. Motion and direction vectors as listed in the Location Field. Motion and direction vectors as listed in
requirement 2.6 are not provided as attributes. It is, requirement 2.6 are not provided as attributes. It is,
however, possible to deduce the motion and direction of an however, possible to deduce the motion and direction of an
entity via the Mid-session Delivery mechanism as shown in entity via the Mid-session Delivery mechanism as shown in
Figure 2. Figure 2.
* Regarding requirement 2.6, this document only describes one * Regarding requirement 2.6, this document only describes one
Location Data Type for civil and for geospatial location Location Data Type for civil and for geospatial location
information, respectively. No negotiation needs to take place. information, respectively. No negotiation needs to take place.
* Regarding requirement 2.7, timing information is provided with * Regarding requirement 2.7, timing information is provided with
'sighting time' and 'time-to-live' field defined in Section 'sighting time' and 'time-to-live' field defined in Section
10.3. 9.3.
* Regarding requirement 2.8, a reference to an external (more * Regarding requirement 2.8, a reference to an external (more
detailed ruleset) is provided with the Section 10.4 attribute. detailed ruleset) is provided with the Section 9.4 attribute.
* Regarding requirement 2.9, security headers and trailers are * Regarding requirement 2.9, security headers and trailers are
provided as part of the RADIUS protocol or even as part of provided as part of the RADIUS protocol or even as part of
IPsec. IPsec.
* Regarding requirement 2.10, a version number in RADIUS is * Regarding requirement 2.10, a version number in RADIUS is
provided with the IANA registration of the attributes. New provided with the IANA registration of the attributes. New
attributes are assigned a new IANA number. attributes are assigned a new IANA number.
Req. 3. (Location Data Types): Req. 3. (Location Data Types):
* Regarding requirement 3.1, this document defines two Location * Regarding requirement 3.1, this document defines two Location
Data Types as described in Section 5.2. Data Types as described in Section 5.2.
* With the support of civil and geospatial location information * With the support of civil and geospatial location information
support requirement 3.2 is fullfilled. support requirement 3.2 is fulfilled.
* Regarding requirement 3.3, geospatial location information only * Regarding requirement 3.3, geospatial location information only
supports absolute coordinates rather than a delta. However, supports absolute coordinates rather than a delta. However,
the granuality of the location information can be reduced with the granularity of the location information can be reduced with
the help of the AltRes, LoRes, LaRes fields described in the the help of the AltRes, LoRes, LaRes fields described in the
Location-Information attribute (see Section 10.2). Location-Information attribute (see Section 9.2).
* Regarding requirement 3.4, further Location Data Types can be * Regarding requirement 3.4, further Location Data Types can be
added via new coordinate reference systems (CRSs) (see Datum added via new coordinate reference systems (CRSs) (see Datum
field in the Location-Information attribut of Section 5.2), field in the Location-Information attribute of Section 5.2),
extensions to existing fields (e.g., new location types as extensions to existing fields (e.g., new location types as
shown in Section 7) or via additional attributes. shown in Section 7) or via additional attributes.
Section 7.2 of [8] details the requirements of a "Using Protocol". Section 7.2 of [8] details the requirements of a "Using Protocol".
There are: There are:
Req. 4.: The using protocol has to obey the privacy and security Req. 4.: The using protocol has to obey the privacy and security
instructions coded in the Location Object and in the corresponding instructions coded in the Location Object and in the corresponding
Rules regarding the transmission and storage of the LO. This Rules regarding the transmission and storage of the LO. This
document requires, that RADIUS entities sending or receiving document requires, that RADIUS entities sending or receiving
location MUST obey such instructions. location MUST obey such instructions.
Req. 5.: The using protocol will typically facilitate that the keys Req. 5.: The using protocol will typically facilitate that the keys
associated with the credentials are transported to the respective associated with the credentials are transported to the respective
parties, that is, key establishment is the responsibility of the parties, that is, key establishment is the responsibility of the
using protocol. Section 16 specifies how security mechanisms are using protocol. Section 15 specifies how security mechanisms are
used in RADIUS and how they can be reused to provide security used in RADIUS and how they can be reused to provide security
protection for the Location Object. Additionally, the privacy protection for the Location Object. Additionally, the privacy
considerations (see Section 15) are also applicable for this considerations (see Section 14) are also applicable for this
discussion. discussion.
Req. 6. (Single Message Transfer): In particular, for tracking of Req. 6. (Single Message Transfer): In particular, for tracking of
small target devices, the design should allow a single small target devices, the design should allow a single
message/packet transmission of location as a complete transaction. message/packet transmission of location as a complete transaction.
The encoding of the Location Object is specifically tailored The encoding of the Location Object is specifically tailored
towards the inclusion into a single message that even respects the towards the inclusion into a single message that even respects the
(Path) MTU size. The concept of a transaction is not immediately (Path) MTU size. The concept of a transaction is not immediately
applicable to RADIUS. applicable to RADIUS.
Section 7.3 of [8] details the requirements of a "Rule based Location Section 7.3 of [8] details the requirements of a "Rule based Location
Data Transfer". Data Transfer".
There are: There are:
Req. 7. (LS Rules): With the scenario shown in Figure 15 the Req. 7. (LS Rules): With the scenario shown in Figure 14 the
decision of a Location Server to provide a Location Recipient decision of a Location Server to provide a Location Recipient
access to location information is based on Rule Maker-defined access to location information is based on Rule Maker-defined
Privacy Rules which are stored at the home network or are Privacy Rules which are stored at the home network or are
accessible for the home network. With regard to the scenario accessible for the home network. With regard to the scenario
shown in Figure 16 the Rule Maker-defined Privacy Rules are sent shown in Figure 15 the Rule Maker-defined Privacy Rules are sent
from the home network to the visited network as part of the from the home network to the visited network as part of the
Policy-Information attribute (see Section 10.3, Section 10.4 and Policy-Information attribute (see Section 9.3, Section 9.4 and
Section 15 for more details). Section 14 for more details).
Req. 8. (LG Rules): It is possible for the non-initial transmission Req. 8. (LG Rules): It is possible for the non-initial transmission
(i.e., mid-session delivery) of a Location Object to enforce the (i.e., mid-session delivery) of a Location Object to enforce the
users privacy rules. For the initial transmission of a Location users privacy rules. For the initial transmission of a Location
Object the user would have to use network access authentication Object the user would have to use network access authentication
methods which provide user identity confidentiality which would methods which provide user identity confidentiality which would
render the Location Object completely useless for the visited render the Location Object completely useless for the visited
network. For the scenario shown in Figure 15 the visited network network. For the scenario shown in Figure 14 the visited network
is already in possession of the users location information prior is already in possession of the users location information prior
to the authentication and authorization of the user (which might to the authentication and authorization of the user (which might
require several roundtrips). A correlation between the location require several roundtrips). A correlation between the location
and the user identity might, however, still not be possible for and the user identity might, however, still not be possible for
the visited network (as explained in Section 15). The visited the visited network (as explained in Section 14). The visited
network MUST evaluate ruleset provided by the home AAA server as network MUST evaluate ruleset provided by the home AAA server as
soon as possible. soon as possible.
Req. 9. (Viewer Rules): The Rule Maker might define (via mechanisms Req. 9. (Viewer Rules): The Rule Maker might define (via mechanisms
outside the scope of this document) which policy rules are outside the scope of this document) which policy rules are
disclosed to other entities. disclosed to other entities.
Req. 10. (Full Rule language): Geopriv has defined a rule language Req. 10. (Full Rule language): Geopriv has defined a rule language
capable of expressing a wide range of privacy rules which is capable of expressing a wide range of privacy rules which is
applicable in this area concerning the distribution of Location applicable in this area concerning the distribution of Location
Objects. A basic ruleset is provided with the Basic-Policy-Rules Objects. A basic ruleset is provided with the Basic-Policy-Rules
attribute Section 10.3. A reference to the extended ruleset is attribute Section 9.3. A reference to the extended ruleset is
carried in Section 10.4. The format of these rules are described carried in Section 9.4. The format of these rules are described
in [10] and [11]. in [10] and [11].
Req. 11. (Limited Rule language): A limited (or basic) ruleset is Req. 11. (Limited Rule language): A limited (or basic) ruleset is
provided by the Policy-Information attribute Section 10.3 (and as provided by the Policy-Information attribute Section 9.3 (and as
introduced with PIDF-LO [9]). introduced with PIDF-LO [9]).
Section 7.4 of [8] details the requirements of a "Location Object Section 7.4 of [8] details the requirements of a "Location Object
Privacy and Security". Privacy and Security".
There are: There are:
Req. 12 (Identity Protection): Support for unlinkable pseudonyms is Req. 12 (Identity Protection): Support for unlinkable pseudonyms is
provided by the usage of a corresponding authentication and key provided by the usage of a corresponding authentication and key
exchange protocol. Such protocols are available, for example, exchange protocol. Such protocols are available, for example,
with the support of EAP as network access authentication methods. with the support of EAP as network access authentication methods.
Some EAP methods support passive user identitiy confidentiality Some EAP methods support passive user identity confidentiality
whereas others even support active user identity confidentiality. whereas others even support active user identity confidentiality.
This issue is further discussed in Section 16. The importance for This issue is further discussed in Section 15. The importance for
user identity confidentiality and identity protection has already user identity confidentiality and identity protection has already
been recognized (see for example a document on 'EAP Method been recognized (see for example a document on 'EAP Method
Requirements for Wireless LANs' [15]). Requirements for Wireless LANs' [15]).
Req. 13. (Credential Requirements): As described in Section 16 Req. 13. (Credential Requirements): As described in Section 15
RADIUS signaling messages can be protected with IPsec. This RADIUS signaling messages can be protected with IPsec. This
allows a number of authentication and key exchange protocols to be allows a number of authentication and key exchange protocols to be
used as part of IKE, IKEv2 or KINK. used as part of IKE, IKEv2 or KINK.
Req. 14. (Security Features): Geopriv defines a few security Req. 14. (Security Features): Geopriv defines a few security
requirements for the protection of Location Objects such as mutual requirements for the protection of Location Objects such as mutual
end-point authentication, data object integrity, data object end-point authentication, data object integrity, data object
confidentiality and replay protection. As described in Section 16 confidentiality and replay protection. As described in Section 15
these requirements are fullfilled with the usage of IPsec if the these requirements are fulfilled with the usage of IPsec if the
mutual authentication refers to the RADIUS entities (acting as mutual authentication refers to the RADIUS entities (acting as
various Geopriv entities) which directly communicate with each various Geopriv entities) which directly communicate with each
other. other.
Req. 15. (Minimal Crypto): A minimum of security mechanisms are Req. 15. (Minimal Crypto): A minimum of security mechanisms are
mandated by the usage of RADIUS. Security for Location Objects is mandated by the usage of RADIUS. Security for Location Objects is
provided by the RADIUS protocol (including IPsec and its dynamic provided by the RADIUS protocol (including IPsec and its dynamic
key management framework) rather than on relying on object key management framework) rather than on relying on object
security via S/SIME (which is not available with RADIUS). The security via S/SIME (which is not available with RADIUS). The
handling of emergency calls is not specified as part of the RADIUS handling of emergency calls is not specified as part of the RADIUS
protocol and subject for an architectural investigation. As such protocol and subject for an architectural investigation. As such
it might not even be applicable to RADIUS itself. it might not even be applicable to RADIUS itself.
14. Example 13. Example
This section provides an example for a civil location information This section provides an example for a civil location information
format within the Location-Information attribute. The size of the format within the Location-Information attribute. The size of the
geo-spatial location information object is fixed and well-described geo-spatial location information object is fixed and well-described
examples can be found in the Appendix of [7]. examples can be found in the Appendix of [7].
Due to the size limitations of the RADIUS attributes we give a more Due to the size limitations of the RADIUS attributes we give a more
detailed example borrowed from Section 4 of [5]. detailed example borrowed from Section 4 of [5].
+-------------+-----------+-------------------+ +-------------+-----------+-------------------+
skipping to change at page 36, line 5 skipping to change at page 34, line 5
attribute. The Precision field has a value of '2' which refers to attribute. The Precision field has a value of '2' which refers to
the location of the end host (user). The CountryCode is set to 'DE'. the location of the end host (user). The CountryCode is set to 'DE'.
Note that the subsequent attributes are in Type-Length-Value format. Note that the subsequent attributes are in Type-Length-Value format.
Type '1' indicates the region of 'Bavaria', '3' refers to the city Type '1' indicates the region of 'Bavaria', '3' refers to the city
'Munich', '6' to the street 'Marienplatz', the house number '8' is 'Munich', '6' to the street 'Marienplatz', the house number '8' is
indicated by the type '19' and the zip code of '80331' is of type indicated by the type '19' and the zip code of '80331' is of type
'24'. '24'.
The total sum of these attributes is 46 bytes. The total sum of these attributes is 46 bytes.
15. Privacy Considerations 14. Privacy Considerations
This section discusses privacy implications for the distribution of This section discusses privacy implications for the distribution of
location lnformation within RADIUS. location information within RADIUS.
In many cases the location information of the network also reveals In many cases the location information of the network also reveals
the current location of the user with a certain degree of precision the current location of the user with a certain degree of precision
depending on the mechanism used, the positioning system, update depending on the mechanism used, the positioning system, update
frequence, where the location was generated, size of the network and frequency, where the location was generated, size of the network and
other mechanisms (such as movement traces or interpolation). other mechanisms (such as movement traces or interpolation).
Two entities might act as Location Servers as shown in Section 4, Two entities might act as Location Servers as shown in Section 4,
Figure 15 or in Figure 16: Figure 14 or in Figure 15:
15.1 Entity in the visited network 14.1 Entity in the visited network
In this scenario it is be difficult to obtain authorization policies In this scenario it is difficult to obtain authorization policies
from the end host (or user) immediately when the user attaches to the from the end host (or user) immediately when the user attaches to the
network. In this case we have to assume that the visited network network. In this case we have to assume that the visited network
does not allow unrestricted distribution of location information does not allow unrestricted distribution of location information
other than the intended recipients (e.g, to third party entities) other than the intended recipients (e.g., to third party entities)
immediately. immediately.
The visited network MUST behave according to the following The visited network MUST behave according to the following
guidelines: guidelines:
o Per default only the home network is allowed to receive location o Per default only the home network is allowed to receive location
information. The visited network MUST NOT distribute location information. The visited network MUST NOT distribute location
information to third parties without seeing the user's privacy information to third parties without seeing the user's privacy
rule se. rule se.
o If the home network provides the Basic-Policy-Rules attribute o If the home network provides the Basic-Policy-Rules attribute
either as part of the Access-Accept, the Access-Reject or the either as part of the Access-Accept, the Access-Reject or the
skipping to change at page 36, line 49 skipping to change at page 34, line 49
either as part of the Access-Accept, the Access-Reject or the either as part of the Access-Accept, the Access-Reject or the
Access-Challenge message then the visited network MUST fetch the Access-Challenge message then the visited network MUST fetch the
full ruleset at the indicated URL and MUST follow the guidance full ruleset at the indicated URL and MUST follow the guidance
given with these rules. given with these rules.
o If the RADIUS client in the visited network learns the basic rule o If the RADIUS client in the visited network learns the basic rule
set or a reference to the extended rule set by means outside the set or a reference to the extended rule set by means outside the
RADIUS protocol (e.g., provided by the end host) then it MUST RADIUS protocol (e.g., provided by the end host) then it MUST
include the Basic-Policy-Rules and the Extended-Policy-Rules include the Basic-Policy-Rules and the Extended-Policy-Rules
attribute in the Access-Request message towards the home AAA attribute in the Access-Request message towards the home AAA
server. Furthermore, the visited network MUST evaluate these server. Furthermore, the visited network MUST evaluate these
rules prior to the transmission of Location Information either to rules prior to the transmission of location information either to
the home network or a third party. The visited network MUST the home network or a third party. The visited network MUST
follow the guidance given with these rules. follow the guidance given with these rules.
o If the RADIUS client in the visited network received the o If the RADIUS client in the visited network receives the
Basic-Policy-Rules attribute with Access-Accept or the Basic-Policy-Rules attribute with Access-Accept or the
Access-Challenge message then the Basic-Policy-Rules MUST be Access-Challenge message then the Basic-Policy-Rules MUST be
attach in subsequent RADIUS messages which contain the attach in subsequent RADIUS messages which contain the
Location-Information attribute (such as interim accounting Location-Information attribute (such as interim accounting
messages). messages).
o If the RADIUS client in the visited network received the o If the RADIUS client in the visited network receives the
Extended-Policy-Rules attribute with Access-Accept or the Extended-Policy-Rules attribute with Access-Accept or the
Access-Challenge message then the Basic-Policy-Rules attribute Access-Challenge message then the Basic-Policy-Rules attribute
MUST be attach in subsequent RADIUS messages which contain the MUST be attach in subsequent RADIUS messages which contain the
Location-Information attribute (such as interim accounting Location-Information attribute (such as interim accounting
messages). messages).
15.2 Entity in the home network 14.2 Entity in the home network
The AAA server in the home network might be an ideal place for The AAA server in the home network might be an ideal place for
storing authorization policies. The user typically has a contractual storing authorization policies. The user typically has a contractual
relationship to his home network and hence the trust relationship relationship to his home network and hence the trust relationship
between them are higher. Once the infrastructure is deployed and between them are higher. Once the infrastructure is deployed and
useful applications are available there might be a strong desire to useful applications are available there might be a strong desire to
use location information for other purposes as well (such as location use location information for other purposes as well (such as location
aware applications). Authorization policy rules described in [11] aware applications). Authorization policy rules described in [11]
and in [10] are tailored for this environment. These policies might and in [10] are tailored for this environment. These policies might
be useful for preventing further distribution of the user's location be useful for preventing further distribution of the user's location
to other location based services. The home AAA server (or a similar to other location based services. The home AAA server (or a similar
entity) thereby acts as a location server for access to location entity) thereby acts as a location server for access to location
services. services.
The home network MUST behave according to the following guidelines: The home network MUST behave according to the following guidelines:
o As a default policy the home network MUST NOT distribute the o As a default policy the home network MUST NOT distribute the
user's location information to third party entities. user's location information to third party entities.
o If a user provided basic authorization policies then these rules o If a user provides basic authorization policies then these rules
MUST be returned to the visited network in the Access-Accept, the MUST be returned to the visited network in the Access-Accept, the
Access-Reject or the Access-Challenge message. Access-Reject or the Access-Challenge message.
o If a user provided basic authorization policies then these rules o If a user provides basic authorization policies then these rules
MUST be returned to the visited network in the Access-Accept, the MUST be returned to the visited network in the Access-Accept, the
Access-Reject or the Access-Challenge message. Access-Reject or the Access-Challenge message.
o If a user provided extended authorization policies then they MUST o If a user provides extended authorization policies then they MUST
be accessible for the visited networking using a reference to be accessible for the visited networking using a reference to
these rule set. The Extended-Policy-Rules attribute MUST include these rule set. The Extended-Policy-Rules attribute MUST include
the reference and they MUST be sent to the visited network in the the reference and they MUST be sent to the visited network in the
Access-Accept, the Access-Reject or the Access-Challenge message. Access-Accept, the Access-Reject or the Access-Challenge message.
o The home network MUST follow the user provided rule set for both o The home network MUST follow the user provided rule set for both
local storage and for further distribution. With regard to the local storage and for further distribution. With regard to the
usage of these rules the home network MUST ensure that the users usage of these rules the home network MUST ensure that the users
preferences are taken care of within the given boundaries (such as preferences are taken care of within the given boundaries (such as
legal regulations or operational considerations). For example, a legal regulations or operational considerations). For example, a
user might not want the home network to store information about user might not want the home network to store information about
its Location Information beyond a indicated time frame. However, its location information beyond a indicated time frame. However,
a user might on the other hand want to ensure that disputes a user might on the other hand want to ensure that disputes
concerning the billed amount can be resolved. Location concerning the billed amount can be resolved. location
Information might help to resolve the dispute. The user might, information might help to resolve the dispute. The user might,
for example, be able to show that he has never been at the for example, be able to show that he has never been at the
indicated place. indicated place.
o If the policy rules provided by the user indicate that location o If the policy rules provided by the user indicate that location
information must not be distributed at all then the home network information must not be distributed at all then the home network
MUST provide the Basic-Policy-Rules to the RADIUS entity in the MUST provide the Basic-Policy-Rules to the RADIUS entity in the
visited network via an Access-Accept, the Access-Reject or the visited network via an Access-Accept, the Access-Reject or the
Access-Challenge message. The RADIUS server in the user's home Access-Challenge message. The RADIUS server in the user's home
network would set the 'Retention-Expires' and the network would set the 'Retention-Expires' and the
'Retransmission-allowed' field to the user indicated value. and 'Retransmission-allowed' field to the user indicated value.
the Extended-Policy-Rules to particular recipients
For the envisioned usage scenarios the network access authentication For the envisioned usage scenarios the network access authentication
procedure is tighly coupled to the transfer of location information. procedure is tightly coupled to the transfer of location information.
If the authentication mechanism allows the visited network or AAA If the authentication mechanism allows the visited network or AAA
brokers to learn the user's identity then it is possible to brokers to learn the user's identity then it is possible to correlate
correleate location information with a particular user. As such, it location information with a particular user. As such, it allows the
allows the visited network and brokers to learn movement patterns of visited network and brokers to learn movement patterns of users.
users.
A scenario where the user is attached to the home network is, from a A scenario where the user is attached to the home network is, from a
privacy point of view, simpler than a scenario where a user roams privacy point of view, simpler than a scenario where a user roams
into a visited network since the NAS and the home AAA are in the same into a visited network since the NAS and the home AAA are in the same
administrative domain. No direct relationship between the visited administrative domain. No direct relationship between the visited
and the home network operator may be available available and some AAA and the home network operator may be available and some AAA brokers
brokers need to be consulted. With subscription-based network access need to be consulted. With subscription-based network access as used
as used today the user has a contractual relationship with the home today the user has a contractual relationship with the home network
network provider which could allow higher privacy considerations to provider which could allow higher privacy considerations to be
be applied (including policy rules stored at the home network itself applied (including policy rules stored at the home network itself for
for the purpose of restricting further distribution). the purpose of restricting further distribution).
In many cases it is necessary to secure the transport of location In many cases it is necessary to secure the transport of location
information along the RADIUS infrastructure. Mechanism to achieve information along the RADIUS infrastructure. Mechanism to achieve
this functionality are discussed in Section 16. this functionality are discussed in Section 15.
One way to ensure that the visited network and intermediate networks One way to ensure that the visited network and intermediate networks
are incapable to learn the user identity is to use EAP methods that are incapable to learn the user identity is to use EAP methods that
hide the user's identity either actively or passively. Some EAP hide the user's identity either actively or passively. Some EAP
methods (such as [16]) protect the user's identity against passive methods (such as [16]) protect the user's identity against passive
adversaries by utilizing temporal identities. In some cases the adversaries by utilizing temporal identities. In some cases the
visited network is still able to retrieve the plaintext identity of visited network is still able to retrieve the plaintext identity of
the user and user identity confidentiality is only provided against the user and user identity confidentiality is only provided against
eavesdroppers at the wireless link. Depending on the movement eavesdroppers at the wireless link. Depending on the movement
patters of the user, the network topology and available roaming patters of the user, the network topology and available roaming
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initial EAP-Identity Request/Response message exchange. Support for initial EAP-Identity Request/Response message exchange. Support for
username privacy is supported with [17]. username privacy is supported with [17].
For stronger security and privacy protection active user identity For stronger security and privacy protection active user identity
confidentiality is highly suggested. EAP methods such as [18] or confidentiality is highly suggested. EAP methods such as [18] or
[19] provide such a protection. [19] provide such a protection.
Unfortunately, most users are not educated about the importance of Unfortunately, most users are not educated about the importance of
user identity confidentiality and many EAP methods do not provide user identity confidentiality and many EAP methods do not provide
active user identity confidentiality. User identity confidentiality active user identity confidentiality. User identity confidentiality
is often treated as an exotic features which mainly aims to prevent is often treated as an exotic feature which mainly aims to prevent
eavesdroppers on the wireless link to learn the user identity of the eavesdroppers on the wireless link to learn the user identity of the
attached users. Awareness for this threat type does often not exist. attached users. Awareness for this threat type does often not exist.
In many cases it is even not possible for users to freely select In many cases it is even not possible for users to freely select
their favorite authentication and key exchange protocol (based on their favorite authentication and key exchange protocol (based on
their security requirements). Instead the choice is often their security requirements). Instead the choice is often
predetermined by a given architecture. predetermined by a given architecture.
It was noted that different granularity of location information can It was noted that different granularity of location information can
be provided to the home network. From a privacy point of view lower be provided to the home network. From a privacy point of view lower
granularity is preferrable. The user, however, has no control over granularity is preferable. The user, however, has no control over
the granularity and cannot lie about its location. the granularity and cannot lie about its location.
16. Security Considerations 15. Security Considerations
Requirements for the security protection of a Location Object is Requirements for the security protection of a Location Object is
defined in [8]: Mutual end-point authentication, data object defined in [8]: Mutual end-point authentication, data object
integrity, data object confidentiality and replay protection. The integrity, data object confidentiality and replay protection. The
distribution of location information can be restricted with the help distribution of location information can be restricted with the help
of authorization policies. Basic authorization policies are attached of authorization policies. Basic authorization policies are attached
to the location information itself, in the same fashion as described to the location information itself, in the same fashion as described
in [9]. It is possible that the user was already able to transfer in [9]. It is possible that the user was already able to transfer
some authorization policies to the access network to restrict the some authorization policies to the access network to restrict the
distribution of location information. This is, however, rather distribution of location information. This is, however, rather
skipping to change at page 40, line 37 skipping to change at page 38, line 37
of this document. of this document.
It is necessary to use authorization policies to prevent the It is necessary to use authorization policies to prevent the
unauthorized distribution of location information. The security unauthorized distribution of location information. The security
requirements which are created based on [8] are inline with threats requirements which are created based on [8] are inline with threats
which appear in the relationship with disclosure of location which appear in the relationship with disclosure of location
information as described in [20]. [9] proposes S/MIME to protect the information as described in [20]. [9] proposes S/MIME to protect the
Location Object against modifications and against eavesdropping. To Location Object against modifications and against eavesdropping. To
provide mutual authentication confidentiality protection and a provide mutual authentication confidentiality protection and a
digital signature is necessary. Furthermore, to offer replay digital signature is necessary. Furthermore, to offer replay
protection a gurantee of freshness is necessary (for example, based protection a guarantee of freshness is necessary (for example, based
on timestamps). on timestamps).
The security of S/SIME is based on public key cryptography which The security of S/SIME is based on public key cryptography which
raises performance, deployment and size considerations. Encryption raises performance, deployment and size considerations. Encryption
requires that the local AAA server or the NAS knows the recipient's requires that the local AAA server or the NAS knows the recipient's
public key (e.g., the public key of the home AAA server). Knowing public key (e.g., the public key of the home AAA server). Knowing
the final recipient of the location information is in fact impossible the final recipient of the location information is in fact impossible
for RADIUS entities. Some sort of public key infrastructure would be for RADIUS entities. Some sort of public key infrastructure would be
required to obtain the public key and to verify the digital signature required to obtain the public key and to verify the digital signature
(at the home network). Providing per-object cryptographic protection (at the home network). Providing per-object cryptographic protection
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Furthermore, the AAA protocols do not involve the user in their Furthermore, the AAA protocols do not involve the user in their
protocol interaction except for tunneling authentication information protocol interaction except for tunneling authentication information
(such as EAP messages) through their infrastructure. RADIUS and (such as EAP messages) through their infrastructure. RADIUS and
DIAMETER have even become a de-facto protocol for key distribution. DIAMETER have even become a de-facto protocol for key distribution.
Hence, in the past there were some concerns about the trust placed Hence, in the past there were some concerns about the trust placed
into the infrastructure particularly from the security area when it into the infrastructure particularly from the security area when it
comes to keying. [24] documents this keying infrastructure and the comes to keying. [24] documents this keying infrastructure and the
security implications. The uniqueness of the AAA infrastructure security implications. The uniqueness of the AAA infrastructure
therefore raises some concerns about the interpretation of the therefore raises some concerns about the interpretation of the
retention and redistribution restrictions. The privacy guidelines retention and redistribution restrictions. The privacy guidelines
listed in Section 15 are applicable in this context. listed in Section 14 are applicable in this context.
17. Acknowledgments 16. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the following people for their help The authors would like to thank the following people for their help
with a previous version of this draft and for their input: with a previous version of this draft and for their input:
Chuck Black Chuck Black
Paul Congdon Paul Congdon
Jouni Korhonen Jouni Korhonen
Sami Ala-luukko Sami Ala-luukko
Farooq Bari Farooq Bari
Ed Van Horne Ed Van Horne
skipping to change at page 44, line 5 skipping to change at page 42, line 5
Chowdury, Pasi Eronen, Blair Bullock and Eugene Chang for their Chowdury, Pasi Eronen, Blair Bullock and Eugene Chang for their
feedback to an initial version of this draft. feedback to an initial version of this draft.
This document is based on the discussions within the IETF GEOPRIV This document is based on the discussions within the IETF GEOPRIV
working group. Therefore, the authors thank Henning Schulzrinne, working group. Therefore, the authors thank Henning Schulzrinne,
James Polk, John Morris, Allison Mankin, Randall Gellens, Andrew James Polk, John Morris, Allison Mankin, Randall Gellens, Andrew
Newton, Ted Hardie, Jon Peterson for their time to discuss a number Newton, Ted Hardie, Jon Peterson for their time to discuss a number
of issues with us. We think Stephen Hayes for aligning this work of issues with us. We think Stephen Hayes for aligning this work
with 3GPP activities. with 3GPP activities.
18. References 17. References
18.1 Normative References 17.1 Normative References
[1] Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A. and W. Simpson, "Remote [1] Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A. and W. Simpson, "Remote
Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 2865, June Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 2865, June
2000. 2000.
[2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", March 1997. Levels", March 1997.
[3] Rigney, C., "RADIUS Accounting", RFC 2866, June 2000. [3] Rigney, C., "RADIUS Accounting", RFC 2866, June 2000.
[4] Chiba, M., Dommety, G., Eklund, M., Mitton, D. and B. Aboba, [4] Chiba, M., Dommety, G., Eklund, M., Mitton, D. and B. Aboba,
"Dynamic Authorization Extensions to Remote Authentication Dial "Dynamic Authorization Extensions to Remote Authentication Dial
In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 3576, July 2003. In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 3576, July 2003.
[5] Schulzrinne, H., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCPv4 [5] Schulzrinne, H., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCPv4
and DHCPv6) Option for Civic Addresses", and DHCPv6) Option for Civic Addresses Configuration
draft-ietf-geopriv-dhcp-civil-03 (work in progress), July 2004. Information", draft-ietf-geopriv-dhcp-civil-04 (work in
progress), October 2004.
[6] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646", STD [6] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646", STD
63, RFC 3629, November 2003. 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.
[7] Polk, J., Schnizlein, J. and M. Linsner, "Dynamic Host [7] Polk, J., Schnizlein, J. and M. Linsner, "Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol Option for Coordinate-based Location Configuration Protocol Option for Coordinate-based Location
Configuration Information", RFC 3825, July 2004. Configuration Information", RFC 3825, July 2004.
18.2 Informative References 17.2 Informative References
[8] Cuellar, J., Morris, J., Mulligan, D., Peterson, D. and D. [8] Cuellar, J., Morris, J., Mulligan, D., Peterson, D. and D.
Polk, "Geopriv Requirements", RFC 3693, February 2004. Polk, "Geopriv Requirements", RFC 3693, February 2004.
[9] Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object [9] Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object
Format", draft-ietf-geopriv-pidf-lo-03 (work in progress), Format", draft-ietf-geopriv-pidf-lo-03 (work in progress),
September 2004. September 2004.
[10] Schulzrinne, H., "A Document Format for Expressing Privacy [10] Schulzrinne, H., "A Document Format for Expressing Privacy
Preferences", draft-ietf-geopriv-common-policy-01 (work in Preferences", draft-ietf-geopriv-common-policy-02 (work in
progress), July 2004. progress), October 2004.
[11] Schulzrinne, H., "A Document Format for Expressing Privacy [11] Schulzrinne, H., "A Document Format for Expressing Privacy
Preferences for Location Information", Preferences for Location Information",
draft-ietf-geopriv-policy-02 (work in progress), July 2004. draft-ietf-geopriv-policy-03 (work in progress), October 2004.
[12] Schulzrinne, H., Gurbani, V., Kyzivat, P. and J. Rosenberg, [12] Schulzrinne, H., Gurbani, V., Kyzivat, P. and J. Rosenberg,
"RPID: Rich Presence: Extensions to the Presence Information "RPID: Rich Presence: Extensions to the Presence Information
Data Format (PIDF)", draft-ietf-simple-rpid-03 (work in Data Format (PIDF)", draft-ietf-simple-rpid-03 (work in
progress), March 2004. progress), March 2004.
[13] Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D. and D. Mitton, "Diameter [13] Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D. and D. Mitton, "Diameter
Network Access Server Application", Network Access Server Application",
draft-ietf-aaa-diameter-nasreq-17 (work in progress), July draft-ietf-aaa-diameter-nasreq-17 (work in progress), July
2004. 2004.
skipping to change at page 45, line 27 skipping to change at page 43, line 28
[16] Arkko, J. and H. Haverinen, "EAP AKA Authentication", [16] Arkko, J. and H. Haverinen, "EAP AKA Authentication",
draft-arkko-pppext-eap-aka-12 (work in progress), April 2004. draft-arkko-pppext-eap-aka-12 (work in progress), April 2004.
[17] Aboba, B., "The Network Access Identifier", [17] Aboba, B., "The Network Access Identifier",
draft-arkko-roamops-rfc2486bis-02 (work in progress), July draft-arkko-roamops-rfc2486bis-02 (work in progress), July
2004. 2004.
[18] Josefsson, S., Palekar, A., Simon, D. and G. Zorn, "Protected [18] Josefsson, S., Palekar, A., Simon, D. and G. Zorn, "Protected
EAP Protocol (PEAP) Version 2", EAP Protocol (PEAP) Version 2",
draft-josefsson-pppext-eap-tls-eap-08 (work in progress), July draft-josefsson-pppext-eap-tls-eap-09 (work in progress),
2004. October 2004.
[19] Tschofenig, H. and D. Kroeselberg, "EAP IKEv2 Method [19] Tschofenig, H. and D. Kroeselberg, "EAP IKEv2 Method
(EAP-IKEv2)", draft-tschofenig-eap-ikev2-04 (work in progress), (EAP-IKEv2)", draft-tschofenig-eap-ikev2-04 (work in progress),
July 2004. July 2004.
[20] Danley, M., "Threat Analysis of the Geopriv Protocol", RFC [20] Danley, M., "Threat Analysis of the Geopriv Protocol", RFC
3694, September 2003, <reference.RFC3694.xml>. 3694, September 2003, <reference.RFC3694.xml>.
[21] Aboba, B. and P. Calhoun, "RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial [21] Aboba, B. and P. Calhoun, "RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial
In User Service) Support For Extensible Authentication Protocol In User Service) Support For Extensible Authentication Protocol
 End of changes. 

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