draft-ietf-detnet-architecture-09.txt   draft-ietf-detnet-architecture-10.txt 
DetNet N. Finn DetNet N. Finn
Internet-Draft Huawei Internet-Draft Huawei
Intended status: Standards Track P. Thubert Intended status: Standards Track P. Thubert
Expires: April 25, 2019 Cisco Expires: June 22, 2019 Cisco
B. Varga B. Varga
J. Farkas J. Farkas
Ericsson Ericsson
October 22, 2018 December 19, 2018
Deterministic Networking Architecture Deterministic Networking Architecture
draft-ietf-detnet-architecture-09 draft-ietf-detnet-architecture-10
Abstract Abstract
This document provides the overall architecture for Deterministic This document provides the overall architecture for Deterministic
Networking (DetNet), which provides a capability to carry specified Networking (DetNet), which provides a capability to carry specified
unicast or multicast data flows for real-time applications with unicast or multicast data flows for real-time applications with
extremely low data loss rates and bounded latency within a network extremely low data loss rates and bounded latency within a network
domain. Techniques used include: 1) reserving data plane resources domain. Techniques used include: 1) reserving data plane resources
for individual (or aggregated) DetNet flows in some or all of the for individual (or aggregated) DetNet flows in some or all of the
intermediate nodes along the path of the flow; 2) providing explicit intermediate nodes along the path of the flow; 2) providing explicit
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on June 22, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Terms used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Terms used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. IEEE 802.1 TSN to DetNet dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2. IEEE 802.1 TSN to DetNet dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3. Providing the DetNet Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Providing the DetNet Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1. Primary goals defining the DetNet QoS . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1. Primary goals defining the DetNet QoS . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2. Mechanisms to achieve DetNet QoS . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2. Mechanisms to achieve DetNet QoS . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.1. Congestion protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2.1. Resource allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.1.1. Eliminate congestion loss . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2.1.1. Eliminate contention loss . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.1.2. Jitter Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2.1.2. Jitter Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.2. Service Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.2.2. Service Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.2.1. In-Order Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.2.2.1. In-Order Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.2.2. Packet Replication and Elimination . . . . . . . 12 3.2.2.2. Packet Replication and Elimination . . . . . . . 12
3.2.2.3. Packet encoding for service protection . . . . . 14 3.2.2.3. Packet encoding for service protection . . . . . 14
3.2.3. Explicit routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2.3. Explicit routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3. Secondary goals for DetNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.3. Secondary goals for DetNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.3.1. Coexistence with normal traffic . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.3.1. Coexistence with normal traffic . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.3.2. Fault Mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.3.2. Fault Mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4. DetNet Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4. DetNet Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.1. DetNet stack model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.1. DetNet stack model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.1.1. Representative Protocol Stack Model . . . . . . . . . 16 4.1.1. Representative Protocol Stack Model . . . . . . . . . 16
4.1.2. DetNet Data Plane Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.1.2. DetNet Data Plane Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.1.3. Network reference model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.1.3. Network reference model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.2. DetNet systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.2. DetNet systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.2.1. End system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.2.1. End system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.2.2. DetNet edge, relay, and transit nodes . . . . . . . . 23 4.2.2. DetNet edge, relay, and transit nodes . . . . . . . . 23
4.3. DetNet flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.3. DetNet flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.3.1. DetNet flow types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.3.1. DetNet flow types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.3.2. Source transmission behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.3.2. Source transmission behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.3.3. Incomplete Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.3.3. Incomplete Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.4. Traffic Engineering for DetNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.4. Traffic Engineering for DetNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.4.1. The Application Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.4.1. The Application Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.4.2. The Controller Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.4.2. The Controller Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.4.3. The Network Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.4.3. The Network Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.5. Queuing, Shaping, Scheduling, and Preemption . . . . . . 28 4.5. Queuing, Shaping, Scheduling, and Preemption . . . . . . 29
4.6. Service instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.6. Service instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.7. Flow identification at technology borders . . . . . . . . 31 4.7. Flow identification at technology borders . . . . . . . . 31
4.7.1. Exporting flow identification . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4.7.1. Exporting flow identification . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.7.2. Flow attribute mapping between layers . . . . . . . . 32 4.7.2. Flow attribute mapping between layers . . . . . . . . 33
4.7.3. Flow-ID mapping examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.7.3. Flow-ID mapping examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.8. Advertising resources, capabilities and adjacencies . . . 35 4.8. Advertising resources, capabilities and adjacencies . . . 35
4.9. Scaling to larger networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.9. Scaling to larger networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.10. Compatibility with Layer-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.10. Compatibility with Layer-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document provides the overall architecture for Deterministic This document provides the overall architecture for Deterministic
Networking (DetNet), which provides a capability for the delivery of Networking (DetNet), which provides a capability for the delivery of
data flows with extremely low packet loss rates and bounded end-to- data flows with extremely low packet loss rates and bounded end-to-
end delivery latency. DetNet is for networks that are under a single end delivery latency. DetNet is for networks that are under a single
administrative control or within a closed group of administrative administrative control or within a closed group of administrative
control; these include campus-wide networks and private WANs. DetNet control; these include campus-wide networks and private WANs. DetNet
is not for large groups of domains such as the Internet. is not for large groups of domains such as the Internet.
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operating in a normal fashion, subject to the bandwidth required for operating in a normal fashion, subject to the bandwidth required for
the DetNet flows. A single source-destination pair can trade both the DetNet flows. A single source-destination pair can trade both
DetNet and non-DetNet flows. End systems and applications need not DetNet and non-DetNet flows. End systems and applications need not
instantiate special interfaces for DetNet flows. Networks are not instantiate special interfaces for DetNet flows. Networks are not
restricted to certain topologies; connectivity is not restricted. restricted to certain topologies; connectivity is not restricted.
Any application that generates a data flow that can be usefully Any application that generates a data flow that can be usefully
characterized as having a maximum bandwidth should be able to take characterized as having a maximum bandwidth should be able to take
advantage of DetNet, as long as the necessary resources can be advantage of DetNet, as long as the necessary resources can be
reserved. Reservations can be made by the application itself, via reserved. Reservations can be made by the application itself, via
network management, by an application's controller, or by other network management, by an application's controller, or by other
means, e.g., a dynamic control plane (e.g., [RFC2205]). Network means, e.g., a dynamic control plane (e.g., [RFC2205]). QoS
nodes supporting DetNet flows have to implement some of the DetNet requirements of DetNet flows can be met if all network nodes in a
capabilities (not necessarily all) in order to treat DetNet flows DetNet domain implement DetNet capabilities. DetNet nodes can be
such that their QoS requirements are met. interconnected with different sub-network technologies
(Section 4.1.2), where the nodes of the subnet are not DetNet aware
(Section 4.1.3).
Many applications that are intended to be served by Deterministic Many applications that are intended to be served by Deterministic
Networking require the ability to synchronize the clocks in end Networking require the ability to synchronize the clocks in end
systems to a sub-microsecond accuracy. Some of the queue control systems to a sub-microsecond accuracy. Some of the queue control
techniques defined in Section 4.5 also require time synchronization techniques defined in Section 4.5 also require time synchronization
among network nodes. The means used to achieve time synchronization among network nodes. The means used to achieve time synchronization
are not addressed in this document. DetNet can accommodate various are not addressed in this document. DetNet can accommodate various
time synchronization techniques and profiles that are defined time synchronization techniques and profiles that are defined
elsewhere to address the needs of different market segments. elsewhere to address the needs of different market segments.
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DetNet domain DetNet domain
The portion of a network that is DetNet aware. It includes The portion of a network that is DetNet aware. It includes
end systems and DetNet nodes. end systems and DetNet nodes.
DetNet edge node DetNet edge node
An instance of a DetNet relay node that acts as a source and/ An instance of a DetNet relay node that acts as a source and/
or destination at the DetNet service sub-layer. For example, or destination at the DetNet service sub-layer. For example,
it can include a DetNet service sub-layer proxy function for it can include a DetNet service sub-layer proxy function for
DetNet service protection (e.g., the addition or removal of DetNet service protection (e.g., the addition or removal of
packet sequencing information) for one or more end systems, packet sequencing information) for one or more end systems,
or starts or terminates congestion protection at the DetNet or starts or terminates resource allocation at the DetNet
transport sub-layer, or aggregates DetNet services into new forwarding sub-layer, or aggregates DetNet services into new
DetNet flows. It is analogous to a Label Edge Router (LER) DetNet flows. It is analogous to a Label Edge Router (LER)
or a Provider Edge (PE) router. or a Provider Edge (PE) router.
DetNet flow DetNet flow
A DetNet flow is a sequence of packets from one source to one A DetNet flow is a sequence of packets from one source to one
or more destinations, which conform uniquely to a flow or more destinations, which conform uniquely to a flow
identifier, and to which the DetNet service is to be identifier, and to which the DetNet service is to be
provided. provided.
DetNet forwarding sub-layer
The DetNet layer that optionally provides resource allocation
for DetNet flows over paths provided by the underlying
network.
DetNet intermediate node DetNet intermediate node
A DetNet relay node or DetNet transit node. A DetNet relay node or DetNet transit node.
DetNet node DetNet node
A DetNet edge node, a DetNet relay node, or a DetNet transit A DetNet edge node, a DetNet relay node, or a DetNet transit
node. node.
DetNet relay node DetNet relay node
A DetNet node including a service sub-layer function that A DetNet node including a service sub-layer function that
interconnects different DetNet transport sub-layer paths to interconnects different DetNet forwarding sub-layer paths to
provide service protection. A DetNet relay node participates provide service protection. A DetNet relay node participates
in the DetNet service sub-layer. It typically incorporates in the DetNet service sub-layer. It typically incorporates
DetNet transport sub-layer functions as well, in which case DetNet forwarding sub-layer functions as well, in which case
it is collocated with a transit node. it is collocated with a transit node.
DetNet service sub-layer DetNet service sub-layer
The DetNet sub-layer at which A DetNet service, e.g., service The DetNet sub-layer at which A DetNet service, e.g., service
protection is provided. protection is provided.
DetNet service proxy DetNet service proxy
Maps between App-flows and DetNet flows. Maps between App-flows and DetNet flows.
DetNet source DetNet source
An end system capable of originating a DetNet flow. An end system capable of originating a DetNet flow.
DetNet system DetNet system
A DetNet aware end system, transit node, or relay node. A DetNet aware end system, transit node, or relay node.
"DetNet" may be omitted in some text. "DetNet" may be omitted in some text.
DetNet transit node DetNet transit node
A DetNet node operating at the DetNet transport sub-layer, A DetNet node operating at the DetNet forwarding sub-layer,
that utilizes link layer and/or network layer switching that utilizes link layer and/or network layer switching
across multiple links and/or sub-networks to provide paths across multiple links and/or sub-networks to provide paths
for DetNet service sub-layer functions. Typically provides for DetNet service sub-layer functions. Typically provides
congestion protection over those paths. An MPLS LSR is an resource allocation over those paths. An MPLS LSR is an
example of a DetNet transit node. example of a DetNet transit node.
DetNet transport sub-layer
The DetNet layer that optionally provides congestion
protection for DetNet flows over paths provided by the
underlying network.
DetNet-UNI DetNet-UNI
User-to-Network Interface with DetNet specific User-to-Network Interface with DetNet specific
functionalities. It is a packet-based reference point and functionalities. It is a packet-based reference point and
may provide multiple functions like encapsulation, status, may provide multiple functions like encapsulation, status,
synchronization, etc. synchronization, etc.
end system end system
Commonly called a "host" in IETF documents, and an "end Commonly called a "host" in IETF documents, and an "end
station" is IEEE 802 documents. End systems of interest to station" is IEEE 802 documents. End systems of interest to
this document are either sources or destinations of DetNet this document are either sources or destinations of DetNet
flows. And end system may or may not be DetNet transport flows. And end system may or may not be DetNet forwarding
sub-layer aware or DetNet service sub-layer aware. sub-layer aware or DetNet service sub-layer aware.
link link
A connection between two DetNet nodes. It may be composed of A connection between two DetNet nodes. It may be composed of
a physical link or a sub-network technology that can provide a physical link or a sub-network technology that can provide
appropriate traffic delivery for DetNet flows. appropriate traffic delivery for DetNet flows.
PEF A Packet Elimination Function (PEF) eliminates duplicate PEF A Packet Elimination Function (PEF) eliminates duplicate
copies of packets to prevent excess packets flooding the copies of packets to prevent excess packets flooding the
network or duplicate packets being sent out of the DetNet network or duplicate packets being sent out of the DetNet
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case values for the end-to-end latency, jitter, and misordering. case values for the end-to-end latency, jitter, and misordering.
Average, mean, or typical values are of little interest, because they Average, mean, or typical values are of little interest, because they
do not affect the ability of a real-time system to perform its tasks. do not affect the ability of a real-time system to perform its tasks.
In general, a trivial priority-based queuing scheme will give better In general, a trivial priority-based queuing scheme will give better
average latency to a data flow than DetNet; however, it may not be a average latency to a data flow than DetNet; however, it may not be a
suitable option for DetNet because of its worst-case latency. suitable option for DetNet because of its worst-case latency.
Three techniques are used by DetNet to provide these qualities of Three techniques are used by DetNet to provide these qualities of
service: service:
o Congestion protection (Section 3.2.1). o Resource allocation (Section 3.2.1).
o Service protection (Section 3.2.2). o Service protection (Section 3.2.2).
o Explicit routes (Section 3.2.3). o Explicit routes (Section 3.2.3).
Congestion protection operates by allocating resources along the path Resource allocation operates by assigning resources, e.g., buffer
of a DetNet flow, e.g., buffer space or link bandwidth. Congestion space or link bandwidth, to a DetNet flow (or flow aggregate) along
protection greatly reduces, or even eliminates entirely, packet loss its path. Resource allocation greatly reduces, or even eliminates
due to output packet congestion within the network, but it can only entirely, packet loss due to output packet contention within the
be supplied to a DetNet flow that is limited at the source to a network, but it can only be supplied to a DetNet flow that is limited
maximum packet size and transmission rate. Note that congestion at the source to a maximum packet size and transmission rate. Note
protection provided via congestion detection and notification is that congestion control provided via congestion detection and
explicitly excluded from consideration in DetNet, as it serves a notification [RFC3168] is explicitly excluded from consideration in
different set of applications. DetNet, as it serves a different set of applications.
Congestion protection addresses two of the DetNet QoS requirements: Resource allocation addresses two of the DetNet QoS requirements:
latency and packet loss. Given that DetNet nodes have a finite latency and packet loss. Given that DetNet nodes have a finite
amount of buffer space, congestion protection necessarily results in amount of buffer space, resource allocation necessarily results in a
a maximum end-to-end latency. It also addresses the largest maximum end-to-end latency. It also addresses contention related
contribution to packet loss, which is buffer congestion. packet loss.
After congestion, the most important contributions to packet loss are Other important contribution to packet loss are random media errors
typically from random media errors and equipment failures. Service and equipment failures. Service protection is the name for the
protection is the name for the mechanisms used by DetNet to address mechanisms used by DetNet to address these losses. The mechanisms
these losses. The mechanisms employed are constrained by the employed are constrained by the requirement to meet the users'
requirement to meet the users' latency requirements. Packet latency requirements. Packet replication and elimination
replication and elimination (Section 3.2.2) and packet encoding (Section 3.2.2) and packet encoding (Section 3.2.2.3) are described
(Section 3.2.2.3) are described in this document to provide service in this document to provide service protection; others may be found.
protection; others may be found. For instance, packet encoding can For instance, packet encoding can be used to provide service
be used to provide service protection against random media errors, protection against random media errors, packet replication and
packet replication and elimination can be used to provide service elimination can be used to provide service protection against
protection against equipment failures. This mechanism distributes equipment failures. This mechanism distributes the contents of
the contents of DetNet flows over multiple paths in time and/or DetNet flows over multiple paths in time and/or space, so that the
space, so that the loss of some of the paths does need not cause the loss of some of the paths does need not cause the loss of any
loss of any packets. packets.
The paths are typically (but not necessarily) explicit routes, so The paths are typically (but not necessarily) explicit routes, so
that they do not normally suffer temporary interruptions caused by that they do not normally suffer temporary interruptions caused by
the convergence of routing or bridging protocols. the convergence of routing or bridging protocols.
These three techniques can be applied independently, giving eight These three techniques can be applied independently, giving eight
possible combinations, including none (no DetNet), although some possible combinations, including none (no DetNet), although some
combinations are of wider utility than others. This separation keeps combinations are of wider utility than others. This separation keeps
the protocol stack coherent and maximizes interoperability with the protocol stack coherent and maximizes interoperability with
existing and developing standards in this (IETF) and other Standards existing and developing standards in this (IETF) and other Standards
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o Explicit routes plus service protection are exactly the techniques o Explicit routes plus service protection are exactly the techniques
employed by seamless redundancy mechanisms applied on a ring employed by seamless redundancy mechanisms applied on a ring
topology as described, e.g., in [IEC62439-3-2016]. In this topology as described, e.g., in [IEC62439-3-2016]. In this
example, explicit routes are achieved by limiting the physical example, explicit routes are achieved by limiting the physical
topology of the network to a ring. Sequentialization, topology of the network to a ring. Sequentialization,
replication, and duplicate elimination are facilitated by packet replication, and duplicate elimination are facilitated by packet
tags added at the front or the end of Ethernet frames. [RFC8227] tags added at the front or the end of Ethernet frames. [RFC8227]
provides another example in the context of MPLS. provides another example in the context of MPLS.
o Congestion protection alone is offered by IEEE 802.1 Audio Video o Resource allocation alone was originally offered by IEEE 802.1
bridging [IEEE802.1BA]. As long as the network suffers no Audio Video bridging [IEEE802.1BA]. As long as the network
failures, zero congestion loss can be achieved through the use of suffers no failures, packet loss due to output packet contention
a reservation protocol (e.g., Multiple Stream Registration can be eliminated through the use of a reservation protocol (e.g.,
Protocol [IEEE802.1Q-2018]), shapers in every bridge, and proper Multiple Stream Registration Protocol [IEEE802.1Q-2018]), shapers
dimensioning. in every bridge, and proper dimensioning.
o Using all three together gives maximum protection. o Using all three together gives maximum protection.
There are, of course, simpler methods available (and employed, today) There are, of course, simpler methods available (and employed, today)
to achieve levels of latency and packet loss that are satisfactory to achieve levels of latency and packet loss that are satisfactory
for many applications. Prioritization and over-provisioning is one for many applications. Prioritization and over-provisioning is one
such technique. However, these methods generally work best in the such technique. However, these methods generally work best in the
absence of any significant amount of non-critical traffic in the absence of any significant amount of non-critical traffic in the
network (if, indeed, such traffic is supported at all), or work only network (if, indeed, such traffic is supported at all), or work only
if the critical traffic constitutes only a small portion of the if the critical traffic constitutes only a small portion of the
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There are any number of methods in use, defined, or in progress for There are any number of methods in use, defined, or in progress for
accomplishing each of the above techniques. It is expected that this accomplishing each of the above techniques. It is expected that this
DetNet Architecture will assist various vendors, users, and/or DetNet Architecture will assist various vendors, users, and/or
"vertical" Standards Development Organizations (dedicated to a single "vertical" Standards Development Organizations (dedicated to a single
industry) to make selections among the available means of industry) to make selections among the available means of
implementing DetNet networks. implementing DetNet networks.
3.2. Mechanisms to achieve DetNet QoS 3.2. Mechanisms to achieve DetNet QoS
3.2.1. Congestion protection 3.2.1. Resource allocation
3.2.1.1. Eliminate congestion loss 3.2.1.1. Eliminate contention loss
The primary means by which DetNet achieves its QoS assurances is to The primary means by which DetNet achieves its QoS assurances is to
reduce, or even completely eliminate, congestion within a DetNet node reduce, or even completely eliminate packet loss due to output packet
as a cause of packet loss. This can be achieved only by the contention within a DetNet node as a cause of packet loss. This can
provision of sufficient buffer storage at each node through the be achieved only by the provision of sufficient buffer storage at
network to ensure that no packets are dropped due to a lack of buffer each node through the network to ensure that no packets are dropped
storage. Note that a DetNet flow cannot be throttled, i.e., its due to a lack of buffer storage. Note that a DetNet flow cannot be
transmission rate cannot be reduced via explicit congestion throttled, i.e., its transmission rate cannot be reduced via explicit
notification. congestion notification [RFC3168].
Ensuring adequate buffering requires, in turn, that the source, and Ensuring adequate buffering requires, in turn, that the source, and
every DetNet node along the path to the destination (or nearly every every DetNet node along the path to the destination (or nearly every
node, see Section 4.3.3) be careful to regulate its output to not node, see Section 4.3.3) be careful to regulate its output to not
exceed the data rate for any DetNet flow, except for brief periods exceed the data rate for any DetNet flow, except for brief periods
when making up for interfering traffic. Any packet sent ahead of its when making up for interfering traffic. Any packet sent ahead of its
time potentially adds to the number of buffers required by the next time potentially adds to the number of buffers required by the next
hop DetNet node and may thus exceed the resources allocated for a hop DetNet node and may thus exceed the resources allocated for a
particular DetNet flow. particular DetNet flow.
The low-level mechanisms described in Section 4.5 provide the The low-level mechanisms described in Section 4.5 provide the
necessary regulation of transmissions by an end system or DetNet node necessary regulation of transmissions by an end system or DetNet node
to provide congestion protection. The allocation of the bandwidth to provide resource allocation. The allocation of the bandwidth and
and buffers for a DetNet flow requires provisioning. A DetNet node buffers for a DetNet flow requires provisioning. A DetNet node may
may have other resources requiring allocation and/or scheduling, that have other resources requiring allocation and/or scheduling, that
might otherwise be over-subscribed and trigger the rejection of a might otherwise be over-subscribed and trigger the rejection of a
reservation. reservation.
3.2.1.2. Jitter Reduction 3.2.1.2. Jitter Reduction
A core objective of DetNet is to enable the convergence of sensitive A core objective of DetNet is to enable the convergence of sensitive
non-IP networks onto a common network infrastructure. This requires non-IP networks onto a common network infrastructure. This requires
the accurate emulation of currently deployed mission-specific the accurate emulation of currently deployed mission-specific
networks, which for example rely on point-to-point analog (e.g., networks, which for example rely on point-to-point analog (e.g.,
4-20mA modulation) and serial-digital cables (or buses) for highly 4-20mA modulation) and serial-digital cables (or buses) for highly
skipping to change at page 11, line 26 skipping to change at page 11, line 28
practical limitations on packet-based networks in this regard. In practical limitations on packet-based networks in this regard. In
general, users are encouraged to use, instead of, "do this when you general, users are encouraged to use, instead of, "do this when you
get the packet," a combination of: get the packet," a combination of:
o Sub-microsecond time synchronization among all source and o Sub-microsecond time synchronization among all source and
destination end systems, and destination end systems, and
o Time-of-execution fields in the application packets. o Time-of-execution fields in the application packets.
Jitter reduction is provided by the mechanisms described in Jitter reduction is provided by the mechanisms described in
Section 4.5 that also provide congestion protection. Section 4.5 that also provide resource allocation.
3.2.2. Service Protection 3.2.2. Service Protection
Service protection aims to mitigate or eliminate packet loss due to Service protection aims to mitigate or eliminate packet loss due to
equipment failures, random media and/or memory faults. These types equipment failures, random media and/or memory faults. These types
of packet loss can be greatly reduced by spreading the data over of packet loss can be greatly reduced by spreading the data over
multiple disjoint forwarding paths. Various service protection multiple disjoint forwarding paths. Various service protection
methods are described in [RFC6372], e.g., 1+1 linear protection. methods are described in [RFC6372], e.g., 1+1 linear protection.
This section describes the functional details of an additional method This section describes the functional details of an additional method
in Section 3.2.2.2, which can be implemented as described in in Section 3.2.2.2, which can be implemented as described in
skipping to change at page 12, line 21 skipping to change at page 12, line 24
the packet elimination (PEF), and the packet ordering functionality the packet elimination (PEF), and the packet ordering functionality
(POF) for use in DetNet edge, relay node, and end system packet (POF) for use in DetNet edge, relay node, and end system packet
processing. Either of these functions can be enabled in a DetNet processing. Either of these functions can be enabled in a DetNet
edge node, relay node or end system. The collective name for all edge node, relay node or end system. The collective name for all
three functions is PREOF. The packet replication and elimination three functions is PREOF. The packet replication and elimination
service protection method altogether involves four capabilities: service protection method altogether involves four capabilities:
o Providing sequencing information to the packets of a DetNet o Providing sequencing information to the packets of a DetNet
compound flow. This may be done by adding a sequence number or compound flow. This may be done by adding a sequence number or
time stamp as part of DetNet, or may be inherent in the packet, time stamp as part of DetNet, or may be inherent in the packet,
e.g., in a Layer-4 transport protocol, or associated to other e.g., in a higher layer protocol, or associated to other physical
physical properties such as the precise time (and radio channel) properties such as the precise time (and radio channel) of
of reception of the packet. This is typically done once, at or reception of the packet. This is typically done once, at or near
near the source. the source.
o The Packet Replication Function (PRF) replicates these packets o The Packet Replication Function (PRF) replicates these packets
into multiple DetNet member flows and typically sends them along into multiple DetNet member flows and typically sends them along
multiple different paths to the destination(s), e.g., over the multiple different paths to the destination(s), e.g., over the
explicit routes of Section 3.2.3. The location within a DetNet explicit routes of Section 3.2.3. The location within a DetNet
node, and the mechanism used for the PRF is implementation node, and the mechanism used for the PRF is implementation
specific. specific.
o The Packet Elimination Function (PEF) eliminates duplicate packets o The Packet Elimination Function (PEF) eliminates duplicate packets
of a DetNet flow based on the sequencing information and a history of a DetNet flow based on the sequencing information and a history
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Some service protection mechanisms rely on switching from one flow to Some service protection mechanisms rely on switching from one flow to
another when a failure of a flow is detected. Contrarily, packet another when a failure of a flow is detected. Contrarily, packet
replication and elimination combines the DetNet member flows sent replication and elimination combines the DetNet member flows sent
along multiple different paths, and performs a packet-by-packet along multiple different paths, and performs a packet-by-packet
selection of which to discard, e.g., based on sequencing information. selection of which to discard, e.g., based on sequencing information.
In the simplest case, this amounts to replicating each packet in a In the simplest case, this amounts to replicating each packet in a
source that has two interfaces, and conveying them through the source that has two interfaces, and conveying them through the
network, along separate (SRLG disjoint) paths, to the similarly dual- network, along separate (SRLG disjoint) paths, to the similarly dual-
homed destinations, that discard the extras. This ensures that one homed destinations, that discard the extras. This ensures that one
path (with zero congestion loss) remains, even if some DetNet path remains, even if some DetNet intermediate node fails. The
intermediate node fails. The sequencing information can also be used sequencing information can also be used for loss detection and for
for loss detection and for re-ordering. re-ordering.
DetNet relay nodes in the network can provide replication and DetNet relay nodes in the network can provide replication and
elimination facilities at various points in the network, so that elimination facilities at various points in the network, so that
multiple failures can be accommodated. multiple failures can be accommodated.
This is shown in Figure 1, where the two relay nodes each replicate This is shown in Figure 1, where the two relay nodes each replicate
(R) the DetNet flow on input, sending the DetNet member flows to both (R) the DetNet flow on input, sending the DetNet member flows to both
the other relay node and to the end system, and eliminate duplicates the other relay node and to the end system, and eliminate duplicates
(E) on the output interface to the right-hand end system. Any one (E) on the output interface to the right-hand end system. Any one
link in the network can fail, and the DetNet compound flow can still link in the network can fail, and the DetNet compound flow can still
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> > > > > > > > > node > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > node > > > > > > > >
Figure 1: Packet replication and elimination Figure 1: Packet replication and elimination
Packet replication and elimination does not react to and correct Packet replication and elimination does not react to and correct
failures; it is entirely passive. Thus, intermittent failures, failures; it is entirely passive. Thus, intermittent failures,
mistakenly created packet filters, or misrouted data is handled just mistakenly created packet filters, or misrouted data is handled just
the same as the equipment failures that are handled by typical the same as the equipment failures that are handled by typical
routing and bridging protocols. routing and bridging protocols.
If packet replication and elimination is used over paths providing If packet replication and elimination is used over paths with
congestion protection (Section 3.2.1), and member flows that take resource allocation (Section 3.2.1), and member flows that take
different-length paths through the network are combined, a merge different-length paths through the network are combined, a merge
point may require extra buffering to equalize the delays over the point may require extra buffering to equalize the delays over the
different paths. This equalization ensures that the resultant different paths. This equalization ensures that the resultant
compound flow will not exceed its contracted bandwidth even after one compound flow will not exceed its contracted bandwidth even after one
or the other of the paths is restored after a failure. The extra or the other of the paths is restored after a failure. The extra
buffering can be also used to provide in-order delivery. buffering can be also used to provide in-order delivery.
3.2.2.3. Packet encoding for service protection 3.2.2.3. Packet encoding for service protection
There are methods for using multiple paths to provide service There are methods for using multiple paths to provide service
skipping to change at page 14, line 41 skipping to change at page 14, line 44
and thus latency, for the typical path. and thus latency, for the typical path.
In order to get the advantages of low hop count and still ensure In order to get the advantages of low hop count and still ensure
against even very brief losses of connectivity, DetNet employs against even very brief losses of connectivity, DetNet employs
explicit routes, where the path taken by a given DetNet flow does not explicit routes, where the path taken by a given DetNet flow does not
change, at least immediately, and likely not at all, in response to change, at least immediately, and likely not at all, in response to
network topology events. Service protection (Section 3.2.2 or network topology events. Service protection (Section 3.2.2 or
Section 3.2.2.3) over explicit routes provides a high likelihood of Section 3.2.2.3) over explicit routes provides a high likelihood of
continuous connectivity. Explicit routes can be established in continuous connectivity. Explicit routes can be established in
various ways, e.g., with RSVP-TE [RFC3209], with Segment Routing (SR) various ways, e.g., with RSVP-TE [RFC3209], with Segment Routing (SR)
[RFC8402], via a Software Defined Networking approach [RFC7426], with [RFC8402], via a Software Defined Networking approach [RFC7426],
IS-IS [RFC7813], etc. Explicit routes are typically used in MPLS TE [RFC8453], and [RFC8453], with IS-IS [RFC7813], etc. Explicit routes
LSPs. are typically used in MPLS TE LSPs.
Out-of-order packet delivery can be a side effect of distributing a Out-of-order packet delivery can be a side effect of distributing a
single flow over multiple paths especially when there is a change single flow over multiple paths especially when there is a change
from one path to another when combining the flow. This is from one path to another when combining the flow. This is
irrespective of the distribution method used, and also applies to irrespective of the distribution method used, and also applies to
service protection over explicit routes. As described in service protection over explicit routes. As described in
Section 3.2.2.1, out-of-order packets influence the jitter of a flow Section 3.2.2.1, out-of-order packets influence the jitter of a flow
and impact the amount of buffering needed to process the data; and impact the amount of buffering needed to process the data;
therefore, DetNet service includes maximum allowed misordering as a therefore, DetNet service includes maximum allowed misordering as a
constraint. The use of explicit routes helps to provide in-order constraint. The use of explicit routes helps to provide in-order
skipping to change at page 15, line 39 skipping to change at page 15, line 43
the highest-priority non-DetNet packet is also ensured a worst- the highest-priority non-DetNet packet is also ensured a worst-
case latency. case latency.
o When transmission opportunities for DetNet flows are scheduled in o When transmission opportunities for DetNet flows are scheduled in
detail, then the algorithm constructing the schedule should leave detail, then the algorithm constructing the schedule should leave
sufficient opportunities for non-DetNet packets to satisfy the sufficient opportunities for non-DetNet packets to satisfy the
needs of the users of the network. Detailed scheduling can also needs of the users of the network. Detailed scheduling can also
permit the time-shared use of buffer resources by different DetNet permit the time-shared use of buffer resources by different DetNet
flows. flows.
Traffic policing functions (e.g., [RFC2475]) are used to avoid the Starvation of non-DetNet traffic must be avoided, e.g., by traffic
starvation of non-DetNet traffic. Thus, the net effect of the policing functions (e.g., [RFC2475]). Thus, the net effect of the
presence of DetNet flows in a network on the non-DetNet flows is presence of DetNet flows in a network on the non-DetNet flows is
primarily a reduction in the available bandwidth. primarily a reduction in the available bandwidth.
3.3.2. Fault Mitigation 3.3.2. Fault Mitigation
Robust real-time systems require to reduce the number of possible Robust real-time systems require to reduce the number of possible
failures. Filters and policers should be used in a DetNet network to failures. Filters and policers should be used in a DetNet network to
detect if DetNet packets are received on the wrong interface, or at detect if DetNet packets are received on the wrong interface, or at
the wrong time, or in too great a volume. Furthermore, filters and the wrong time, or in too great a volume. Furthermore, filters and
policers can take actions to discard the offending packets or flows, policers can take actions to discard the offending packets or flows,
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device. Examples of such techniques include traffic policing device. Examples of such techniques include traffic policing
functions (e.g., [RFC2475]) and separating flows into per-flow rate- functions (e.g., [RFC2475]) and separating flows into per-flow rate-
limited queues. limited queues.
4. DetNet Architecture 4. DetNet Architecture
4.1. DetNet stack model 4.1. DetNet stack model
DetNet functionality (Section 3) is implemented in two adjacent sub- DetNet functionality (Section 3) is implemented in two adjacent sub-
layers in the protocol stack: the DetNet service sub-layer and the layers in the protocol stack: the DetNet service sub-layer and the
DetNet transport sub-layer. The DetNet service sub-layer provides DetNet forwarding sub-layer. The DetNet service sub-layer provides
DetNet service, e.g., service protection, to higher layers in the DetNet service, e.g., service protection, to higher layers in the
protocol stack and applications. The DetNet transport sub-layer protocol stack and applications. The DetNet forwarding sub-layer
supports DetNet service in the underlying network, e.g., by providing supports DetNet service in the underlying network, e.g., by providing
explicit routes and congestion protection to DetNet flows. explicit routes and resource allocation to DetNet flows.
4.1.1. Representative Protocol Stack Model 4.1.1. Representative Protocol Stack Model
Figure 2 illustrates a conceptual DetNet data plane layering model. Figure 2 illustrates a conceptual DetNet data plane layering model.
One may compare it to that in [IEEE802.1CB], Annex C. One may compare it to that in [IEEE802.1CB], Annex C.
| packets going | ^ packets coming ^ | packets going | ^ packets coming ^
v down the stack v | up the stack | v down the stack v | up the stack |
+----------------------+ +-----------------------+ +-----------------------+ +-----------------------+
| Source | | Destination | | Source | | Destination |
+----------------------+ +-----------------------+ +-----------------------+ +-----------------------+
| Service sub-layer: | | Service sub-layer: | | Service sub-layer: | | Service sub-layer: |
| Packet sequencing | | Duplicate elimination | | Packet sequencing | | Duplicate elimination |
| Flow replication | | Flow merging | | Flow replication | | Flow merging |
| Packet encoding | | Packet decoding | | Packet encoding | | Packet decoding |
+----------------------+ +-----------------------+ +-----------------------+ +-----------------------+
| Transport sub-layer: | | Transport sub-layer: | | Forwarding sub-layer: | | Forwarding sub-layer: |
| Congestion prot. | | Congestion prot. | | Resource allocation | | Resource allocation |
| Explicit routes | | Explicit routes | | Explicit routes | | Explicit routes |
+----------------------+ +-----------------------+ +-----------------------+ +-----------------------+
| Lower layers | | Lower layers | | Lower layers | | Lower layers |
+----------------------+ +-----------------------+ +-----------------------+ +-----------------------+
v ^ v ^
\_________________________/ \_________________________/
Figure 2: DetNet data plane protocol stack Figure 2: DetNet data plane protocol stack
Not all sub-layers are required for any given application, or even Not all sub-layers are required for any given application, or even
for any given network. The functionality shown in Figure 2 is: for any given network. The functionality shown in Figure 2 is:
Application Application
Shown as "source" and "destination" in the diagram. Shown as "source" and "destination" in the diagram.
Packet sequencing Packet sequencing
As part of DetNet service protection, supplies the sequence As part of DetNet service protection, supplies the sequence
number for packet replication and elimination number for packet replication and elimination
(Section 3.2.2). Peers with Duplicate elimination. This (Section 3.2.2). Peers with Duplicate elimination. This
sub-layer is not needed if a Layer-4 transport protocol is sub-layer is not needed if a higher layer protocol is
expected to perform any packet sequencing and duplicate expected to perform any packet sequencing and duplicate
elimination required by the DetNet flow replication. elimination required by the DetNet flow replication.
Duplicate elimination Duplicate elimination
As part of the DetNet service sub-layer, based on the As part of the DetNet service sub-layer, based on the
sequenced number supplied by its peer, packet sequencing, sequenced number supplied by its peer, packet sequencing,
Duplicate elimination discards any duplicate packets Duplicate elimination discards any duplicate packets
generated by DetNet flow replication. It can operate on generated by DetNet flow replication. It can operate on
member flows, compound flows, or both. The replication may member flows, compound flows, or both. The replication may
also be inferred from other information such as the precise also be inferred from other information such as the precise
skipping to change at page 18, line 39 skipping to change at page 18, line 39
information in packets on different DetNet member Flows. information in packets on different DetNet member Flows.
Peers with Packet decoding. Peers with Packet decoding.
Packet decoding Packet decoding
As part of DetNet service protection, as an alternative to As part of DetNet service protection, as an alternative to
flow merging and duplicate elimination, packet decoding takes flow merging and duplicate elimination, packet decoding takes
packets from different DetNet member flows, and computes from packets from different DetNet member flows, and computes from
those packets the original DetNet packets from the compound those packets the original DetNet packets from the compound
flows input to packet encoding. Peers with Packet encoding. flows input to packet encoding. Peers with Packet encoding.
Congestion protection Resource allocation
The DetNet transport sub-layer provides congestion The DetNet forwarding sub-layer provides resource allocation.
protection. See Section 4.5. The actual queuing and shaping See Section 4.5. The actual queuing and shaping mechanisms
mechanisms are typically provided by underlying subnet, these are typically provided by underlying subnet, these can be
can be closely associated with the means of providing paths closely associated with the means of providing paths for
for DetNet flows, the path and the congestion protection are DetNet flows, the path and the resource allocation are
conflated in this figure. conflated in this figure.
Explicit routes Explicit routes
The DetNet transport sub-layer provides mechanisms to ensure The DetNet forwarding sub-layer provides mechanisms to ensure
that fixed paths are provided for DetNet flows. These that fixed paths are provided for DetNet flows. These
explicit paths avoid the impact of network convergence. explicit paths avoid the impact of network convergence.
Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) leverages in-band Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) leverages in-band
and out-of-band signaling that validates whether the service is and out-of-band signaling that validates whether the service is
effectively obtained within QoS constraints. OAM is not shown in effectively obtained within QoS constraints. OAM is not shown in
Figure 2; it may reside in any number of the layers. OAM can involve Figure 2; it may reside in any number of the layers. OAM can involve
specific tagging added in the packets for tracing implementation or specific tagging added in the packets for tracing implementation or
network configuration errors; traceability enables to find whether a network configuration errors; traceability enables to find whether a
packet is a replica, which DetNet relay node performed the packet is a replica, which DetNet relay node performed the
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deliver DetNet services. DetNet relay and edge nodes are deliver DetNet services. DetNet relay and edge nodes are
interconnected via DetNet transit nodes (e.g., LSRs) which support interconnected via DetNet transit nodes (e.g., LSRs) which support
DetNet, but are not DetNet service aware. All DetNet nodes are DetNet, but are not DetNet service aware. All DetNet nodes are
connected to sub-networks, where a point-to-point link is also connected to sub-networks, where a point-to-point link is also
considered as a simple sub-network. These sub-networks will provide considered as a simple sub-network. These sub-networks will provide
DetNet compatible service for support of DetNet traffic. Examples of DetNet compatible service for support of DetNet traffic. Examples of
sub-networks include MPLS TE, IEEE 802.1 TSN and OTN. Of course, sub-networks include MPLS TE, IEEE 802.1 TSN and OTN. Of course,
multi-layer DetNet systems may also be possible, where one DetNet multi-layer DetNet systems may also be possible, where one DetNet
appears as a sub-network, and provides service to, a higher layer appears as a sub-network, and provides service to, a higher layer
DetNet system. A simple DetNet concept network is shown in Figure 3. DetNet system. A simple DetNet concept network is shown in Figure 3.
Note that in this and following figures "Transport" and "Trp" refer Note that in this and following figures "Forwarding" and "Fwd" refer
to the DetNet transport sub-layer, "Service" and "Svc" refer to the to the DetNet forwarding sub-layer, "Service" and "Svc" refer to the
DetNet service sub-layer, which are described in detail in DetNet service sub-layer, which are described in detail in
Section 4.1. Section 4.1.
TSN Edge Transit Relay DetNet TSN Edge Transit Relay DetNet
End System Node Node Node End System End System Node Node Node End System
+---------+ +.........+ +---------+ +----------+ +.........+ +----------+
| Appl. |<--:Svc Proxy:-- End to End Service ---------->| Appl. | | Appl. |<--:Svc Proxy:-- End to End Service -------->| Appl. |
+---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+
| TSN | |TSN| |Svc|<-- DetNet flow ---: Service :-->| Service | | TSN | |TSN| |Svc|<- DetNet flow --: Service :-->| Service |
+---------+ +---+ +---+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+ +---+ +---+ +--------+ +---------+ +----------+
|Transport| |Trp| |Trp| |Transport| |Trp| |Trp| |Transport| |Forwarding| |Fwd| |Fwd| | Fwd | |Fwd| |Fwd| |Forwarding|
+-------.-+ +-.-+ +-.-+ +--.----.-+ +-.-+ +-.-+ +---.-----+ +-------.--+ +-.-+ +-.-+ +--.----.+ +-.-+ +-.-+ +---.------+
: Link : / ,-----. \ : Link : / ,-----. \ : Link : / ,-----. \ : Link : / ,-----. \
+.......+ +-[ Sub ]-+ +........+ +-[ Sub ]-+ +........+ +-[ Sub ]-+ +.......+ +-[ Sub ]-+
[Network] [Network] [Network] [Network]
`-----' `-----' `-----' `-----'
Figure 3: A Simple DetNet Enabled Network Figure 3: A Simple DetNet Enabled Network
Distinguishing the function of two DetNet data plane sub-layers, the Distinguishing the function of two DetNet data plane sub-layers, the
DetNet service sub-layer and the DetNet transport sub-layer, helps to DetNet service sub-layer and the DetNet forwarding sub-layer, helps
explore and evaluate various combinations of the data plane solutions to explore and evaluate various combinations of the data plane
available, some are illustrated in Figure 4. This separation of solutions available, some are illustrated in Figure 4. This
DetNet sub-layers, while helpful, should not be considered as formal separation of DetNet sub-layers, while helpful, should not be
requirement. For example, some technologies may violate these strict considered as formal requirement. For example, some technologies may
sub-layers and still be able to deliver a DetNet service. violate these strict sub-layers and still be able to deliver a DetNet
service.
. .
. .
+----------------------------+ +-----------------------------+
| DetNet Service sub-layer | PW, UDP, GRE | DetNet Service sub-layer | PW, UDP, GRE
+----------------------------+ +-----------------------------+
| DetNet Transport sub-layer | IPv6, IPv4, MPLS TE LSPs, MPLS SR | DetNet Forwarding sub-layer | IPv6, IPv4, MPLS TE LSPs, MPLS SR
+----------------------------+ +-----------------------------+
. .
. .
Figure 4: DetNet adaptation to data plane Figure 4: DetNet adaptation to data plane
In some networking scenarios, the end system initially provides a In some networking scenarios, the end system initially provides a
DetNet flow encapsulation, which contains all information needed by DetNet flow encapsulation, which contains all information needed by
DetNet nodes (e.g., Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) [RFC3550] DetNet nodes (e.g., Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) [RFC3550]
based DetNet flow carried over a native UDP/IP network or based DetNet flow carried over a native UDP/IP network or
PseudoWire). In other scenarios, the encapsulation formats might PseudoWire). In other scenarios, the encapsulation formats might
differ significantly. differ significantly.
There are many valid options to create a data plane solution for There are many valid options to create a data plane solution for
DetNet traffic by selecting a technology approach for the DetNet DetNet traffic by selecting a technology approach for the DetNet
service sub-layer and also selecting a technology approach for the service sub-layer and also selecting a technology approach for the
DetNet transport sub-layer. There are a high number of valid DetNet forwarding sub-layer. There are a high number of valid
combinations. combinations.
One of the most fundamental differences between different potential One of the most fundamental differences between different potential
data plane options is the basic headers used by DetNet nodes. For data plane options is the basic headers used by DetNet nodes. For
example, the basic service can be delivered based on an MPLS label or example, the basic service can be delivered based on an MPLS label or
an IP header. This decision impacts the basic forwarding logic for an IP header. This decision impacts the basic forwarding logic for
the DetNet service sub-layer. Note that in both cases, IP addresses the DetNet service sub-layer. Note that in both cases, IP addresses
are used to address DetNet nodes. The selected DetNet transport sub- are used to address DetNet nodes. The selected DetNet forwarding
layer technology also needs to be mapped to the sub-net technology sub-layer technology also needs to be mapped to the sub-net
used to interconnect DetNet nodes. For example, DetNet flows will technology used to interconnect DetNet nodes. For example, DetNet
need to be mapped to TSN Streams. flows will need to be mapped to TSN Streams.
4.1.3. Network reference model 4.1.3. Network reference model
Figure 5 shows another view of the DetNet service related reference Figure 5 shows another view of the DetNet service related reference
points and main components. points and main components.
DetNet DetNet DetNet DetNet
end system end system end system end system
_ _ _ _
/ \ +----DetNet-UNI (U) / \ / \ +----DetNet-UNI (U) / \
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4.2. DetNet systems 4.2. DetNet systems
4.2.1. End system 4.2.1. End system
The native data flow between the source/destination end systems is The native data flow between the source/destination end systems is
referred to as application-flow (App-flow). The traffic referred to as application-flow (App-flow). The traffic
characteristics of an App-flow can be CBR (constant bit rate) or VBR characteristics of an App-flow can be CBR (constant bit rate) or VBR
(variable bit rate) and can have L1 or L2 or L3 encapsulation (e.g., (variable bit rate) and can have L1 or L2 or L3 encapsulation (e.g.,
TDM (time-division multiplexing), Ethernet, IP). These TDM (time-division multiplexing), Ethernet, IP). These
characteristics are considered as input for resource reservation and characteristics are considered as input for resource reservation and
might be simplified to ensure determinism during transport (e.g., might be simplified to ensure determinism during packet forwarding
making reservations for the peak rate of VBR traffic, etc.). (e.g., making reservations for the peak rate of VBR traffic, etc.).
An end system may or may not be DetNet transport sub-layer aware or An end system may or may not be DetNet forwarding sub-layer aware or
DetNet service sub-layer aware. That is, an end system may or may DetNet service sub-layer aware. That is, an end system may or may
not contain DetNet specific functionality. End systems with DetNet not contain DetNet specific functionality. End systems with DetNet
functionalities may have the same or different transport sub-layer as functionalities may have the same or different forwarding sub-layer
the connected DetNet domain. Categorization of end systems are shown as the connected DetNet domain. Categorization of end systems are
in Figure 6. shown in Figure 6.
End system End system
| |
| |
| DetNet aware ? | DetNet aware ?
/ \ / \
+------< >------+ +------< >------+
NO | \ / | YES NO | \ / | YES
| v | | v |
DetNet unaware | DetNet unaware |
End system | End system |
| Service/Transport | Service/Forwarding
| sub-layer | sub-layer
/ \ aware ? / \ aware ?
+--------< >-------------+ +--------< >-------------+
t-aware | \ / | s-aware f-aware | \ / | s-aware
| v | | v |
| | both | | | both |
| | | | | |
DetNet t-aware | DetNet s-aware DetNet f-aware | DetNet s-aware
End system | End system End system | End system
v v
DetNet st-aware DetNet sf-aware
End system End system
Figure 6: Categorization of end systems Figure 6: Categorization of end systems
Note some known use case examples for end systems: Note some known use case examples for end systems:
o DetNet unaware: The classic case requiring service proxies. o DetNet unaware: The classic case requiring service proxies.
o DetNet t-aware: A DetNet transport sub-layer aware system. It o DetNet f-aware: A DetNet forwarding sub-layer aware system. It
knows about some TSN functions (e.g., reservation), but not about knows about some TSN functions (e.g., reservation), but not about
service protection. service protection.
o DetNet s-aware: A DetNet service sub-layer aware system. It o DetNet s-aware: A DetNet service sub-layer aware system. It
supplies sequence numbers, but doesn't know about zero congestion supplies sequence numbers, but doesn't know about resource
loss. allocation.
o DetNet st-aware: A full functioning DetNet end system, it has o DetNet sf-aware: A full functioning DetNet end system, it has
DetNet functionalities and usually the same forwarding paradigm as DetNet functionalities and usually the same forwarding paradigm as
the connected DetNet domain. It can be treated as an integral the connected DetNet domain. It can be treated as an integral
part of the DetNet domain. part of the DetNet domain.
4.2.2. DetNet edge, relay, and transit nodes 4.2.2. DetNet edge, relay, and transit nodes
As shown in Figure 3, DetNet edge nodes providing proxy service and As shown in Figure 3, DetNet edge nodes providing proxy service and
DetNet relay nodes providing the DetNet service sub-layer are DetNet- DetNet relay nodes providing the DetNet service sub-layer are DetNet-
aware, and DetNet transit nodes need only be aware of the DetNet aware, and DetNet transit nodes need only be aware of the DetNet
transport sub-layer. forwarding sub-layer.
In general, if a DetNet flow passes through one or more DetNet- In general, if a DetNet flow passes through one or more DetNet-
unaware network nodes between two DetNet nodes providing the DetNet unaware network nodes between two DetNet nodes providing the DetNet
transport sub-layer for that flow, there is a potential for forwarding sub-layer for that flow, there is a potential for
disruption or failure of the DetNet QoS. A network administrator disruption or failure of the DetNet QoS. A network administrator
needs to ensure that the DetNet-unaware network nodes are configured needs to ensure that the DetNet-unaware network nodes are configured
to minimize the chances of packet loss and delay, and provision to minimize the chances of packet loss and delay, and provision
enough extra buffer space in the DetNet transit node following the enough extra buffer space in the DetNet transit node following the
DetNet-unaware network nodes to absorb the induced latency DetNet-unaware network nodes to absorb the induced latency
variations. variations.
4.3. DetNet flows 4.3. DetNet flows
4.3.1. DetNet flow types 4.3.1. DetNet flow types
A DetNet flow can have different formats while it is transported A DetNet flow can have different formats while its packets are
between the peer end systems. Therefore, the following possible forwarded between the peer end systems. Therefore, the following
types / formats of a DetNet flow are distinguished in this document: possible types / formats of a DetNet flow are distinguished in this
document:
o App-flow: native format of the data carried over a DetNet flow. o App-flow: native format of the data carried over a DetNet flow.
It does not contain any DetNet related attributes. It does not contain any DetNet related attributes.
o DetNet-t-flow: specific format of a DetNet flow. Only requires o DetNet-f-flow: specific format of a DetNet flow. It only requires
the congestion / latency features provided by the DetNet transport the resource allocation features provided by the DetNet forwarding
sub-layer. sub-layer.
o DetNet-s-flow: specific format of a DetNet flow. Only requires o DetNet-s-flow: specific format of a DetNet flow. It only requires
the service protection feature ensured by the DetNet service sub- the service protection feature ensured by the DetNet service sub-
layer. layer.
o DetNet-st-flow: specific format of a DetNet flow. It requires o DetNet-sf-flow: specific format of a DetNet flow. It requires
both DetNet service sub-layer and DetNet transport sub-layer both DetNet service sub-layer and DetNet forwarding sub-layer
functions during forwarding. functions during forwarding.
4.3.2. Source transmission behavior 4.3.2. Source transmission behavior
For the purposes of congestion protection, DetNet flows can be For the purposes of resource allocation, DetNet flows can be
synchronous or asynchronous. In synchronous DetNet flows, at least synchronous or asynchronous. In synchronous DetNet flows, at least
the DetNet nodes (and possibly the end systems) are closely time the DetNet nodes (and possibly the end systems) are closely time
synchronized, typically to better than 1 microsecond. By synchronized, typically to better than 1 microsecond. By
transmitting packets from different DetNet flows or classes of DetNet transmitting packets from different DetNet flows or classes of DetNet
flows at different times, using repeating schedules synchronized flows at different times, using repeating schedules synchronized
among the DetNet nodes, resources such as buffers and link bandwidth among the DetNet nodes, resources such as buffers and link bandwidth
can be shared over the time domain among different DetNet flows. can be shared over the time domain among different DetNet flows.
There is a tradeoff among techniques for synchronous DetNet flows There is a tradeoff among techniques for synchronous DetNet flows
between the burden of fine-grained scheduling and the benefit of between the burden of fine-grained scheduling and the benefit of
reducing the required resources, especially buffer space. reducing the required resources, especially buffer space.
skipping to change at page 25, line 36 skipping to change at page 25, line 36
allows, the unused resource such as link bandwidth can be made allows, the unused resource such as link bandwidth can be made
available by the DetNet system to non-DetNet packets as long as all available by the DetNet system to non-DetNet packets as long as all
guarantees are fulfilled. However, making those resources available guarantees are fulfilled. However, making those resources available
to DetNet packets in other DetNet flows would serve no purpose. to DetNet packets in other DetNet flows would serve no purpose.
Those other DetNet flows have their own dedicated resources, on the Those other DetNet flows have their own dedicated resources, on the
assumption that all DetNet flows can use all of their resources over assumption that all DetNet flows can use all of their resources over
a long period of time. a long period of time.
There is no provision in DetNet for throttling DetNet flows, i.e., There is no provision in DetNet for throttling DetNet flows, i.e.,
the transmission rate cannot be reduced via explicit congestion the transmission rate cannot be reduced via explicit congestion
notification. The assumption is that a DetNet flow, to be useful, notification [RFC3168]. The assumption is that a DetNet flow, to be
must be delivered in its entirety. That is, while any useful useful, must be delivered in its entirety. That is, while any useful
application is written to expect a certain number of lost packets, application is written to expect a certain number of lost packets,
the real-time applications of interest to DetNet demand that the loss the real-time applications of interest to DetNet demand that the loss
of data due to the network is a rare event. of data due to the network is a rare event.
Although DetNet strives to minimize the changes required of an Although DetNet strives to minimize the changes required of an
application to allow it to shift from a special-purpose digital application to allow it to shift from a special-purpose digital
network to an Internet Protocol network, one fundamental shift in the network to an Internet Protocol network, one fundamental shift in the
behavior of network applications is impossible to avoid: the behavior of network applications is impossible to avoid: the
reservation of resources before the application starts. In the first reservation of resources before the application starts. In the first
place, a network cannot deliver finite latency and practically zero place, a network cannot deliver finite latency and practically zero
packet loss to an arbitrarily high offered load. Secondly, achieving packet loss to an arbitrarily high offered load. Secondly, achieving
practically zero packet loss for unthrottled (though bandwidth practically zero packet loss for unthrottled (though bandwidth
limited) DetNet flows means that DetNet nodes have to dedicate buffer limited) DetNet flows means that DetNet nodes have to dedicate buffer
resources to specific DetNet flows or to classes of DetNet flows. resources to specific DetNet flows or to classes of DetNet flows.
The requirements of each reservation have to be translated into the The requirements of each reservation have to be translated into the
parameters that control each DetNet system's queuing, shaping, and parameters that control each DetNet system's queuing, shaping, and
scheduling functions and delivered to the DetNet nodes and end scheduling functions and delivered to the DetNet nodes and end
systems. systems.
All nodes in a DetNet domain are expected to support the data
behavior required to deliver a particular DetNet service. If a node
itself is not DetNet service aware, the DetNet nodes that are
adjacent to such non-DetNet aware nodes must ensure that the non-
DetNet aware node is provisioned to appropriately support the DetNet
service. For example, an IEEE 802.1 TSN node may be used to
interconnect DetNet aware nodes, and these DetNet nodes can map
DetNet flows to 802.1 TSN flows. Another example, an MPLS-TE or TP
domain may be used to interconnect DetNet aware nodes, and these
DetNet nodes can map DetNet flows to TE LSPs which can provide the
QoS requirements of the DetNet service.
4.3.3. Incomplete Networks 4.3.3. Incomplete Networks
The presence in the network of intermediate nodes or subnets that are The presence in the network of intermediate nodes or subnets that are
not fully capable of offering DetNet services complicates the ability not fully capable of offering DetNet services complicates the ability
of the intermediate nodes and/or controller to allocate resources, as of the intermediate nodes and/or controller to allocate resources, as
extra buffering must be allocated at points downstream from the non- extra buffering must be allocated at points downstream from the non-
DetNet intermediate node for a DetNet flow. This extra buffering may DetNet intermediate node for a DetNet flow. This extra buffering may
increase latency and/or jitter. increase latency and/or jitter.
4.4. Traffic Engineering for DetNet 4.4. Traffic Engineering for DetNet
skipping to change at page 26, line 35 skipping to change at page 26, line 47
control how specific traffic flows are treated within their networks. control how specific traffic flows are treated within their networks.
Because if its very nature of establishing explicit optimized paths, Because if its very nature of establishing explicit optimized paths,
Deterministic Networking can be seen as a new, specialized branch of Deterministic Networking can be seen as a new, specialized branch of
Traffic Engineering, and inherits its architecture with a separation Traffic Engineering, and inherits its architecture with a separation
into planes. into planes.
The Deterministic Networking architecture is thus composed of three The Deterministic Networking architecture is thus composed of three
planes, a (User) Application Plane, a Controller Plane, and a Network planes, a (User) Application Plane, a Controller Plane, and a Network
Plane, which echoes that of Figure 1 of Software-Defined Networking Plane, which echoes that of Figure 1 of Software-Defined Networking
(SDN): Layers and Architecture Terminology [RFC7426].: (SDN): Layers and Architecture Terminology [RFC7426], and the
Controllers identified in [RFC8453] and [RFC7149].
4.4.1. The Application Plane 4.4.1. The Application Plane
Per [RFC7426], the Application Plane includes both applications and Per [RFC7426], the Application Plane includes both applications and
services. In particular, the Application Plane incorporates the User services. In particular, the Application Plane incorporates the User
Agent, a specialized application that interacts with the end user / Agent, a specialized application that interacts with the end user /
operator and performs requests for Deterministic Networking services operator and performs requests for Deterministic Networking services
via an abstract Flow Management Entity, (FME) which may or may not be via an abstract Flow Management Entity, (FME) which may or may not be
collocated with (one of) the end systems. collocated with (one of) the end systems.
skipping to change at page 28, line 42 skipping to change at page 29, line 12
the state of the paths, between adjacent DetNet nodes and possibly the state of the paths, between adjacent DetNet nodes and possibly
with the end systems, and forward packets within constraints with the end systems, and forward packets within constraints
associated to each flow, or, when unable to do so, perform a last associated to each flow, or, when unable to do so, perform a last
resort operation such as drop or declassify. resort operation such as drop or declassify.
This document focuses on the Southbound interface and the operation This document focuses on the Southbound interface and the operation
of the Network Plane. of the Network Plane.
4.5. Queuing, Shaping, Scheduling, and Preemption 4.5. Queuing, Shaping, Scheduling, and Preemption
DetNet achieves congestion protection and bounded delivery latency by DetNet achieves bounded delivery latency by reserving bandwidth and
reserving bandwidth and buffer resources at each DetNet node along buffer resources at each DetNet node along the path of the DetNet
the path of the DetNet flow. The reservation itself is not flow. The reservation itself is not sufficient, however.
sufficient, however. Implementors and users of a number of Implementors and users of a number of proprietary and standard real-
proprietary and standard real-time networks have found that standards time networks have found that standards for specific data plane
for specific data plane techniques are required to enable these techniques are required to enable these assurances to be made in a
assurances to be made in a multi-vendor network. The fundamental multi-vendor network. The fundamental reason is that latency
reason is that latency variation in one DetNet system results in the variation in one DetNet system results in the need for extra buffer
need for extra buffer space in the next-hop DetNet system(s), which space in the next-hop DetNet system(s), which in turn, increases the
in turn, increases the worst-case per-hop latency. worst-case per-hop latency.
Standard queuing and transmission selection algorithms allow traffic Standard queuing and transmission selection algorithms allow traffic
engineering Section 4.4 to compute the latency contribution of each engineering Section 4.4 to compute the latency contribution of each
DetNet node to the end-to-end latency, to compute the amount of DetNet node to the end-to-end latency, to compute the amount of
buffer space required in each DetNet node for each incremental DetNet buffer space required in each DetNet node for each incremental DetNet
flow, and most importantly, to translate from a flow specification to flow, and most importantly, to translate from a flow specification to
a set of values for the managed objects that control each relay or a set of values for the managed objects that control each relay or
end system. For example, the IEEE 802.1 WG has specified (and is end system. For example, the IEEE 802.1 WG has specified (and is
specifying) a set of queuing, shaping, and scheduling algorithms that specifying) a set of queuing, shaping, and scheduling algorithms that
enable each DetNet node, and/or a central controller, to compute enable each DetNet node, and/or a central controller, to compute
skipping to change at page 32, line 22 skipping to change at page 33, line 7
this requires that the aggregate DetNet flow be provisioned properly this requires that the aggregate DetNet flow be provisioned properly
to carry the aggregated flows. to carry the aggregated flows.
Thus, rather than packet inspection, there is the option to export Thus, rather than packet inspection, there is the option to export
higher-layer information to the lower layer. The requirement to higher-layer information to the lower layer. The requirement to
support one or the other method for flow identification (or both) is support one or the other method for flow identification (or both) is
a complexity that is part of DetNet control models. a complexity that is part of DetNet control models.
4.7.2. Flow attribute mapping between layers 4.7.2. Flow attribute mapping between layers
Transport of DetNet flows over multiple technology domains may Forwarding of packets of DetNet flows over multiple technology
require that lower layers are aware of specific flows of higher domains may require that lower layers are aware of specific flows of
layers. Such an "exporting of flow identification" is needed each higher layers. Such an "exporting of flow identification" is needed
time when the forwarding paradigm is changed on the forwarding path each time when the forwarding paradigm is changed on the forwarding
(e.g., two LSRs are interconnected by a L2 bridged domain, etc.). path (e.g., two LSRs are interconnected by a L2 bridged domain,
The three representative forwarding methods considered for etc.). The three representative forwarding methods considered for
deterministic networking are: deterministic networking are:
o IP routing o IP routing
o MPLS label switching o MPLS label switching
o Ethernet bridging o Ethernet bridging
A packet with corresponding Flow-IDs is illustrated in Figure 9, A packet with corresponding Flow-IDs is illustrated in Figure 9,
which also indicates where each Flow-ID can be added or removed. which also indicates where each Flow-ID can be added or removed.
skipping to change at page 33, line 29 skipping to change at page 33, line 48
Figure 9: Packet with multiple Flow-IDs Figure 9: Packet with multiple Flow-IDs
The additional (domain specific) Flow-ID can be The additional (domain specific) Flow-ID can be
o created by a domain specific function or o created by a domain specific function or
o derived from the Flow-ID added to the App-flow. o derived from the Flow-ID added to the App-flow.
The Flow-ID must be unique inside a given domain. Note that the The Flow-ID must be unique inside a given domain. Note that the
Flow-ID added to the App-flow is still present in the packet, but Flow-ID added to the App-flow is still present in the packet, but
transport nodes may lack the function to recognize it; that's why the some nodes may lack the function to recognize it; that's why the
additional Flow-ID is added. additional Flow-ID is added.
4.7.3. Flow-ID mapping examples 4.7.3. Flow-ID mapping examples
IP nodes and MPLS nodes are assumed to be configured to push such an IP nodes and MPLS nodes are assumed to be configured to push such an
additional (domain specific) Flow-ID when sending traffic to an additional (domain specific) Flow-ID when sending traffic to an
Ethernet switch (as shown in the examples below). Ethernet switch (as shown in the examples below).
Figure 10 shows a scenario where an IP end system ("IP-A") is Figure 10 shows a scenario where an IP end system ("IP-A") is
connected via two Ethernet switches ("ETH-n") to an IP router ("IP- connected via two Ethernet switches ("ETH-n") to an IP router ("IP-
skipping to change at page 38, line 13 skipping to change at page 38, line 13
various contribution with this work. various contribution with this work.
9. Informative References 9. Informative References
[CCAMP] IETF, "Common Control and Measurement Plane Working [CCAMP] IETF, "Common Control and Measurement Plane Working
Group", Group",
<https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/charter-ietf-ccamp/>. <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/charter-ietf-ccamp/>.
[I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture]
Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode
of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-15 (work of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-19 (work
in progress), October 2018. in progress), December 2018.
[I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-ip] [I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-ip]
Korhonen, J. and B. Varga, "DetNet IP Data Plane Korhonen, J. and B. Varga, "DetNet IP Data Plane
Encapsulation", draft-ietf-detnet-dp-sol-ip-01 (work in Encapsulation", draft-ietf-detnet-dp-sol-ip-01 (work in
progress), October 2018. progress), October 2018.
[I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-mpls] [I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-mpls]
Korhonen, J. and B. Varga, "DetNet MPLS Data Plane Korhonen, J. and B. Varga, "DetNet MPLS Data Plane
Encapsulation", draft-ietf-detnet-dp-sol-mpls-01 (work in Encapsulation", draft-ietf-detnet-dp-sol-mpls-01 (work in
progress), October 2018. progress), October 2018.
[I-D.ietf-detnet-problem-statement] [I-D.ietf-detnet-problem-statement]
Finn, N. and P. Thubert, "Deterministic Networking Problem Finn, N. and P. Thubert, "Deterministic Networking Problem
Statement", draft-ietf-detnet-problem-statement-07 (work Statement", draft-ietf-detnet-problem-statement-08 (work
in progress), October 2018. in progress), December 2018.
[I-D.ietf-detnet-security] [I-D.ietf-detnet-security]
Mizrahi, T., Grossman, E., Hacker, A., Das, S., Dowdell, Mizrahi, T., Grossman, E., Hacker, A., Das, S., Dowdell,
J., Austad, H., Stanton, K., and N. Finn, "Deterministic J., Austad, H., Stanton, K., and N. Finn, "Deterministic
Networking (DetNet) Security Considerations", draft-ietf- Networking (DetNet) Security Considerations", draft-ietf-
detnet-security-03 (work in progress), October 2018. detnet-security-03 (work in progress), October 2018.
[I-D.ietf-detnet-use-cases] [I-D.ietf-detnet-use-cases]
Grossman, E., "Deterministic Networking Use Cases", draft- Grossman, E., "Deterministic Networking Use Cases", draft-
ietf-detnet-use-cases-19 (work in progress), October 2018. ietf-detnet-use-cases-19 (work in progress), October 2018.
skipping to change at page 40, line 21 skipping to change at page 40, line 21
[RFC2205] Braden, R., Ed., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S. [RFC2205] Braden, R., Ed., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S.
Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1 Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1
Functional Specification", RFC 2205, DOI 10.17487/RFC2205, Functional Specification", RFC 2205, DOI 10.17487/RFC2205,
September 1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2205>. September 1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2205>.
[RFC2475] Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z., [RFC2475] Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z.,
and W. Weiss, "An Architecture for Differentiated and W. Weiss, "An Architecture for Differentiated
Services", RFC 2475, DOI 10.17487/RFC2475, December 1998, Services", RFC 2475, DOI 10.17487/RFC2475, December 1998,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2475>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2475>.
[RFC3168] Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black, "The Addition
of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP",
RFC 3168, DOI 10.17487/RFC3168, September 2001,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3168>.
[RFC3209] Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan, V., [RFC3209] Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan, V.,
and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP
Tunnels", RFC 3209, DOI 10.17487/RFC3209, December 2001, Tunnels", RFC 3209, DOI 10.17487/RFC3209, December 2001,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3209>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3209>.
[RFC3550] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V. [RFC3550] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, DOI 10.17487/RFC3550, Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, DOI 10.17487/RFC3550,
July 2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3550>. July 2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3550>.
skipping to change at page 41, line 5 skipping to change at page 41, line 10
[RFC6372] Sprecher, N., Ed. and A. Farrel, Ed., "MPLS Transport [RFC6372] Sprecher, N., Ed. and A. Farrel, Ed., "MPLS Transport
Profile (MPLS-TP) Survivability Framework", RFC 6372, Profile (MPLS-TP) Survivability Framework", RFC 6372,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6372, September 2011, DOI 10.17487/RFC6372, September 2011,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6372>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6372>.
[RFC6658] Bryant, S., Ed., Martini, L., Swallow, G., and A. Malis, [RFC6658] Bryant, S., Ed., Martini, L., Swallow, G., and A. Malis,
"Packet Pseudowire Encapsulation over an MPLS PSN", "Packet Pseudowire Encapsulation over an MPLS PSN",
RFC 6658, DOI 10.17487/RFC6658, July 2012, RFC 6658, DOI 10.17487/RFC6658, July 2012,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6658>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6658>.
[RFC7149] Boucadair, M. and C. Jacquenet, "Software-Defined
Networking: A Perspective from within a Service Provider
Environment", RFC 7149, DOI 10.17487/RFC7149, March 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7149>.
[RFC7384] Mizrahi, T., "Security Requirements of Time Protocols in [RFC7384] Mizrahi, T., "Security Requirements of Time Protocols in
Packet Switched Networks", RFC 7384, DOI 10.17487/RFC7384, Packet Switched Networks", RFC 7384, DOI 10.17487/RFC7384,
October 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7384>. October 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7384>.
[RFC7426] Haleplidis, E., Ed., Pentikousis, K., Ed., Denazis, S., [RFC7426] Haleplidis, E., Ed., Pentikousis, K., Ed., Denazis, S.,
Hadi Salim, J., Meyer, D., and O. Koufopavlou, "Software- Hadi Salim, J., Meyer, D., and O. Koufopavlou, "Software-
Defined Networking (SDN): Layers and Architecture Defined Networking (SDN): Layers and Architecture
Terminology", RFC 7426, DOI 10.17487/RFC7426, January Terminology", RFC 7426, DOI 10.17487/RFC7426, January
2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7426>. 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7426>.
skipping to change at page 41, line 36 skipping to change at page 41, line 46
[RFC8227] Cheng, W., Wang, L., Li, H., van Helvoort, H., and J. [RFC8227] Cheng, W., Wang, L., Li, H., van Helvoort, H., and J.
Dong, "MPLS-TP Shared-Ring Protection (MSRP) Mechanism for Dong, "MPLS-TP Shared-Ring Protection (MSRP) Mechanism for
Ring Topology", RFC 8227, DOI 10.17487/RFC8227, August Ring Topology", RFC 8227, DOI 10.17487/RFC8227, August
2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8227>. 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8227>.
[RFC8402] Filsfils, C., Ed., Previdi, S., Ed., Ginsberg, L., [RFC8402] Filsfils, C., Ed., Previdi, S., Ed., Ginsberg, L.,
Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment
Routing Architecture", RFC 8402, DOI 10.17487/RFC8402, Routing Architecture", RFC 8402, DOI 10.17487/RFC8402,
July 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8402>. July 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8402>.
[RFC8453] Ceccarelli, D., Ed. and Y. Lee, Ed., "Framework for
Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN)", RFC 8453,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8453, August 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8453>.
[TEAS] IETF, "Traffic Engineering Architecture and Signaling [TEAS] IETF, "Traffic Engineering Architecture and Signaling
Working Group", Working Group",
<https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/charter-ietf-teas/>. <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/charter-ietf-teas/>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Norman Finn Norman Finn
Huawei Huawei
3101 Rio Way 3101 Rio Way
Spring Valley, California 91977 Spring Valley, California 91977
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