draft-ietf-ccamp-wson-signaling-01.txt   draft-ietf-ccamp-wson-signaling-02.txt 
Network Working Group G. Bernstein Network Working Group G. Bernstein
Internet Draft Grotto Networking Internet Draft Grotto Networking
Intended status: Standards Track Sugang Xu Intended status: Standards Track Sugang Xu
NICT NICT
Expires: September 2011 Y.Lee Expires: March 2012 Y.Lee
Huawei Huawei
G. Martinelli G. Martinelli
Cisco Cisco
Hiroaki Harai Hiroaki Harai
NICT NICT
March 12, 2011 September 13, 2011
Signaling Extensions for Wavelength Switched Optical Networks Signaling Extensions for Wavelength Switched Optical Networks
draft-ietf-ccamp-wson-signaling-01.txt draft-ietf-ccamp-wson-signaling-02.txt
Abstract Abstract
This memo provides extensions to Generalized Multi-Protocol Label This memo provides extensions to Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
Switching (GMPLS) signaling for control of wavelength switched Switching (GMPLS) signaling for control of wavelength switched
optical networks (WSON). Such extensions are necessary in WSONs optical networks (WSON). Such extensions are necessary in WSONs
under a number of conditions including: (a) when optional processing, under a number of conditions including: (a) when optional processing,
such as regeneration, must be configured to occur at specific nodes such as regeneration, must be configured to occur at specific nodes
along a path, (b) where equipment must be configured to accept an along a path, (b) where equipment must be configured to accept an
optical signal with specific attributes, or (c) where equipment must optical signal with specific attributes, or (c) where equipment must
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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This Internet-Draft will expire on September 12, 2011. This Internet-Draft will expire on March 13, 2007.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction...................................................3 1. Introduction...................................................3
2. Terminology....................................................3 2. Terminology....................................................3
3. Requirements for WSON Signaling................................4 3. Requirements for WSON Signaling................................4
3.1. WSON Signal Characterization..............................4 3.1. WSON Signal Characterization..............................4
3.2. Per LSP Network Element Processing Configuration..........5 3.2. Per LSP Network Element Processing Configuration..........5
3.3. Bi-Directional Distributed Wavelength Assignment..........5 3.3. Bi-Directional Distributed Wavelength Assignment..........5
3.4. Distributed Wavelength Assignment Support.................7 3.4. Distributed Wavelength Assignment Support.................6
3.5. Out of Scope..............................................7 3.5. Out of Scope..............................................6
4. WSON Signal Traffic Parameters, Attributes and Processing......7 4. WSON Signal Traffic Parameters, Attributes and Processing......6
4.1. Traffic Parameters for Optical Tributary Signals..........7 4.1. Traffic Parameters for Optical Tributary Signals..........6
4.2. Signal Attributes and Processing..........................8 4.2. Signal Attributes and Processing..........................6
4.2.1. Modulation Type sub-TLV..............................8 4.2.1. Modulation Type sub-TLV..............................7
4.2.2. FEC Type sub-TLV....................................10 4.2.2. FEC Type sub-TLV.....................................9
4.2.3. Regeneration Processing TLV.........................13 4.2.3. Regeneration Processing TLV.........................12
5. Bidirectional Lightpath Setup.................................14 5. Bidirectional Lightpath Setup.................................13
5.1. Possible Solutions for Bidirectional Lightpath...........14 5.1. Possible Solutions for Bidirectional Lightpath...........13
5.2. Bidirectional Lightpath Signaling Procedure..............15 5.2. Bidirectional Lightpath Signaling Procedure..............14
5.3. Backward Compatibility Considerations....................16 5.3. Backward Compatibility Considerations....................15
6. RWA Related...................................................16
6.1. Wavelength Assignment Method Selection...................16 6. RWA Related...................................................15
7. Security Considerations.......................................17 6.1. Wavelength Assignment Method Selection...................15
8. IANA Considerations...........................................18 7. Security Considerations.......................................16
9. Acknowledgments...............................................18 8. IANA Considerations...........................................17
10. References...................................................19 9. Acknowledgments...............................................17
10.1. Normative References....................................19 10. References...................................................18
10.2. Informative References..................................19 10.1. Normative References....................................18
10.2. Informative References..................................18
Author's Addresses...............................................21 Author's Addresses...............................................21
Intellectual Property Statement..................................22 Intellectual Property Statement..................................22
Disclaimer of Validity...........................................23 Disclaimer of Validity...........................................23
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This memo provides extensions to Generalized Multi-Protocol Label This memo provides extensions to Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
Switching (GMPLS) signaling for control of wavelength switched Switching (GMPLS) signaling for control of wavelength switched
optical networks (WSON). Fundamental extensions are given to permit optical networks (WSON). Fundamental extensions are given to permit
simultaneous bi-directional wavelength assignment while more advanced simultaneous bi-directional wavelength assignment while more advanced
extensions are given to support the networks described in [WSON- extensions are given to support the networks described in [RFC6163]
Frame] which feature connections requiring configuration of input, which feature connections requiring configuration of input, output,
output, and general signal processing capabilities at a node along a and general signal processing capabilities at a node along a LSP
LSP
These extensions build on previous work for the control of lambda and These extensions build on previous work for the control of lambda and
G.709 based networks. G.709 based networks.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
CWDM: Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing. CWDM: Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing.
DWDM: Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. DWDM: Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing.
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3.1. WSON Signal Characterization 3.1. WSON Signal Characterization
WSON signaling MUST convey sufficient information characterizing the WSON signaling MUST convey sufficient information characterizing the
signal to allow systems along the path to determine compatibility and signal to allow systems along the path to determine compatibility and
perform any required local configuration. Examples of such systems perform any required local configuration. Examples of such systems
include intermediate nodes (ROADMs, OXCs, Wavelength converters, include intermediate nodes (ROADMs, OXCs, Wavelength converters,
Regenerators, OEO Switches, etc...), links (WDM systems) and end Regenerators, OEO Switches, etc...), links (WDM systems) and end
systems (detectors, demodulators, etc...). The details of any local systems (detectors, demodulators, etc...). The details of any local
configuration processes are out of the scope of this document. configuration processes are out of the scope of this document.
From [WSON-Frame] we have the following list of WSON signal From [RFC6163] we have the following list of WSON signal
characteristic information: characteristic information:
List 1. WSON Signal Characteristics List 1. WSON Signal Characteristics
1. Optical tributary signal class (modulation format). 1. Optical tributary signal class (modulation format).
2. FEC: whether forward error correction is used in the digital stream 2. FEC: whether forward error correction is used in the digital stream
and what type of error correcting code is used and what type of error correcting code is used
3. Center frequency (wavelength) 3. Center frequency (wavelength)
4. Bit rate 4. Bit rate
5. G-PID: General Protocol Identifier for the information format 5. G-PID: General Protocol Identifier for the information format
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signal type information (G-PID). In addition, bit rate is a standard signal type information (G-PID). In addition, bit rate is a standard
GMPLS signaling traffic parameter. It is referred to as Bandwidth GMPLS signaling traffic parameter. It is referred to as Bandwidth
Encoding in [RFC3471]. This leaves two new parameters: modulation Encoding in [RFC3471]. This leaves two new parameters: modulation
format and FEC type, needed to fully characterize the optical signal. format and FEC type, needed to fully characterize the optical signal.
3.2. Per LSP Network Element Processing Configuration 3.2. Per LSP Network Element Processing Configuration
In addition to configuring a network element (NE) along an LSP to In addition to configuring a network element (NE) along an LSP to
input or output a signal with specific attributes, we may need to input or output a signal with specific attributes, we may need to
signal the NE to perform specific processing, such as 3R signal the NE to perform specific processing, such as 3R
regeneration, on the signal at a particular NE. In [WSON-Frame] we regeneration, on the signal at a particular NE. In [RFC6163] we
discussed three types of processing not currently covered by GMPLS: discussed three types of processing not currently covered by GMPLS:
(A) Regeneration (possibly different types) (A) Regeneration (possibly different types)
(B) Fault and Performance Monitoring (B) Fault and Performance Monitoring
(C) Attribute Conversion (C) Attribute Conversion
The extensions here MUST provide for the configuration of these types The extensions here MUST provide for the configuration of these types
of processing at nodes along an LSP. of processing at nodes along an LSP.
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consistent with the wavelength continuity constraint for bi- consistent with the wavelength continuity constraint for bi-
directional connections. The following cases MAY be separately directional connections. The following cases MAY be separately
supported: supported:
(a)Where the same wavelength is used for both upstream and downstream (a)Where the same wavelength is used for both upstream and downstream
directions directions
(b)Where different wavelengths can be used for both upstream and (b)Where different wavelengths can be used for both upstream and
downstream directions. downstream directions.
The need for the same wavelength on both directions mainly comes from
the color constraint on some edges' hardware. In fact, the edges can
be classified into two types, i.e. without and with the wavelength-
port mapping re-configurability.
Without the mapping re-configurability at edges, the edge nodes must
use the same wavelength in both directions. For example, (1)
transponders are only connected to fixed AWGs (i.e. multiplexer/de-
multiplexer) ports directly, or (2) transponders are connected to the
add/drop ports of ROADM and each port is mapped to a fixed dedicated
wavelength.
On the other hand, with mapping re-configurability at edges, the edge
nodes can use different wavelengths in different directions. For
example, in edge nodes, transponders are connected to add/drop ports
of colorless ROADM. Thus, the wavelength-port remapping problem can
be solved locally by appropriately configuring the colorless ROADM.
If the colorless ROADM consists of OXC and AWGs, the OXC is
configured appropriately.
The edges of data-plane in WSON can be constructed in different types
based on cost and flexibility concerns. Without re-configurability
we should consider the constraint of the same wavelength usage on
both directions, but have lower costs. While, with wavelength-port
mapping re-configurability we can relax the constraint, but have
higher costs.
These two types of edges will co-exist in WSON mesh, till all the
edges are unified by the same type. The existence of the first type
edges presents a requirement of the same wavelength usage on both
directions, which must be supported.
Moreover, if some carriers prefer easy management of lightpath usage,
say use the same wavelength on both directions to reduce the burden
on lightpath management, the same wavelength usage would be
beneficial.
In cases of equipment failure, etc., fast provisioning used in quick
recovery is critical to protect Carriers/Users against system loss.
This requires efficient signaling which supports distributed
wavelength assignment, in particular when the centralized wavelength
assignment capability is not available.
3.4. Distributed Wavelength Assignment Support 3.4. Distributed Wavelength Assignment Support
As discussed in [HZang00] and [Sambo11] different computational
approaches for distributed wavelength assignment are available. Hence
it may be advantageous to allow the specification of a particular
approach when more than one mechanism is implemented in the systems
along the path.
WSON signaling MAY support the selection of a specific distributed WSON signaling MAY support the selection of a specific distributed
wavelength assignment method. wavelength assignment method.
This method is beneficial in cases of equipment failure, etc., where
fast provisioning used in quick recovery is critical to protect
carriers/users against system loss. This requires efficient signaling
which supports distributed wavelength assignment, in particular when
the centralized wavelength assignment capability is not available.
As discussed in the [WSON-Frame] different computational approaches
for wavelength assignment are available. One method is the use of
distributed wavelength assignment. This feature would allow the
specification of a particular approach when more than one is
implemented in the systems along the path.
3.5. Out of Scope 3.5. Out of Scope
This draft does not address signaling information related to optical This draft does not address signaling information related to optical
impairments. impairments.
4. WSON Signal Traffic Parameters, Attributes and Processing 4. WSON Signal Traffic Parameters, Attributes and Processing
As discussed in [WSON-Frame] single channel optical signals used in As discussed in [RFC6163] single channel optical signals used in
WSONs are called "optical tributary signals" and come in a number of WSONs are called "optical tributary signals" and come in a number of
classes characterized by modulation format and bit rate. Although classes characterized by modulation format and bit rate. Although
WSONs are fairly transparent to the signals they carry, to ensure WSONs are fairly transparent to the signals they carry, to ensure
compatibility amongst various networks devices and end systems it can compatibility amongst various networks devices and end systems it can
be important to include key lightpath characteristics as traffic be important to include key lightpath characteristics as traffic
parameters in signaling [WSON-Frame]. parameters in signaling [RFC6163].
4.1. Traffic Parameters for Optical Tributary Signals 4.1. Traffic Parameters for Optical Tributary Signals
In [RFC3471] we see that the G-PID (client signal type) and bit rate In [RFC3471] we see that the G-PID (client signal type) and bit rate
(byte rate) of the signals are defined as parameters and in [RFC3473] (byte rate) of the signals are defined as parameters and in [RFC3473]
they are conveyed Generalized Label Request object and the RSVP they are conveyed Generalized Label Request object and the RSVP
SENDER_TSPEC/FLOWSPEC objects respectively. SENDER_TSPEC/FLOWSPEC objects respectively.
4.2. Signal Attributes and Processing 4.2. Signal Attributes and Processing
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The contents of this new "processing" subobject would be a list of The contents of this new "processing" subobject would be a list of
TLVs that could include: TLVs that could include:
o Modulation Type TLV (input and/or output) o Modulation Type TLV (input and/or output)
o FEC Type TLV (input and/or output) o FEC Type TLV (input and/or output)
o Processing Instruction TLV o Processing Instruction TLV
Currently the only processing instruction TLV currently defined is Currently the only processing instruction TLV currently defined is
for regeneration. The [WSON-Info] and [WSON-Encoding] provides the for regeneration. The [WSON-Info] and [WSON-Encode] provides the
details for these specifics sub-TLVs. details for these specifics sub-TLVs.
Possible encodings and values for these TLV are given in below. Possible encodings and values for these TLV are given in below.
4.2.1. Modulation Type sub-TLV 4.2.1. Modulation Type sub-TLV
The encoding for modulation type sub-TLV is defined in [WSON-Encode] The encoding for modulation type sub-TLV is defined in [WSON-Encode]
Section 4.2.1. Section 4.2.1.
It may come in two different formats: a standard modulation field or It may come in two different formats: a standard modulation field or
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Note that the use of the C field is optional in signaling. Note that the use of the C field is optional in signaling.
5. Bidirectional Lightpath Setup 5. Bidirectional Lightpath Setup
With the wavelength continuity constraint in CI-incapable [RFC3471] With the wavelength continuity constraint in CI-incapable [RFC3471]
WSONs, where the nodes in the networks cannot support wavelength WSONs, where the nodes in the networks cannot support wavelength
conversion, the same wavelength on each link along a unidirectional conversion, the same wavelength on each link along a unidirectional
lightpath should be reserved. In addition to the wavelength lightpath should be reserved. In addition to the wavelength
continuity constraint, requirement 3.2 gives us another constraint on continuity constraint, requirement 3.2 gives us another constraint on
wavelength usage in data plane, in particular, it requires the same wavelength usage in data plane, in particular, it requires the same
wavelength to be used in both directions. [WSON-Frame] in section 6.1 wavelength to be used in both directions. [RFC6163] in section 6.1
reports on the implication to GMPLS signaling related to both bi- reports on the implication to GMPLS signaling related to both bi-
directionality and Distributed Wavelengths Assignment. directionality and Distributed Wavelengths Assignment.
5.1. Possible Solutions for Bidirectional Lightpath 5.1. Possible Solutions for Bidirectional Lightpath
A first classification is using a unique bidirectional LSP (as A first classification is using a unique bidirectional LSP (as
defined by [RFC3471]) two unidirectional LSPs as per [RFC2205] defined by [RFC3471]) two unidirectional LSPs as per [RFC2205]
approach, so possible options are the following: approach, so possible options are the following:
o Bidirectional LSP o Bidirectional LSP
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"Unknown Attributes Bit" and Error Value set to the bit number of the "Unknown Attributes Bit" and Error Value set to the bit number of the
new type lightpath Flag in the Attributes Flags. The reader is new type lightpath Flag in the Attributes Flags. The reader is
referred to the detailed backward compatibility considerations referred to the detailed backward compatibility considerations
expressed in [RFC5420]. expressed in [RFC5420].
6. RWA Related 6. RWA Related
6.1. Wavelength Assignment Method Selection 6.1. Wavelength Assignment Method Selection
Routing + Distributed wavelength assignment (R+DWA) is one of the Routing + Distributed wavelength assignment (R+DWA) is one of the
options defined by the [WSON-Frame]. The output from the routing options defined by the [RFC6163]. The output from the routing
function will be a path but the wavelength will be selected on a hop- function will be a path but the wavelength will be selected on a hop-
by-hop basis. by-hop basis.
Under this hypothesis the node initiating the signaling process needs Under this hypothesis the node initiating the signaling process needs
to declare its own wavelength availability (through a label_set to declare its own wavelength availability (through a label_set
object). Each intermediate node may delete some labels due to object). Each intermediate node may delete some labels due to
connectivity constraints or its own assignment policy. At the end, connectivity constraints or its own assignment policy. At the end,
the destination node has to make the final decision on the wavelength the destination node has to make the final decision on the wavelength
assignment among the ones received through the signaling process. assignment among the ones received through the signaling process.
As discussed in [HZang00] a number of different wavelength assignment As discussed in [HZang00] and [Sambo11] a number of different
algorithms maybe employed. In addition as discussed in [WSON-Frame] wavelength assignment algorithms maybe employed. In addition as
the wavelength assignment can be either for a unidirectional discussed in [RFC6163] the wavelength assignment can be either for a
lightpath or for a bidirectional lightpath constrained to use the unidirectional lightpath or for a bidirectional lightpath constrained
same lambda in both directions. to use the same lambda in both directions.
A simple TLV could be used to indication wavelength assignment A simple TLV could be used to indication wavelength assignment
directionality and wavelength assignment method. This would be placed directionality and wavelength assignment method. This would be placed
in an LSP_REQUIRED_ATTRIBUTES object per [RFC5420]. The use of a TLV in an LSP_REQUIRED_ATTRIBUTES object per [RFC5420]. The use of a TLV
in the LSP required attributes object was pointed out in [Xu]. in the LSP required attributes object was pointed out in [Xu].
[TO DO: The directionality stuff needs to be reconciled with the [TO DO: The directionality stuff needs to be reconciled with the
earlier material] earlier material]
Unique Wavelength: 0 same wavelength in both directions, 1 may use Unique Wavelength: 0 same wavelength in both directions, 1 may use
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in Resource ReSerVation Protocol - Traffic Engineering in Resource ReSerVation Protocol - Traffic Engineering
(RSVP-TE)", RFC 3477, January 2003. (RSVP-TE)", RFC 3477, January 2003.
[RFC5420] Farrel, A., Ed., Papadimitriou, D., Vasseur, J.-P., and A. [RFC5420] Farrel, A., Ed., Papadimitriou, D., Vasseur, J.-P., and A.
Ayyangar, " Encoding of Attributes for MPLS LSP Ayyangar, " Encoding of Attributes for MPLS LSP
Establishment Using Resource Reservation Protocol Traffic Establishment Using Resource Reservation Protocol Traffic
Engineering (RSVP-TE)", RFC 5420, February 2006. Engineering (RSVP-TE)", RFC 5420, February 2006.
10.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[WSON-CompOSPF] Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, "OSPF Enhancement for Signal [RFC6163] Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, W. Imajuku, "Framework for GMPLS and
and Network Element Compatibility for Wavelength Switched PCE Control of Wavelength Switched Optical Networks", RFC
Optical Networks", work in progress: draft-lee-ccamp-wson- 6163, April, 2011.
signal-compatibility-OSPF.
[WSON-Frame] Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, W. Imajuku, "Framework for GMPLS [WSON-Info] Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, D. Li, W. Imajuku, "Routing and
and PCE Control of Wavelength Switched Optical Networks", Wavelength Assignment Information Model for Wavelength
work in progress: draft-bernstein-ccamp-wavelength- Switched Optical Networks", draft-ietf-ccamp-rwa-info
switched-03.txt, February 2008. work in progress.
[WSON-Encode] G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, W. Imajuku, "Routing and
Wavelength Assignment Information Encoding for Wavelength
Switched Optical Networks", draft-ietf-ccamp-rwa-wson-
encode, work in progress.
[HZang00] H. Zang, J. Jue and B. Mukherjeee, "A review of routing and [HZang00] H. Zang, J. Jue and B. Mukherjeee, "A review of routing and
wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed
optical WDM networks", Optical Networks Magazine, January optical WDM networks", Optical Networks Magazine, January
2000. 2000.
[Sambo11] "Wavelength Preference in GMPLS-controlled Wavelength
Switched Optical Networks," 01-Sep-2011. [Online].
Available:
http://macrothink.org/journal/index.php/npa/article/view/81
9/0.
[Xu] S. Xu, H. Harai, and D. King, "Extensions to GMPLS RSVP-TE [Xu] S. Xu, H. Harai, and D. King, "Extensions to GMPLS RSVP-TE
for Bidirectional Lightpath the Same Wavelength", work in for Bidirectional Lightpath the Same Wavelength", work in
progress: draft-xu-rsvpte-bidir-wave-01, November 2007. progress: draft-xu-rsvpte-bidir-wave-01, November 2007.
[Winzer06] Peter J. Winzer and Rene-Jean Essiambre, "Advanced [Winzer06] Peter J. Winzer and Rene-Jean Essiambre, "Advanced
Optical Modulation Formats", Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. Optical Modulation Formats", Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.
94, no. 5, pp. 952-985, May 2006. 94, no. 5, pp. 952-985, May 2006.
[G.959.1] ITU-T Recommendation G.959.1, Optical Transport Network [G.959.1] ITU-T Recommendation G.959.1, Optical Transport Network
Physical Layer Interfaces, March 2006. Physical Layer Interfaces, March 2006.
[G.694.1] ITU-T Recommendation G.694.1, Spectral grids for WDM [G.694.1] ITU-T Recommendation G.694.1, Spectral grids for WDM
applications: DWDM frequency grid, June 2002. applications: DWDM frequency grid, June 2002.
[G.694.2] ITU-T Recommendation G.694.2, Spectral grids for WDM [G.694.2] ITU-T Recommendation G.694.2, Spectral grids for WDM
applications: CWDM wavelength grid, December 2003. applications: CWDM wavelength grid, December 2003.
[G.Sup43] ITU-T Series G Supplement 43, Transport of IEEE 10G base-R [G.Sup43] ITU-T Series G Supplement 43, Transport of IEEE 10G base-R
in optical transport networks (OTN), November 2006. in optical transport networks (OTN), November 2006.
[RFC4427] Mannie, E., Ed., and D. Papadimitriou, Ed., "Recovery
(Protection and Restoration) Terminology for Generalized
Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)", RFC 4427, March
2006.
[RFC4872] Lang, J., Rekhter, Y., and Papadimitriou, D., "RSVP-TE [RFC4872] Lang, J., Rekhter, Y., and Papadimitriou, D., "RSVP-TE
Extensions in Support of End-to-End Generalized Multi- Extensions in Support of End-to-End Generalized Multi-
Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Recovery", RFC 4872, Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Recovery", RFC 4872,
[ASSOC-Info] Berger, L., Faucheur, F., and A. Narayanan, "Usage of [ASSOC-Info] Berger, L., Faucheur, F., and A. Narayanan, "Usage of
The RSVP Association Object", draft-ietf-ccamp-assoc-info- The RSVP Association Object", draft-ietf-ccamp-assoc-info,
00 (work in progress), October 2010. work in progress.
[ASSOC-Ext] Zhang, F., Jing, R., "RSVP-TE Extension to Establish [ASSOC-Ext] Zhang, F., Jing, R., "RSVP-TE Extension to Establish
Associated Bidirectional LSP", draft-zhang-mpls-tp-rsvp-te- Associated Bidirectional LSP", draft-zhang-mpls-tp-rsvp-te-
ext-associated-lsp-03 (work in progress), February 2011. ext-associated-lsp, work in progress.
Author's Addresses Author's Addresses
Greg M. Bernstein (editor) Greg M. Bernstein (editor)
Grotto Networking Grotto Networking
Fremont California, USA Fremont California, USA
Phone: (510) 573-2237 Phone: (510) 573-2237
Email: gregb@grotto-networking.com Email: gregb@grotto-networking.com
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