draft-ietf-ccamp-transport-lmp-02.txt   rfc4394.txt 
Network Working Group Don Fedyk (Nortel Networks) Network Working Group D. Fedyk
Internet Draft Osama Aboul-Magd (Nortel Networks) Request for Comments: 4394 O. Aboul-Magd
Category: Informational Deborah Brungard (AT&T) Category: Informational Nortel Networks
Expires October 2005 Jonathan Lang (Sonos, Inc.) D. Brungard
Dimitri Papadimitriou (Alcatel) AT&T
J. Lang
May 2005 Sonos, Inc.
D. Papadimitriou
A Transport Network View of the Link Management Protocol Alcatel
<draft-ietf-ccamp-transport-lmp-02.txt> February 2006
Status of this Memo A Transport Network View of the Link Management Protocol (LMP)
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Abstract Abstract
The Link Management Protocol (LMP) has been developed as part of the The Link Management Protocol (LMP) has been developed as part of the
Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) protocol suite to manage Traffic Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) protocol suite to manage Traffic Engineering
Engineering (TE) resources and links. The GMPLS control plane (TE) resources and links. The GMPLS control plane (routing and
(routing and signaling) uses TE links for establishing Label signaling) uses TE links for establishing Label Switched Paths
Switched Paths (LSPs). This memo describes the relationship of the (LSPs). This memo describes the relationship of the LMP procedures
LMP procedures to 'discovery' as defined in the International to 'discovery' as defined in the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication Union (ITU-T), and on-going ITU-T work. This Union (ITU-T), and ongoing ITU-T work. This document provides an
document provides an overview of LMP in the context of the ITU-T overview of LMP in the context of the ITU-T Automatically Switched
Automatically Switched Optical Networks (ASON) and transport network Optical Networks (ASON) and transport network terminology and relates
terminology and relates it to the ITU-T discovery work to promote a it to the ITU-T discovery work to promote a common understanding for
common understanding for progressing the work of IETF and ITU-T. progressing the work of IETF and ITU-T.
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 1
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. ASON Terminology and Abbreviations related to Discovery.........2 1. Introduction ....................................................2
1.1 Terminology....................................................2 2. ASON Terminology and Abbreviations Related to Discovery .........3
1.2 Abbreviations.................................................3 2.1. Terminology ................................................3
2. Introduction....................................................3 2.2. Abbreviations ..............................................4
3. Transport Network Architecture..................................4 3. Transport Network Architecture ..................................5
3.1 G.8080 Discovery Framework.....................................6 3.1. G.8080 Discovery Framework .................................7
4. Discovery Technologies..........................................8 4. Discovery Technologies ..........................................9
4.1 Generalized automatic discovery techniques G.7714..............8 4.1. Generalized Automatic Discovery Techniques G.7714 ..........9
4.2 LMP and G.8080 Terminology Mapping.............................9 4.2. LMP and G.8080 Terminology Mapping .........................9
4.2.1 TE Link Definition and Scope................................10 4.2.1. TE Link Definition and Scope .......................12
4.3 LMP and G.8080 Discovery Relationship.........................12 4.3. LMP and G.8080 Discovery Relationship .....................13
4.4 Comparing LMP and G.8080......................................13 4.4. Comparing LMP and G.8080 ..................................14
5. Security Considerations........................................13 5. Security Considerations ........................................15
6. IANA Considerations............................................14 6. Informative References .........................................15
7. Intellectual Property Considerations...........................14 7. Acknowledgements ...............................................16
8. References.....................................................15
8.1 Normative References..........................................15
8.2 Informational References......................................15
9. Acknowledgements...............................................16
10. Author's Addresses............................................16
11. Disclaimer of Validity........................................17
12. Full Copyright Statement......................................17
1. ASON Terminology and Abbreviations related to Discovery 1. Introduction
1.1 Terminology The GMPLS control plane consists of several building blocks as
described in [RFC3945]. The building blocks include signaling,
routing, and link management for establishing LSPs. For scalability
purposes, multiple physical resources can be combined to form a
single TE link for the purposes of path computation and GMPLS control
plane signaling.
As manual provisioning and management of these links are impractical
in large networks, LMP was specified to manage TE links. Two
mandatory management capabilities of LMP are control channel
management and TE link property correlation. Additional optional
capabilities include verifying physical connectivity and fault
management. [LMP] defines the messages and procedures for GMPLS TE
link management. [LMP-TEST] defines SONET/SDH-specific messages and
procedures for link verification.
ITU-T Recommendation G.8080 Amendment 1 [G.8080] defines control
plane discovery as two separate processes; one process occurs within
the transport plane space and the other process occurs within the
control plane space.
The ITU-T has developed Recommendation G.7714, "Generalized automatic
discovery techniques" [G.7714], defining the functional processes and
information exchange related to transport plane discovery aspects,
i.e., layer adjacency discovery and physical media adjacency
discovery. Specific methods and protocols are not defined in
Recommendation G.7714. ITU-T Recommendation G.7714.1, "Protocol for
automatic discovery in SDH and OTN networks" [G.7714.1], defines a
protocol and procedure for transport plane layer adjacency discovery
(e.g., discovering the transport plane layer endpoint relationships
and verifying their connectivity). The ITU-T is currently working to
extend discovery to control plane aspects providing detail on a
discovery framework architecture in G.8080 and a new Recommendation
on "Control plane initial establishment, reconfiguration".
2. ASON Terminology and Abbreviations Related to Discovery
ITU-T Recommendation G.8080 Amendment 1 [G.8080] and ITU-T
Recommendation G.7714 [G.7714] provide definitions and mechanisms
related to transport plane discovery.
Note that in the context of this work, "Transport" relates to the
data plane (sometimes called the transport plane or the user plane)
and does not refer to the transport layer (layer 4) of the OSI seven
layer model, nor to the concept of transport intended by protocols
such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
Special care must be taken with the acronym "TCP", which within the
context of the rest of this document means "Termination Connection
Point" and does not indicate the Transmission Control Protocol.
2.1. Terminology
The reader is assumed to be familiar with the terminology in [LMP] The reader is assumed to be familiar with the terminology in [LMP]
and [LMP-TEST]. The following ITU-T terminology/abbreviations are and [LMP-TEST]. The following ITU-T terminology/abbreviations are
used in this document: used in this document:
Connection Point (CP): A "reference point" that consists of a pair Connection Point (CP): A "reference point" that consists of a pair of
of co-located "unidirectional connection points" and therefore co-located "unidirectional connection points" and therefore
represents the binding of two paired bidirectional "connections". represents the binding of two paired bidirectional "connections".
Connection Termination Point (CTP): A Connection Termination Point Connection Termination Point (CTP): A connection termination point
(CTP) represents the state of a CP [M.3100]. represents the state of a CP [M.3100].
Characteristic Information: Signal with a specific format, which is Characteristic Information: Signal with a specific format, which is
transferred on "network connections". The specific formats will be transferred on "network connections". The specific formats will be
defined in the technology specific Recommendations. For trails the defined in the technology-specific recommendations. For trails, the
Characteristic Information is the payload plus the overhead. The Characteristic Information is the payload plus the overhead. The
information transferred is characteristic of the layer network. information transferred is characteristic of the layer network.
Link: a subset of ports at the edge of a subnetwork or access group Link: A subset of ports at the edge of a subnetwork or access group
which are associated with a corresponding subset of ports at the that are associated with a corresponding subset of ports at the edge
edge of another subnetwork or access group. of another subnetwork or access group.
Link Connection (LC): a transport entity that transfers information Link Connection (LC): A transport entity that transfers information
between ports across a link. between ports across a link.
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 2
Network Connection (NC): A concatenation of link and subnetwork Network Connection (NC): A concatenation of link and subnetwork
connections. connections.
Subnetwork: a set of ports which are available for the purpose of Subnetwork: A set of ports that are available for the purpose of
routing 'characteristic information'. routing 'characteristic information'.
Subnetwork Connection (SNC): a flexible connection that is setup and Subnetwork Connection (SNC): A flexible connection that is set up and
released using management or control plane procedures. released using management or control plane procedures.
Subnetwork Point (SNP): SNP is an abstraction that represents an Subnetwork Point (SNP): SNP is an abstraction that represents an
actual or potential underlying connection point (CP) or termination actual or potential underlying connection point (CP) or termination
connection point (TCP) for the purpose of control plane connection point (TCP) for the purpose of control plane
representation. representation.
Subnetwork Point Pool (SNPP): A set of SNP that are grouped together Subnetwork Point Pool (SNPP): A set of SNPs that are grouped together
for the purpose of routing. for the purpose of routing.
Termination Connection Point (TCP): A reference point that Termination Connection Point (TCP): A reference point that represents
represents the output of a Trail Termination source function or the the output of a Trail Termination source function or the input to a
input to a Trail Termination sink function. A network connection Trail Termination sink function. A network connection represents a
represents a transport entity between TCPs. transport entity between TCPs.
Trail Termination source/sink function: A "transport processing Trail Termination source/sink function: A "transport processing
function" which accepts the characteristic information of the layer function" that accepts the characteristic information of the layer
network at its input, removes the information related to "trail" network at its input, removes the information related to "trail"
monitoring and presents the remaining information at its output. monitoring, and presents the remaining information at its output.
Unidirectional Connection: A "transport entity" which transfers
Unidirectional Connection: A "transport entity" that transfers
information transparently from input to output. information transparently from input to output.
Unidirectional Connection Point: A "reference point" that represents Unidirectional Connection Point: A "reference point" that represents
the binding of the output of a "unidirectional connection" to the the binding of the output of a "unidirectional connection" to the
input of another "unidirectional connection". input of another "unidirectional connection".
1.2 Abbreviations 2.2. Abbreviations
LMP: Link Management Protocol LMP: Link Management Protocol
OTN: Optical transport network OTN: Optical Transport Network
PDH: Plesiosynchronous digital hierarchy
SDH: Synchronous digital hierarchy.
2. Introduction
The GMPLS control plane consists of several building blocks as
described in [RFC3945]. The building blocks include signaling,
routing, and link management for establishing LSPs. For scalability
purposes, multiple physical resources can be combined to form a
single traffic engineering (TE) link for the purposes of path
computation and GMPLS control plane signaling.
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 3 PDH: Plesiosynchronous Digital Hierarchy
As manual provisioning and management of these links is impractical
in large networks, LMP was specified to manage TE links. Two
mandatory management capabilities of LMP are control channel
management and TE link property correlation. Additional optional
capabilities include verifying physical connectivity and fault
management. [LMP] defines the messages and procedures for GMPLS TE
link management. [LMP-TEST] defines SONET/SDH specific messages and
procedures for link verification.
ITU-T Recommendation G.8080 Amendment 1 [G.8080] defines control SDH: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
plane discovery as two separate processes, one process occurs within
the transport plane space and the other process occurs within the
control plane space.
The ITU-T has developed Recommendation G.7714 'Generalized automatic SONET: Synchronous Optical Network
discovery techniques' [G.7714] defining the functional processes and
information exchange related to transport plane discovery aspects:
i.e., layer adjacency discovery and physical media adjacency
discovery. Specific methods and protocols are not defined in
Recommendation G.7714. ITU-T Recommendation G.7714.1 'Protocol for
automatic discovery in SDH and OTN networks' [G.7714.1] defines a
protocol and procedure for transport plane layer adjacency discovery
(e.g. discovering the transport plane layer end point relationships
and verifying their connectivity). The ITU-T is currently working to
extend discovery to control plane aspects providing detail on a
Discovery framework architecture in G.8080 and a new Recommendation
on 'Control plane initial establishment, reconfiguration'.
3. Transport Network Architecture 3. Transport Network Architecture
A generic functional architecture for transport networks is defined A generic functional architecture for transport networks is defined
in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU-T) recommendation in International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) Recommendation
[G.805]. This recommendation describes the functional architecture [G.805]. This recommendation describes the functional architecture
of transport networks in a technology independent way. This of transport networks in a technology-independent way. This
architecture forms the basis for a set of technology specific architecture forms the basis for a set of technology-specific
architectural recommendations for transport networks (e.g., SDH, architectural recommendations for transport networks (e.g., SDH, PDH,
PDH, OTN, etc.) OTN, etc.).
The architecture defined in G.805 is designed using a layered model The architecture defined in G.805 is designed using a layered model
with a client-server relationship between layers. The architecture with a client-server relationship between layers. The architecture
is recursive in nature; a network layer is both a server to the is recursive in nature; a network layer is both a server to the
client layer above it and a client to the server layer below it. client layer above it and a client to the server layer below it.
There are two basic building blocks defined in G.805: "subnetworks" There are two basic building blocks defined in G.805: "subnetworks"
and "links". A subnetwork is defined as a set of ports which are and "links". A subnetwork is defined as a set of ports that are
available for the purpose of routing "characteristic information". A available for the purpose of routing "characteristic information". A
link consists of a subset of ports at the edge of one subnetwork (or link consists of a subset of ports at the edge of one subnetwork (or
"access group") and is associated with a corresponding subset of "access group") and is associated with a corresponding subset of
ports at the edge of another subnetwork or access group. ports at the edge of another subnetwork or access group.
Two types of connections are defined in G.805: "link connection" Two types of connections are defined in G.805: link connection (LC)
(LC) and "subnetwork connection" (SNC). A link connection is a fixed and subnetwork connection (SNC). A link connection is a fixed and
inflexible connection, while a subnetwork connection is flexible and
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 4 is set up and released using management or control plane procedures.
and inflexible connection, while a subnetwork connection is flexible A network connection is defined as a concatenation of subnetwork and
and is setup and released using management or control plane link connections. Figure 1 illustrates link and subnetwork
procedures. A network connection is defined as a concatenation of connections.
subnetwork and link connections. Figure 1 illustrates link and
subnetwork connections.
(++++++++) (++++++++) (++++++++) (++++++++)
( SNC ) LC ( SNC ) ( SNC ) LC ( SNC )
(o)--------(o)----------(o)--------(o) (o)--------(o)----------(o)--------(o)
( ) CP CP ( ) ( ) CP CP ( )
(++++++++) (++++++++) (++++++++) (++++++++)
subnetwork subnetwork subnetwork subnetwork
Figure 1: Subnetwork and Link Connections Figure 1: Subnetwork and Link Connections
G.805 defines a set of reference points for the purpose of G.805 defines a set of reference points for the purpose of
identification in both the management and the control plane. These identification in both the management and the control planes. These
identifiers are NOT required to be the same. A link connection or a identifiers are NOT required to be the same. A link connection or a
subnetwork connection is delimited by connection points (CP). A subnetwork connection is delimited by connection points (CPs). A
network connection is delimited by a termination connection point network connection is delimited by a termination connection point
(TCP). A link connection in the client layer is represented by a (TCP). A link connection in the client layer is represented by a
pair of adaptation functions and a trail in the server layer pair of adaptation functions and a trail in the server layer network.
network. A trail represents the transfer of monitored adapted A trail represents the transfer of monitored adapted characteristics
characteristics information of the client layer network between information of the client layer network between access points (APs).
access points (AP). A trail is delimited by two access points, one
at each end of the trail. Figure 2 shows a network connection and A trail is delimited by two access points, one at each end of the
its relationship with link and subnetwork connections. Figure 2 also trail. Figure 2 shows a network connection and its relationship with
shows the CP and TCP reference points. link and subnetwork connections. Figure 2 also shows the CP and TCP
reference points.
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 5
|<-------Network Connection---------->| |<-------Network Connection---------->|
| | | |
| (++++++++) (++++++++) | | (++++++++) (++++++++) |
|( SNC ) LC ( SNC ) | |( SNC ) LC ( SNC ) |
(o)--------(o)----------(o)--------(o)| (o)--------(o)----------(o)--------(o)|
TCP( )| CP CP |( )TCP TCP( )| CP CP |( )TCP
(++++++++) | | (++++++++) (++++++++) | | (++++++++)
| | | |
| Trail | | Trail |
|<-------->| |<-------->|
| | | |
--- --- --- ---
\ / \ / \ / \ /
- - - -
AP 0 0 AP AP 0 0 AP
| | | |
(oo)------(oo) (oo)------(oo)
For management plane purposes the G.805 reference points are Figure 2: Network Connection with Link and Subnetwork Connections
For management plane purposes, the G.805 reference points are
represented by a set of management objects described in ITU-T represented by a set of management objects described in ITU-T
recommendation M.3100 [M.3100]. Connection termination points (CTP) Recommendation M.3100 [M.3100]. Connection termination points (CTPs)
and trail termination points (TTP) are the management plane objects and trail termination points (TTPs) are the management plane objects
for CP and TCP respectively. for CP and TCP, respectively.
In the same way as in M.3100, the transport resources in G.805 are In the same way as in M.3100, the transport resources in G.805 are
identified for the purposes of the control plane by entities identified for the purposes of the control plane by entities suitable
suitable for connection control. G.8080 introduces the reference for connection control. G.8080 introduces the reference architecture
architecture for the control plane of the automatic switched optical for the control plane of the Automatically Switched Optical Networks
networks (ASON). G.8080 introduces a set of reference points (ASONs). G.8080 introduces a set of reference points relevant to the
relevant to the ASON control plane and their relationship to the ASON control plane and their relationship to the corresponding points
corresponding points in the transport plane. A Subnetwork point in the transport plane. A subnetwork point (SNP) is an abstraction
(SNP) is an abstraction that represents an actual or potential that represents an actual or potential underlying CP or an actual or
underlying CP or an actual or potential TCP. A set of SNPs that are potential TCP. A set of SNPs that are grouped together for the
grouped together for the purpose of routing is called SNP pool purpose of routing is called SNP pool (SNPP). Similar to LC and SNC,
(SNPP). Similar to LC and SNC, the SNP-SNP relationship may be the SNP-SNP relationship may be static and inflexible (this is
static and inflexible (this is referred to as an SNP link referred to as an SNP link connection), or it can be dynamic and
connection) or it can be dynamic and flexible (this is referred to flexible (this is referred to as an SNP subnetwork connection).
as a SNP subnetwork connection).
3.1 G.8080 Discovery Framework 3.1. G.8080 Discovery Framework
G.8080 provides a reference control plane architecture based on the G.8080 provides a reference control plane architecture based on the
descriptive use of functional components representing abstract descriptive use of functional components representing abstract
entities and abstract component interfaces. The description is entities and abstract component interfaces. The description is
generic and no particular physical partitioning of functions is generic, and no particular physical partitioning of functions is
implied. The input/output information flows associated with the implied. The input/output information flows associated with the
functional components serve for defining the functions of the functional components serve for defining the functions of the
components and are considered to be conceptual, not physical. components and are considered to be conceptual, not physical.
Components can be combined in different ways and the description is Components can be combined in different ways, and the description is
not intended to limit implementations. Control plane discovery is not intended to limit implementations. Control plane discovery is
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 6
described in G.8080 by using three components: Discovery Agent (DA), described in G.8080 by using three components: Discovery Agent (DA),
Termination and Adaptation Performer (TAP), and Link Resource Termination and Adaptation Performer (TAP), and Link Resource Manager
Manager (LRM). (LRM).
The objective of the discovery framework in G.8080 is to establish The objective of the discovery framework in G.8080 is to establish
the relationship between CP-CP link connections (transport plane) the relationship between CP-CP link connections (transport plane) and
and SNP-SNP link connections (control plane). The fundamental SNP-SNP link connections (control plane). The fundamental
characteristics of G.8080 discovery framework is the functional characteristics of G.8080 discovery framework is the functional
separation between the control and the transport plane discovery separation between the control and the transport plane discovery
processes and name spaces. From G.8080: "This separation allows processes and name spaces. From G.8080: "This separation allows
control plane names to be completely separate from transport plane control plane names to be completely separate from transport plane
names, and completely independent of the method used to populate the names, and completely independent of the method used to populate the
DAs with those transport names." "In order to assign an SNP-SNP link DAs with those transport names. In order to assign an SNP-SNP link
connection to an SNPP link, it is only necessary for the transport connection to an SNPP link, it is only necessary for the transport
name for the link connection to exist". Thus, it is possible to name for the link connection to exist". Thus, it is possible to
assign link connections to the control plane without the link assign link connections to the control plane without the link
connection being physically connected. connection being physically connected.
Discovery encompasses two separate processes: (1) transport plane Discovery encompasses two separate processes: (1) transport plane
discovery, i.e. CP-to-CP and TCP-to-TCP connectivity and (2) control discovery, i.e., CP-to-CP and TCP-to-TCP connectivity; and (2)
plane discovery, i.e. SNP-to-SNP and SNPP links. control plane discovery, i.e., SNP-to-SNP and SNPP links.
G.8080 Amendment 1 defines the discovery agent (DA) as the entity G.8080 Amendment 1 defines the Discovery Agent (DA) as the entity
responsible for discovery in the transport plane. The DA operates in responsible for discovery in the transport plane. The DA operates in
the transport name space only and in cooperation with the the transport name space only and in cooperation with the Termination
Termination and Adaptation performer [TAP], provides the separation and Adaptation Performer (TAP), provides the separation between that
between that space and the control plane names. A local DA is only space and the control plane names. A local DA is only aware of the
aware of the CPs and TCPs that are assigned to it. The DA holds the CPs and TCPs that are assigned to it. The DA holds the CP-CP link
CP-CP link connection in the transport plane to enable SNP-SNP link connection in the transport plane to enable SNP-SNP link connections
connections to be bound to them at a later time by the TAP. The CP- to be bound to them at a later time by the TAP. The CP-CP
CP relationship may be discovered (e.g. per G.7714.1) or provided by relationship may be discovered (e.g., per G.7714.1) or provided by a
a management system. management system.
Control plane discovery takes place entirely within the control Control plane discovery takes place entirely within the control plane
plane name space (SNPs). The Link Resource Manager (LRM) holds the name space (SNPs). The Link Resource Manager (LRM) holds the SNP-SNP
SNP-SNP binding information necessary for the control plane name of binding information necessary for the control plane name of the link
the link connection, while the termination adaptation performer connection, while the termination adaptation performer (TAP) holds
(TAP) holds the relation between the control plane name (SNP) and the relation between the control plane name (SNP) and the transport
the transport plane name (CP) of the resource. Figure 3 shows the plane name (CP) of the resource. Figure 3 shows the relationship and
relationship and the different entities for transport and control the different entities for transport and control discoveries.
discoveries.
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 7
LRM LRM LRM LRM
+-----+ holds SNP-SNP Relation +-----+ +-----+ holds SNP-SNP Relation +-----+
| |-------------------------| | | |-------------------------| |
+-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+
| | | |
v v v v
+-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+
| o | SNP's in SNPP | o | | o | SNPs in SNPP | o |
| | | | | | | |
| o | | o | | o | | o |
| | | | | | | |
| o | | o | | o | | o |
+-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+
| | | |
v v Control Plane v v Control Plane
+-----+ +-----+ Discovery +-----+ +-----+ Discovery
| | Termination and | | | | Termination and | |
---|-----|-------------------------|-----|--------- ---|-----|-------------------------|-----|---------
skipping to change at line 368 skipping to change at page 9, line 7
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| +-----+ +-----+ | | +-----+ +-----+ |
| / \ | | / \ |
V/ \V V/ \V
O CP (Transport Name) O CP (Transport Name) O CP (Transport Name) O CP (Transport Name)
Figure 3: Discovery in the Control and the Transport Planes Figure 3: Discovery in the Control and the Transport Planes
4. Discovery Technologies 4. Discovery Technologies
4.1 Generalized automatic discovery techniques G.7714 4.1. Generalized Automatic Discovery Techniques G.7714
Generalized automatic discovery techniques are described in G.7714 Generalized automatic discovery techniques are described in G.7714 to
to aid resource management and routing for G.8080. The term routing aid resource management and routing for G.8080. The term routing
here is described in the transport context of routing connections in here is described in the transport context of routing connections in
an optical network as opposed to the routing context typically an optical network as opposed to the routing context typically
associated in packet networks. associated in packet networks.
G.7714 is concerned with two types of discovery: G.7714 is concerned with two types of discovery:
- Layer adjacency discovery - Layer adjacency discovery
- Physical media adjacency discovery - Physical media adjacency discovery
Layer adjacency discovery can be used to correlate physical Layer adjacency discovery can be used to correlate physical
connections with management configured attributes. Among other connections with management configured attributes. Among other
features this capability allows reduction in configuration and the features this capability allows reduction in configuration and the
detection of miswired equipment. detection of mis-wired equipment.
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 8
Physical media adjacency discovery is a process that allows the Physical media adjacency discovery is a process that allows the
physical testing of the media for the purpose of inventory capacity physical testing of the media for the purpose of inventory capacity
and verifying the port characteristics of physical media adjacent and verifying the port characteristics of physical media adjacent
networks. networks.
G.7714 does not specify specific protocols but rather the type of G.7714 does not specify specific protocols but rather the type of
techniques that can be used. G.7714.1 specifies a protocol for techniques that can be used. G.7714.1 specifies a protocol for layer
layer adjacency with respect to SDH and OTN networks for Layer adjacency with respect to SDH and OTN networks for layer adjacency
adjacency Discovery. A GMPLS method for Layer Discovery using discovery. A GMPLS method for layer discovery using elements of LMP
elements of LMP is included in this set of procedures. is included in this set of procedures.
An important point about the G.7714 specification is it specifies a An important point about the G.7714 specification is that it
discovery mechanism for optical networks but not necessarily how the specifies a discovery mechanism for optical networks but not
information will be used. It is intended that the Transport necessarily how the information will be used. It is intended that
Management plane or a Transport control plane may subsequently make the transport management plane or a transport control plane may
use of the discovered information. subsequently make use of the discovered information.
4.2 LMP and G.8080 Terminology Mapping 4.2. LMP and G.8080 Terminology Mapping
GMPLS is a set of IP-based protocols, including LMP, providing a GMPLS is a set of IP-based protocols, including LMP, providing a
control plane for multiple data plane technologies, including control plane for multiple data plane technologies, including
optical/transport networks and their resources (i.e. wavelengths, optical/transport networks and their resources (i.e., wavelengths,
timeslots, etc.) and without assuming any restriction on the control timeslots, etc.) and without assuming any restriction on the control
plane architecture (see [GMPLS-ARCH]). Whereas, G.8080 defines a plane architecture (see [RFC3945]). On the other hand, G.8080
control plane reference architecture for optical/transport networks defines a control plane reference architecture for optical/transport
and without any restriction on the control plane implementation. networks without any restriction on the control plane implementation.
Being developed in separate standards forums, and with different Being developed in separate standards forums, and with different
scope, they use different terms and definitions. scopes, they use different terms and definitions.
Terminology mapping between LMP and ASON (G.805/G.8080) is an Terminology mapping between LMP and ASON (G.805/G.8080) is an
important step towards the understanding of the two architectures important step towards the understanding of the two architectures and
and allows for potential cooperation in areas where cooperation is allows for potential cooperation in areas where cooperation is
possible. To facilitate this mapping, we differentiate between the possible. To facilitate this mapping, we differentiate between the
two types of data links in LMP. According to LMP, a data link may be two types of data links in LMP. According to LMP, a data link may be
considered by each node that it terminates on as either a 'port' or considered by each node that it terminates on as either a 'port' or a
a 'component link'. The LMP notions of port and component link are 'component link'. The LMP notions of port and component link are
supported by the G.805/G.8080 architecture. G.8080's variable supported by the G.805/G.8080 architecture. G.8080's variable
adaptation function is broadly equivalent to LMP's component link, adaptation function is broadly equivalent to LMP's component link,
i.e. a single server layer trail dynamically supporting different i.e., a single server-layer trail dynamically supporting different
multiplexing structures. Note that when the data plane delivers its multiplexing structures. Note that when the data plane delivers its
own addressing space, LMP Interface_IDs and Data Links IDs are used own addressing space, LMP Interface_IDs and Data Links IDs are used
as handles by the control plane to the actual CP Name and CP-to-CP as handles by the control plane to the actual CP Name and CP-to-CP
Name, respectively. Name, respectively.
The terminology mapping is summarized in the following table: The terminology mapping is summarized in the following table: Note
Note that the table maps ASON terms to GMPLS terms that refer to that the table maps ASON terms to GMPLS terms that refer to
equivalent objects, but in many cases there is not a one to one equivalent objects, but in many cases there is not a one-to-one
mapping. Additional information beyond Discovery terminology can be mapping. Additional information beyond discovery terminology can be
found in [LEXICO]. found in [LEXICO].
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 9
+----------------+--------------------+-------------------+ +----------------+--------------------+-------------------+
| ASON Terms | GMPLS/LMP Terms | GMPLS/LMP Terms | | ASON Terms | GMPLS/LMP Terms | GMPLS/LMP Terms |
| | Port | Component Link | | | Port | Component Link |
+----------------+--------------------+-------------------+ +----------------+--------------------+-------------------+
| CP | TE Resource; | TE Resource; | | CP | TE Resource; | TE Resource; |
| | Interface (Port) | Interface. | | | Interface (Port) | Interface. |
| | |(Comp. link) | | | |(Comp. link) |
+----------------+--------------------+-------------------+ +----------------+--------------------+-------------------+
| CP Name | Interface ID | Interface ID(s) | | CP Name | Interface ID | Interface ID(s) |
| | no further sub- | resources (such as| | | no further sub- | resources (such as|
skipping to change at line 475 skipping to change at page 11, line 43
| | (Port) | (Comp. Link) | | | (Port) | (Comp. Link) |
+----------------+--------------------+-------------------+ +----------------+--------------------+-------------------+
| SNPP Name | Link ID | Link ID | | SNPP Name | Link ID | Link ID |
+----------------+--------------------+-------------------+ +----------------+--------------------+-------------------+
| SNPP Link | TE Link | TE Link | | SNPP Link | TE Link | TE Link |
+----------------+--------------------+-------------------+ +----------------+--------------------+-------------------+
| SNPP Link Name | TE Link ID | TE Link ID | | SNPP Link Name | TE Link ID | TE Link ID |
+----------------+--------------------+-------------------+ +----------------+--------------------+-------------------+
where composite identifiers are: where composite identifiers are:
- Data Link ID: <Local Interface ID; Remote Interface ID> - Data Link ID: <Local Interface ID; Remote Interface ID>
- TE Link ID: <Local Link ID; Remote Link ID> - TE Link ID: <Local Link ID; Remote Link ID>
Composite Identifiers are defined in the LMP draft [LMP]. LMP Composite Identifiers are defined in the RFC 4204 [LMP]. LMP
discovers Data Links and identifies them by the pair of local and discovers data links and identifies them by the pair of local and
remote interface Ids. TE Links are comprised of Data Links or remote interface IDs. TE links are composed of data links or
component TE links. TE links are similarly identified by pair of component TE links. TE links are similarly identified by pair of
local and remote Link ID. local and remote link ID.
4.2.1 TE Link Definition and Scope 4.2.1. TE Link Definition and Scope
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 10
In the table, TE link/resource is equated with the concept of SNP, In the table, TE link/resource is equated with the concept of SNP,
SNP LC, SNPP and SNPP link. The definition of the TE link is broad in SNP LC, SNPP, and SNPP link. The definition of the TE link is broad
scope and it is useful to repeat it here. The original definition in scope, and it is useful to repeat it here. The original
appears in [GMPLS-RTG]: definition appears in [GMPLS-RTG]:
"A TE link is a logical construct that represents a way to group/map "A TE link is a logical construct that represents a way to group/map
the information about certain physical resources (and their the information about certain physical resources (and their
properties) that interconnects LSRs into the information that is properties) that interconnects LSRs into the information that is used
used by Constrained SPF for GMPLS path computation, and GMPLS by Constrained SPF for GMPLS path computation, and GMPLS signaling".
signaling."
While this definition is concise it is probably worth pointing out While this definition is concise, it is probably worth pointing out
some of the implications of the definition. some of the implications of the definition.
A component of the TE link may follow different path between the A component of the TE link may follow different paths between the
pair of LSRs. For example, a TE link comprising multiple STS-3cs, pair of LSRs. For example, a TE link comprising multiple STS-3cs,
the individual STS-3cs component links may take identical or the individual STS-3cs component links may take identical or
different physical (OC-3 and/or OC-48) paths between LSRs. different physical (OC-3 and/or OC-48) paths between LSRs.
The TE link construct is a logical construction encompassing many The TE link construct is a logical construction encompassing many
layers in networks [RFC 3471]. A TE link can represent either layers in networks [RFC 3471]. A TE link can represent either
unallocated potential or allocated actual resources. Further unallocated potential or allocated actual resources. Further
allocation is represented by Bandwidth reservation and the resources allocation is represented by bandwidth reservation, and the resources
may be real or in the case of packets, virtual to allow for over may be real or, in the case of packets, virtual to allow for
booking or other forms of statistical multiplexing schemes. overbooking or other forms of statistical multiplexing schemes.
Since TE links may represent large numbers of parallel resources Since TE links may represent large numbers of parallel resources,
they can be bundled for efficient summarization of resource they can be bundled for efficient summarization of resource capacity.
capacity. Typically bundling represents a logical TE link resource Typically, bundling represents a logical TE link resource at a
at a particular Interface Switching Capability. Once TE link particular Interface Switching Capability. Once TE link resources
resources are allocated the actual capacity may be represented as are allocated, the actual capacity may be represented as LSP
LSP hierarchical (tunneled) TE link capability in another logical TE hierarchical (tunneled) TE link capability in another logical TE link
link [HIER]. [HIER].
TE links also incorporate the notion of a Forwarding Adjacency (FA) TE links also incorporate the notion of a Forwarding Adjacency (FA)
and Interface Switching Capability [RFC3945]. The FA allows and Interface Switching Capability [RFC3945]. The FA allows
transport resources to be represented as TE-links. The Interface transport resources to be represented as TE links. The Interface
Switching Capability specifies the type of transport capability such Switching Capability specifies the type of transport capability such
as Packet Switch Capable(PSC), Layer-2 Switch Capable (L2SC), as Packet Switch Capable (PSC), Layer-2 Switch Capable (L2SC), Time-
Time-Division Multiplex (TDM), Lambda Switch Capable (LSC) and Division Multiplex (TDM), Lambda Switch Capable (LSC), and Fiber-
Fiber-Switch Capable (FSC). Switch Capable (FSC).
A TE link between GMPLS controlled optical nodes may consist of a
bundled (TE link) which itself consists of a mix of point-to-point
component links [BUNDLE]. A TE link is identified by the tuple:
(link Identifier (32 bit number), Component link Identifier (32 bit
number) and generalized label (media specific)).
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 11 A TE link between GMPLS-controlled optical nodes may consist of a
bundled TE link, which itself consists of a mix of point-to-point
component links [BUNDLE]. A TE link is identified by the tuple (link
Identifier (32-bit number), Component link Identifier (32-bit
number), and generalized label (media specific)).
4.3 LMP and G.8080 Discovery Relationship 4.3. LMP and G.8080 Discovery Relationship
LMP currently consists of four primary procedures, of which, the LMP currently consists of four primary procedures, of which the first
first two are mandatory and the last two are optional: two are mandatory and the last two are optional:
1. Control channel management 1. Control channel management
2. Link property correlation 2. Link property correlation
3. Link verification 3. Link verification
4. Fault management 4. Fault management
LMP procedures that are relevant to G.8080 control plane discovery LMP procedures that are relevant to G.8080 control plane discovery
are control channel management, link property correlation and Link are control channel management, link property correlation, and link
Verification. Key to understanding G.8080 discovery aspects in verification. Key to understanding G.8080 discovery aspects in
relation to [LMP] is that LMP procedures are specific for an relation to [LMP] is that LMP procedures are specific for an IP-based
IP-based control plane abstraction of the transport plane. control plane abstraction of the transport plane.
LMP control channel management is used to establish and maintain LMP control channel management is used to establish and maintain
control channel connectivity between LMP adjacent nodes. In GMPLS, control channel connectivity between LMP adjacent nodes. In GMPLS,
the control channels between two adjacent nodes are not required to the control channels between two adjacent nodes are not required to
use the same physical medium as the TE links between those nodes. use the same physical medium as the TE links between those nodes.
The control channels that are used to exchange the GMPLS control The control channels that are used to exchange the GMPLS control
plane information exist independently of the TE links they manage plane information exist independently of the TE links they manage
(i.e., control channels may be in-band or out-of-band, provided the (i.e., control channels may be in-band or out-of-band, provided the
associated control points terminate the LMP packets). The Link associated control points terminate the LMP packets). The Link
Management Protocol [LMP] was designed to manage TE links, Management Protocol [LMP] was designed to manage TE links,
independently of the physical medium capabilities of the data links. independently of the physical medium capabilities of the data links.
Link property correlation is used to aggregate multiple data links Link property correlation is used to aggregate multiple data links
into a single TE Link and to synchronize the link properties. into a single TE link and to synchronize the link properties.
Link verification is used to verify the physical connectivity of the Link verification is used to verify the physical connectivity of the
data links and verify the mapping of the Interface-ID to Link-ID (CP data links and verify the mapping of the Interface-ID to Link-ID (CP
to SNP). The local-to-remote associations can be obtained using a to SNP). The local-to-remote associations can be obtained using a
priori knowledge or using the Link verification procedure. priori knowledge or using the link verification procedure.
Fault management is primarily used to suppress alarms and to Fault management is primarily used to suppress alarms and to localize
localize failures. It is an optional LMP procedure, its use will failures. It is an optional LMP procedure; its use will depend on
depend on the specific technology's capabilities. the specific technology's capabilities.
[LMP] supports distinct transport and control plane name spaces with [LMP] supports distinct transport and control plane name spaces with
the (out-of-band) TRACE object (see [LMP-TEST]). The LMP TRACE the (out-of-band) TRACE object (see [LMP-TEST]). The LMP TRACE
object allows transport plane names to be associated with interface object allows transport plane names to be associated with interface
identifiers [LMP-TEST]. identifiers [LMP-TEST].
Aspects of LMP link verification appear similar to G.7714.1 Aspects of LMP link verification appear similar to G.7714.1
discovery, however the two procedures are different. G.7714.1 discovery; however, the two procedures are different. G.7714.1
provides discovery of the transport plane layer adjacencies. It provides discovery of the transport plane layer adjacencies. It
provides a generic procedure to discover the connectivity of two end provides a generic procedure to discover the connectivity of two
points in the transport plane. Whereas, LMP link verification endpoints in the transport plane. On the other hand, the LMP link
procedure is a control plane driven procedure and assumes either (1) verification procedure is a control-plane-driven procedure and
a priori knowledge of the associated data plane's local and remote assumes either (1) a priori knowledge of the associated data plane's
end point connectivity and Interface_IDs (e.g. via management plane local and remote endpoint connectivity and Interface_IDs (e.g., via
or use of G.7714.1), or (2) support of the remote node for management plane or use of G.7714.1), or (2) support of the remote
node for associating the data interface being verified with the
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 12 content of the TRACE object (inferred mapping). For SONET/SDH
associating the data interface being verified with the content of transport networks, LMP verification uses the SONET/SDH Trail Trace
the TRACE object (inferred mapping). For SONET/SDH transport identifier (see [G.783]).
networks, LMP verification uses the SONET/SDH Trail Trace identifier
(see [G.783]).
G.7714.1 supports the use of transport plane discovery independent G.7714.1 supports the use of transport plane discovery independent of
of the platform using the capability. Furthermore G.7714.1 specifies the platform using the capability. Furthermore, G.7714.1 specifies
the use of a Discovery Agent that could be located in an external the use of a Discovery Agent that could be located in an external
system and the need to support the use of text-oriented man-machine system and the need to support the use of text-oriented man-machine
language to provide the interface. Therefore, G.7714.1 limits the language to provide the interface. Therefore, G.7714.1 limits the
discovery messages to printable characters defined by [T.50] and discovery messages to printable characters defined by [T.50] and
requires Base64 encoding for the TCP-ID and DA ID. External requires Base64 encoding for the TCP-ID and DA ID. External name-
name-servers may be used to resolve the G.7714.1 TCP name, allowing servers may be used to resolve the G.7714.1 TCP name, allowing the
the TCP to have an IP, NSAP or any other address format. Whereas, TCP to have an IP, Network Service Access Protocol (NSAP), or any
LMP is based on the use of an IP-based control plane, and the LMP other address format. On the other hand, LMP is based on the use of
interface ID uses IPv4, IPv6, or unnumbered interface IDs. an IP-based control plane, and the LMP interface ID uses IPv4, IPv6,
or unnumbered interface IDs.
4.4 Comparing LMP and G.8080 4.4. Comparing LMP and G.8080
LMP exists to support GMPLS TE resource and TE link discovery. In LMP exists to support GMPLS TE resource and TE link discovery. In
section 4.2.1 we elaborated on the definition of the TE link. LMP section 4.2.1, we elaborated on the definition of the TE link. LMP
enables the aspects of TE links to be discovered, and reported to enables the aspects of TE links to be discovered and reported to the
the control plane, more specifically the routing plane. G.8080 and control plane, more specifically, the routing plane. G.8080 and
G.7714 are agnostic to the type of control plane and discovery G.7714 are agnostic to the type of control plane and discovery
protocol used. LMP is a valid realization of a control plane protocol used. LMP is a valid realization of a control plane
discovery process under a G.8080 model. discovery process under a G.8080 model.
G.7714 specifies transport plane discovery with respect to the G.7714 specifies transport plane discovery with respect to the
transport layer CTPs or TCPs using ASON conventions and naming for transport layer CTPs or TCPs using ASON conventions and naming for
the elements of the ASON control plane and the ASON management the elements of the ASON control plane and the ASON management plane.
plane. This discovery supports a centralized management model of This discovery supports a centralized management model of
configuration as well as a distributed control plane model, in other configuration as well as a distributed control plane model; in other
words discovered items can be reported to the management plane or words, discovered items can be reported to the management plane or
the control plane. G.7714.1 provides one realization of a transport the control plane. G.7714.1 provides one realization of a transport
plane discovery process. plane discovery process.
Today LMP and G.7714, G7714.1 are defined in different Standards Today, LMP and G.7714, G7714.1 are defined in different standards
Organizations. They have evolved out of different naming schemes organizations. They have evolved out of different naming schemes and
and architectural concepts. Whereas G.7714.1 supports a transport architectural concepts. Whereas G.7714.1 supports a transport plane
plane layer adjacency connectivity verification which can be used by layer adjacency connectivity verification that can be used by a
a control plane or a management plane, LMP is a control plane control plane or a management plane, LMP is a control plane procedure
procedure for managing GMPLS TE links (GMPLS's control plane for managing GMPLS TE links (GMPLS's control plane representation of
representation of the transport plane connections). the transport plane connections).
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
Since this document is purely descriptive in nature it does not Since this document is purely descriptive in nature, it does not
introduce any security issues. introduce any security issues.
G.8080 and G.7714/G.7714.1 provide security as associated with the G.8080 and G.7714/G.7714.1 provide security as associated with the
Data Communications Network on which they are implemented. Data Communications Network on which they are implemented.
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 13 LMP is specified using IP, which provides security mechanisms
LMP is specified using IP which provides security mechanisms
associated with the IP network on which it is implemented. associated with the IP network on which it is implemented.
6. IANA Considerations 6. Informative References
This informational document makes no requests for IANA action.
7. Intellectual Property Considerations
The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed
to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described
in this document or the extent to which any license under such
rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that
it has made any independent effort to identify any such rights.
Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC
documents can be found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use
of such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository
at http://www.ietf.org/ipr.
The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at ietf-
ipr@ietf.org.
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 14
8. References
8.1 Normative References
[BCP 78] S. Bradner, "Intellectual Property Rights in IETF
Technology", BCP 79, RFC 3667, February 2004.
[BCP 79] S. Bradner, "IETF Rights in Contributions", BCP 79,
RFC 3668, February 2004.
8.2 Informational References
[LMP] J.P.Lang (Editor), "Link Management Protocol," draft- [LMP] Lang, J., "Link Management Protocol (LMP)", RFC 4204,
ietf-ccamp-lmp-10.txt, October 2003. October 2005.
[LMP-TEST] J.P.Lang et al., "SONET/SDH Encoding for Link [LMP-TEST] Lang, J. and D. Papadimitriou, "Synchronous Optical
Management Protocol (LMP) Test messages," draft-ietf- Network (SONET)/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
draft-ietf-ccamp-lmp-test-sonet-sdh-04.txt, December Encoding for Link Management Protocol (LMP) Test
2004. Messages", RFC 4207, October 2005.
[RFC3945] Eric Mannie (Editor), "Generalized Multi-protocol Label [RFC3945] Mannie, E., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
Switching Architecture," RFC3945, October 2004. (GMPLS) Architecture", RFC 3945, October 2004.
[RFC3471] Lou Berger (Editor), "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label [RFC3471] Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
Switching (GMPLS)Signaling Functional Description," (GMPLS) Signaling Functional Description", RFC 3471,
RFC3471, January 2003. January 2003.
[GMPLS-RTG] K. Kompella & Y. Rekhter (editors) "Routing Extensions [GMPLS-RTG] Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "Routing Extensions in
in Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
Switching", draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-routing-09.txt, (GMPLS)", RFC 4202, October 2005.
December 2003.
[HIER] K. Kompella & Y. Rekhter "LSP Hierarchy with Generalized [HIER] Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "Label Switched Paths (LSP)
MPLS TE", draft-ietf-mpls-lsp-hierarchy-08.txt, Hierarchy with Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
September 2002. (GMPLS) Traffic Engineering (TE)", RFC 4206, October
2005.
[BUNDLE] K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, Lou Berger "Link Bundling in [BUNDLE] Kompella, K., Rekhter, Y., and L. Berger, "Link Bundling
MPLS Traffic Engineering", draft-ietf-mpls-bundle- in MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE)", RFC 4201, October
06.txt, December 2004. 2005.
[LEXICO] A. Farrel & I Bryskin "A Lexicography for the [LEXICO] Bryskin, I. and A. Farrel, "A Lexicography for the
Interpretation of Generalized Multiprotocol Label Interpretation of Generalized Multiprotocol Label
Switching (GMPLS) Terminology within The Context of the Switching (GMPLS) Terminology within The Context of the
ITU-T's Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON) ITU-T's Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON)
Architecture", draft-bryskin-ccamp-gmpls-ason- Architecture", Work in Progress, January 2006.
lexicography-02.txt, April 2005.
"For information on the availability of ITU-T Documents, please see For information on the availability of the ITU-T documents, please
http://www.itu.int" see http://www.itu.int.
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 15
[G.783] ITU-T G.783 (2004), Characteristics of synchronous [G.783] ITU-T G.783 (2004), Characteristics of synchronous
digital hierarchy (SDH) equipment functional blocks. digital hierarchy (SDH) equipment functional blocks.
[G.805] ITU-T G.805 (2000), Generic functional architecture of [G.805] ITU-T G.805 (2000), Generic functional architecture of
transport networks. transport networks.
[G.7714] ITU-T G.7714/Y.1705 (2001), Generalized automatic [G.7714] ITU-T G.7714/Y.1705 (2001), Generalized automatic
discovery techniques. discovery techniques.
[G.7714.1] ITU-T G.7714.1/Y.1705.1 (2003), Protocol for automatic [G.7714.1] ITU-T G.7714.1/Y.1705.1 (2003), Protocol for automatic
discovery in SDH and OTN networks. discovery in SDH and OTN networks.
[G.8080] ITU-T G.8080/Y.1304 (2001), Architecture for the [G.8080] ITU-T G.8080/Y.1304 (2001), Architecture for the
automatically switched optical network (ASON). automatically switched optical network (ASON).
[M.3100] ITU-T M.3100 (1995), Generic Network Information Model. [M.3100] ITU-T M.3100 (1995), Generic Network Information Model.
[T.50] ITU-T T.50 (1992), International Reference Alphabet. [T.50] ITU-T T.50 (1992), International Reference Alphabet.
9. Acknowledgements 7. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Astrid Lozano, John Drake, Adrian The authors would like to thank Astrid Lozano, John Drake, Adrian
Farrel and Stephen Shew for their valuable comments. Farrel and Stephen Shew for their valuable comments.
The authors would like to thank ITU-T Study Group 15 Question 14 for The authors would like to thank ITU-T Study Group 15 Question 14 for
their careful review and comments. their careful review and comments.
10. Author's Addresses Authors' Addresses
Don Fedyk Don Fedyk
Nortel Networks Nortel Networks
600 Technology Park Drive 600 Technology Park Drive
Billerica, MA, 01821 Billerica, MA, 01821
Phone: +1 978 288-3041 Phone: +1 978 288-3041
Email: dwfedyk@nortel.com EMail: dwfedyk@nortel.com
Osama Aboul-Magd Osama Aboul-Magd
Nortel Networks Nortel Networks
P.O. Box 3511, Station 'C' P.O. Box 3511, Station 'C'
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
K1Y-4H7 K1Y-4H7
Phone: +1 613 763-5827 Phone: +1 613 763-5827
Email: osama@nortel.com EMail: osama@nortel.com
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 16
Deborah Brungard Deborah Brungard
AT&T AT&T
Rm. D1-3C22 Rm. D1-3C22
200 S. Laurel Ave. 200 S. Laurel Ave.
Middletown, NJ 07748, USA Middletown, NJ 07748, USA
Email: dbrungard@att.com
EMail: dbrungard@att.com
Jonathan P. Lang Jonathan P. Lang
Sonos, Inc. Sonos, Inc.
506 Chapala Street 223 E. De La Guerra
Santa Barbara, CA 93101 Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Email : jplang@ieee.org
EMail: jplang@ieee.org
Dimitri Papadimitriou Dimitri Papadimitriou
Alcatel Alcatel
Francis Wellesplein, 1 Francis Wellesplein, 1
B-2018 Antwerpen, Belgium B-2018 Antwerpen, Belgium
Phone: +32 3 240-84-91 Phone: +32 3 240-84-91
Email: dimitri.papadimitriou@alcatel.be EMail: dimitri.papadimitriou@alcatel.be
11. Disclaimer of Validity Full Copyright Statement
This document and the information contained herein are provided on Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).
an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE
REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF retain all their rights.
THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
12. Full Copyright Statement Intellectual Property
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). This document is subject The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights. pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
made any independent effort to identify any such rights. Information
on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.
D. Fedyk, Editor Informational 17 Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
http://www.ietf.org/ipr.
The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at
ietf-ipr@ietf.org.
Acknowledgement
Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
Administrative Support Activity (IASA).
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