draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-vcat-lcas-10.txt   draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-vcat-lcas-11.txt 
CCAMP Working Group G. Bernstein (ed.) CCAMP Working Group G. Bernstein (ed.)
Internet Draft Grotto Networking Internet Draft Grotto Networking
Updates: RFC4606 D. Caviglia Updates: 4606 D. Caviglia
Category: Standards Track Ericsson Category: Standards Track Ericsson
Expires: January 2011 R. Rabbat Expires: September 2011 R. Rabbat
Google Google
H. van Helvoort H. van Helvoort
Huawei Huawei
July 12, 2010 March 9, 2011
Operating Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) and the Link Capacity Operating Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) and the Link Capacity
Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) with Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) with Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
Switching (GMPLS) Switching (GMPLS)
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-vcat-lcas-10.txt draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-vcat-lcas-11.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction...................................................3 1. Introduction...................................................3
2. VCAT/LCAS Scenarios and Specific Requirements..................4 2. VCAT/LCAS Scenarios and Specific Requirements..................4
2.1. VCAT/LCAS Interface Capabilities..........................4 2.1. VCAT/LCAS Interface Capabilities..........................4
2.2. Member Signal Configuration Scenarios.....................4 2.2. Member Signal Configuration Scenarios.....................4
2.3. VCAT Operation With or Without LCAS.......................5 2.3. VCAT Operation With or Without LCAS.......................5
2.4. VCGs and VCG Members......................................6 2.4. VCGs and VCG Members......................................6
3. VCAT Data and Control Plane Concepts...........................6 3. VCAT Data and Control Plane Concepts...........................6
4. VCGs Composed of a Single Co-Signaled Member Set...............7 4. VCGs Composed of a Single Member Set (One LSP).................7
4.1. One-shot VCG Setup with Co-Signaled Members...............7 4.1. One-shot VCG Setup........................................7
4.2. Incremental VCG Setup with Co-Signaled Members............8 4.2. Incremental VCG Setup.....................................8
4.3. Procedure for VCG Reduction by Removing a Member..........8 4.3. Procedure for VCG Reduction by Removing a Member..........8
4.4. Removing Multiple VCG Members in One Shot.................9 4.4. Removing Multiple VCG Members in One Shot.................9
4.5. Teardown of Whole VCG.....................................9 4.5. Teardown of Whole VCG.....................................9
5. VCGs Composed of Multiple Co-Signaled Member Sets(Multiple LSPs)9 5. VCGs Composed of Multiple Member Sets (Multiple LSPs)..........9
5.1. Signaled VCG Service Layer Information...................10 5.1. Signaled VCG Service Layer Information...................10
5.2. VCAT TLV.................................................11 5.2. CALL ATTRIBUTES Object VCAT TLV..........................11
5.3. Procedures for Multiple Co-signaled Member Sets..........13 5.3. Procedures for Multiple Member Sets......................13
5.3.1. Setting up a new VCAT call and VCG Simultaneously...13 5.3.1. Setting up a new VCAT call and VCG Simultaneously...13
5.3.2. Setting up a VCAT call + LSPs without a VCG.........13 5.3.2. Setting up a VCAT call + LSPs without a VCG.........13
5.3.3. Associating an existing VCAT call with a new VCG....14 5.3.3. Associating an existing VCAT call with a new VCG....14
5.3.4. Removing the association between a call and VCG.....14 5.3.4. Removing the association between a call and VCG.....14
5.3.5. VCG Bandwidth modification..........................14 5.3.5. VCG Bandwidth modification..........................14
6. Error Conditions and Codes....................................15 6. Error Conditions and Codes....................................15
7. IANA Considerations...........................................16 7. IANA Considerations...........................................16
7.1. RSVP CALL_ATTRIBUTE TLV..................................16 7.1. RSVP CALL_ATTRIBUTE TLV..................................16
7.2. RSVP Error Codes and Error Values........................16 7.2. RSVP Error Codes and Error Values........................16
8. Security Considerations.......................................17 8. Security Considerations.......................................17
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a group of server signals and provides for efficient use of bandwidth a group of server signals and provides for efficient use of bandwidth
in a mesh network. When combined with LCAS, hitless dynamic resizing in a mesh network. When combined with LCAS, hitless dynamic resizing
of bandwidth and fast graceful degradation in the presence of network of bandwidth and fast graceful degradation in the presence of network
faults can be supported. To take full advantage of VCAT/LCAS faults can be supported. To take full advantage of VCAT/LCAS
functionality, additional extensions to GMPLS signaling are needed functionality, additional extensions to GMPLS signaling are needed
that enable the setup of diversely routed signals that are members of that enable the setup of diversely routed signals that are members of
the same VCAT group. Note that the scope of this document is limited the same VCAT group. Note that the scope of this document is limited
to scenarios where all member signals of a VCAT group are controlled to scenarios where all member signals of a VCAT group are controlled
using mechanisms defined in this document and related RFCs. Scenarios using mechanisms defined in this document and related RFCs. Scenarios
where a subset of member signals are controlled by a management plane where a subset of member signals are controlled by a management plane
or a proprietary control plane are beyond the scope of this document. or a proprietary control plane are outside the scope of this
document.
2. VCAT/LCAS Scenarios and Specific Requirements 2. VCAT/LCAS Scenarios and Specific Requirements
There are a number of specific requirements for the support of There are a number of specific requirements for the support of
VCAT/LCAS in GMPLS that can be derived from the carriers' VCAT/LCAS in GMPLS that can be derived from the carriers'
applications for the use of VCAT/LCAS. These are set out in the applications for the use of VCAT/LCAS. These are set out in the
following section. following section.
2.1. VCAT/LCAS Interface Capabilities 2.1. VCAT/LCAS Interface Capabilities
In general, an LSR can be ingress/egress of one or more VCAT groups. In general, an LSR can be ingress/egress of one or more VCAT groups.
VCAT and LCAS are interface capabilities. An LSR may have, for VCAT and LCAS are data plane interface capabilities. An LSR may
example, VCAT-capable interfaces that are not LCAS-capable. It may have, for example, VCAT-capable interfaces that are not LCAS-capable.
at the same time have interfaces that are neither VCAT nor LCAS- It may at the same time have interfaces that are neither VCAT nor
capable. LCAS-capable.
2.2. Member Signal Configuration Scenarios 2.2. Member Signal Configuration Scenarios
We list in this section the different scenarios. Here we use the We list in this section the different scenarios. Here we use the
[ITU-T-G.707] term "VCG" to refer to the VCAT group and the [ITU-T-G.707] term "VCG" to refer to the VCAT group and the
terminology "set" and "subset" to refer to the subdivision of the terminology "set" and "subset" to refer to the subdivision of the
group and the individual VCAT group member signals. As noted above, group and the individual VCAT group member signals. As noted above,
the scope of these scenarios is limited to scenarios where all member the scope of these scenarios is limited to scenarios where all member
signals are controlled using mechanisms defined in this document. signals are controlled using mechanisms defined in this document.
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resources, dynamic resizing and resilience of bandwidth. resources, dynamic resizing and resilience of bandwidth.
Dynamic, member sharing: A dynamic bandwidth VCG, transported over a Dynamic, member sharing: A dynamic bandwidth VCG, transported over a
set of member signals that are allocated from a common pool of set of member signals that are allocated from a common pool of
available member signals without requiring member connection available member signals without requiring member connection
teardown and setup. teardown and setup.
2.3. VCAT Operation With or Without LCAS 2.3. VCAT Operation With or Without LCAS
VCAT capabilities may be present with or without the presence of VCAT capabilities may be present with or without the presence of
LCAS. The use of LCAS is beneficial in the provisioning of LCAS. The use of LCAS is beneficial in the provisioning of flexible
services, but in the absence of LCAS, VCAT is still a valid bandwidth services, but in the absence of LCAS, VCAT is still a valid
technique. Therefore GMPLS mechanisms for the operation of VCAT are technique. Therefore GMPLS mechanisms for the operation of VCAT are
REQUIRED for both the case where LCAS is available and the case where REQUIRED for both the case where LCAS is available and the case where
it is not available. The GMPLS procedures for the two cases SHOULD it is not available. The GMPLS procedures for the two cases SHOULD
be identical. be identical.
. GMPLS signaling for LCAS-capable interfaces MUST support all . GMPLS signaling for LCAS-capable interfaces MUST support all
scenarios of section 2.2. with no loss of traffic. scenarios of section 2.2. with no loss of traffic.
. GMPLS signaling for non-LCAS-capable interfaces MUST support . GMPLS signaling for non-LCAS-capable interfaces MUST support
only the "fixed" scenarios of section 2.2. only the "fixed" scenarios of section 2.2.
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However, it is not required that any arbitrarily created server layer However, it is not required that any arbitrarily created server layer
connection be supported in the above scenarios, i.e., connections connection be supported in the above scenarios, i.e., connections
established without following the procedures of this document. established without following the procedures of this document.
3. VCAT Data and Control Plane Concepts 3. VCAT Data and Control Plane Concepts
When utilizing GMPLS with VCAT/LCAS, we use a number of control and When utilizing GMPLS with VCAT/LCAS, we use a number of control and
data plane concepts described below. data plane concepts described below.
VCG -- This is the group of data plane server layer signals used to VCG -- This is the group of data plane server layer signals used to
provide the bandwidth. provide the bandwidth for the virtual concatenation link connection
through a network ([G7042]).
VCG member -- This is an individual data plane signal of one of the
permitted SDH, SONET, OTN or PDH signal types.
Co-signaled set -- One or more VCG members (or potential members) set VCG member -- This is an individual data plane server layer signal
up via the same control plane signaling exchange. Note that all that belongs to a VCG ([G7042]).
members in a co-signaled set follow the same route.
Co-routed set - One or more VCG members that follow the same route. Member set -- One or more VCG members (or potential members) set up
Although VCG members may follow the same path, this does not imply via the same control plane signaling exchange. Note that all
that they were co-signaled. members in a member set follow the same route.
Data plane LSP -- This is an individual VCG member. Data plane LSP -- This is an individual VCG member.
Control plane LSP -- A control plane entity that can control multiple Control plane LSP -- A control plane entity that can control multiple
data plane LSPs. For our purposes here, this is equivalent to the data plane LSPs. For our purposes here, this is equivalent to the
co-signaled member set. member set.
Call - A control plane mechanism for providing association between Call - A control plane mechanism for providing association between
endpoints and possibly key transit points. endpoints and possibly key transit points.
4. VCGs Composed of a Single Co-Signaled Member Set 4. VCGs Composed of a Single Member Set (One LSP)
In this section and the next section, we will describe the procedures In this section and the next section, we will describe the procedures
for supporting the applications described in Section 2. for supporting the applications described in Section 2.
This section describes the support of a single VCG composed of a This section describes the support of a single VCG composed of a
single co-signaled member set (in support of the fixed, co-routed single member set (in support of the fixed, co-routed application and
application and the dynamic, co-routed application) using existing the dynamic, co-routed application) using existing GMPLS procedures
GMPLS procedures [RFC4606]. Note that this section is included for [RFC4606]. Note that this section is included for informational
informational purposes only. purposes only.
The existing GMPLS signaling protocols support a VCG composed of a The existing GMPLS signaling protocols support a VCG composed of a
single co-signaled member set. Setup using the NVC field is explained single member set. Setup using the NVC field is explained in section
in section 2.1 of [RFC4606]. In this case, one (single) control 2.1 of [RFC4606]. In this case, one (single) control plane LSP is
plane LSP is used in support of the VCG. used in support of the VCG.
There are two options for setting up the VCG, depending on hardware There are two options for setting up the VCG, depending on policy
capability or management preferences: one-shot setup and incremental preferences: one-shot setup and incremental setup.
setup.
The following sections explain the procedure based on an example of The following sections explain the procedure based on an example of
setting up a VC-4-7v SDH VCAT group (corresponding to an STS-3c-7v setting up a VC-4-7v SDH VCAT group (corresponding to an STS-3c-7v
SONET VCAT group) which is composed of 7 virtually concatenated VC-4s SONET VCAT group) which is composed of 7 virtually concatenated VC-4s
(or STS-3c). (or STS-3c).
4.1. One-shot VCG Setup with Co-Signaled Members 4.1. One-shot VCG Setup
An RSVP-TE Path message is used with the following parameters: This section describes establishment of an LSP that supports all VCG
members as part of the initial LSP establishment. To establish such
an LSP, an RSVP-TE Path message is sent containing the SONET/SDH
Traffic Parameters defined in [RFC4606]. In the case of this example:
. With regards to the traffic parameters, the elementary signal is . Elementary signal is set to 6 (for VC-4/STS-3c_SPE).
set to 6 (for VC-4/STS-3c_SPE). The value of NVC is then set to
7 (number of members).
. Per [RFC4606] a Multiplier Transform greater than 1 (say N>1) is . NVC is set to 7 (number of members).
used if the operator wants to set up N VCAT groups that will
belong to, and be assigned to, the same LSP.
. SDH or SONET labels in turn have to be assigned for each member . Per [RFC4606] a Multiplier Transform greater than 1 (say N>1)
of the VCG and concatenated to form a single Generalized Label may be used if the operator wants to set up N identical VCAT
groups (for the same LSP).
. SDH or SONET labels have to be assigned for each member of the
VCG and concatenated to form a single Generalized Label
constructed as an ordered list of 32-bit timeslot identifiers of constructed as an ordered list of 32-bit timeslot identifiers of
the same format as TDM labels. [RFC4606] requires that the the same format as TDM labels. [RFC4606] requires that the
order of the labels reflect the order of the payloads to order of the labels reflect the order of the payloads to
concatenate, and not the physical order of time-slots. concatenate, and not the physical order of time-slots.
4.2. Incremental VCG Setup with Co-Signaled Members . Refer to [RFC4606] for other traffic parameter settings.
4.2. Incremental VCG Setup
In some cases, it may be necessary or desirable to set up the VCG In some cases, it may be necessary or desirable to set up the VCG
members individually, or to add group members to an existing group. members individually, or to add group members to an existing group.
One example of this need is when the hardware that supports VCAT can One example of this need is when the local policy requires that VCAT
only add VCAT elements one at a time or cannot automatically match can only add VCAT members one at a time or cannot automatically match
the elements at the ingress and egress for the purposes of inverse the members at the ingress and egress for the purposes of inverse
multiplexing. Serial or incremental setup solves this problem. multiplexing. Serial or incremental setup solves this problem.
In order to accomplish incremental setup, an iterative process is In order to accomplish incremental setup, an iterative process is
used to add group members. For each iteration, NVC is incremented up used to add group members. For each iteration, NVC is incremented up
to the final value required. A successful iteration consists of the to the final value required. A successful iteration consists of the
successful completion of Path and Resv signaling. At first, NVC = 1 successful completion of Path and Resv signaling. At first, NVC = 1
and the label includes just one timeslot identifier and the label includes just one timeslot identifier
At each of the next iterations, NVC is set to (NVC +1), one more At each of the next iterations, NVC is set to (NVC +1), one more
timeslot identifier is added to the ordered list in the Generalized timeslot identifier is added to the ordered list in the Generalized
Label (in the Path or Resv message). A node that receives a Path Label (in the Path or Resv message). A node that receives a Path
message that contains changed fields will process the full Path message that contains changed fields will process the full Path
message and, based on the new value of NVC, it will add a component message and, based on the new value of NVC, it will add a component
signal to the VCAT group, and switch the new timeslot based on the signal to the VCAT group, and switch the new timeslot based on the
new label information. new label information.
Following the addition of the new label (identifying the new member) Following the addition of the new label (identifying the new member)
to the LSP, in the data plane, LCAS may be used to add the new member to the LSP, in the data plane, LCAS may be used to add the new member
into the existing VCAT group. LCAS (data plane) signaling is at the end points into the existing VCAT group. LCAS (data plane)
described in [ITU-T-G.7042]. signaling is described in [ITU-T-G.7042].
4.3. Procedure for VCG Reduction by Removing a Member 4.3. Procedure for VCG Reduction by Removing a Member
The procedure to remove a component signal is similar to that used to The procedure to remove a component signal is similar to that used to
add components as described in Section 4.1.2. In the data plane, add components as described in Section 4. 2. In the data plane, LCAS
LCAS signaling is used first to take the component out of service signaling is used first to take the component out of service from the
from the group. LCAS signaling is described in [ITU-T-G.7042]. group. LCAS signaling is described in [ITU-T-G.7042].
In this case, the NVC value is decremented by 1 and the timeslot In this case, the NVC value is decremented by 1 and the timeslot
identifier for the dropped component is removed from the ordered identifier for the dropped component is removed from the ordered
list in the Generalized Label. list in the Generalized Label.
Note that for interfaces that are not LCAS-capable, removing one Note that for interfaces that are not LCAS-capable, removing one
component of the VCG will result in data plane errors and result in component of the VCG will result in failure detection of the member
the teardown (failure) of the whole group. So, this is a feature at the end point and failure of the whole group (per ITU-T
that only LCAS-capable VCAT interfaces can support without management definition). So, this is a feature that only LCAS-capable VCAT
intervention at the end points. interfaces can support without management intervention at the end
points.
Note also that a VCG member can be temporary removed from the VCG due Note if using LCAS, a VCG member can be temporary removed from the
to a failure of the component signal. The LCAS data plane signaling VCG due to a failure of the component signal. The LCAS data plane
will take appropriate actions to adjust the VCG as described in [ITU- signaling will take appropriate actions to adjust the VCG as
T-G.7042]. described in [ITU-T-G.7042].
4.4. Removing Multiple VCG Members in One Shot 4.4. Removing Multiple VCG Members in One Shot
The procedure is similar to 4.3. In this case, the NVC value is The procedure is similar to 4.3. In this case, the NVC value is
changed to the new value and all relevant timeslot identifiers for changed to the new value and all relevant timeslot identifiers for
the components to be torn down are removed from the ordered list in the components to be torn down are removed from the ordered list in
the Generalized Label. This procedure is also not supported for the Generalized Label. This procedure is also not supported for
VCAT-only interfaces without management intervention as removing one VCAT-only interfaces without management intervention as removing one
or more components of the VCG will tear down the whole group. or more components of the VCG will tear down the whole group.
4.5. Teardown of Whole VCG 4.5. Teardown of Whole VCG
The entire LSP is deleted in a single step (i.e., all components are The entire LSP is deleted in a single step (i.e., all components are
removed in one go) using deletion procedures of [RFC3473]. removed in one go) using deletion procedures of [RFC3473].
5. VCGs Composed of Multiple Co-Signaled Member Sets(Multiple LSPs) 5. VCGs Composed of Multiple Member Sets (Multiple LSPs)
The motivation for VCGs composed of multiple co-signaled member sets The motivation for VCGs composed of multiple member sets comes from
comes from the requirement to support VCGs with diversely routed the requirement to support VCGs with diversely routed members. The
members. The initial GMPLS specification did not support diversely initial GMPLS specification did not support diversely routed signals
routed signals using the NVC construct. In fact, [RFC4606] says: using the NVC construct. [RFC4606] says:
[...] The standard definition for virtual concatenation allows [...] The standard definition for virtual concatenation allows
each virtual concatenation components to travel over diverse each virtual concatenation components to travel over diverse
paths. Within GMPLS, virtual concatenation components must paths. Within GMPLS, virtual concatenation components must
travel over the same (component) link if they are part of the travel over the same (component) link if they are part of the
same LSP. This is due to the way that labels are bound to a same LSP. This is due to the way that labels are bound to a
(component) link. Note however, that the routing of components (component) link. Note however, that the routing of components
on different paths is indeed equivalent to establishing on different paths is indeed equivalent to establishing
different LSPs, each one having its own route. Several LSPs different LSPs, each one having its own route. Several LSPs
can be initiated and terminated between the same nodes and can be initiated and terminated between the same nodes and
their corresponding components can then be associated together their corresponding components can then be associated together
(i.e., virtually concatenated). (i.e., virtually concatenated).
The setup of diversely routed VCG members requires multiple co- The setup of diversely routed VCG members requires multiple VCG
signaled VCG member sets, i.e., multiple control plane LSPs. member sets, i.e., multiple control plane LSPs.
The support of a VCG with multiple co-signaled VCG members sets The support of a VCG with multiple VCG members sets requires being
requires being able to identify separate sets of control plane LSPs able to identify separate sets of control plane LSPs with a single
with a single VCG and exchange information pertaining to the VCG as a VCG and exchange information pertaining to the VCG as a whole between
whole. This is provided by using the call procedures and extensions the endpoints. This document updates the procedures of [RFC4606] to
described in [RFC4974]. The VCG is a higher layer service that makes provide this capability by using the call procedures and extensions
use of one or more calls (VCAT calls) to associate control plane LSPs described in [RFC4974]. The VCG makes use of one or more calls (VCAT
in support of VCG server layer connections (VCG members) in the data calls) to associate control plane LSPs in support of VCG server layer
plane. Note, the trigger for the VCG (by management plane or client connections (VCG members) in the data plane. Note, the trigger for
layer) is outside the scope of this document. the VCG (by management plane or client layer) is outside the scope of
this document. These procedures provide for autonomy of the client
layer and server layer with respect to their management.
In addition, by supporting the identification of a VCG and VCAT call In addition, by supporting the identification of a VCG (VCG ID) and
identification, support can be provided for the member sharing VCAT call identification (VCAT Call ID), support can be provided for
scenarios, i.e. by explicitly separating the VCG ID from the VCAT the member sharing scenarios, i.e. by explicitly separating the VCG
call ID. Note that per [RFC4974], LSPs (connections) cannot be moved ID from the VCAT call ID. Note that per [RFC4974], LSPs (connections)
from one call to another, hence to support member sharing, the cannot be moved from one call to another, hence to support member
procedures in this document provide support by moving call(s) and sharing, the procedures in this document provide support by moving
their associated LSPs from one VCG to another. Figure 1 below call(s) and their associated LSPs from one VCG to another. Figure 1
illustrates these relationships, however, note, VCAT calls can exist below illustrates these relationships, however, note, VCAT calls can
independently of a VCG (for connection pre-establishment) as will be exist independently of a VCG (for connection pre-establishment) as
described later in this document. will be described later in this document.
+-------+ +-------------+ +-------+ +------------+ +-------+ +-------------+ +-------+ +------------+
| |1 n| |1 n| |1 n| Data Plane | | |1 n| |1 n| |1 n| Data Plane |
| VCG |<>----| VCAT Call |<>----| LSP |<>----| Connection | | VCG |<>----| VCAT Call |<>----| LSP |<>----| Connection |
| | | | | | |(co-routed) | | | | | | | |(co-routed) |
+-------+ +-------------+ +-------+ +------------+ +-------+ +-------------+ +-------+ +------------+
Figure 1 Figure 1. Conceptual containment relationship between VCG, Figure 1 Figure 1. Conceptual containment relationship between VCG,
VCAT calls, control plane LSPs, and data plane connections. VCAT calls, control plane LSPs, and data plane connections.
5.1. Signaled VCG Service Layer Information 5.1. Signaled VCG Service Layer Information
In this section, we provide a list of information that will be In this section, we provide a list of information that will be
communicated at the VCG level, i.e., between the VCG signaling communicated at the VCG level, i.e., between the VCG signaling
endpoints. When a VCG is composed of multiple co-signaled member endpoints using the call procedures of [RFC4974]. To accommodate the
sets, none of the individual LSP's control plane signaling VCG information, a new TLV is defined in this document for the CALL
information can contain information pertinent to the entire VCG. To ATTRIBUTES Object [RFC6001] for use in the Notify message [RFC4974].
accommodate this information, additional objects or TLVs are The Notify message is a targeted message and does not need to follow
incorporated into the Notify message as it is described for use in the path of LSPs through the network i.e. there is no dependency on
call signaling in [RFC4974]. The Notify message is a targeted message the member signaling for establishing the VCAT call and does not
and does not need to follow the path of LSPs through the network i.e. preclude the use of external call managers as described in [RFC4974].
there is no dependency on the member signaling for establishing the
VCAT call and does not preclude the use of external call managers as
described in [RFC4974].
VCG Call setup is signaled with a new CALL_ATTRIBUTES object TLV The following information is needed:
containing the following information:
1. Signal Type 1. Signal Type
2. Number of VCG Members 2. Number of VCG Members
3. LCAS requirements: 3. LCAS requirements:
a. LCAS required a. LCAS required
b. LCAS desired b. LCAS desired
c. LCAS not desired (but acceptable) c. LCAS not supported
4. VCG Identifier - Used to identify a particular VCG separately 4. VCG Identifier - Used to identify a particular VCG separately
from the call ID so that call members can be reused with from the call ID so that call members can be reused with
different VCGs per the requirements for member sharing and the different VCGs per the requirements for member sharing and the
requirements of section 2.4. requirements of section 2.4.
5.2. VCAT TLV 5.2. CALL ATTRIBUTES Object VCAT TLV
In RFC4974 the general mechanisms and procedures for communicating This document defines a CALL_ATTRIBUTES object VCAT TLV for use in
call information via Notify messages is defined. In [MLN-Ext] the the CALL_ATTRIBUTES object [RFC6001] as follows:
CALL_ATTRIBUTES object is defined for the conveyance of call related
information during call establishment and updates. We define a new
CALL_ATTRIBUTES object VCAT TLV for use in the CALL_ATTRIBUTES object
as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type = TBA | Length = 12 | | Type = TBA | Length = 12 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Signal Type | Number of Members | | Signal Type | Number of Members |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| LCAS Req | Action | VCG ID | | LCAS Req | Action | VCG ID |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type, as defined in [MLN-Ext]. This field MUST be set to TBA (by Type, as defined in [RFC6001]. This field MUST be set to TBA (by
IANA). IANA).
Length, as defined in [MLN-Ext]. This field MUST be set to 12. Length, as defined in [RFC6001]. This field MUST be set to 12.
Signal Type: 16 bits Signal Type: 16 bits
This field can take the following values and MUST never change over The signal types can never be mixed in a VCG (per ITU-T definition)
the lifetime of a VCG [ANSI-T1-105, ITU-T-G.707, ITU-T-G.709, ITU- and hence a VCAT call contains only one signal type. This field can
T-G.7043]: take the following values and MUST never change over the lifetime
of a VCG [ANSI-T1-105, ITU-T-G.707, ITU-T-G.709, ITU-T-G.7043]:
Value Type (Elementary Signal) Value Type (Elementary Signal)
----- ------------------------ ----- ------------------------
1 VT1.5 SPE / VC-11 1 VT1.5 SPE / VC-11
2 VT2 SPE / VC-12 2 VT2 SPE / VC-12
3 STS-1 SPE / VC-3 3 STS-1 SPE / VC-3
4 STS-3c SPE / VC-4 4 STS-3c SPE / VC-4
11 OPU1 (i.e., 2.5 Gbit/s 11 ODU1 (i.e., 2.5 Gbit/s
12 OPU2 (i.e., 10 Gbit/s) 12 ODU2 (i.e., 10 Gbit/s)
13 OPU3 (i.e., 40 Gbit/s) 13 ODU3 (i.e., 40 Gbit/s)
21 T1 (i.e., 1.544 Mbps) 21 T1 (i.e., 1.544 Mbps)
22 E1 (i.e., 2.048 Mbps) 22 E1 (i.e., 2.048 Mbps)
23 E3 (i.e., 34.368 Mbps) 23 E3 (i.e., 34.368 Mbps)
24 T3 (i.e., 44.736 Mbps) 24 T3 (i.e., 44.736 Mbps)
Number of Members: 16 bits Number of Members: 16 bits
This field is an unsigned integer that MUST indicate the total This field is an unsigned integer that MUST indicate the total
number of members in the VCG (not just the call). This field MUST number of members in the VCG (not just the call). This field MUST
be changed (over the life of the VCG) to indicate the current be changed (over the life of the VCG) to indicate the current
skipping to change at page 12, line 35 skipping to change at page 12, line 35
LCAS Required: 8 bits LCAS Required: 8 bits
This field can take the following values and MUST NOT change over This field can take the following values and MUST NOT change over
the life of a VCG: the life of a VCG:
Value Meaning Value Meaning
----- --------------------------------- ----- ---------------------------------
0 LCAS required 0 LCAS required
1 LCAS desired 1 LCAS desired
2 LCAS not desired (but acceptable) 2 LCAS not supported
Action: 8 bits Action: 8 bits
This field is used to indicate the relationship between the call This field is used to indicate the relationship between the call
and the VCG and has the following values. and the VCG and has the following values.
Value Meaning Value Meaning
----- --------------------------------- ----- ---------------------------------
0 No VCG ID (set up call prior to VCG creation) 0 No VCG ID (set up call prior to VCG creation)
1 New VCG for Call 1 New VCG for Call
2 No Change in VCG ID (number of members may have changed) 2 Modification of number of members (No Change in VCG ID)
3 Remove VCG from Call 3 Remove VCG from Call
VCG Identifier (ID): 16 bit VCG Identifier (ID): 16 bit
This field carries an unsigned integer that is used to identify a This field carries an unsigned integer that is used to identify a
particular VCG within a session. The value of the field MUST NOT particular VCG within a session. The value of the field MUST NOT
change over the lifetime of a VCG but MAY change over the lifetime change over the lifetime of a VCG but MAY change over the lifetime
of a call. of a call.
5.3. Procedures for Multiple Co-signaled Member Sets 5.3. Procedures for Multiple Member Sets
The creation of a VCG based on multiple co-signaled member sets The creation of a VCG based on multiple member sets requires the
requires the establishment of at least one VCAT layer call. VCAT establishment of at least one VCAT layer call. VCAT layer calls and
layer calls and related LSPs (connections) MUST follow the the related LSPs (connections) MUST follow the procedures as defined in
Procedures in Support of Calls and Connections as defined in
[RFC4974] with the addition of the inclusion of a CALL_ATTRIBUTES [RFC4974] with the addition of the inclusion of a CALL_ATTRIBUTES
object containing the VCAT TLV. Multiple VCAT layer calls per VCG are object containing the VCAT TLV. Multiple VCAT layer calls per VCG are
not required to support co-signaled member sets, but are needed to not required to support member sets, but are needed to support
support certain member sharing scenario. certain member sharing scenario.
The remainder of this section provides specific procedures related to The remainder of this section provides specific procedures related to
VCG signaling. The procedures of [RFC4974] are only modified as VCG signaling. The procedures of [RFC4974] are only modified as
discussed in this section. discussed in this section.
When LCAS is supported, the data plane will add or decrease the
members per [G7042]. When LCAS is not supported across LSPs, the data
plane coordination across member sets, is outside the scope of this
document.
5.3.1. Setting up a new VCAT call and VCG Simultaneously 5.3.1. Setting up a new VCAT call and VCG Simultaneously
To simultaneously set up a VCAT call and identify it with an To simultaneously set up a VCAT call and identify it with an
associated VCG, a CALL_ATTRIBUTES object containing the VCAT TLV MUST associated VCG, a CALL_ATTRIBUTES object containing the VCAT TLV
be included at the time of call setup. The VCAT TLV Action field MUSTbe included in the Notify message at the time of call setup. The
MUST be set to 1, which indicates that this is a new VCG for this VCAT TLV Action field MUST be set to 1, which indicates that this is
call. LSPs MUST then be added to the call until the number of a new VCG for this call. LSPs MUST then be added to the call until
members reaches the number specified in the VCAT TLV. the number of members reaches the number specified in the VCAT TLV.
5.3.2. Setting up a VCAT call + LSPs without a VCG 5.3.2. Setting up a VCAT call + LSPs without a VCG
To provide for pre-establishment of the server layer connections for To provide for pre-establishment of the server layer connections for
a VCG a VCAT call MAY be established without an associated VCG a VCG a VCAT call MAY be established without an associated VCG
identifier. In fact, to provide for the member sharing scenario, a identifier. In fact, to provide for the member sharing scenario, a
pool of VCAT calls with associated connections (LSPs) can be pool of VCAT calls with associated connections (LSPs) can be
established, and then one or more of these calls (with accompanying established, and then one or more of these calls (with accompanying
connections) can be associated with a particular VCG (via the VCG connections) can be associated with a particular VCG (via the VCG
ID). Note that multiple calls can be associated with a single VCG but ID). Note that multiple calls can be associated with a single VCG but
that a call MUST NOT contain members used in more than one VCG. that a call MUST NOT contain members used in more than one VCG.
To establish a VCAT call with no VCG association, a CALL_ATTRIBUTES To establish a VCAT call with no VCG association, a CALL_ATTRIBUTES
object containing the VCAT TLV MUST be included at the time of call object containing the VCAT TLV MUST be included at the time of call
setup. The VCAT TLV Action field MUST be set to 0, which indicates setup in the Notify message. The VCAT TLV Action field MUST be set
that this is a VCAT call without an associated VCG. LSPs can then be to 0, which indicates that this is a VCAT call without an associated
added to the call. The number of members parameter in the VCAT TLV VCG. LSPs can then be added to the call. The number of members
has no meaning at this point since it reflects the intended number of parameter in the VCAT TLV has no meaning at this point since it
members in a VCG and not in a call. Note that signal types can never reflects the intended number of members in a VCG and not in a call.
be mixed in a VCG and hence a VCAT call contains only one signal
type.
5.3.3. Associating an existing VCAT call with a new VCG 5.3.3. Associating an existing VCAT call with a new VCG
A VCAT call that is not otherwise associated with a VCG may be A VCAT call that is not otherwise associated with a VCG may be
associated with a VCG. To establish such an association a Notify associated with a VCG. To establish such an association a Notify
message MUST be sent with a CALL_ATTRIBUTES object containing a VCAT message MUST be sent with a CALL_ATTRIBUTES object containing a VCAT
TLV. The TLV's Action field MUST be set to 1 the VCG Identifier field TLV. The TLV's Action field MUST be set to 1, the VCG Identifier
MUST be set to correspond to the VCG. The number of members field field MUST be set to correspond to the VCG. The number of members
MUST equal the sum of all LSPs associated with the VCG. The Notify field MUST equal the sum of all LSPs associated with the VCG. Note
message is otherwise formatted and processed as defined under Call that the total number of VCGs supported by a node may be limited and
Establishment in [RFC4974]. Note that the total number of VCGs hence on reception of any message with a change of VCG ID this limit
supported by a piece of equipment may be limited and hence on should be checked. Likewise the sender of a message with a change in
reception of any message with a change of VCG ID this limit should be VCG ID MUST be prepared to receive an error response. Again, any
checked. Likewise the sender of a message with a change in VCG ID error in a VCG may result in the failure of the complete VCG.
MUST be prepared to receive an error response. Again, any error in a
VCG may result in the failure of the complete VCG.
5.3.4. Removing the association between a call and VCG 5.3.4. Removing the association between a call and VCG
To reuse the server layer connections in a call in another VCG, the To reuse the server layer connections in a call in another VCG, the
current association between the call and a VCG MUST first be removed. current association between the call and a VCG MUST first be removed.
To do this, a Notify message MUST be sent with a CALL_ATTRIBUTES To do this, a Notify message MUST be sent with a CALL_ATTRIBUTES
object containing a VCAT TLV. The Action field of the TLV MUST be object containing a VCAT TLV. The Action field of the TLV MUST be
set to 3 (Remove VCG from Call). The VCG ID field is ignored and MAY set to 3 (Remove VCG from Call). The VCG ID field is ignored and MAY
be set to any value. The number of members field is also ignored and be set to any value. The number of members field is also ignored and
MAY be set to any value. When the association between a VCG and all MAY be set to any value. When the association between a VCG and all
existing calls has been removed then the VCG is considered torn down. existing calls has been removed then the VCG is considered torn down.
The Notify message is otherwise formatted and processed as defined
under Call Establishment in [RFC4974].
5.3.5. VCG Bandwidth modification 5.3.5. VCG Bandwidth modification
The following cases may occur when increasing or decreasing the The following cases may occur when increasing or decreasing the
bandwidth of a VCG: bandwidth of a VCG:
1. LSPs are added to or, in the case of a decrease, removed from a 1. LSPs are added to or, in the case of a decrease, removed from a
VCAT Call already associated with a VCG. VCAT Call already associated with a VCG.
2. An existing VCAT call, and corresponding LSPs, is associated 2. An existing VCAT call, and corresponding LSPs, is associated
with a VCG or, in the case of a decrease, has its association with a VCG or, in the case of a decrease, has its association
removed. Note that in the increase case, the call MUST NOT have removed. Note that in the increase case, the call MUST NOT have
any existing association with a VCG. any existing association with a VCG.
The following internal ordering SHOULD be used when modifying the The following sequence SHOULD be used when modifying the bandwidth of
bandwidth of a VCG in a hitless fashion when LCAS is supported: a VCG:
1. In both cases, prior to any other change, a Notify message MUST 1. In both cases, prior to any other change, a Notify message MUST
be sent with a CALL_ATTRIBUTES object containing a VCAT TLV for each be sent with a CALL_ATTRIBUTES object containing a VCAT TLV for each
of the existing VCAT calls associated with the VCG. The Action field of the existing VCAT calls associated with the VCG. The Action field
of the TLV MUST be set to 2. The VCG ID field MUST be set to match of the TLV MUST be set to 2. The VCG ID field MUST be set to match
the VCG. The number of members field MUST equal the sum of all LSPs the VCG. The number of members field MUST equal the sum of all LSPs
that are anticipated to be associated with the VCG after the that are anticipated to be associated with the VCG after the
bandwidth change. The Notify message is otherwise formatted and bandwidth change. The Notify message is otherwise formatted and
processed as defined under Call Establishment in [RFC4974]. If an processed as defined under Call Establishment in [RFC4974]. If an
error is encountered while processing any of the Notify messages, the error is encountered while processing any of the Notify messages, the
number of members is reverted to the pre-change value and the number of members is reverted to the pre-change value and the
increase is aborted. The reverted number of members MUST be signaled increase is aborted. The reverted number of members MUST be signaled
in a Notify message as described above. Any failures encountered in in a Notify message as described above. Failures encountered in
processing these Notify messages are ignored. processing these Notify messages are handled per [RFC4974].
2. Once the existing calls have successfully been notified of the 2. Once the existing calls have successfully been notified of the
new number of members in the VCG, the bandwidth change can be made. new number of members in the VCG, the bandwidth change can be made.
In the case of a decrease, the internal LCAS entity at the endpoints The next step is dependent on the two cases defined above. In the
MUST "deactivate" the VCG member(s). The next step is dependent on first case defined above, the bandwidth change is made by adding (in
the two cases defined above. In the first case defined above, the the case of increase) or removing (in the case of a decrease) LSPs to
bandwidth change is made by adding (in the case of increase) or the VCAT call per the procedures defined in [RFC4974]. In the second
removing (in the case of a decrease) LSPs to the VCAT call per the case, the same procedure defined in Section 5.3.3. is followed for an
procedures defined in [RFC4974]. In the second case, the same increase, and the procedure defined in Section 5.3.4. is followed for
procedure defined in Section 5.3.3. is followed for an increase, and a decrease.
the procedure defined in Section 5.3.4. is followed for an decrease.
In the case of an increase, after the bandwidth change is
successfully made, the internal LCAS entity at the endpoints MUST
"activate" the new VCG member(s).
6. Error Conditions and Codes 6. Error Conditions and Codes
VCAT Call and member LSP setup can be denied for various reasons. In VCAT Call and member LSP setup can be denied for various reasons. In
addition to the call procedures and related error codes described in addition to the call procedures and related error codes described in
[RFC4974], below is a list of error conditions that can be [RFC4974], below is a list of error conditions that can be
encountered during the procedures as defined in this document. These encountered during the procedures as defined in this document. These
fall under RSVP error code TBA. fall under RSVP error code TBA.
These can occur when setting up a VCAT call or associating a VCG with These can occur when setting up a VCAT call or associating a VCG with
a VCAT call. a VCAT call.
Error Value Error Value
------------------------------------ -------- ------------------------------------ --------
VCG signal type not Supported 1 VCG signal type not Supported 1
LCAS option not supported 2 LCAS option not supported 2
Max number of VCGs exceeded 3 Max number of VCGs exceeded 3
skipping to change at page 16, line 30 skipping to change at page 16, line 25
with the VCG being deleted. with the VCG being deleted.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
7.1. RSVP CALL_ATTRIBUTE TLV 7.1. RSVP CALL_ATTRIBUTE TLV
IANA has made the following assignments in the "Class Names, Class IANA has made the following assignments in the "Class Names, Class
Numbers, and Class Types" section of the "RSVP PARAMETERS" registry Numbers, and Class Types" section of the "RSVP PARAMETERS" registry
located at http://www.iana.org/assignments/rsvp-parameters. located at http://www.iana.org/assignments/rsvp-parameters.
We request that IANA make assignments from the CALL_ATTRIBUTES TLV We request that IANA make assignments from the CALL_ATTRIBUTES TLV
[MLN-Ext] portions of this registry. [RFC6001] portions of this registry.
This document introduces a new CALL_ATTRIBUTES TLV This document introduces a new CALL_ATTRIBUTES TLV
TLV Value Name Reference TLV Value Name Reference
--------- ---------------------- --------- --------- ---------------------- ---------
TBD (2) VCAT_TLV [This I-D] TBD (2) VCAT_TLV This I-D
7.2. RSVP Error Codes and Error Values 7.2. RSVP Error Codes and Error Values
A new RSVP Error Code and new Error Values are introduced. We A new RSVP Error Code and new Error Values are introduced. We
request IANA make assignments from the "RSVP Parameters" registry request IANA make assignments from the "RSVP Parameters" registry
using the sub-registry "Error Codes and Globally-Defined Error Value using the sub-registry "Error Codes and Globally-Defined Error Value
Sub-Codes". Sub-Codes".
o Error Codes: o Error Codes:
skipping to change at page 17, line 27 skipping to change at page 18, line 5
This document introduces a specific use of the Notify message and This document introduces a specific use of the Notify message and
admin status object for GMPLS signaling as originally specified in admin status object for GMPLS signaling as originally specified in
[RFC4974]. It does not introduce any new signaling messages, nor [RFC4974]. It does not introduce any new signaling messages, nor
change the relationship between LSRs that are adjacent in the control change the relationship between LSRs that are adjacent in the control
plane. The call information associated with diversely routed control plane. The call information associated with diversely routed control
plane LSPs, in the event of an interception, may indicate that these plane LSPs, in the event of an interception, may indicate that these
are members of the same VCAT group that take a different route, and are members of the same VCAT group that take a different route, and
may indicate to an interceptor that the VCG call desires increased may indicate to an interceptor that the VCG call desires increased
reliability. reliability.
Otherwise, this document does not introduce any additional security
considerations.
9. Contributors 9. Contributors
Wataru Imajuku (NTT) Wataru Imajuku (NTT)
1-1 Hikari-no-oka Yokosuka Kanagawa 239-0847 1-1 Hikari-no-oka Yokosuka Kanagawa 239-0847
Japan Japan
Phone +81-46-859-4315 Phone +81-46-859-4315
Email: imajuku.wataru@lab.ntt.co.jp Email: imajuku.wataru@lab.ntt.co.jp
Julien Meuric Julien Meuric
skipping to change at page 19, line 9 skipping to change at page 19, line 9
The authors would like to thank Adrian Farrel, Maarten Vissers, The authors would like to thank Adrian Farrel, Maarten Vissers,
Trevor Wilson, Evelyne Roch, Vijay Pandian, Fred Gruman, Dan Li, Trevor Wilson, Evelyne Roch, Vijay Pandian, Fred Gruman, Dan Li,
Stephen Shew, Jonathan Saddler and Dieter Beller for extensive Stephen Shew, Jonathan Saddler and Dieter Beller for extensive
reviews and contributions to this draft. reviews and contributions to this draft.
11. References 11. References
11.1. Normative References 11.1. Normative References
[MLN-Ext] Papadimitriou, D., Vigoureux M., Shiomoto, K. [RFC6001] Papadimitriou, D., Vigoureux M., Shiomoto, K.
Brungard, D., Le Roux, JL., "Generalized Multi- Brungard, D., Le Roux, JL., "Generalized Multi-
Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Protocol Extensions Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Protocol Extensions
for Multi-Layer and Multi-Region Networks (MLN/MRN)", for Multi-Layer and Multi-Region Networks (MLN/MRN)",
work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-mln- October, 2010.
extensions-09.txt, October, 2009.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3473] Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label [RFC3473] Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation
Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions", Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions",
RFC 3473, January 2003. RFC 3473, January 2003.
[RFC4328] Papadimitriou, D., Ed., "Generalized Multi-Protocol
Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Extensions for G.709
Optical Transport Networks Control", RFC 4328, January
2006.
[RFC4606] Mannie, E. and D. Papadimitriou, "Generalized Multi- [RFC4606] Mannie, E. and D. Papadimitriou, "Generalized Multi-
Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Extensions for Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Extensions for
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) and Synchronous Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) and Synchronous
Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Control", RFC 4606, December Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Control", RFC 4606, December
2005. 2005.
[RFC4974] Papadimitriou, D. and A. Farrel, "Generalized MPLS [RFC4974] Papadimitriou, D. and A. Farrel, "Generalized MPLS
(GMPLS) RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions in Support of (GMPLS) RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions in Support of
Calls", RFC 4974, August 2007. Calls", RFC 4974, August 2007.
11.2. Informative References 11.2. Informative References
[ANSI-T1.105] American National Standards Institute, "Synchronous [ANSI-T1.105] American National Standards Institute, "Synchronous
Optical Network (SONET) - Basic Description including Optical Network (SONET) - Basic Description including
Multiplex Structure, Rates, and Formats", ANSI T1.105- Multiplex Structure, Rates, and Formats", ANSI T1.105-
2001, May 2001. 2001, May 2001.
[ITU-T-G.7042] International Telecommunications Union, "Link Capacity [G7042] International Telecommunications Union, "Link Capacity
Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) for Virtual Concatenated Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) for Virtual Concatenated
Signals", ITU-T Recommendation G.7042, March 2006. Signals", ITU-T Recommendation G.7042, March 2006.
[ITU-T-G.7043] International Telecommunications Union, "Virtual [ITU-T-G.7043] International Telecommunications Union, "Virtual
Concatenation of Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Concatenation of Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
(PDH) Signals", ITU-T Recommendation G.7043, July (PDH) Signals", ITU-T Recommendation G.7043, July
2004. 2004.
[ITU-T-G.704] International Telecommunications Union, " Synchronous [ITU-T-G.704] International Telecommunications Union, " Synchronous
frame structures used at 1544, 6312, 2048, 8448 and 44 frame structures used at 1544, 6312, 2048, 8448 and 44
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