draft-ietf-bmwg-reset-00.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-reset-01.txt 
Benchmarking Methodology WG Rajiv Asati Benchmarking Methodology WG Rajiv Asati
Internet Draft Cisco Internet Draft Cisco
Updates: 2544 (if approved) Carlos Pignataro Updates: 2544 (if approved) Carlos Pignataro
Intended status: Informational Cisco Intended status: Informational Cisco
Expires: November 2010 Fernando Calabria Expires: January 2011 Fernando Calabria
Cisco Cisco
Cesar Olvera Cesar Olvera
Consulintel Consulintel
May 1, 2010 July 9, 2010
Device Reset Characterization Device Reset Characterization
draft-ietf-bmwg-reset-00 draft-ietf-bmwg-reset-01
Abstract Abstract
An operational forwarding device may need to be re-started An operational forwarding device may need to be re-started
(automatically or manually) for a variety of reasons, an event that (automatically or manually) for a variety of reasons, an event that
we call a "reset" in this document. Since there may be an we call a "reset" in this document. Since there may be an
interruption in the forwarding operation during a reset, it is interruption in the forwarding operation during a reset, it is
useful to know how long a device takes to begin forwarding packets useful to know how long a device takes to begin forwarding packets
again. again.
skipping to change at page 2, line 10 skipping to change at page 2, line 10
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This Internet-Draft will expire on November 1, 2010. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 9, 2011.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction...................................................4 1. Introduction...................................................4
1.1. Scope.....................................................5 1.1. Scope.....................................................4
2. Key Words to Reflect Requirements..............................5 2. Key Words to Reflect Requirements..............................4
3. Reset Test.....................................................5 3. Test Requirements..............................................5
3.1. Hardware Reset............................................6 4. Reset Test.....................................................6
3.1.1. Routing Processor (RP) / Routing Engine reset........6 4.1. Hardware Reset............................................6
3.1.1.1. RP Failure for a single-RP device (mandatory)...6 4.1.1. Routing Processor (RP) / Routing Engine reset........7
3.1.1.2. RP Failure for a multiple-RP device (optional)..8 4.1.1.1. RP Reset for a single-RP device (REQUIRED)......7
3.1.2. Line Card (LC) Removal and Insertion (mandatory)....10 4.1.1.2. RP Switchover for a multiple-RP device (OPTIONAL)
3.2. Software Reset...........................................12 .........................................................9
3.2.1. Operating System (OS) reset (mandatory).............13 4.1.2. Line Card (LC) Removal and Insertion (REQUIRED).....11
3.2.2. Process reset (optional)............................14 4.2. Software Reset...........................................13
3.3. Power interruption.......................................16 4.2.1. Operating System (OS) reset (REQUIRED)..............13
3.3.1. Power Interruption (mandatory)......................17 4.2.2. Process reset (OPTIONAL)............................15
4. Security Considerations.......................................19 4.3. Power interruption.......................................17
5. IANA Considerations...........................................19 4.3.1. Power Interruption (REQUIRED).......................17
6. Acknowledgments...............................................19 5. Security Considerations.......................................19
7. References....................................................20 6. IANA Considerations...........................................20
7.1. Normative References.....................................20 7. Acknowledgments...............................................20
7.2. Informative References...................................20 8. References....................................................21
Authors' Addresses...............................................21 8.1. Normative References.....................................21
8.2. Informative References...................................21
Authors' Addresses...............................................22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
An operational forwarding device (or one of its components) may need An operational forwarding device (or one of its components) may need
to be re-started for a variety of reasons, an event that we call a to be re-started for a variety of reasons, an event that we call a
"reset" in this draft. Since there may be an interruption in the "reset" in this draft. Since there may be an interruption in the
forwarding operation during a reset, it is useful to know how long a forwarding operation during a reset, it is useful to know how long a
device takes to begin forwarding packets again. device takes to begin forwarding packets again.
However, the answer to this question is no longer simple and However, the answer to this question is no longer simple and
straight-forward as the modern forwarding devices employ many straight-forward as the modern forwarding devices employ many
hardware advancements (distributed forwarding, etc.) and software hardware advancements (distributed forwarding, etc.) and software
advancements (graceful restart, etc.) that influence the recovery advancements (graceful restart, etc.) that influence the recovery
time after the reset. time after the reset.
1.1. Scope
This document specifies a methodology for characterizing reset
during benchmarking of forwarding devices, and provides clarity and
consistency in reset procedures beyond what is specified in
[RFC2544]. These procedures may be used by other benchmarking
documents such as [RFC2544], [RFC5180], [RFC5695], etc.
This document updates Section 26.6 of [RFC2544].
This document focuses on only the reset criterion of benchmarking,
and presumes that it would be beneficial to [RFC5180], [RFC5695],
and other BMWG benchmarking efforts.
2. Key Words to Reflect Requirements
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
[RFC2119]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make
the intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While
this document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards
track document.
3. Test Requirements
In order to provide consistent and fairness while benchmarking a set In order to provide consistent and fairness while benchmarking a set
of different DUTs, the Network tester / Operator MUST (a) use of different DUTs, the Network tester / Operator MUST (a) use
identical control and data plane information during testing, (b) identical control and data plane information during testing, (b)
document & report any factors that may influence the overall time document & report any factors that may influence the overall time
after reset / convergence. after reset / convergence.
Some of these factors follow: Some of these factors include:
1. Type of reset - Hardware (line-card crash, etc.) vs. Software 1. Type of reset - Hardware (line-card crash, etc.) vs. Software
(protocol reset, process crash, etc.) or even complete power (protocol reset, process crash, etc.) or even complete power
failures failures
2. Manual vs. Automatic reset 2. Manual vs. Automatic reset
3. Scheduled vs. non-scheduled reset 3. Scheduled vs. non-scheduled reset
4. Local vs. Remote reset 4. Local vs. Remote reset
skipping to change at page 4, line 51 skipping to change at page 5, line 39
7. Scale - Number of routing protocol instances 7. Scale - Number of routing protocol instances
8. Scale - Number of Routing Table entries 8. Scale - Number of Routing Table entries
9. Scale - Number of Route Processors available 9. Scale - Number of Route Processors available
10. Performance - Redundancy strategy deployed for route 10. Performance - Redundancy strategy deployed for route
processors and line cards processors and line cards
11. Performance - Interface encapsulation as well as achievable 11. Performance - Interface encapsulation as well as achievable
NDR (non-dropping rate) Throughput [RFC2544]
12. Any other internal or external factor that may influence 12. Any other internal or external factor that may influence
recovery time after a hardware or software reset recovery time after a hardware or software reset
This document specifies a methodology for characterizing reset After the tests are run, one of the characterization results
during benchmarking of forwarding devices, and provides clarity and reported is the recovery time. While the recovery time during a
consistency in reset procedures beyond what's specified in reset test event may be zero, there may still be effects on traffic,
[RFC2544]. These procedures may be used by other benchmarking such as transient delay variation or increased latency. However,
documents such as [RFC2544], [RFC5180], [RFC5695], etc. that is not covered and deemed outside the scope of this document.
In this case, only "no loss" is reported.
This document updates Section 26.6 of [RFC2544].
1.1. Scope
This document focuses on only the reset criterion of benchmarking,
and presumes that it would be beneficial to [RFC2544], [RFC5180],
[RFC5695], and other BMWG benchmarking efforts.
2. Key Words to Reflect Requirements
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
[RFC2119]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make
the intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While
this document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards
track document.
3. Reset Test 4. Reset Test
This section contains the description of the tests that are related This section contains the description of the tests that are related
to the characterization of DUTs (Device Under Test) / SUTs (System to the characterization of the time needed for DUTs (Device Under
Under Test) speed to recover from a reset. There are three types of Test) / SUTs (System Under Test) to recover from a reset. There are
reset considered in this document: three types of reset considered in this document:
1. Hardware resets 1. Hardware resets
2. Software resets 2. Software resets
3. Power interruption 3. Power interruption
Different types of reset have potentially different impact on the Different types of reset have potentially different impact on the
forwarding behavior of the device. As an example, a software reset forwarding behavior of the device. As an example, a software reset
(of a routing process) might not result in forwarding interruption, (of a routing process) might not result in forwarding interruption,
whereas a hardware reset (of a line card) most likely will. whereas a hardware reset (of a line card) most likely will.
Section 3.1 describes various hardware resets, whereas Section 3.2 Section 4.1 describes various hardware resets, whereas Section 4.2
describes various software resets. Additionally, Section 3.3 describes various software resets. Additionally, Section 4.3
describes power interruption tests. These sections define and describes power interruption tests. These sections define and
characterize these resets. characterize these resets.
Additionally, since device specific implementations may vary for Additionally, since device specific implementations may vary for
hardware and software type resets, it is desirable to classify each hardware and software type resets, it is desirable to classify each
test case as "MUST" or "optional". test case as "REQUIRED" or "OPTIONAL".
3.1. Hardware Reset 4.1. Hardware Reset
A test designed to characterize the time it takes a DUT to recover A test designed to characterize the time it takes a DUT to recover
from the hardware reset. from the hardware reset.
A "hardware reset" generally involves the re-initialization of one A "hardware reset" generally involves the re-initialization of one
or more physical components in the DUT, but not the entire DUT. or more physical components in the DUT, but not the entire DUT.
A hardware reset is executed by the operator for example by physical A hardware reset is executed by the operator for example by physical
removal of a physical component, by pressing on a "reset" button for removal of a physical component, by pressing on a "reset" button for
the component, or could even be triggered from the command line the component, or could even be triggered from the command line
interface. interface.
For routers that do not contain separate Routing Processor and Line For routers that do not contain separate Routing Processor and Line
Card modules, the hardware reset tests are not performed since they Card modules, the hardware reset tests are not performed since they
are not relevant; instead, the power interruption tests MUST be are not relevant; instead, the power interruption tests MUST be
performed (see Section 3.3) in these cases. performed (see Section 4.3) in these cases.
3.1.1. Routing Processor (RP) / Routing Engine reset 4.1.1. Routing Processor (RP) / Routing Engine reset
The Routing Processor (RP) is the DUT module that is primarily The Routing Processor (RP) is the DUT module that is primarily
concerned with Control Plane functions. concerned with Control Plane functions.
3.1.1.1. RP Failure for a single-RP device (mandatory) 4.1.1.1. RP Reset for a single-RP device (REQUIRED)
Objective Objective
To characterize the speed at which a DUT recovers from a Route To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover from a Route
processor hardware reset in a single RP environment. processor hardware reset in a single RP environment.
Procedure Procedure
First, ensure that the RP is in a permanent state to which it will First, ensure that the RP is in a permanent state to which it will
return to after the reset, by performing some or all of the return to after the reset, by performing some or all of the
following operational tasks: save the current DUT configuration, following operational tasks: save the current DUT configuration,
specify boot parameters, ensure the appropriate software files are specify boot parameters, ensure the appropriate software files are
available, or perform additional Operating System or hardware available, or perform additional Operating System or hardware
related task. related task.
Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at
least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The
traffic should use the minimum frame size possible on the media traffic should use the minimum frame size possible on the media
skipping to change at page 7, line 27 skipping to change at page 7, line 44
Modern traffic generators support the feature of transmitting Modern traffic generators support the feature of transmitting
packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST
ensure that this feature is enabled. ensure that this feature is enabled.
Third, perform the Route Processor (RP) hardware reset at this Third, perform the Route Processor (RP) hardware reset at this
point. This entails for example physically removing the RP to point. This entails for example physically removing the RP to
later re-insert it, or triggering a hardware reset by other means later re-insert it, or triggering a hardware reset by other means
(e.g., command line interface, physical switch, etc.) (e.g., command line interface, physical switch, etc.)
Finally, the characterization is completed by measuring the frame Finally, the characterization is completed by measuring the
loss and recovery time from the moment the RP is re-initialized or complete frame loss and calculating the recovery time from the
reinserted. moment the RP is re-initialized or reinserted until traffic is re-
established, by using the following equation:
Recovery_time = Packet_loss (packets)/Offered_rate (packets per
second).
Reporting format Reporting format
The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the
frame loss and recovery times. frame loss and recovery times.
For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following
parameters be reported in these units: parameters be reported in these units:
Parameter Units or Examples Parameter Units or Examples
skipping to change at page 7, line 42 skipping to change at page 8, line 16
The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the
frame loss and recovery times. frame loss and recovery times.
For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following
parameters be reported in these units: parameters be reported in these units:
Parameter Units or Examples Parameter Units or Examples
Throughput Frames per second and bits per Throughput Frames per second and bits per
second second
Loss Frames Loss (average) Frames
Time Seconds, with sufficient resolution Time (average) Seconds, all significant digits and
to convey meaningful info at least two digits variable over
the trials
Number of trials Integer count
Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc. Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc.
Frame Size Octets Frame Size Octets
Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet), Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet),
POS (Packet over SONET), etc. POS (Packet over SONET), etc.
Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc. Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc.
Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN, Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN,
PPP, HDLC, etc. PPP, HDLC, etc.
Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration, Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration,
and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery
time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in
Section 1). Section 3).
The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations
from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple
trials and report average results. trials and report average results.
3.1.1.2. RP Failure for a multiple-RP device (optional) 4.1.1.2. RP Switchover for a multiple-RP device (OPTIONAL)
Objective Objective
To characterize the speed at which a "secondary" Route Processor To characterize time needed for "secondary" Route Processor
(sometimes referred to as "backup" RP) of a DUT becomes active (sometimes referred to as "backup" RP) of a DUT to become active
after a "primary" (or "active") Route Processor hardware reset. after a "primary" (or "active") Route Processor hardware reset.
This process is often referred to as "RP Switchover". The This process is often referred to as "RP Switchover". The
characterization in this test should be done for the default DUT characterization in this test should be done for the default DUT
behavior as well as a DUT's non-default configuration that behavior as well as a DUT's non-default configuration that
minimizes frame loss. minimizes frame loss, if exists.
Procedure Procedure
This test characterizes "RP Switchover". Many implementations This test characterizes "RP Switchover". Many implementations
allow for optimized switchover capabilities that minimize the allow for optimized switchover capabilities that minimize the
downtime during the actual switchover. This test consists of two downtime during the actual switchover. This test consists of two
sub-cases from a switchover characteristics standpoint: First, a sub-cases from a switchover characteristics standpoint: First, a
default behavior (with no switchover-specific configurations); and default behavior (with no switchover-specific configurations); and
second, a non-default behavior with switchover configuration to potentially second, a non-default behavior with switchover
minimize frame loss. Therefore, the procedures hereby described configuration to minimize frame loss. Therefore, the procedures
are executed twice, and reported separately. hereby described are executed twice, and reported separately.
First, ensure that the RPs are in a permanent state such that the First, ensure that the RPs are in a permanent state such that the
secondary will be activated to the same state as the active is, by secondary will be activated to the same state as the active is, by
performing some or all of the following operational tasks: save performing some or all of the following operational tasks: save
the current DUT configuration, specify boot parameters, ensure the the current DUT configuration, specify boot parameters, ensure the
appropriate software files are available, or perform additional appropriate software files are available, or perform additional
Operating System or hardware related task. Operating System or hardware related task.
Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at
least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The
skipping to change at page 9, line 32 skipping to change at page 9, line 49
attain the maximum forwarding throughput. This enables a finer attain the maximum forwarding throughput. This enables a finer
granularity in the recovery time measurement. granularity in the recovery time measurement.
Modern traffic generators support the feature of transmitting Modern traffic generators support the feature of transmitting
packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST
ensure that this feature is enabled. ensure that this feature is enabled.
Third, perform the primary Route Processor (RP) hardware reset at Third, perform the primary Route Processor (RP) hardware reset at
this point. This entails for example physically removing the RP, this point. This entails for example physically removing the RP,
or triggering a hardware reset by other means (e.g., command line or triggering a hardware reset by other means (e.g., command line
interface, physical switch, etc.) Is up to the Operator to decide interface, physical switch, etc.) It is up to the Operator to
if the active RP needs to be re-inserted after a grace period or decide if the primary RP needs to be re-inserted after a grace
not. period or not.
Finally, the characterization is completed by measuring the Finally, the characterization is completed by measuring the
complete frame loss and recovery time from the moment the active complete frame loss and calculating the recovery time from the
RP is hardware-reset. moment the active RP is hardware-reset until traffic is re-
established, by using the following equation:
Recovery_time = Packet_loss (packets)/Offered_rate (packets per
second).
Reporting format Reporting format
The reset results are reported twice, one for the default The reset results are potentially reported twice, one for the
switchover behavior and the other for the non-default one. For default switchover behavior (i.e., the DUT without any switchover-
each, the report consists of a simple statement including the specific enhanced configuration) and the other for the switchover-
frame loss and recovery times, as well as any specific redundancy specific behavior if it exists (i.e., the DUT configured for
scheme in place. optimized switchover capabilities that minimize the downtime
during the actual switchover). For each, the report consists of a
simple statement including the frame loss and recovery times, as
well as any specific redundancy scheme in place.
For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following
parameters be reported in these units: parameters be reported in these units:
Parameter Units or Examples Parameter Units or Examples
Throughput Frames per second and bits per Throughput Frames per second and bits per
second second
Loss Frames Loss (average) Frames
Time Seconds, with sufficient resolution Time (average) Seconds, all significant digits and
at least two digits variable over
the trials
to convey meaningful info Number of trials Integer count
Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc. Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc.
Frame Size Octets Frame Size Octets
Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet), Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet),
POS (Packet over SONET), etc. POS (Packet over SONET), etc.
Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc. Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc.
Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN, Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN,
PPP, HDLC, etc. PPP, HDLC, etc.
Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration, Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration,
and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery
time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in
Section 1). Section 3).
The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations
from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple
trials and report average results. trials and report average results.
3.1.2. Line Card (LC) Removal and Insertion (mandatory) 4.1.2. Line Card (LC) Removal and Insertion (REQUIRED)
The Line Card (LC) is the DUT component that is responsible with The Line Card (LC) is the DUT component that is responsible with
packet forwarding. packet forwarding.
Objective Objective
To characterize the speed at which a DUT recovers from a Line Card To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover from a Line Card
removal and insertion event. removal and insertion event.
Procedure Procedure
For this test, the Line Card that is being hardware-reset MUST be For this test, the Line Card that is being hardware-reset MUST be
on the forwarding path and all destinations MUST be directly on the forwarding path and all destinations MUST be directly
connected. connected.
First, complete some or all of the following operational tasks: First, complete some or all of the following operational tasks:
save the current DUT configuration, specify boot parameters, save the current DUT configuration, specify boot parameters,
skipping to change at page 11, line 38 skipping to change at page 12, line 8
Modern traffic generators support the feature of transmitting Modern traffic generators support the feature of transmitting
packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST
ensure that this feature is enabled. ensure that this feature is enabled.
Third, perform the Line Card (LC) hardware reset at this point. Third, perform the Line Card (LC) hardware reset at this point.
This entails for example physically removing the LC to later re- This entails for example physically removing the LC to later re-
insert it, or triggering a hardware reset by other means (e.g., insert it, or triggering a hardware reset by other means (e.g.,
command line interface (CLI), physical switch, etc.). However, command line interface (CLI), physical switch, etc.). However,
most accurate results will be obtained using the CLI or a physical most accurate results will be obtained using the CLI or a physical
switch, and therefore these are RECOMMENDED. Otherwise, the time switch, and therefore these are RECOMMENDED. Otherwise, the time
spend trying to physically seat the LC will get mixed into the spent trying to physically seat the LC will get mixed into the
results. results.
Finally, the characterization is completed by measuring the frame Finally, the characterization is completed by measuring the
loss and recovery time from the moment the LC is reinitialized or complete frame loss and calculating the recovery time from the
reinserted. moment the LC is reinitialized or reinserted until traffic is re-
established, by using the following equation:
Recovery_time = Packet_loss (packets)/Offered_rate (packets per
second).
Reporting Format Reporting Format
The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the
frame loss and recovery times. frame loss and recovery times.
For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following
parameters be reported in these units: parameters be reported in these units:
Parameter Units or Examples Parameter Units or Examples
skipping to change at page 12, line 8 skipping to change at page 12, line 29
The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the
frame loss and recovery times. frame loss and recovery times.
For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following
parameters be reported in these units: parameters be reported in these units:
Parameter Units or Examples Parameter Units or Examples
Throughput Frames per second and bits per Throughput Frames per second and bits per
second second
Loss Frames Loss (average) Frames
Time Seconds, with sufficient resolution Time (average) Seconds, all significant digits and
at least two digits variable over
the trials
to convey meaningful info Number of trials Integer count
Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc. Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc.
Frame Size Octets Frame Size Octets
Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet), Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet),
POS (Packet over SONET), etc. POS (Packet over SONET), etc.
Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc. Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc.
Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN, Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN,
PPP, HDLC, etc. PPP, HDLC, etc.
Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration, Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration,
and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery
time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in
Section 1). Section 3).
The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations
from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple
trials and report average results. trials and report average results.
3.2. Software Reset 4.2. Software Reset
To characterize the speed at which a DUT recovers from the software To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover from the software
reset. reset.
In contrast to a "hardware reset", a "software reset" involves only In contrast to a "hardware reset", a "software reset" involves only
the re-initialization of the execution, data structures, and partial the re-initialization of the execution, data structures, and partial
state within the software running on the DUT module(s). state within the software running on the DUT module(s).
A software reset is initiated for example from the DUT's Command A software reset is initiated for example from the DUT's Command
Line Interface (CLI). Line Interface (CLI).
3.2.1. Operating System (OS) reset (mandatory) 4.2.1. Operating System (OS) reset (REQUIRED)
Objective Objective
To characterize the speed at which a DUT recovers from an To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover from an Operating
Operating System (OS) software reset. System (OS) software reset.
Procedure Procedure
First, complete some or all of the following operational tasks: First, complete some or all of the following operational tasks:
save the current DUT configuration, specify software boot save the current DUT configuration, specify software boot
parameters, ensure the appropriate software files are available, parameters, ensure the appropriate software files are available,
or perform additional Operating System task. or perform additional Operating System task.
Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at
least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The
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Modern traffic generators support the feature of transmitting Modern traffic generators support the feature of transmitting
packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST
ensure that this feature is enabled. ensure that this feature is enabled.
Third, trigger an Operating System re-initialization in the DUT, Third, trigger an Operating System re-initialization in the DUT,
by operational means such as use of the DUT's Command Line by operational means such as use of the DUT's Command Line
Interface (CLI) or other management interface. Interface (CLI) or other management interface.
Finally, the characterization is completed by measuring the Finally, the characterization is completed by measuring the
complete frame loss and recovery time from the moment the reset complete frame loss and calculating the recovery time from the
instruction was given until the Operating System finished the moment the reset instruction was given until the Operating System
reload and re-initialization (inferred by the re-establishing of finished the reload and re-initialization, inferred by the re-
traffic). establishing of traffic, by using the following equation:
Recovery_time = Packet_loss (packets)/Offered_rate (packets per
second).
Reporting format Reporting format
The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the
frame loss and recovery times. frame loss and recovery times.
For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following
parameters be reported in these units: parameters be reported in these units:
Parameter Units or Examples Parameter Units or Examples
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The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the
frame loss and recovery times. frame loss and recovery times.
For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following
parameters be reported in these units: parameters be reported in these units:
Parameter Units or Examples Parameter Units or Examples
Throughput Frames per second and bits per Throughput Frames per second and bits per
second second
Loss Frames Loss (average) Frames
Time Seconds, with sufficient resolution Time (average) Seconds, all significant digits and
at least two digits variable over
the trials
to convey meaningful info Number of trials Integer count
Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc. Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc.
Frame Size Octets Frame Size Octets
Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet), Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet),
POS (Packet over SONET), etc. POS (Packet over SONET), etc.
Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc. Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc.
Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN, Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN,
PPP, HDLC, etc. PPP, HDLC, etc.
Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration, Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration,
and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery
time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in
Section 1). Section 3).
The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations
from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple
trials and report average results. trials and report average results.
3.2.2. Process reset (optional) 4.2.2. Process reset (OPTIONAL)
Objective Objective
To characterize the speed at which a DUT recovers from a software
To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover from a software
process reset. process reset.
Such speed may depend upon the number and types of process running Such time period may depend upon the number and types of process
in the DUT and which ones are tested. Different implementations of running in the DUT and which ones are tested. Different
forwarding devices include various common processes. A process implementations of forwarding devices include various common
reset should be performed only in the processes most relevant to processes. A process reset should be performed only in the
the tester. processes most relevant to the tester and most impactful to
forwarding.
Procedure Procedure
First, complete some or all of the following operational tasks: First, complete some or all of the following operational tasks:
save the current DUT configuration, specify software parameters or save the current DUT configuration, specify software parameters or
environmental variables, or perform additional Operating System environmental variables, or perform additional Operating System
task. task.
Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at
least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The
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Modern traffic generators support the feature of transmitting Modern traffic generators support the feature of transmitting
packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST
ensure that this feature is enabled. ensure that this feature is enabled.
Third, trigger a process reset for each process running in the DUT Third, trigger a process reset for each process running in the DUT
and considered for testing from a management interface (e.g., by and considered for testing from a management interface (e.g., by
means of the Command Line Interface (CLI), etc.) means of the Command Line Interface (CLI), etc.)
Finally, the characterization for each individual process is Finally, the characterization for each individual process is
completed by measuring the complete frame loss and recovery time completed by measuring the complete frame loss and calculating the
from the moment the reset instruction was given until the recovery time from the moment the reset instruction was given
Operating System finished the reload and re-initialization until the Operating System finished the reload and re-
(inferred by the re-establishing of traffic). initialization, inferred by the re-establishing of traffic, by
using the following equation:
Recovery_time = Packet_loss (packets)/Offered_rate (packets per
second).
Reporting format Reporting format
The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the
frame loss and recovery times for each process running in the DUT frame loss and recovery times for each process running in the DUT
and tested. Given the implementation nature of this test, details and tested. Given the implementation nature of this test, details
of the actual process tested should be included along with the of the actual process tested should be included along with the
statement. statement.
For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following
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and tested. Given the implementation nature of this test, details and tested. Given the implementation nature of this test, details
of the actual process tested should be included along with the of the actual process tested should be included along with the
statement. statement.
For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following
parameters be reported in these units: parameters be reported in these units:
Parameter Units or Examples Parameter Units or Examples
Throughput Frames per second and bits per Throughput Frames per second and bits per
second second
Loss Frames Loss (average) Frames
Time Seconds, with sufficient resolution Time (average) Seconds, all significant digits and
at least two digits variable over
the trials
to convey meaningful info Number of trials Integer count
Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc. Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc.
Frame Size Octets Frame Size Octets
Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet), Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet),
POS (Packet over SONET), etc. POS (Packet over SONET), etc.
Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc. Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc.
Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN, Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN,
PPP, HDLC, etc. PPP, HDLC, etc.
Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration, Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration,
and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery
time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in
Section 1). Section 3).
The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations
from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple
trials and report average results. trials and report average results.
3.3. Power interruption 4.3. Power interruption
"Power interruption" refers to the complete loss of power on the "Power interruption" refers to the complete loss of power on the
DUT. It can be viewed as a special case of a hardware reset, DUT. It can be viewed as a special case of a hardware reset,
triggered by the loss of the power supply to the DUT or its triggered by the loss of the power supply to the DUT or its
components, and is characterized by the re-initialization of all components, and is characterized by the re-initialization of all
hardware and software in the DUT. hardware and software in the DUT.
3.3.1. Power Interruption (mandatory) 4.3.1. Power Interruption (REQUIRED)
Objective Objective
To characterize the speed at which a DUT recovers from a complete To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover efrom a complete
loss of electric power or complete power interruption. This test loss of electric power or complete power interruption. This test
simulates a complete power failure or outage, and should be simulates a complete power failure or outage, and should be
indicative of the DUT/SUTs behavior during such event. indicative of the DUT/SUTs behavior during such event.
Procedure Procedure
First, ensure that the entire DUT is at a permanent state to which First, ensure that the entire DUT is at a permanent state to which
it will return to after the power interruption, by performing some it will return to after the power interruption, by performing some
or all of the following operational tasks: save the current DUT or all of the following operational tasks: save the current DUT
configuration, specify boot parameters, ensure the appropriate configuration, specify boot parameters, ensure the appropriate
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packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST packets while ignoring the link status. The operator / tester MUST
ensure that this feature is enabled. ensure that this feature is enabled.
Third, interrupt the power (AC or DC) that feeds the corresponding Third, interrupt the power (AC or DC) that feeds the corresponding
DUTs power supplies at this point. This entails for example DUTs power supplies at this point. This entails for example
physically removing the power supplies in the DUT to later re- physically removing the power supplies in the DUT to later re-
insert them, or simply disconnecting or switching off their power insert them, or simply disconnecting or switching off their power
feeds (AC or DC as applicable). The actual power interruption feeds (AC or DC as applicable). The actual power interruption
should last at least 15 seconds. should last at least 15 seconds.
Finally, the characterization is completed by measuring the frame Finally, the characterization is completed by measuring the
loss and recovery time from the moment the power is restored or complete frame loss and calculating the recovery time from the
the power supplies reinserted in the DUT. moment the power is restored or the power supplies reinserted in
the DUT until traffic is re-established, by using the following
equation:
Recovery_time = Packet_loss (packets)/Offered_rate (packets per
second).
For easier comparison with other testing, the 15 seconds are
removed from the reported recovery time.
Reporting format Reporting format
The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the
frame loss and recovery times. frame loss and recovery times.
For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following
parameters be reported in these units: parameters be reported in these units:
Parameter Units or Examples Parameter Units or Examples
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The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the The reset results are reported in a simple statement including the
frame loss and recovery times. frame loss and recovery times.
For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following
parameters be reported in these units: parameters be reported in these units:
Parameter Units or Examples Parameter Units or Examples
Throughput Frames per second and bits per Throughput Frames per second and bits per
second second
Loss Frames Loss (average) Frames
Time Seconds, with sufficient resolution Time (average) Seconds, all significant digits and
at least two digits variable over
the trials
to convey meaningful info Number of trials Integer count
Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc. Protocol IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc.
Frame Size Octets Frame Size Octets
Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet), Port Media Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet),
POS (Packet over SONET), etc. POS (Packet over SONET), etc.
Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc. Port Speed 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc.
Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN, Interface Encap. Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN,
PPP, HDLC, etc. PPP, HDLC, etc.
Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration, Additionally, the DUT and test bed provisioning, configuration,
and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery and deployed methodologies that may influence the overall recovery
time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors listed in
Section 1). Section 3).
The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations
from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple
trials and report average results. trials and report average results.
4. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
Benchmarking activities, as described in this memo, are limited to Benchmarking activities, as described in this memo, are limited to
technology characterization using controlled stimuli in a laboratory technology characterization using controlled stimuli in a laboratory
environment, with dedicated address space and the constraints environment, with dedicated address space and the constraints
specified in the sections above. specified in the sections above.
The benchmarking network topology will be an independent test setup The benchmarking network topology will be an independent test setup
and MUST NOT be connected to devices that may forward the test and MUST NOT be connected to devices that may forward the test
traffic into a production network or misroute traffic to the test traffic into a production network or misroute traffic to the test
management network. management network.
skipping to change at page 19, line 28 skipping to change at page 20, line 16
relying solely on measurements observable external to the DUT/SUT. relying solely on measurements observable external to the DUT/SUT.
Special capabilities SHOULD NOT exist in the DUT/SUT specifically Special capabilities SHOULD NOT exist in the DUT/SUT specifically
for benchmarking purposes. Any implications for network security for benchmarking purposes. Any implications for network security
arising from the DUT/SUT SHOULD be identical in the lab and in arising from the DUT/SUT SHOULD be identical in the lab and in
production networks. production networks.
There are no specific security considerations within the scope of There are no specific security considerations within the scope of
this document. this document.
5. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
There is no IANA consideration for this document. There is no IANA consideration for this document.
6. Acknowledgments 7. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Ron Bonica, who motivated us to The authors would like to thank Ron Bonica, who motivated us to
write this document. The authors would also like to thank Al Morton, write this document. The authors would also like to thank Al Morton,
Andrew Yourtchenko, David Newman, and John E Dawson for providing Andrew Yourtchenko, David Newman, and John E Dawson for providing
thorough review, useful suggestions, and valuable input. thorough review, useful suggestions, and valuable input.
This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot. This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.
7. References 8. References
7.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2544] Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking Methodology for [RFC2544] Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking Methodology for
Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, March 1999. Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, March 1999.
7.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[RFC5180] Popoviciu, C., et al, "IPv6 Benchmarking Methodology for [RFC5180] Popoviciu, C., et al, "IPv6 Benchmarking Methodology for
Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 5180, May 2008. Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 5180, May 2008.
[RFC5695] Akhter, A., Asati, R., and C. Pignataro, "MPLS Forwarding [RFC5695] Akhter, A., Asati, R., and C. Pignataro, "MPLS Forwarding
Benchmarking Methodology for IP Flows", RFC 5695, November Benchmarking Methodology for IP Flows", RFC 5695, November
2009. 2009.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
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