draft-ietf-bmwg-mswitch-03.txt   rfc2889.txt 
Network Working Group R. Mandeville Network Working Group R. Mandeville
Internet-Draft European Network Laboratories Request for Comments: 2889 CQOS Inc.
Expiration Date: September 2000 J. Perser Category: Informational J. Perser
Netcom Systems Spirent Communications
March 2000 August 2000
Benchmarking Methodology for LAN Switching Devices Benchmarking Methodology for LAN Switching Devices
<draft-ietf-bmwg-mswitch-03.txt>
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this
memo is unlimited.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3. Test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3. Test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4. Frame formats and sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4. Frame formats and sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
5. Benchmarking Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5. Benchmarking Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
5.1 Fully meshed throughput, frame loss and forwarding rates . . 4 5.1 Fully meshed throughput, frame loss and forwarding rates 4
5.2 Partially meshed one-to-many/many-to-one . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.2 Partially meshed one-to-many/many-to-one . . . . . . . . 7
5.3 Partially meshed multiple devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.3 Partially meshed multiple devices . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.4 Partially meshed unidirectional traffic . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.4 Partially meshed unidirectional traffic . . . . . . . . . 13
5.5 Congestion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.5 Congestion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.6 Forward Pressure and Maximum Forwarding Rate . . . . . . . . 19 5.6 Forward Pressure and Maximum Forwarding Rate . . . . . . 19
5.7 Address caching capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.7 Address caching capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.8 Address learning rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.8 Address learning rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.9 Errored frames filtering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.9 Errored frames filtering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.10 Broadcast frame Forwarding and Latency . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.10 Broadcast frame Forwarding and Latency . . . . . . . . . 28
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
8. Authors' Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Appendix A: Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Appendix A: Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Appendix B: Generating Offered Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Appendix B: Generating Offered Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document is intended to provide methodology for the benchmarking This document is intended to provide methodology for the benchmarking
of local area network (LAN) switching devices. It extends the of local area network (LAN) switching devices. It extends the
methodology already defined for benchmarking network interconnecting methodology already defined for benchmarking network interconnecting
devices in RFC 2544 [3] to switching devices. devices in RFC 2544 [3] to switching devices.
This RFC primarily deals with devices which switch frames at the This RFC primarily deals with devices which switch frames at the
Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. It provides a methodology for Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. It provides a methodology for
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2. Requirements 2. Requirements
The following RFCs SHOULD be consulted before attempting to make use The following RFCs SHOULD be consulted before attempting to make use
of this document: RFC 1242 [1], RFC 2285 [2], and RFC 2544 [3]. of this document: RFC 1242 [1], RFC 2285 [2], and RFC 2544 [3].
For the sake of clarity and continuity, this RFC adopts the template For the sake of clarity and continuity, this RFC adopts the template
for benchmarking tests set out in Section 26 of RFC 2544. for benchmarking tests set out in Section 26 of RFC 2544.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.
3. Test setup 3. Test setup
This document extends the general test setup described in section 6 This document extends the general test setup described in section 6
of RFC 2544 [3] to the benchmarking of LAN switching devices. of RFC 2544 [3] to the benchmarking of LAN switching devices. RFC
RFC 2544 [3] primarily describes non-meshed traffic where input and 2544 [3] primarily describes non-meshed traffic where input and
output interfaces are grouped in mutually exclusive sending and output interfaces are grouped in mutually exclusive sending and
receiving pairs. In fully meshed traffic, each interface of a receiving pairs. In fully meshed traffic, each interface of a
DUT/SUT is set up to both receive and transmit frames to all the DUT/SUT is set up to both receive and transmit frames to all the
other interfaces under test. other interfaces under test.
Prior to each test run, the DUT/SUT MUST learn the MAC addresses used Prior to each test run, the DUT/SUT MUST learn the MAC addresses used
in the test and the address learning SHOULD be verified. Addresses in the test and the address learning SHOULD be verified. Addresses
not learned will be forwarded as flooded frames and reduce the amount not learned will be forwarded as flooded frames and reduce the amount
of correctly forwarded frames. The rate at which address learning of correctly forwarded frames. The rate at which address learning
frames are offered may have to be adjusted to be as low as 50 frames frames are offered may have to be adjusted to be as low as 50 frames
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4. Frame formats and sizes 4. Frame formats and sizes
The test frame format is defined in RFC 2544 section 8 [3] and MUST The test frame format is defined in RFC 2544 section 8 [3] and MUST
contain a unique signature field located in the UDP DATA area of the contain a unique signature field located in the UDP DATA area of the
Test Frame (see Appendix C [3]). The purpose of the signature field Test Frame (see Appendix C [3]). The purpose of the signature field
is filter out frames that are not part of the offered load. is filter out frames that are not part of the offered load.
The signature field MUST be unique enough to identify the frames not The signature field MUST be unique enough to identify the frames not
originating from the DUT/SUT. The signature field SHOULD be located originating from the DUT/SUT. The signature field SHOULD be located
after byte 56 (collision window [4] ) or at the end of the frame. after byte 56 (collision window [4] ) or at the end of the frame. The
The length, contents and method of detection is not defined in this length, contents and method of detection is not defined in this memo.
memo.
The signature field MAY have a unique identifier per port. This The signature field MAY have a unique identifier per port. This
would filter out misforwarded frames. It is possible for a DUT/SUT would filter out misforwarded frames. It is possible for a DUT/SUT
to strip off the MAC layer, send it through its switching matrix, to strip off the MAC layer, send it through its switching matrix, and
and transmit it out with the correct destination MAC address but the transmit it out with the correct destination MAC address but the
wrong payload. wrong payload.
For frame sizes, refer to RFC 2544, section 9 [3]. For frame sizes, refer to RFC 2544, section 9 [3].
There are three possible frame formats for layer 2 Ethernet switches: There are three possible frame formats for layer 2 Ethernet switches:
standard MAC Ethernet frames, standard MAC Ethernet frames with standard MAC Ethernet frames, standard MAC Ethernet frames with
vendor-specific tags added to them, and IEEE 802.3ac frames tagged to vendor-specific tags added to them, and IEEE 802.3ac frames tagged to
accommodate 802.1p&Q. The two types of tagged frames may exceed the accommodate 802.1p&Q. The two types of tagged frames may exceed the
standard maximum length frame of 1518 bytes, and may not be accepted standard maximum length frame of 1518 bytes, and may not be accepted
by the interface controllers of some DUT/SUTs. It is recommended to by the interface controllers of some DUT/SUTs. It is recommended to
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5.1.2 Setup Parameters 5.1.2 Setup Parameters
When offering full meshed traffic, the following parameters MUST be When offering full meshed traffic, the following parameters MUST be
defined. Each parameter is configured with the following defined. Each parameter is configured with the following
considerations. considerations.
Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024,
1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC 1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC
bytes are included in the frame size specified. bytes are included in the frame size specified.
Interframe Gap (IFG) - The IFG between frames inside a burst Interframe Gap (IFG) - The IFG between frames inside a burst MUST
MUST be at the minimum specified by the standard (9.6 us for be at the minimum specified by the standard (9.6 us for 10Mbps
10Mbps Ethernet, 960 ns for 100Mbps Ethernet, and 96 ns for Ethernet, 960 ns for 100Mbps Ethernet, and 96 ns for 1 Gbps
1 Gbps Ethernet) of the medium being tested. Ethernet) of the medium being tested.
Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex. Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex.
ILoad - Intended Load per port is expressed in a percentage of the ILoad - Intended Load per port is expressed in a percentage of the
medium's maximum theoretical load, regardless of traffic medium's maximum theoretical load, regardless of traffic
orientation or duplex mode. Certain test configurations will orientation or duplex mode. Certain test configurations will
theoretically over-subscribe the DUT/SUT. theoretically over-subscribe the DUT/SUT.
In half duplex, an ILoad over 50% will over-subscribe the DUT/SUT. In half duplex, an ILoad over 50% will over-subscribe the DUT/SUT.
Burst Size - The burst size defines the number of frames sent Burst Size - The burst size defines the number of frames sent
back-to-back at the minimum legal IFG [4] before pausing back-to-back at the minimum legal IFG [4] before pausing
transmission to receive frames. Burst sizes SHOULD vary between 1 transmission to receive frames. Burst sizes SHOULD vary between 1
and 930 frames. A burst size of 1 will simulate constant load and 930 frames. A burst size of 1 will simulate constant load
[1]. [1].
Addresses per port - Represents the number of addresses which Addresses per port - Represents the number of addresses which are
are being tested for each port. Number of addresses SHOULD be a being tested for each port. Number of addresses SHOULD be a
binary exponential (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, ...). binary exponential (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, ...).
Recommended value is 1. Recommended value is 1.
Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds. Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds.
Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds. Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds.
5.1.3 Procedure 5.1.3 Procedure
All ports on the tester MUST transmit test frames either in a Frame All ports on the tester MUST transmit test frames either in a Frame
Based or Time Based mode (Appendix B). All ports SHOULD start Based or Time Based mode (Appendix B). All ports SHOULD start
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Each port should receive the same number of test frames that it Each port should receive the same number of test frames that it
transmitted. Each receiving port MUST categorize, then count the transmitted. Each receiving port MUST categorize, then count the
frames into one of two groups: frames into one of two groups:
1.) Received Frames: received frames MUST have the correct 1.) Received Frames: received frames MUST have the correct
destination MAC address and SHOULD match a signature field. destination MAC address and SHOULD match a signature field.
2.) Flood count [2]. 2.) Flood count [2].
Any frame originating from the DUT/SUT (spanning tree, SNMP, RIP, Any frame originating from the DUT/SUT (spanning tree, SNMP, RIP,
...) MUST not be counted as a received frame. Frames originating ...) MUST not be counted as a received frame. Frames originating
from the DUT/SUT MAY be counted as flooded frames or not counted at from the DUT/SUT MAY be counted as flooded frames or not counted at
all. all.
Frame loss rate of the DUT/SUT SHOULD be reported as defined in Frame loss rate of the DUT/SUT SHOULD be reported as defined in
section 26.3 [3] with the following notes: Frame loss rate SHOULD be section 26.3 [3] with the following notes: Frame loss rate SHOULD be
measured at the end of the trail duration. The term "rate", for this measured at the end of the trail duration. The term "rate", for this
measurement only, does not imply the units in the fashion of "per measurement only, does not imply the units in the fashion of "per
second." second."
5.1.4.1 Throughput 5.1.4.1 Throughput
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loss rate [1]. The algorithm MUST adjust Iload to find the loss rate [1]. The algorithm MUST adjust Iload to find the
throughput. throughput.
5.1.4.2 Forwarding Rate 5.1.4.2 Forwarding Rate
Forwarding rate (FR) of the DUT/SUT SHOULD be reported as the number Forwarding rate (FR) of the DUT/SUT SHOULD be reported as the number
of test frames per second that the device is observed to successfully of test frames per second that the device is observed to successfully
forward to the correct destination interface in response to a forward to the correct destination interface in response to a
specified Oload. The Oload MUST also be cited. specified Oload. The Oload MUST also be cited.
Forwarding rate at maximum offered load (FRMOL) MUST be reported Forwarding rate at maximum offered load (FRMOL) MUST be reported as
as the number of test frames per second that a device can the number of test frames per second that a device can successfully
successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in transmit to the correct destination interface in response to the MOL
response to the MOL as defined in section 3.6 [2]. The MOL MUST also as defined in section 3.6 [2]. The MOL MUST also be cited.
be cited.
Maximum forwarding rate (MFR) MUST be reported as the highest Maximum forwarding rate (MFR) MUST be reported as the highest
forwarding rate of a DUT/SUT taken from an iterative set of forwarding rate of a DUT/SUT taken from an iterative set of
forwarding rate measurements. The iterative set of forwarding rate forwarding rate measurements. The iterative set of forwarding rate
measurements are made by adjusting Iload. The Oload applied to the measurements are made by adjusting Iload. The Oload applied to the
device MUST also be cited. device MUST also be cited.
5.1.5 Reporting format 5.1.5 Reporting format
The results for these tests SHOULD be reported in the form of a The results for these tests SHOULD be reported in the form of a
graph. The x coordinate SHOULD be the frame size, the y coordinate graph. The x coordinate SHOULD be the frame size, the y coordinate
SHOULD be the test results. There SHOULD be at least two lines on SHOULD be the test results. There SHOULD be at least two lines on
the graph, one plotting the theoretical and one plotting the test the graph, one plotting the theoretical and one plotting the test
results. results.
To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing
many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port MAY
MAY be increased in a series of tests. be increased in a series of tests.
5.2 Partially meshed one-to-many/many-to-one 5.2 Partially meshed one-to-many/many-to-one
5.2.1 Objective 5.2.1 Objective
To determine the throughput when transmitting from/to multiple ports To determine the throughput when transmitting from/to multiple ports
and to/from one port. As with the fully meshed throughput test, this and to/from one port. As with the fully meshed throughput test, this
test is a measure of the capability of the DUT to switch frames test is a measure of the capability of the DUT to switch frames
without frame loss. Results of this test can be used to determine without frame loss. Results of this test can be used to determine
the ability of the DUT to utilize an Ethernet port when switching the ability of the DUT to utilize an Ethernet port when switching
traffic from multiple Ethernet ports. traffic from multiple Ethernet ports.
5.2.2 Setup Parameters 5.2.2 Setup Parameters
When offering bursty meshed traffic, the following parameters MUST When offering bursty meshed traffic, the following parameters MUST be
be defined. Each parameter is configured with the following defined. Each parameter is configured with the following
considerations. considerations.
Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024,
1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC 1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC
bytes are included in the frame size specified. bytes are included in the frame size specified.
Traffic Direction - Traffic can be generated in one direction, the Traffic Direction - Traffic can be generated in one direction, the
reverse direction, or both directions. reverse direction, or both directions.
Interframe Gap (IFG) - The IFG between frames inside a burst Interframe Gap (IFG) - The IFG between frames inside a burst MUST
MUST be at the minimum specified by the standard (9.6 us for be at the minimum specified by the standard (9.6 us for 10Mbps
10Mbps Ethernet, 960 ns for 100Mbps Ethernet, and 96 ns for Ethernet, 960 ns for 100Mbps Ethernet, and 96 ns for 1 Gbps
1 Gbps Ethernet) of the medium being tested. Ethernet) of the medium being tested.
Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex. Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex.
ILoad - Intended Load per port is expressed in a percentage of the ILoad - Intended Load per port is expressed in a percentage of the
medium's maximum theoretical load, regardless of traffic medium's maximum theoretical load, regardless of traffic
orientation or duplex mode. Certain test configurations will orientation or duplex mode. Certain test configurations will
theoretically over-subscribe the DUT/SUT. theoretically over-subscribe the DUT/SUT.
In half duplex bidirectional traffic, an ILoad over 50% will over- In half duplex bidirectional traffic, an ILoad over 50% will
subscribe the DUT/SUT. over-subscribe the DUT/SUT.
Burst Size - The burst size defines the number of frames sent Burst Size - The burst size defines the number of frames sent
back-to-back at the minimum legal IFG [4] before pausing back-to-back at the minimum legal IFG [4] before pausing
transmission to receive frames. Burst sizes SHOULD vary between 1 transmission to receive frames. Burst sizes SHOULD vary between 1
and 930 frames. A burst size of 1 will simulate constant load and 930 frames. A burst size of 1 will simulate constant load
[1]. [1].
Addresses per port - Represents the number of addresses which Addresses per port - Represents the number of addresses which are
are being tested for each port. Number of addresses SHOULD be a being tested for each port. Number of addresses SHOULD be a
binary exponential (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, ...). binary exponential (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, ...).
Recommended value is 1. Recommended value is 1.
Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds. Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds.
Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds. Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds.
5.2.3 Procedure 5.2.3 Procedure
All ports on the tester MUST transmit test frames either in a Frame All ports on the tester MUST transmit test frames either in a Frame
Based or Time Based mode (Appendix B). Depending upon traffic Based or Time Based mode (Appendix B). Depending upon traffic
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Any frame originating from the DUT/SUT MUST not be counted as a Any frame originating from the DUT/SUT MUST not be counted as a
received frame. Frames originating from the DUT/SUT MAY be counted received frame. Frames originating from the DUT/SUT MAY be counted
as flooded frames or not counted at all. as flooded frames or not counted at all.
Forwarding rate (FR) of the DUT/SUT SHOULD be reported as the number Forwarding rate (FR) of the DUT/SUT SHOULD be reported as the number
of test frames per second that the device is observed to successfully of test frames per second that the device is observed to successfully
transmit to the correct destination interface in response to a transmit to the correct destination interface in response to a
specified Oload. The Oload MUST also be cited. specified Oload. The Oload MUST also be cited.
Forwarding rate at maximum offered load (FRMOL) MUST be reported Forwarding rate at maximum offered load (FRMOL) MUST be reported as
as the number of test frames per second that a device can the number of test frames per second that a device can successfully
successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in transmit to the correct destination interface in response to the MOL
response to the MOL as defined in section 3.6 [2]. The MOL MUST also as defined in section 3.6 [2]. The MOL MUST also be cited.
be cited.
Maximum forwarding rate (MFR) MUST be reported as the highest Maximum forwarding rate (MFR) MUST be reported as the highest
forwarding rate of a DUT/SUT taken from an iterative set of forwarding rate of a DUT/SUT taken from an iterative set of
forwarding rate measurements. The iterative set of forwarding rate forwarding rate measurements. The iterative set of forwarding rate
measurements are made by adjusting Iload. The Oload applied to the measurements are made by adjusting Iload. The Oload applied to the
device MUST also be cited. device MUST also be cited.
5.2.5 Reporting Format 5.2.5 Reporting Format
The results for these tests SHOULD be reported in the form of a The results for these tests SHOULD be reported in the form of a
graph. The x coordinate SHOULD be the frame size, the y coordinate graph. The x coordinate SHOULD be the frame size, the y coordinate
SHOULD be the test results. There SHOULD be at least two lines on SHOULD be the test results. There SHOULD be at least two lines on
the graph, one plotting the theoretical and one plotting the test the graph, one plotting the theoretical and one plotting the test
results. results.
To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing
many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port MAY
MAY be increased in a series of tests. be increased in a series of tests.
5.3 Partially meshed multiple devices 5.3 Partially meshed multiple devices
5.3.1 Objective 5.3.1 Objective
To determine the throughput, frame loss and forwarding rates of two To determine the throughput, frame loss and forwarding rates of two
switching devices equipped with multiple ports and one high speed switching devices equipped with multiple ports and one high speed
backbone uplink (Gigabit Ethernet, ATM, SONET). backbone uplink (Gigabit Ethernet, ATM, SONET).
5.3.2 Setup Parameters 5.3.2 Setup Parameters
When offering bursty partially meshed traffic, the following When offering bursty partially meshed traffic, the following
parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is configured with the parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is configured with the
following considerations. following considerations.
Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024,
1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC 1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC
bytes are included in the frame size specified. bytes are included in the frame size specified.
Interframe Gap (IFG) - The IFG between frames inside a burst Interframe Gap (IFG) - The IFG between frames inside a burst MUST
MUST be at the minimum specified by the standard (9.6 us for be at the minimum specified by the standard (9.6 us for 10Mbps
10Mbps Ethernet, 960 ns for 100Mbps Ethernet, and 96 ns for Ethernet, 960 ns for 100Mbps Ethernet, and 96 ns for 1 Gbps
1 Gbps Ethernet) of the medium being tested. Ethernet) of the medium being tested.
Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex. Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex.
ILoad - Intended Load per port is expressed in a percentage of the ILoad - Intended Load per port is expressed in a percentage of the
medium's maximum theoretical load, regardless of traffic medium's maximum theoretical load, regardless of traffic
orientation or duplex mode. Certain test configurations will orientation or duplex mode. Certain test configurations will
theoretically over-subscribe the DUT/SUT. theoretically over-subscribe the DUT/SUT.
In half duplex, an ILoad over 50% will over-subscribe the DUT/SUT. In half duplex, an ILoad over 50% will over-subscribe the DUT/SUT.
Burst Size - The burst size defines the number of frames sent Burst Size - The burst size defines the number of frames sent
back-to-back at the minimum legal IFG [4] before pausing back-to-back at the minimum legal IFG [4] before pausing
transmission to receive frames. Burst sizes SHOULD vary between 1 transmission to receive frames. Burst sizes SHOULD vary between 1
and 930 frames. A burst size of 1 will simulate constant load and 930 frames. A burst size of 1 will simulate constant load
[1]. [1].
Addresses per port - Represents the number of addresses which Addresses per port - Represents the number of addresses which are
are being tested for each port. Number of addresses SHOULD be a being tested for each port. Number of addresses SHOULD be a
binary exponential (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, ...). binary exponential (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, ...).
Recommended value is 1. Recommended value is 1.
Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds. Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds.
Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds. Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds.
Local Traffic - A Boolean value of ON or OFF. The frame sequence Local Traffic - A Boolean value of ON or OFF. The frame sequence
algorithm MAY be altered to remove local traffic. With local algorithm MAY be altered to remove local traffic. With local
traffic ON, the algorithm is exactly the same as a fully meshed traffic ON, the algorithm is exactly the same as a fully meshed
throughput. With local traffic OFF, the port sends frames to all throughput. With local traffic OFF, the port sends frames to all
other ports on the other side of the backbone uplink in a round other ports on the other side of the backbone uplink in a round
robin type fashion. robin type fashion.
5.3.3 Procedure 5.3.3 Procedure
All ports on the tester MUST transmit test frames either in a Frame All ports on the tester MUST transmit test frames either in a Frame
Based or Time Based mode (Appendix B). All ports SHOULD start Based or Time Based mode (Appendix B). All ports SHOULD start
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For tests using multiple addresses per port, the actual port For tests using multiple addresses per port, the actual port
destinations are the same as described above and the actual destinations are the same as described above and the actual
source/destination address pairs SHOULD be chosen randomly to source/destination address pairs SHOULD be chosen randomly to
exercise the DUT/SUT's ability to perform address lookups. exercise the DUT/SUT's ability to perform address lookups.
For every address, the testing device MUST send learning frames to For every address, the testing device MUST send learning frames to
allow the DUT/SUT to update its address tables properly. allow the DUT/SUT to update its address tables properly.
To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing
many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port MAY
MAY be increased in a series of tests. be increased in a series of tests.
5.3.4 Measurements 5.3.4 Measurements
Each receiving port MUST categorize, then count the frames into one Each receiving port MUST categorize, then count the frames into one
of two groups: of two groups:
1.) Received frames MUST have the correct destination MAC address 1.) Received frames MUST have the correct destination MAC address
and SHOULD match a signature field. and SHOULD match a signature field.
2.) Flood count [2]. 2.) Flood count [2].
skipping to change at page 12, line 19 skipping to change at page 12, line 25
loss rate [1]. The algorithm MUST adjust Iload to find the loss rate [1]. The algorithm MUST adjust Iload to find the
throughput. throughput.
5.3.4.2 Forwarding rate 5.3.4.2 Forwarding rate
Forwarding rate (FR) of the DUT/SUT SHOULD be reported as the number Forwarding rate (FR) of the DUT/SUT SHOULD be reported as the number
of test frames per second that the device is observed to successfully of test frames per second that the device is observed to successfully
forward to the correct destination interface in response to a forward to the correct destination interface in response to a
specified Oload. The Oload MUST also be cited. specified Oload. The Oload MUST also be cited.
Forwarding rate at maximum offered load (FRMOL) MUST be reported Forwarding rate at maximum offered load (FRMOL) MUST be reported as
as the number of test frames per second that a device can the number of test frames per second that a device can successfully
successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in transmit to the correct destination interface in response to the MOL
response to the MOL as defined in section 3.6 [2]. The MOL MUST also as defined in section 3.6 [2]. The MOL MUST also be cited.
be cited.
Maximum forwarding rate (MFR) MUST be reported as the highest Maximum forwarding rate (MFR) MUST be reported as the highest
forwarding rate of a DUT/SUT taken from an iterative set of forwarding rate of a DUT/SUT taken from an iterative set of
forwarding rate measurements. The iterative set of forwarding rate forwarding rate measurements. The iterative set of forwarding rate
measurements are made by adjusting Iload. The Oload applied to the measurements are made by adjusting Iload. The Oload applied to the
device MUST also be cited. device MUST also be cited.
5.3.5 Reporting format 5.3.5 Reporting format
The results for these tests SHOULD be reported in the form of a The results for these tests SHOULD be reported in the form of a
graph. The x coordinate SHOULD be the frame size, the y coordinate graph. The x coordinate SHOULD be the frame size, the y coordinate
SHOULD be the test results. There SHOULD be at least two lines on SHOULD be the test results. There SHOULD be at least two lines on
the graph, one plotting the theoretical and one plotting the test the graph, one plotting the theoretical and one plotting the test
results. results.
To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing
many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port MAY
MAY be increased in a series of tests. be increased in a series of tests.
5.4 Partially meshed unidirectional traffic 5.4 Partially meshed unidirectional traffic
5.4.1 Objective 5.4.1 Objective
To determine the throughput of the DUT/SUT when presented multiple To determine the throughput of the DUT/SUT when presented multiple
streams of unidirectional traffic with half of the ports on the streams of unidirectional traffic with half of the ports on the
DUT/SUT are transmitting frames destined to the other half of the DUT/SUT are transmitting frames destined to the other half of the
ports. ports.
5.4.2 Setup Parameters 5.4.2 Setup Parameters
The following parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is The following parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is
configured with the following considerations. configured with the following considerations.
Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024,
1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC 1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC
bytes are included in the frame size specified. bytes are included in the frame size specified.
Interframe Gap (IFG) - The IFG between frames inside a burst Interframe Gap (IFG) - The IFG between frames inside a burst MUST
MUST be at the minimum specified by the standard (9.6 us for be at the minimum specified by the standard (9.6 us for 10Mbps
10Mbps Ethernet, 960 ns for 100Mbps Ethernet, and 96 ns for Ethernet, 960 ns for 100Mbps Ethernet, and 96 ns for 1 Gbps
1 Gbps Ethernet) of the medium being tested. Ethernet) of the medium being tested.
Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex. Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex.
ILoad - Intended Load per port is expressed in a percentage of the ILoad - Intended Load per port is expressed in a percentage of the
medium's maximum theoretical load, regardless of traffic medium's maximum theoretical load, regardless of traffic
orientation or duplex mode. Certain test configurations will orientation or duplex mode. Certain test configurations will
theoretically over-subscribe the DUT/SUT. theoretically over-subscribe the DUT/SUT.
ILoad will not over-subscribe the DUT/SUT in this test. ILoad will not over-subscribe the DUT/SUT in this test.
Burst Size - The burst size defines the number of frames sent Burst Size - The burst size defines the number of frames sent
back-to-back at the minimum legal IFG [4] before pausing back-to-back at the minimum legal IFG [4] before pausing
transmission to receive frames. Burst sizes SHOULD vary between 1 transmission to receive frames. Burst sizes SHOULD vary between 1
and 930 frames. A burst size of 1 will simulate constant load and 930 frames. A burst size of 1 will simulate constant load
[1]. [1].
Addresses per port - Represents the number of addresses which Addresses per port - Represents the number of addresses which are
are being tested for each port. Number of addresses SHOULD be a being tested for each port. Number of addresses SHOULD be a
binary exponential (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, ...). binary exponential (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, ...).
Recommended value is 1. Recommended value is 1.
Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds. Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds.
Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds. Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds.
5.4.3 Procedure 5.4.3 Procedure
Ports do not send and receive test frames simultaneously. As a Ports do not send and receive test frames simultaneously. As a
consequence, there should be no collisions unless the DUT is consequence, there should be no collisions unless the DUT is
misforwarding frames, generating flooded or Spanning-Tree frames or misforwarding frames, generating flooded or Spanning-Tree frames
is enabling some flow control mechanism. Ports used for this test or is enabling some flow control mechanism. Ports used for this
are either transmitting or receiving, but not both. Those ports which test are either transmitting or receiving, but not both. Those
are transmitting send test frames destined to addresses corresponding ports which are transmitting send test frames destined to
to each of the ports receiving. This creates a unidirectional mesh addresses corresponding to each of the ports receiving. This
of traffic. creates a unidirectional mesh of traffic.
All ports on the tester MUST transmit test frames either in a Frame All ports on the tester MUST transmit test frames either in a
Based or Time Based mode (Appendix B). All ports SHOULD start Frame Based or Time Based mode (Appendix B). All ports SHOULD
transmitting their frames within 1% of the trial duration. For a start transmitting their frames within 1% of the trial duration.
trial duration of 30 seconds, all ports SHOULD have started For a trial duration of 30 seconds, all ports SHOULD have started
transmitting frames with 300 milliseconds of each other. transmitting frames with 300 milliseconds of each other.
Each transmitting port in the test MUST send frames to all receiving Each transmitting port in the test MUST send frames to all
ports in a round robin type fashion. The sequence of addresses MUST receiving ports in a round robin type fashion. The sequence of
NOT change when congestion control is applied. The following table addresses MUST NOT change when congestion control is applied.
shows how each port in a test MUST transmit test frames to all other The following table shows how each port in a test MUST transmit
ports in the test. In this 8 port example, port 1 through 4 are test frames to all other ports in the test. In this 8 port
transmitting and ports 5 through 8 are receiving; each with 1 address example, port 1 through 4 are transmitting and ports 5 through 8
per port: are receiving; each with 1 address per port:
Source Port, then Destination Ports (in order of transmission) Source Port, then Destination Ports (in order of transmission)
Port #1 5 6 7 8 5 6... Port #1 5 6 7 8 5 6...
Port #2 6 7 8 5 6 7... Port #2 6 7 8 5 6 7...
Port #3 7 8 5 6 7 8... Port #3 7 8 5 6 7 8...
Port #4 8 5 6 7 8 5... Port #4 8 5 6 7 8 5...
As shown in the table, there is an equal distribution of destination As shown in the table, there is an equal distribution of
addresses for each transmit opportunity. This keeps the test balanced destination addresses for each transmit opportunity. This keeps
so that one destination port is not overloaded by the test algorithm the test balanced so that one destination port is not overloaded
and all receiving ports are equally and fully loaded throughout the by the test algorithm and all receiving ports are equally and
test. Not following this algorithm exactly will product inconsistent fully loaded throughout the test. Not following this algorithm
results. exactly will product inconsistent results.
For tests using multiple addresses per port, the actual port For tests using multiple addresses per port, the actual port
destinations are the same as described above and the actual destinations are the same as described above and the actual
source/destination address pairs SHOULD be chosen randomly to source/destination address pairs SHOULD be chosen randomly to
exercise the DUT/SUT's ability to perform address lookups. exercise the DUT/SUT's ability to perform address lookups.
For every address, the testing device MUST send learning frames to For every address, the testing device MUST send learning frames to
allow the DUT/SUT to load its address tables properly. The address allow the DUT/SUT to load its address tables properly. The
table's aging time SHOULD be set sufficiently longer than the address table's aging time SHOULD be set sufficiently longer than
learning time and trial duration time combined. If the address table the learning time and trial duration time combined. If the
ages out during the test, the results will show a lower performing address table ages out during the test, the results will show a
DUT/SUT. lower performing DUT/SUT.
To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while
many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port performing many different address lookups, the number of addresses
MAY be increased in a series of tests. per port MAY be increased in a series of tests.
5.4.4 Measurements 5.4.4 Measurements
Each receiving port MUST categorize, then count the frames into one Each receiving port MUST categorize, then count the frames into
of two groups: one of two groups:
1.) Received Frames: received frames MUST have the correct 1.) Received Frames: received frames MUST have the correct
destination MAC address and SHOULD match a signature field. destination MAC address and SHOULD match a signature field.
2.) Flood count [2]. 2.) Flood count [2].
Any frame originating from the DUT/SUT MUST not be counted as a Any frame originating from the DUT/SUT MUST not be counted as a
received frame. Frames originating from the DUT/SUT MAY be counted received frame. Frames originating from the DUT/SUT MAY be counted
as flooded frames or not counted at all. as flooded frames or not counted at all.
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loss rate [1]. The algorithm MUST adjust Iload to find the loss rate [1]. The algorithm MUST adjust Iload to find the
throughput. throughput.
5.4.4.2 Forwarding rate 5.4.4.2 Forwarding rate
Forwarding rate (FR) of the DUT/SUT SHOULD be reported as the number Forwarding rate (FR) of the DUT/SUT SHOULD be reported as the number
of test frames per second that the device is observed to successfully of test frames per second that the device is observed to successfully
forward to the correct destination interface in response to a forward to the correct destination interface in response to a
specified Oload. The Oload MUST also be cited. specified Oload. The Oload MUST also be cited.
Forwarding rate at maximum offered load (FRMOL) MUST be reported Forwarding rate at maximum offered load (FRMOL) MUST be reported as
as the number of test frames per second that a device can the number of test frames per second that a device can successfully
successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in transmit to the correct destination interface in response to the MOL
response to the MOL as defined in section 3.6 [2]. The MOL MUST also as defined in section 3.6 [2]. The MOL MUST also be cited.
be cited.
Maximum forwarding rate (MFR) MUST be reported as the highest Maximum forwarding rate (MFR) MUST be reported as the highest
forwarding rate of a DUT/SUT taken from an iterative set of forwarding rate of a DUT/SUT taken from an iterative set of
forwarding rate measurements. The iterative set of forwarding rate forwarding rate measurements. The iterative set of forwarding rate
measurements are made by adjusting Iload. The Oload applied to the measurements are made by adjusting Iload. The Oload applied to the
device MUST also be cited. device MUST also be cited.
5.4.5 Reporting format 5.4.5 Reporting format
The results for these tests SHOULD be reported in the form of a The results for these tests SHOULD be reported in the form of a
graph. The x coordinate SHOULD be the frame size, the y coordinate graph. The x coordinate SHOULD be the frame size, the y coordinate
SHOULD be the test results. There SHOULD be at least two lines on SHOULD be the test results. There SHOULD be at least two lines on
the graph, one plotting the theoretical and one plotting the test the graph, one plotting the theoretical and one plotting the test
results. results.
To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing
many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port MAY
MAY be increased in a series of tests. be increased in a series of tests.
5.5 Congestion Control 5.5 Congestion Control
5.5.1 Objective 5.5.1 Objective
To determine how a DUT handles congestion. Does the device implement To determine how a DUT handles congestion. Does the device implement
congestion control and does congestion on one port affect an congestion control and does congestion on one port affect an
uncongested port. This procedure determines if Head of Line Blocking uncongested port. This procedure determines if Head of Line Blocking
and/or Backpressure are present. and/or Backpressure are present.
5.5.2 Setup Parameters 5.5.2 Setup Parameters
The following parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is The following parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is
configured with the following considerations. configured with the following considerations.
Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024,
1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC 1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC
bytes are included in the frame size specified. bytes are included in the frame size specified.
Interframe Gap (IFG) - The IFG between frames inside a burst Interframe Gap (IFG) - The IFG between frames inside a burst MUST
MUST be at the minimum specified by the standard (9.6 us for be at the minimum specified by the standard (9.6 us for 10Mbps
10Mbps Ethernet, 960 ns for 100Mbps Ethernet, and 96 ns for Ethernet, 960 ns for 100Mbps Ethernet, and 96 ns for 1 Gbps
1 Gbps Ethernet) of the medium being tested. Ethernet) of the medium being tested.
Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex. Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex.
Addresses per port - Represents the number of addresses which Addresses per port - Represents the number of addresses which are
are being tested for each port. Number of addresses SHOULD be a being tested for each port. Number of addresses SHOULD be a
binary exponential (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, ...). binary exponential (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, ...).
Recommended value is 1. Recommended value is 1.
Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds. Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds.
Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds. Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds.
5.5.3 Procedure 5.5.3 Procedure
This test MUST consist of a multiple of four ports with the same MOL. This test MUST consist of a multiple of four ports with the same MOL.
Four ports are REQUIRED and MAY be expanded to fully utilize the Four ports are REQUIRED and MAY be expanded to fully utilize the
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5.5.5.1 HOLB 5.5.5.1 HOLB
If there is frame loss at the uncongested port, "Head of Line" If there is frame loss at the uncongested port, "Head of Line"
blocking is present. The DUT cannot forward the amount of traffic to blocking is present. The DUT cannot forward the amount of traffic to
the congested port and as a result it is also losing frames destined the congested port and as a result it is also losing frames destined
to the uncongested port. to the uncongested port.
5.5.5.2 Back Pressure 5.5.5.2 Back Pressure
If there is no frame loss on the congested port, then backpressure If there is no frame loss on the congested port, then backpressure is
is present. It should be noted that this test expects the overall present. It should be noted that this test expects the overall load
load to the congested port to be greater than 100%. Therefore if the to the congested port to be greater than 100%. Therefore if the load
load is greater than 100% and no frame loss is detected, then the DUT is greater than 100% and no frame loss is detected, then the DUT must
must be implementing a flow control mechanism. The type of flow be implementing a flow control mechanism. The type of flow control
control mechanism used is beyond the scope of this memo. mechanism used is beyond the scope of this memo.
It should be noted that some DUTs may not be able to handle the 100% It should be noted that some DUTs may not be able to handle the 100%
load presented at the input port. In this case, there may be frame load presented at the input port. In this case, there may be frame
loss reported at the uncongested port which is due to the load at the loss reported at the uncongested port which is due to the load at the
input port rather than the congested port's load. input port rather than the congested port's load.
If the uncongested frame loss is reported as zero, but the maximum If the uncongested frame loss is reported as zero, but the maximum
forwarding rate is less than 7440 (for 10Mbps Ethernet), then this forwarding rate is less than 7440 (for 10Mbps Ethernet), then this
may be an indication of congestion control being enforced by the DUT. may be an indication of congestion control being enforced by the DUT.
In this case, the congestion control is affecting the throughput of In this case, the congestion control is affecting the throughput of
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Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, Frame Size - Recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024,
1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC 1280 and 1518 bytes, per RFC 2544 section 9 [3]. The four CRC
bytes are included in the frame size specified. bytes are included in the frame size specified.
Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex. Duplex mode - Half duplex or full duplex.
Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds. Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds.
Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds. Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds.
Step Size - The minimum incremental resolution that the Iload will Step Size - The minimum incremental resolution that the Iload will
be incremented in frames per second. The smaller the step size, be incremented in frames per second. The smaller the step size,
the more accurate the measurement and the more iterations the more accurate the measurement and the more iterations
required. As the Iload approaches the MOL, the minimum step size required. As the Iload approaches the MOL, the minimum step size
will increase because of gap resolution on the testing device. will increase because of gap resolution on the testing device.
5.6.3 Procedure 5.6.3 Procedure
5.6.3.1 Maximum forwarding rate 5.6.3.1 Maximum forwarding rate
If the Throughput [1] and the MOL [2] are the same, then MFR [2] If the Throughput [1] and the MOL [2] are the same, then MFR [2] is
is equal to the MOL [2]. equal to the MOL [2].
This test MUST at a minimum be performed in a two-port configuration This test MUST at a minimum be performed in a two-port configuration
as described below. Learning frames MUST be sent to allow the as described below. Learning frames MUST be sent to allow the
DUT/SUT to update its address tables properly. DUT/SUT to update its address tables properly.
Test frames are transmitted to the first port (port 1) of the DUT/SUT Test frames are transmitted to the first port (port 1) of the DUT/SUT
at the Iload. The FR [2] on the second port (port 2) of the DUT/SUT at the Iload. The FR [2] on the second port (port 2) of the DUT/SUT
is measured. The Iload is incremented for each Step Size to find the is measured. The Iload is incremented for each Step Size to find the
MFR. The algorithm for the test is as follows: MFR. The algorithm for the test is as follows:
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5.7.1 Objective 5.7.1 Objective
To determine the address caching capacity of a LAN switching device To determine the address caching capacity of a LAN switching device
as defined in RFC 2285, section 3.8.1 [2]. as defined in RFC 2285, section 3.8.1 [2].
5.7.2 Setup Parameters 5.7.2 Setup Parameters
The following parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is The following parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is
configured with the following considerations. configured with the following considerations.
Age Time - The maximum time that a DUT/SUT will keep a learned Age Time - The maximum time that a DUT/SUT will keep a learned
address in its forwarding table. address in its forwarding table.
Addresses Learning Rate - The rate at which new addresses are Addresses Learning Rate - The rate at which new addresses are
offered to the DUT/SUT to be learned. The rate at which address offered to the DUT/SUT to be learned. The rate at which address
learning frames are offered may have to be adjusted to be as low as learning frames are offered may have to be adjusted to be as low
50 frames per second or even less, to guarantee successful as 50 frames per second or even less, to guarantee successful
learning. learning.
Initial Addresses - The initial number of addresses to start the Initial Addresses - The initial number of addresses to start the
test with. The number MUST be between 1 and the maximum number test with. The number MUST be between 1 and the maximum number
supported by the implementation. supported by the implementation.
5.7.3 Procedure 5.7.3 Procedure
The aging time of the DUT/SUT MUST be known. The aging time MUST be The aging time of the DUT/SUT MUST be known. The aging time MUST be
longer than the time necessary to produce frames at the specified longer than the time necessary to produce frames at the specified
rate. If a low frame rate is used for the test, then it may be rate. If a low frame rate is used for the test, then it may be
possible that sending a large amount of frames may actually take possible that sending a large amount of frames may actually take
longer than the aging time. longer than the aging time.
This test MUST at a minimum be performed in a three-port This test MUST at a minimum be performed in a three-port
configuration described below. The test MAY be expanded to fully configuration described below. The test MAY be expanded to fully
utilized the DUT/SUT in increments of two or three ports. An utilized the DUT/SUT in increments of two or three ports. An
increment of two would include an additional Learning port and Test increment of two would include an additional Learning port and Test
port. An increment of three would include an additional Learning port. An increment of three would include an additional Learning
port, Test port, and Monitoring port. port, Test port, and Monitoring port.
The Learning port (Lport) transmits learning frames to the DUT/SUT The Learning port (Lport) transmits learning frames to the DUT/SUT
with varying source addresses and a fixed destination address with varying source addresses and a fixed destination address
corresponding to the address of the device connected to the Test port corresponding to the address of the device connected to the Test port
(Tport) of the DUT/SUT. By receiving frames with varying (Tport) of the DUT/SUT. By receiving frames with varying source
source addresses, the DUT/SUT should learn these new addresses. The addresses, the DUT/SUT should learn these new addresses. The source
source addresses MAY be in sequential order. addresses MAY be in sequential order.
The Test port (Tport) of the DUT/SUT acts as the receiving port for The Test port (Tport) of the DUT/SUT acts as the receiving port for
the learning frames. Test frames will be transmitted back to the the learning frames. Test frames will be transmitted back to the
addresses learned on the Learning port. The algorithm for this is addresses learned on the Learning port. The algorithm for this is
explained below. explained below.
The Monitoring port (Mport) on the DUT/SUT acts as a monitoring port The Monitoring port (Mport) on the DUT/SUT acts as a monitoring port
to listen for flooded or mis-forwarded frames. If the test spans to listen for flooded or mis-forwarded frames. If the test spans
multiple broadcast domains (VLANs), each broadcast domain REQUIRES a multiple broadcast domains (VLANs), each broadcast domain REQUIRES a
Monitoring port. Monitoring port.
skipping to change at page 23, line 16 skipping to change at page 23, line 32
CONSTANT CONSTANT
AGE = ...; {value greater that DUT aging time} AGE = ...; {value greater that DUT aging time}
MAX = ...; {maximum address support by implementation} MAX = ...; {maximum address support by implementation}
VARIABLE VARIABLE
LOW := 0; {Highest passed valve} LOW := 0; {Highest passed valve}
HIGH := MAX; {Lowest failed value} HIGH := MAX; {Lowest failed value}
N := ...; {user specified initial starting point} N := ...; {user specified initial starting point}
BEGIN BEGIN
DO DO
BEGIN BEGIN
PAUSE(AGE); {Age out any learned addresses} PAUSE(AGE); {Age out any learned addresses}
AddressLearning(TPort); {broadcast a frame with its source AddressLearning(TPort); {broadcast a frame with its source
Address and broadcast destination} Address and broadcast destination}
AddressLearning(LPort); {N frames with varying source addresses AddressLearning(LPort); {N frames with varying source addresses
to Test Port} to Test Port}
Transmit(TPort); {N frames with varying destination addresses Transmit(TPort); {N frames with varying destination addresses
corresponding to Learning Port} corresponding to Learning Port}
IF (MPort receive frame != 0) OR IF (MPort receive frame != 0) OR
(LPort receive frames < TPort transmit) THEN (LPort receive frames < TPort transmit) THEN
BEGIN {Address Table of DUT/SUT was full} BEGIN {Address Table of DUT/SUT was full}
HIGH := N; HIGH := N;
END END
ELSE ELSE
BEGIN {Address Table of DUT/SUT was NOT full} BEGIN {Address Table of DUT/SUT was NOT full}
LOW := N; LOW := N;
END END
N := LOW + (HIGH - LOW)/2; N := LOW + (HIGH - LOW)/2;
END WHILE (HIGH - LOW < 2); END WHILE (HIGH - LOW >= 2);
END {Value of N equals number of addresses supported by DUT/SUT} END {Value of N equals number of addresses supported by DUT/SUT}
Using a binary search approach, the test targets the exact number of Using a binary search approach, the test targets the exact number of
addresses supported per port with consistent test iterations. Due addresses supported per port with consistent test iterations. Due to
to the aging time of DUT/SUT address tables, each iteration may take the aging time of DUT/SUT address tables, each iteration may take
some time during the waiting period for the addresses to clear. If some time during the waiting period for the addresses to clear. If
possible, configure the DUT/SUT for a low value for the aging time. possible, configure the DUT/SUT for a low value for the aging time.
Once the high and low values of N meet, then the threshold of address Once the high and low values of N meet, then the threshold of address
handling has been found. handling has been found.
5.7.4 Measurements 5.7.4 Measurements
Whether the offered addresses per port was successful forwarded Whether the offered addresses per port was successful forwarded
without flooding. without flooding.
skipping to change at page 24, line 17 skipping to change at page 24, line 31
After the test is run, results for each iteration SHOULD be displayed After the test is run, results for each iteration SHOULD be displayed
in a table to include: in a table to include:
The number of addresses used for each test iteration (varied). The number of addresses used for each test iteration (varied).
The intended load used for each test iteration (fixed). The intended load used for each test iteration (fixed).
Number of test frames that were offered to Tport of the DUT/SUT. Number of test frames that were offered to Tport of the DUT/SUT.
This SHOULD match the number of addresses used for the test This SHOULD match the number of addresses used for the test
iteration. Test frames are the frames sent with varying iteration. Test frames are the frames sent with varying
destination addresses to confirm that the DUT/SUT has learned destination addresses to confirm that the DUT/SUT has learned all
all of the addresses for each test iteration. of the addresses for each test iteration.
The flood count on Tport during the test portion of each test. The flood count on Tport during the test portion of each test. If
If the number is non-zero, this is an indication of the DUT/SUT the number is non-zero, this is an indication of the DUT/SUT
flooding a frame in which the destination address is not in the flooding a frame in which the destination address is not in the
address table. address table.
The number of frames correctly forwarded to test Lport during The number of frames correctly forwarded to test Lport during the
the test portion of the test. Received frames MUST have the test portion of the test. Received frames MUST have the correct
correct destination MAC address and SHOULD match a signature destination MAC address and SHOULD match a signature field. For a
field. For a passing test iteration, this number should be equal passing test iteration, this number should be equal to the number
to the number of frames transmitted by Tport. of frames transmitted by Tport.
The flood count on Lport during the test portion of each test. The flood count on Lport during the test portion of each test. If
If the number is non-zero, this is an indication of the DUT/SUT the number is non-zero, this is an indication of the DUT/SUT
flooding a frame in which the destination address is not in the flooding a frame in which the destination address is not in the
address table. address table.
The flood count on Mport. If the value is not zero, then this The flood count on Mport. If the value is not zero, then this
indicates that for that test iteration, the DUT/SUT could not indicates that for that test iteration, the DUT/SUT could not
determine the proper destination port for that many frames. In determine the proper destination port for that many frames. In
other words, the DUT/SUT flooded the frame to all ports since its other words, the DUT/SUT flooded the frame to all ports since its
address table was full. address table was full.
5.8 Address Learning Rate 5.8 Address Learning Rate
5.8.1 Objective 5.8.1 Objective
To determine the rate of address learning of a LAN switching device. To determine the rate of address learning of a LAN switching device.
5.8.2 Setup Parameters 5.8.2 Setup Parameters
The following parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is The following parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is
configured with the following considerations. configured with the following considerations.
Age Time - The maximum time that a DUT/SUT will keep a learned Age Time - The maximum time that a DUT/SUT will keep a learned
address in its forwarding table. address in its forwarding table.
Initial Addresses Learning Rate - The starting rate at which new Initial Addresses Learning Rate - The starting rate at which new
addresses are offered to the DUT/SUT to be learned. addresses are offered to the DUT/SUT to be learned.
Number of Addresses - The number of addresses that the DUT/SUT must Number of Addresses - The number of addresses that the DUT/SUT
learn. The number MUST be between 1 and the maximum number must learn. The number MUST be between 1 and the maximum number
supported by the implementation. It is recommended no to exceed supported by the implementation. It is recommended no to exceed
the address caching capacity found in section 5.9 the address caching capacity found in section 5.9
5.8.3 Procedure 5.8.3 Procedure
The aging time of the DUT/SUT MUST be known. The aging time MUST be The aging time of the DUT/SUT MUST be known. The aging time MUST be
longer than the time necessary to produce frames at the specified longer than the time necessary to produce frames at the specified
rate. If a low frame rate is used for the test, then it may be rate. If a low frame rate is used for the test, then it may be
possible that sending a large amount of frames may actually take possible that sending a large amount of frames may actually take
longer than the aging time. longer than the aging time.
This test MUST at a minimum be performed in a three-port This test MUST at a minimum be performed in a three-port
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The number of addresses used for each test iteration (fixed). The number of addresses used for each test iteration (fixed).
The intended load used for each test iteration (varied). The intended load used for each test iteration (varied).
Number of test frames that were transmitted by Tport. This SHOULD Number of test frames that were transmitted by Tport. This SHOULD
match the number of addresses used for the test iteration. Test match the number of addresses used for the test iteration. Test
frames are the frames sent with varying destination addresses to frames are the frames sent with varying destination addresses to
confirm that the DUT/SUT has learned all of the addresses for each confirm that the DUT/SUT has learned all of the addresses for each
test iteration. test iteration.
The flood count on Tport during the test portion of each test. The flood count on Tport during the test portion of each test. If
If the number is non-zero, this is an indication of the DUT/SUT the number is non-zero, this is an indication of the DUT/SUT
flooding a frame in which the destination address is not in the flooding a frame in which the destination address is not in the
address table. address table.
The number of frames correctly forwarded to test Lport during The number of frames correctly forwarded to test Lport during the
the test portion of the test. Received frames MUST have the test portion of the test. Received frames MUST have the correct
correct destination MAC address and SHOULD match a signature destination MAC address and SHOULD match a signature field. For a
field. For a passing test iteration, this number should be equal passing test iteration, this number should be equal to the number
to the number of frames transmitted by Tport. of frames transmitted by Tport.
The flood count on Lport during the test portion of each test. The flood count on Lport during the test portion of each test. If
If the number is non-zero, this is an indication of the DUT/SUT the number is non-zero, this is an indication of the DUT/SUT
flooding a frame in which the destination address is not in the flooding a frame in which the destination address is not in the
address table. address table.
The flood count on Mport. If the value is not zero, then this The flood count on Mport. If the value is not zero, then this
indicates that for that test iteration, the DUT/SUT could not indicates that for that test iteration, the DUT/SUT could not
determine the proper destination port for that many frames. In determine the proper destination port for that many frames. In
other words, the DUT/SUT flooded the frame to all ports since its other words, the DUT/SUT flooded the frame to all ports since its
address table was full. address table was full.
5.9 Errored frames filtering 5.9 Errored frames filtering
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the behavior of the DUT under error or abnormal frame conditions. the behavior of the DUT under error or abnormal frame conditions.
The results of the test indicate if the DUT/SUT filters the errors, The results of the test indicate if the DUT/SUT filters the errors,
or simply propagates the errored frames along to the destination. or simply propagates the errored frames along to the destination.
5.9.2 Setup Parameters 5.9.2 Setup Parameters
The following parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is The following parameters MUST be defined. Each variable is
configured with the following considerations. configured with the following considerations.
ILoad - Intended Load per port is expressed in a percentage of the ILoad - Intended Load per port is expressed in a percentage of the
medium's maximum theorical load possible. The actual transmitted medium's maximum theoretical load possible. The actual
frame per second is dependent upon half duplex or full duplex transmitted frame per second is dependent upon half duplex or full
operation. The test SHOULD be run multiple times with a different duplex operation. The test SHOULD be run multiple times with a
load per port in each case. different load per port in each case.
Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds. Trial Duration - The recommended Trial Duration is 30 seconds.
Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds. Trial duration SHOULD be adjustable between 1 and 300 seconds.
5.9.3 Procedure 5.9.3 Procedure
Each of the illegal frames for Ethernet MUST be checked: Each of the illegal frames for Ethernet MUST be checked:
Oversize - The DUT/SUT MAY filter frames larger than 1518 bytes Oversize - The DUT/SUT MAY filter frames larger than 1518 bytes from
from being propagated through the DUT/SUT section 4.2.4.2.1 [4]. being propagated through the DUT/SUT section 4.2.4.2.1 [4].
Oversized frames transmitted to the DUT/SUT should not be forwarded. Oversized frames transmitted to the DUT/SUT should not be forwarded.
DUT/SUT supporting tagged Frames MAY forward frames up to and DUT/SUT supporting tagged Frames MAY forward frames up to and
including 1522 bytes long (section 4.2.4.2.1 [5]). including 1522 bytes long (section 4.2.4.2.1 [5]).
Undersize - The DUT/SUT MUST filter frames less than 64 bytes from Undersize - The DUT/SUT MUST filter frames less than 64 bytes from
being propagated through the DUT/SUT (section 4.2.4.2.2 [4]). being propagated through the DUT/SUT (section 4.2.4.2.2 [4]).
Undersized frames (or collision fragments) received by the DUT/SUT Undersized frames (or collision fragments) received by the DUT/SUT
must not be forwarded. must not be forwarded.
CRC Errors - The DUT/SUT MUST filter frames that fail the Frame Check CRC Errors - The DUT/SUT MUST filter frames that fail the Frame Check
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5.10.5 Reporting format 5.10.5 Reporting format
The results for these tests SHOULD be reported in the form of a The results for these tests SHOULD be reported in the form of a
graph. The x coordinate SHOULD be the frame size, the y coordinate graph. The x coordinate SHOULD be the frame size, the y coordinate
SHOULD be the test results. There SHOULD be at least two lines on SHOULD be the test results. There SHOULD be at least two lines on
the graph, one plotting the theoretical and one plotting the test the graph, one plotting the theoretical and one plotting the test
results. results.
To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing To measure the DUT/SUT's ability to switch traffic while performing
many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port many different address lookups, the number of addresses per port MAY
MAY be increased in a series of tests. be increased in a series of tests.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
This document does not yet address Security Considerations. As this document is solely for the purpose of providing metric
methodology and describes neither a protocol nor a protocol's
implementation, there are no security considerations associated with
this document.
7. References 7. References
[1] Bradner, S., Editor, "Benchmarking Terminology for Network [1] Bradner, S., Editor, "Benchmarking Terminology for Network
Interconnection Devices", RFC 1242, July 1991. Interconnection Devices", RFC 1242, July 1991.
[2] Mandeville, R., Editor, "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN [2] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN Switching
Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998. Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998.
[3] Bradner, S., Editor, "Benchmarking Methodology for Network [3] Bradner, S. and J. McQuaid, "Benchmarking Methodology for
Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, March 2000. Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, March 1999.
[4] ANSI/IEEE, "CSMA/CD Access Method and Physical Layer [4] ANSI/IEEE, "CSMA/CD Access Method and Physical Layer
Specifications," ISO/IEC 8802-3, ISBN 0-7381-0330-6, 1998. Specifications," ISO/IEC 8802-3, ISBN 0-7381-0330-6, 1998.
[5] IEEE Draft, "Frame Extensions for Virtual Bridged Local Area [5] IEEE Draft, "Frame Extensions for Virtual Bridged Local Area
Networks (VLAN) Tagging on 802.3 Networks", 802.3ac/D3.1, Networks (VLAN) Tagging on 802.3 Networks", 802.3ac/D3.1, July
July 1998. 1998.
8. Authors' Address 8. Authors' Addresses
Robert Mandeville Robert Mandeville
European Network Laboratories (ENL) CQOS Inc.
2, rue Helene Boucher 21 Technology
87286 Guyancourt Cedex Irvine, CA 92618
France USA
Phone: + 33 1 39 44 12 05 Phone: +1 (949) 400-4444
EMail: bob@enl.net EMail: bob@cqos.com
Jerry Perser Jerry Perser
Netcom Systems Spirent Communications
26750 Agoura Road 26750 Agoura Road
Calabasas, CA 91302 Calabasas, CA 91302
USA USA
Phone: + 1 818 676 2300 Phone: + 1 818 676 2300
Email: jerry_perser@netcomsystems.com EMail: jerry_perser@netcomsystems.com
Appendix A: Formulas Appendix A: Formulas
A.1 Calculating the InterBurst Gap A.1 Calculating the InterBurst Gap
IBG is defined in RFC 2285 [2] as the interval between two bursts. IBG is defined in RFC 2285 [2] as the interval between two bursts.
To achieve a desired load, the following Input Parameter need to be To achieve a desired load, the following Input Parameter need to be
defined: defined:
LENGTH - Frame size in bytes including the CRC. LENGTH - Frame size in bytes including the CRC.
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IFG - A constant 96 bits for the minimum interframe gap. IFG - A constant 96 bits for the minimum interframe gap.
IBG - Found in the above formula IBG - Found in the above formula
DURATION - Trial duration in seconds. DURATION - Trial duration in seconds.
An intermediate number of the Burst duration needs to be calculated An intermediate number of the Burst duration needs to be calculated
first: first:
IFG*(BURST-1) + BURST*(64 + 8*LENGTH)
TXTIME = ----------------------------------------- TXTIME = -----------------------------------------
SPEED SPEED
Number of Burst for the Trial Duration (rounded up): Number of Burst for the Trial Duration (rounded up):
DURATION DURATION
#OFBURSTS = -------------- #OFBURSTS = --------------
(TXTIME + IBG) (TXTIME + IBG)
Example: Example:
LENGTH = 64 bytes per frame LENGTH = 64 bytes per frame
LOAD = 100 % offered load LOAD = 100 % offered load
BURST = 24 frames per burst BURST = 24 frames per burst
SPEED = 10 Mbits/sec (Ethernet) SPEED = 10 Mbits/sec (Ethernet)
DURATION = 10 seconds test DURATION = 10 seconds test
IBG = 1612.8 uS IBG = 1612.8 uS
TXTIME = 1603.2 uS TXTIME = 1603.2 uS
#OFBURSTS = 3110 #OFBURSTS = 3110
Appendix B: Generating Offered Load Appendix B: Generating Offered Load
In testing, the traffic generator is configured with the Iload In testing, the traffic generator is configured with the Iload
(Intended Load) and measures the Oload (Offered Load). If the (Intended Load) and measures the Oload (Offered Load). If the
DUT/SUT applies congestion control, then the Iload and the Oload are DUT/SUT applies congestion control, then the Iload and the Oload are
not the same value. The question arises, how to generate the Oload? not the same value. The question arises, how to generate the Oload?
This appendix will describe two different methods. This appendix will describe two different methods.
Oload is in the units of bits per second. The two methods described The unit of measurement for Oload is bits per second. The two
here will hold one unit constant and let the DUT/SUT vary the other methods described here will hold one unit constant and let the
unit. The traffic generator SHOULD specify which method it uses. DUT/SUT vary the other unit. The traffic generator SHOULD specify
which method it uses.
B.1 Frame Based Load B.1 Frame Based Load
Frame Based Load holds the number of bits constant. The Trial Frame Based Load holds the number of bits constant. The Trial
Duration will vary based upon congestion control. Advantage is Duration will vary based upon congestion control. Advantage is
implementation is a simple state machine (or loop). The implementation is a simple state machine (or loop). The disadvantage
disadvantage is that Oload needs to be measured independently. is that Oload needs to be measured independently.
All ports on the traffic generator MUST transmit the exact number of All ports on the traffic generator MUST transmit the exact number of
test frames. The exact number of test frames is found by multiplying test frames. The exact number of test frames is found by multiplying
the Iload of the port by the Trial Duration. All ports MAY NOT the Iload of the port by the Trial Duration. All ports MAY NOT
transmit the same number of frames if their Iload is not the same. transmit the same number of frames if their Iload is not the same.
An example would be the Partially meshed many-to-one test. An example would be the Partially meshed many-to-one test.
All ports SHOULD start transmitting their frames within 1% of the All ports SHOULD start transmitting their frames within 1% of the
trial duration. For a trial duration of 30 seconds, all ports SHOULD trial duration. For a trial duration of 30 seconds, all ports SHOULD
have started transmitting frames within 300 milliseconds of each have started transmitting frames within 300 milliseconds of each
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controls the accuracy of the Oload measurement and SHOULD be reported controls the accuracy of the Oload measurement and SHOULD be reported
with the Oload measurement. with the Oload measurement.
Each port is allowed an offset error of 0.1% and a trial duration Each port is allowed an offset error of 0.1% and a trial duration
error of 0.01%. error of 0.01%.
Oload is found by taking the number of octets successfully Oload is found by taking the number of octets successfully
transmitted and dividing by the trial duration. Oload for the transmitted and dividing by the trial duration. Oload for the
DUT/SUT MUST be the aggregate of all the Oloads per port. Oload per DUT/SUT MUST be the aggregate of all the Oloads per port. Oload per
port MAY be reported for diagnostic purposes. port MAY be reported for diagnostic purposes.
Full Copyright Statement
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Acknowledgement
Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
Internet Society.
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