draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-23.txt   rfc6412.txt 
Network Working Group S. Poretsky Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) S. Poretsky
Internet-Draft Allot Communications Request for Comments: 6412 Allot Communications
Intended status: Informational B. Imhoff Category: Informational B. Imhoff
Expires: August 13, 2011 Juniper Networks ISSN: 2070-1721 F5 Networks
K. Michielsen K. Michielsen
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
February 16, 2011 November 2011
Terminology for Benchmarking Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Terminology for Benchmarking Link-State IGP Data-Plane Route Convergence
draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-23
Abstract Abstract
This document describes the terminology for benchmarking link-state This document describes the terminology for benchmarking link-state
Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) route convergence. The terminology Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) route convergence. The terminology
is to be used for benchmarking IGP convergence time through is to be used for benchmarking IGP convergence time through
externally observable (black box) data plane measurements. The externally observable (black-box) data-plane measurements. The
terminology can be applied to any link-state IGP, such as terminology can be applied to any link-state IGP, such as IS-IS and
Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) and Open Shortest OSPF.
Path First (OSPF).
Status of this Memo
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working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 13, 2011. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6412.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Existing Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Existing Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Term Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Term Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Convergence Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Convergence Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.1. Route Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.1. Route Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.2. Full Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.2. Full Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. Instants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. Instants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2.1. Traffic Start Instant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2.1. Traffic Start Instant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2.2. Convergence Event Instant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2.2. Convergence Event Instant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2.3. Convergence Recovery Instant . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2.3. Convergence Recovery Instant . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2.4. First Route Convergence Instant . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2.4. First Route Convergence Instant . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3. Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3. Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3.1. Convergence Event Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3.1. Convergence Event Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3.2. Convergence Recovery Transition . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3.2. Convergence Recovery Transition . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4. Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4. Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4.1. Local Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4.1. Local Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4.2. Remote Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4.2. Remote Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4.3. Preferred Egress Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.4.3. Preferred Egress Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4.4. Next-Best Egress Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.4.4. Next-Best Egress Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.5. Benchmarking Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.5. Benchmarking Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.5.1. Rate-Derived Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.5.1. Rate-Derived Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.5.2. Loss-Derived Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.5.2. Loss-Derived Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.5.3. Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.5.3. Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.6. Benchmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.6. Benchmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.6.1. Full Convergence Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.6.1. Full Convergence Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.6.2. First Route Convergence Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.6.2. First Route Convergence Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.6.3. Route-Specific Convergence Time . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.6.3. Route-Specific Convergence Time . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.6.4. Loss-Derived Convergence Time . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.6.4. Loss-Derived Convergence Time . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.6.5. Route Loss of Connectivity Period . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.6.5. Route Loss of Connectivity Period . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.6.6. Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period . . . . . . . 20 3.6.6. Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period . . . . . . . 22
3.7. Measurement Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.7. Measurement Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.7.1. Convergence Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.7.1. Convergence Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.7.2. Convergence Packet Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.7.2. Convergence Packet Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.7.3. Connectivity Packet Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.7.3. Connectivity Packet Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.7.4. Packet Sampling Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.7.4. Packet Sampling Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.7.5. Sustained Convergence Validation Time . . . . . . . . 23 3.7.5. Sustained Convergence Validation Time . . . . . . . . 25
3.7.6. Forwarding Delay Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.7.6. Forwarding Delay Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.8. Miscellaneous Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.8. Miscellaneous Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.8.1. Impaired Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.8.1. Impaired Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1. Introduction and Scope 1. Introduction and Scope
This document is a companion to [Po11m] which the methodology to be This document is a companion to [Po11m], which contains the
used for benchmarking link-state Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) methodology to be used for benchmarking link-state Interior Gateway
Convergence by observing the data plane. The purpose of this Protocol (IGP) convergence by observing the data plane. The purpose
document is to introduce new terms required to complete execution of of this document is to introduce new terms required to complete
the Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence methodology [Po11m]. execution of the Link-State IGP Data-Plane Route Convergence
methodology [Po11m].
IGP convergence time is measured by observing the dataplane through IGP convergence time is measured by observing the data plane through
the Device Under Test (DUT) at the Tester. The methodology and the Device Under Test (DUT) at the Tester. The methodology and
terminology to be used for benchmarking IGP Convergence can be terminology to be used for benchmarking IGP convergence can be
applied to IPv4 and IPv6 traffic and link-state IGPs such as applied to IPv4 and IPv6 traffic and link-state IGPs such as
Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) [Ca90][Ho08], Open Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) [Ca90][Ho08], Open
Shortest Path First (OSPF) [Mo98][Co08], and others. Shortest Path First (OSPF) [Mo98] [Co08], and others.
2. Existing Definitions 2. Existing Definitions
This document uses existing terminology defined in other IETF This document uses existing terminology defined in other IETF
documents. Examples include, but are not limited to: documents. Examples include, but are not limited to:
Throughput [Ref.[Br91], section 3.17] Throughput [Br91], Section 3.17
Offered Load [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.5.2] Offered Load [Ma98], Section 3.5.2
Forwarding Rate [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.6.1] Forwarding Rate [Ma98], Section 3.6.1
Device Under Test (DUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.1] Device Under Test (DUT) [Ma98], Section 3.1.1
System Under Test (SUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.2] System Under Test (SUT) [Ma98], Section 3.1.2
Out-of-Order Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.4] Out-of-Order Packet [Po06], Section 3.3.4
Duplicate Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.5] Duplicate Packet [Po06], Section 3.3.5
Stream [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.2] Stream [Po06], Section 3.3.2
Forwarding Delay [Ref.[Po06], section 3.2.4] Forwarding Delay [Po06], Section 3.2.4
IP Packet Delay Variation (IPDV) [Ref.[De02], section 1.2] IP Packet Delay Variation (IPDV) [De02], Section 1.2
Loss Period [Ref.[Ko02], section 4] Loss Period [Ko02], Section 4
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
[Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the [Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these keywords to help make the
intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this intent of Standards Track documents as clear as possible. While this
document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track document uses these keywords, this document is not a Standards Track
document. document.
3. Term Definitions 3. Term Definitions
3.1. Convergence Types 3.1. Convergence Types
3.1.1. Route Convergence 3.1.1. Route Convergence
Definition: Definition:
The process of updating all components of the router, including the The process of updating all components of the router, including
Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base (FIB), the Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base
along with software and hardware tables, with the most recent route (FIB), along with software and hardware tables, with the most
change(s) such that forwarding for a route entry is successful on the recent route change(s) such that forwarding for a route entry is
Next-Best Egress Interface [Section 3.4.4]. successful on the Next-Best Egress Interface (Section 3.4.4).
Discussion: Discussion:
In general IGP convergence does not necessarily result in a change in In general, IGP convergence does not necessarily result in a
forwarding. But the test cases in [Po11m] are specified such that change in forwarding. But the test cases in [Po11m] are specified
the IGP convergence results in a change of egress interface for the such that the IGP convergence results in a change of egress
measurement dataplane traffic. Due to this property of the test case interface for the measurement data-plane traffic. Due to this
specifications, Route Convergence can be observed externally by the property of the test case specifications, Route Convergence can be
rerouting of the measurement dataplane traffic to the Next-best observed externally by the rerouting of the measurement data-plane
Egress Interface [Section 3.4.4]. traffic to the Next-Best Egress Interface (Section 3.4.4).
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
N/A
See Also: See Also:
Next-Best Egress Interface, Full Convergence Next-Best Egress Interface, Full Convergence
3.1.2. Full Convergence 3.1.2. Full Convergence
Definition: Definition:
Route Convergence for all routes in the Forwarding Information Base Route Convergence for all routes in the Forwarding Information
(FIB). Base (FIB).
Discussion: Discussion:
In general IGP convergence does not necessarily result in a change in In general, IGP convergence does not necessarily result in a
forwarding. But the test cases in [Po11m] are specified such that change in forwarding. But the test cases in [Po11m] are specified
the IGP convergence results in a change of egress interface for the such that the IGP convergence results in a change of egress
measurement dataplane traffic. Due to this property of the test interface for the measurement data-plane traffic. Due to this
cases specifications, Full Convergence can be observed externally by property of the test cases specifications, Full Convergence can be
the rerouting of the measurement dataplane traffic to the Next-best observed externally by the rerouting of the measurement data-plane
Egress Interface [Section 3.4.4]. traffic to the Next-Best Egress Interface (Section 3.4.4).
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
N/A
See Also: See Also:
Next-Best Egress Interface, Route Convergence Next-Best Egress Interface, Route Convergence
3.2. Instants 3.2. Instants
3.2.1. Traffic Start Instant 3.2.1. Traffic Start Instant
Definition: Definition:
The time instant the Tester sends out the first data packet to the The time instant the Tester sends out the first data packet to the
Device Under Test (DUT). DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
If using the Loss-Derived Method [Section 3.5.2] or the Route- If using the Loss-Derived Method (Section 3.5.2) or the Route-
Specific Loss-Derived Method [Section 3.5.3] to benchmark IGP Specific Loss-Derived Method (Section 3.5.3) to benchmark IGP
convergence time, and the applied Convergence Event [Section 3.7.1] convergence time, and the applied Convergence Event
does not cause instantaneous traffic loss for all routes at the (Section 3.7.1) does not cause instantaneous traffic loss for all
Convergence Event Instant [Section 3.2.2] then the Tester SHOULD routes at the Convergence Event Instant (Section 3.2.2), then the
collect a timestamp on the Traffic Start Instant in order to measure Tester SHOULD collect a timestamp on the Traffic Start Instant in
the period of time between the Traffic Start Instant and Convergence order to measure the period of time between the Traffic Start
Event Instant. Instant and Convergence Event Instant.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to
distinguish between different instants distinguish between different instants
See Also: See Also:
Loss-Derived Method, Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method, Convergence Loss-Derived Method, Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method,
Event, Convergence Event Instant Convergence Event, Convergence Event Instant
3.2.2. Convergence Event Instant 3.2.2. Convergence Event Instant
Definition: Definition:
The time instant that a Convergence Event [Section 3.7.1] occurs. The time instant that a Convergence Event (Section 3.7.1) occurs.
Discussion: Discussion:
If the Convergence Event [Section 3.7.1] causes instantaneous traffic If the Convergence Event (Section 3.7.1) causes instantaneous
loss on the Preferred Egress Interface [Section 3.4.3], the traffic loss on the Preferred Egress Interface (Section 3.4.3),
Convergence Event Instant is observable from the data plane as the the Convergence Event Instant is observable from the data plane as
instant that no more packets are received on the Preferred Egress the instant that no more packets are received on the Preferred
Interface. Egress Interface.
The Tester SHOULD collect a timestamp on the Convergence Event The Tester SHOULD collect a timestamp on the Convergence Event
Instant if it the Convergence Event does not cause instantaneous Instant if the Convergence Event does not cause instantaneous
traffic loss on the Preferred Egress Interface [Section 3.4.3]. traffic loss on the Preferred Egress Interface (Section 3.4.3).
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to
distinguish between different instants distinguish between different instants
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Event, Preferred Egress Interface Convergence Event, Preferred Egress Interface
3.2.3. Convergence Recovery Instant 3.2.3. Convergence Recovery Instant
Definition: Definition:
The time instant that Full Convergence [Section 3.1.2] has completed. The time instant that Full Convergence (Section 3.1.2) has
completed.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Full Convergence completed state MUST be maintained for an The Full Convergence completed state MUST be maintained for an
interval of duration equal to the Sustained Convergence Validation interval of duration equal to the Sustained Convergence Validation
Time [Section 3.7.5] in order to validate the Convergence Recovery Time (Section 3.7.5) in order to validate the Convergence Recovery
Instant. Instant.
The Convergence Recovery Instant is observable from the data plane as The Convergence Recovery Instant is observable from the data plane
the instant the Device Under Test (DUT) forwards traffic to all as the instant the DUT forwards traffic to all destinations over
destinations over the Next-Best Egress Interface [Section 3.4.4] the Next-Best Egress Interface (Section 3.4.4) without
without impairments. impairments.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to
distinguish between different instants distinguish between different instants
See Also: See Also:
Sustained Convergence Validation Time, Full Convergence, Next-Best Sustained Convergence Validation Time, Full Convergence, Next-Best
Egress Interface Egress Interface
3.2.4. First Route Convergence Instant 3.2.4. First Route Convergence Instant
Definition: Definition:
The time instant the first route entry completes Route Convergence The time instant the first route entry completes Route Convergence
[Section 3.1.1] (Section 3.1.1)
Discussion: Discussion:
Any route may be the first to complete Route Convergence. The First Any route may be the first to complete Route Convergence. The
Route Convergence Instant is observable from the data plane as the First Route Convergence Instant is observable from the data plane
instant that the first packet that is not an Impaired Packet as the instant that the first packet that is not an Impaired
[Section 3.8.1] is received from the Next-Best Egress Interface Packet (Section 3.8.1) is received from the Next-Best Egress
[Section 3.4.4] or, for the test cases with Equal Cost Multi-Path Interface (Section 3.4.4) or, for the test cases with Equal Cost
(ECMP) or Parallel Links, the instant that the Forwarding Rate on the Multi-Path (ECMP) or Parallel Links, the instant that the
Next-Best Egress Interface [Section 3.4.4] starts to increase. Forwarding Rate on the Next-Best Egress Interface (Section 3.4.4)
starts to increase.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to
distinguish between different instants distinguish between different instants
See Also: See Also:
Route Convergence, Impaired Packet, Next-Best Egress Interface Route Convergence, Impaired Packet, Next-Best Egress Interface
3.3. Transitions 3.3. Transitions
3.3.1. Convergence Event Transition 3.3.1. Convergence Event Transition
Definition: Definition:
A time interval following a Convergence Event [Section 3.7.1] in A time interval following a Convergence Event (Section 3.7.1) in
which Forwarding Rate on the Preferred Egress Interface which the Forwarding Rate on the Preferred Egress Interface
[Section 3.4.3] gradually reduces to zero. (Section 3.4.3) gradually reduces to zero.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Forwarding Rate during a Convergence Event Transition may or may The Forwarding Rate during a Convergence Event Transition may or
not decrease linearly. may not decrease linearly.
The Forwarding Rate observed on the Device Under Test (DUT) egress The Forwarding Rate observed on the DUT egress interface(s) may or
interface(s) may or may not decrease to zero. may not decrease to zero.
The Offered Load, the number of routes, and the Packet Sampling The Offered Load, the number of routes, and the Packet Sampling
Interval [Section 3.7.4] influence the observations of the Interval (Section 3.7.4) influence the observations of the
Convergence Event Transition using the Rate-Derived Method Convergence Event Transition using the Rate-Derived Method
[Section 3.5.1]. (Section 3.5.1).
Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions) Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions)
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Event, Preferred Egress Interface, Packet Sampling Convergence Event, Preferred Egress Interface, Packet Sampling
Interva, Rate-Derived Method Interval, Rate-Derived Method
3.3.2. Convergence Recovery Transition 3.3.2. Convergence Recovery Transition
Definition: Definition:
A time interval following the First Route Convergence Instant A time interval following the First Route Convergence Instant
[Section 3.4.4] in which Forwarding Rate on the Device Under Test (Section 3.4.4) in which the Forwarding Rate on the DUT egress
(DUT) egress interface(s) gradually increases to equal the Offered interface(s) gradually increases to equal to the Offered Load.
Load.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Forwarding Rate observed during a Convergence Recovery Transition The Forwarding Rate observed during a Convergence Recovery
may or may not increase linearly. Transition may or may not increase linearly.
The Offered Load, the number of routes, and the Packet Sampling The Offered Load, the number of routes, and the Packet Sampling
Interval [Section 3.7.4] influence the observations of the Interval (Section 3.7.4) influence the observations of the
Convergence Recovery Transition using the Rate-Derived Method Convergence Recovery Transition using the Rate-Derived Method
[Section 3.5.1]. (Section 3.5.1).
Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions) Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions)
See Also: See Also:
First Route Convergence Instant, Packet Sampling Interva, Rate- First Route Convergence Instant, Packet Sampling Interval, Rate-
Derived Method Derived Method
3.4. Interfaces 3.4. Interfaces
3.4.1. Local Interface 3.4.1. Local Interface
Definition: Definition:
An interface on the Device Under Test (DUT). An interface on the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
A failure of a Local Interface indicates that the failure occurred A failure of a Local Interface indicates that the failure occurred
directly on the Device Under Test (DUT). directly on the DUT.
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
See Also: Remote Interface N/A
See Also:
Remote Interface
3.4.2. Remote Interface 3.4.2. Remote Interface
Definition: Definition:
An interface on a neighboring router that is not directly connected An interface on a neighboring router that is not directly
to any interface on the Device Under Test (DUT). connected to any interface on the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
A failure of a Remote Interface indicates that the failure occurred A failure of a Remote Interface indicates that the failure
on a neighbor router's interface that is not directly connected to occurred on a neighbor router's interface that is not directly
the Device Under Test (DUT). connected to the DUT.
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
See Also: Local Interface N/A
See Also:
Local Interface
3.4.3. Preferred Egress Interface 3.4.3. Preferred Egress Interface
Definition: Definition:
The outbound interface from the Device Under Test (DUT) for traffic The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the
routed to the preferred next-hop. preferred next-hop.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Preferred Egress Interface is the egress interface prior to a The Preferred Egress Interface is the egress interface prior to a
Convergence Event [Section 3.7.1]. Convergence Event (Section 3.7.1).
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
See Also: Convergence Event, Next-Best Egress Interface N/A
See Also:
Convergence Event, Next-Best Egress Interface
3.4.4. Next-Best Egress Interface 3.4.4. Next-Best Egress Interface
Definition: Definition:
The outbound interface or set of outbound interfaces in an Equal Cost The outbound interface or set of outbound interfaces in an Equal
Multipath (ECMP) set or parallel link set of the Device Under Test Cost Multipath (ECMP) set or parallel link set of the Device Under
(DUT) for traffic routed to the second-best next-hop. Test (DUT) for traffic routed to the second-best next-hop.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Next-Best Egress Interface becomes the egress interface after a The Next-Best Egress Interface becomes the egress interface after
Convergence Event [Section 3.4.4]. a Convergence Event (Section 3.4.4).
For the test cases in [Po11m] using test topologies with an ECMP set For the test cases in [Po11m] using test topologies with an ECMP
or parallel link set, the term Preferred Egress Interface refers to set or parallel link set, the term Preferred Egress Interface
all members of the link set. refers to all members of the link set.
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
See Also: Convergence Event, Preferred Egress Interface N/A
See Also:
Convergence Event, Preferred Egress Interface
3.5. Benchmarking Methods 3.5. Benchmarking Methods
3.5.1. Rate-Derived Method 3.5.1. Rate-Derived Method
Definition: Definition:
The method to calculate convergence time benchmarks from observing The method to calculate convergence time benchmarks from observing
Forwarding Rate each Packet Sampling Interval [Section 3.7.4]. the Forwarding Rate each Packet Sampling Interval (Section 3.7.4).
Discussion: Discussion:
Figure 1 shows an example of the Forwarding Rate change in time Figure 1 shows an example of the Forwarding Rate change in time
during convergence as observed when using the Rate-Derived Method. during convergence as observed when using the Rate-Derived Method.
^ Traffic Convergence ^ Traffic Convergence
Fwd | Start Recovery Fwd | Start Recovery
Rate | Instant Instant Rate | Instant Instant
| Offered ^ ^ | Offered ^ ^
| Load --> ----------\ /----------- | Load --> ----------\ /-----------
| \ /<--- Convergence | \ /<--- Convergence
| \ Packet / Recovery | \ Packet / Recovery
| Convergence --->\ Loss / Transition | Convergence --->\ Loss / Transition
| Event \ / | Event \ /
| Transition \---------/ <-- Max Packet Loss | Transition \---------/ <-- Max Packet Loss
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------> +--------------------------------------------------------->
^ ^ time ^ ^ time
Convergence First Route Convergence First Route
Event Instant Convergence Instant Event Instant Convergence Instant
Figure 1: Rate-Derived Convergence Graph Figure 1: Rate-Derived Convergence Graph
To enable collecting statistics of Out-of-Order Packets per flow (See To enable collecting statistics of Out-of-Order Packets per flow
[Th00], Section 3) the Offered Load SHOULD consist of multiple (see [Th00], Section 3), the Offered Load SHOULD consist of
Streams [Po06] and each Stream SHOULD consist of a single flow . If multiple Streams [Po06], and each Stream SHOULD consist of a
sending multiple Streams, the measured traffic statistics for all single flow . If sending multiple Streams, the measured traffic
Streams MUST be added together. statistics for all Streams MUST be added together.
The destination addresses for the Offered Load MUST be distributed The destination addresses for the Offered Load MUST be distributed
such that all routes or a statistically representative subset of all such that all routes or a statistically representative subset of
routes are matched and each of these routes is offered an equal share all routes are matched and each of these routes is offered an
of the Offered Load. It is RECOMMENDED to send traffic to all equal share of the Offered Load. It is RECOMMENDED to send
routes, but a statistically representative subset of all routes can traffic to all routes, but a statistically representative subset
be used if required. of all routes can be used if required.
At least one packet per route for all routes matched in the Offered At least one packet per route for all routes matched in the
Load MUST be offered to the DUT within each Packet Sampling Interval. Offered Load MUST be offered to the DUT within each Packet
For maximum accuracy the value for the Packet Sampling Interval Sampling Interval. For maximum accuracy, the value of the Packet
SHOULD be as small as possible, but the presence of IP Packet Delay Sampling Interval SHOULD be as small as possible, but the presence
Variation (IPDV) [De02] may enforce using a larger Packet Sampling of IP Packet Delay Variation (IPDV) [De02] may require that a
Interval. larger Packet Sampling Interval be used.
The Offered Load, IPDV, the number of routes, and the Packet Sampling The Offered Load, IPDV, the number of routes, and the Packet
Interval influence the observations for the Rate-Derived Method. It Sampling Interval influence the observations for the Rate-Derived
may be difficult to identify the different convergence time instants Method. It may be difficult to identify the different convergence
in the Rate-Derived Convergence Graph. For example, it is possible time instants in the Rate-Derived Convergence Graph. For example,
that a Convergence Event causes the Forwarding Rate to drop to zero, it is possible that a Convergence Event causes the Forwarding Rate
while this may not be observed in the Forwarding Rate measurements if to drop to zero, while this may not be observed in the Forwarding
the Packet Sampling Interval is too large. Rate measurements if the Packet Sampling Interval is too large.
IPDV causes fluctuations in the number of received packets during IPDV causes fluctuations in the number of received packets during
each Packet Sampling Interval. To account for the presence of IPDV each Packet Sampling Interval. To account for the presence of
in determining if a convergence instant has been reached, Forwarding IPDV in determining if a convergence instant has been reached,
Delay SHOULD be observed during each Packet Sampling Interval. The Forwarding Delay SHOULD be observed during each Packet Sampling
minimum and maximum number of packets expected in a Packet Sampling Interval. The minimum and maximum number of packets expected in a
Interval in presence of IPDV can be calculated with Equation 1. Packet Sampling Interval in presence of IPDV can be calculated
with Equation 1.
number of packets expected in a Packet Sampling Interval number of packets expected in a Packet Sampling Interval
in presence of IP Packet Delay Variation in presence of IP Packet Delay Variation
= expected number of packets without IP Packet Delay Variation = expected number of packets without IP Packet Delay Variation
+/-( (maxDelay - minDelay) * Offered Load) +/-( (maxDelay - minDelay) * Offered Load)
with minDelay and maxDelay the minimum resp. maximum Forwarding Delay where minDelay and maxDelay indicate (respectively) the minimum and
of packets received during the Packet Sampling Interval maximum Forwarding Delay of packets received during the Packet
Sampling Interval
Equation 1 Equation 1
To determine if a convergence instant has been reached the number of To determine if a convergence instant has been reached, the number
packets received in a Packet Sampling Interval is compared with the of packets received in a Packet Sampling Interval is compared with
range of expected number of packets calculated in Equation 1. the range of expected number of packets calculated in Equation 1.
If packets are going over multiple ECMP members and one or more of If packets are going over multiple ECMP members and one or more of
the members has failed then the number of received packets during the members has failed, then the number of received packets during
each Packet Sampling Interval may vary, even excluding presence of each Packet Sampling Interval may vary, even excluding presence of
IPDV. To prevent fluctuation of the number of received packets IPDV. To prevent fluctuation of the number of received packets
during each Packet Sampling Interval for this reason, the Packet during each Packet Sampling Interval for this reason, the Packet
Sampling Interval duration SHOULD be a whole multiple of the time Sampling Interval duration SHOULD be a whole multiple of the time
between two consecutive packets sent to the same destination. between two consecutive packets sent to the same destination.
Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval MUST include Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval MUST include
Forwarding Rate and Impaired Packet count. Forwarding Rate and Impaired Packet count.
To measure convergence time benchmarks for Convergence Events To measure convergence time benchmarks for Convergence Events
[Section 3.7.1] that do not cause instantaneous traffic loss for all (Section 3.7.1) that do not cause instantaneous traffic loss for
routes at the Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD collect a all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD
timestamp of the Convergence Event Instant [Section 3.2.2] and the collect a timestamp of the Convergence Event Instant
Tester SHOULD observe Forwarding Rate separately on the Next-Best (Section 3.2.2), and the Tester SHOULD observe Forwarding Rate
Egress Interface. separately on the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Since the Rate-Derived Method does not distinguish between individual Since the Rate-Derived Method does not distinguish between
traffic destinations, it SHOULD NOT be used for any route specific individual traffic destinations, it SHOULD NOT be used for any
measurements. Therefor Rate-Derived Method SHOULD NOT be used to route specific measurements. Therefore, the Rate-Derived Method
benchmark Route Loss of Connectivity Period [Section 3.6.5]. SHOULD NOT be used to benchmark Route Loss of Connectivity Period
(Section 3.6.5).
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
N/A
See Also: See Also:
Packet Sampling Interval, Convergence Event, Convergence Event Packet Sampling Interval, Convergence Event, Convergence Event
Instant, Next-Best Egress Interface, Route Loss of Connectivity Instant, Next-Best Egress Interface, Route Loss of Connectivity
Period Period
3.5.2. Loss-Derived Method 3.5.2. Loss-Derived Method
Definition: Definition:
The method to calculate the Loss-Derived Convergence Time The method to calculate the Loss-Derived Convergence Time
[Section 3.6.4] and Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period (Section 3.6.4) and Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period
[Section 3.6.6] benchmarks from the amount of Impaired Packets (Section 3.6.6) benchmarks from the amount of Impaired Packets
[Section 3.8.1]. (Section 3.8.1).
Discussion: Discussion:
To enable collecting statistics of Out-of-Order Packets per flow (See To enable collecting statistics of Out-of-Order Packets per flow
[Th00], Section 3) the Offered Load SHOULD consist of multiple (see [Th00], Section 3), the Offered Load SHOULD consist of
Streams [Po06] and each Stream SHOULD consist of a single flow . If multiple Streams [Po06], and each Stream SHOULD consist of a
sending multiple Streams, the measured traffic statistics for all single flow . If sending multiple Streams, the measured traffic
Streams MUST be added together. statistics for all Streams MUST be added together.
The destination addresses for the Offered Load MUST be distributed The destination addresses for the Offered Load MUST be distributed
such that all routes or a statistically representative subset of all such that all routes or a statistically representative subset of
routes are matched and each of these routes is offered an equal share all routes are matched and each of these routes is offered an
of the Offered Load. It is RECOMMENDED to send traffic to all equal share of the Offered Load. It is RECOMMENDED to send
routes, but a statistically representative subset of all routes can traffic to all routes, but a statistically representative subset
be used if required. of all routes can be used if required.
Loss-Derived Method SHOULD always be combined with Rate-Derived Loss-Derived Method SHOULD always be combined with the Rate-
Method in order to observe Full Convergence completion. The total Derived Method in order to observe Full Convergence completion.
amount of Convergence Packet Loss is collected after Full Convergence The total amount of Convergence Packet Loss is collected after
completion. Full Convergence completion.
To measure convergence time and loss of connectivity benchmarks for To measure convergence time and loss of connectivity benchmarks
Convergence Events that cause instantaneous traffic loss for all for Convergence Events that cause instantaneous traffic loss for
routes at the Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD observe all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD
Impaired Packet count on all DUT egress interfaces (see Connectivity observe the Impaired Packet count on all DUT egress interfaces
Packet Loss [Section 3.7.3]). (see Connectivity Packet Loss (Section 3.7.3)).
To measure convergence time benchmarks for Convergence Events that do To measure convergence time benchmarks for Convergence Events that
not cause instantaneous traffic loss for all routes at the do not cause instantaneous traffic loss for all routes at the
Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD collect timestamps of Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD collect timestamps of
the Start Traffic Instant and of the Convergence Event Instant, and the Start Traffic Instant and of the Convergence Event Instant,
the Tester SHOULD observe Impaired Packet count separately on the and the Tester SHOULD observe Impaired Packet count separately on
Next-Best Egress Interface (See Convergence Packet Loss the Next-Best Egress Interface (see Convergence Packet Loss
[Section 3.7.2]). (Section 3.7.2)).
Since Loss-Derived Method does not distinguish between traffic Since Loss-Derived Method does not distinguish between traffic
destinations and the Impaired Packet statistics are only collected destinations and the Impaired Packet statistics are only collected
after Full Convergence completion, this method can only be used to after Full Convergence completion, this method can only be used to
measure average values over all routes. For these reasons Loss- measure average values over all routes. For these reasons, Loss-
Derived Method can only be used to benchmark Loss-Derived Convergence Derived Method can only be used to benchmark Loss-Derived
Time [Section 3.6.4] and Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period Convergence Time (Section 3.6.4) and Loss-Derived Loss of
[Section 3.6.6]. Connectivity Period (Section 3.6.6).
Note that the Loss-Derived Method measures an average over all Note that the Loss-Derived Method measures an average over all
routes, including the routes that may not be impacted by the routes, including the routes that may not be impacted by the
Convergence Event, such as routes via non-impacted members of ECMP or Convergence Event, such as routes via non-impacted members of ECMP
parallel links. or parallel links.
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
N/A
See Also: See Also:
Loss-Derived Convergence Time, Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Loss-Derived Convergence Time, Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity
Period, Connectivity Packet Loss, Convergence Packet Loss Period, Connectivity Packet Loss, Convergence Packet Loss
3.5.3. Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method 3.5.3. Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method
Definition: Definition:
The method to calculate the Route-Specific Convergence Time The method to calculate the Route-Specific Convergence Time
[Section 3.6.3] benchmark from the amount of Impaired Packets (Section 3.6.3) benchmark from the amount of Impaired Packets
[Section 3.8.1] during convergence for a specific route entry. (Section 3.8.1) during convergence for a specific route entry.
Discussion: Discussion:
To benchmark Route-Specific Convergence Time, the Tester provides an To benchmark Route-Specific Convergence Time, the Tester provides
Offered Load that consists of multiple Streams [Po06]. Each Stream an Offered Load that consists of multiple Streams [Po06]. Each
has a single destination address matching a different route entry, Stream has a single destination address matching a different route
for all routes or a statistically representative subset of all entry, for all routes or a statistically representative subset of
routes. Each Stream SHOULD consist of a single flow (See [Th00], all routes. Each Stream SHOULD consist of a single flow (see
Section 3). Convergence Packet Loss is measured for each Stream [Th00], Section 3). Convergence Packet Loss is measured for each
separately. Stream separately.
Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method SHOULD always be combined with Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method SHOULD always be combined with
Rate-Derived Method in order to observe Full Convergence completion. the Rate-Derived Method in order to observe Full Convergence
The total amount of Convergence Packet Loss [Section 3.7.2] for each completion. The total amount of Convergence Packet Loss
Stream is collected after Full Convergence completion. (Section 3.7.2) for each Stream is collected after Full
Convergence completion.
Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method is the RECOMMENDED method to Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method is the RECOMMENDED method to
measure convergence time benchmarks. measure convergence time benchmarks.
To measure convergence time and loss of connectivity benchmarks for To measure convergence time and loss of connectivity benchmarks
Convergence Events that cause instantaneous traffic loss for all for Convergence Events that cause instantaneous traffic loss for
routes at the Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD observe all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD
Impaired Packet count on all DUT egress interfaces (see Connectivity observe Impaired Packet count on all DUT egress interfaces (see
Packet Loss [Section 3.7.3]). Connectivity Packet Loss (Section 3.7.3)).
To measure convergence time benchmarks for Convergence Events that do To measure convergence time benchmarks for Convergence Events that
not cause instantaneous traffic loss for all routes at the do not cause instantaneous traffic loss for all routes at the
Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD collect timestamps of Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD collect timestamps of
the Start Traffic Instant and of the Convergence Event Instant, and the Start Traffic Instant and of the Convergence Event Instant,
the Tester SHOULD observe packet loss separately on the Next-Best and the Tester SHOULD observe packet loss separately on the Next-
Egress Interface (See Convergence Packet Loss [Section 3.7.2]). Best Egress Interface (see Convergence Packet Loss
(Section 3.7.2)).
Since Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method uses traffic streams to Since Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method uses traffic streams to
individual routes, it observes Impaired Packet count as it would be individual routes, it observes Impaired Packet count as it would
experienced by a network user. For this reason Route-Specific Loss- be experienced by a network user. For this reason, Route-Specific
Derived Method is RECOMMENDED to measure Route-Specific Convergence Loss-Derived Method is RECOMMENDED to measure Route-Specific
Time benchmarks and Route Loss of Connectivity Period benchmarks. Convergence Time benchmarks and Route Loss of Connectivity Period
benchmarks.
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
N/A
See Also: See Also:
Route-Specific Convergence Time, Route Loss of Connectivity Period, Route-Specific Convergence Time, Route Loss of Connectivity
Connectivity Packet Loss, Convergence Packet Loss Period, Connectivity Packet Loss, Convergence Packet Loss
3.6. Benchmarks 3.6. Benchmarks
3.6.1. Full Convergence Time 3.6.1. Full Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The time duration of the period between the Convergence Event Instant The time duration of the period between the Convergence Event
and the Convergence Recovery Instant as observed using the Rate- Instant and the Convergence Recovery Instant as observed using the
Derived Method. Rate-Derived Method.
Discussion: Discussion:
Using the Rate-Derived Method, Full Convergence Time can be Using the Rate-Derived Method, Full Convergence Time can be
calculated as the time difference between the Convergence Event calculated as the time difference between the Convergence Event
Instant and the Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown in Equation 2. Instant and the Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown in Equation
2.
Full Convergence Time = Full Convergence Time =
Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant
Equation 2 Equation 2
The Convergence Event Instant can be derived from the Forwarding Rate The Convergence Event Instant can be derived from the Forwarding
observation or from a timestamp collected by the Tester. Rate observation or from a timestamp collected by the Tester.
For the test cases described in [Po11m], it is expected that Full For the test cases described in [Po11m], it is expected that Full
Convergence Time equals the maximum Route-Specific Convergence Time Convergence Time equals the maximum Route-Specific Convergence
when benchmarking all routes in FIB using the Route-Specific Loss- Time when benchmarking all routes in the FIB using the Route-
Derived Method. Specific Loss-Derived Method.
It is not possible to measure Full Convergence Time using the Loss- It is not possible to measure Full Convergence Time using the
Derived Method. Loss-Derived Method.
Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions) Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions)
See Also: See Also:
Full Convergence, Rate-Derived Method, Route-Specific Loss-Derived Full Convergence, Rate-Derived Method, Route-Specific Loss-Derived
Method, Convergence Event Instant, Convergence Recovery Instant Method, Convergence Event Instant, Convergence Recovery Instant
3.6.2. First Route Convergence Time 3.6.2. First Route Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The duration of the period between the Convergence Event Instant and The duration of the period between the Convergence Event Instant
the First Route Convergence Instant as observed using the Rate- and the First Route Convergence Instant as observed using the
Derived Method. Rate-Derived Method.
Discussion: Discussion:
Using the Rate-Derived Method, First Route Convergence Time can be Using the Rate-Derived Method, First Route Convergence Time can be
calculated as the time difference between the Convergence Event calculated as the time difference between the Convergence Event
Instant and the First Route Convergence Instant, as shown with Instant and the First Route Convergence Instant, as shown with
Equation 3. Equation 3.
First Route Convergence Time = First Route Convergence Time =
First Route Convergence Instant - Convergence Event Instant First Route Convergence Instant - Convergence Event Instant
Equation 3 Equation 3
The Convergence Event Instant can be derived from the Forwarding Rate The Convergence Event Instant can be derived from the Forwarding
observation or from a timestamp collected by the Tester. Rate observation or from a timestamp collected by the Tester.
For the test cases described in [Po11m], it is expected that First For the test cases described in [Po11m], it is expected that First
Route Convergence Time equals the minimum Route-Specific Convergence Route Convergence Time equals the minimum Route-Specific
Time when benchmarking all routes in FIB using the Route-Specific Convergence Time when benchmarking all routes in the FIB using the
Loss-Derived Method. Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method.
It is not possible to measure First Route Convergence Time using the It is not possible to measure First Route Convergence Time using
Loss-Derived Method. the Loss-Derived Method.
Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions) Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions)
See Also: See Also:
Rate-Derived Method, Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method, Convergence Rate-Derived Method, Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method,
Event Instant, First Route Convergence Instant Convergence Event Instant, First Route Convergence Instant
3.6.3. Route-Specific Convergence Time 3.6.3. Route-Specific Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time it takes for Route Convergence to be completed for The amount of time it takes for Route Convergence to be completed
a specific route, as calculated from the amount of Impaired Packets for a specific route, as calculated from the amount of Impaired
[Section 3.8.1] during convergence for a single route entry. Packets (Section 3.8.1) during convergence for a single route
entry.
Discussion: Discussion:
Route-Specific Convergence Time can only be measured using the Route- Route-Specific Convergence Time can only be measured using the
Specific Loss-Derived Method. Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method.
If the applied Convergence Event causes instantaneous traffic loss If the applied Convergence Event causes instantaneous traffic loss
for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, Connectivity Packet for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, Connectivity
Loss should be observed. Connectivity Packet Loss is the combined Packet Loss should be observed. Connectivity Packet Loss is the
Impaired Packet count observed on Preferred Egress Interface and combined Impaired Packet count observed on Preferred Egress
Next-Best Egress Interface. When benchmarking Route-Specific Interface and Next-Best Egress Interface. When benchmarking
Convergence Time, Connectivity Packet Loss is measured and Equation 4 Route-Specific Convergence Time, Connectivity Packet Loss is
is applied for each measured route. The calculation is equal to measured, and Equation 4 is applied for each measured route. The
Equation 8 in Section 3.6.5. calculation is equal to Equation 8 in Section 3.6.5.
Route-Specific Convergence Time = Route-Specific Convergence Time =
Connectivity Packet Loss for specific route/Offered Load per route Connectivity Packet Loss for specific route / Offered Load per route
Equation 4 Equation 4
If the applied Convergence Event does not cause instantaneous traffic If the applied Convergence Event does not cause instantaneous
loss for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, then the Tester traffic loss for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, then
SHOULD collect timestamps of the Traffic Start Instant and of the the Tester SHOULD collect timestamps of the Traffic Start Instant
Convergence Event Instant, and the Tester SHOULD observe Convergence and of the Convergence Event Instant, and the Tester SHOULD
Packet Loss separately on the Next-Best Egress Interface. When observe Convergence Packet Loss separately on the Next-Best Egress
benchmarking Route-Specific Convergence Time, Convergence Packet Loss Interface. When benchmarking Route-Specific Convergence Time,
is measured and Equation 5 is applied for each measured route. Convergence Packet Loss is measured, and Equation 5 is applied for
each measured route.
Route-Specific Convergence Time = Route-Specific Convergence Time =
Convergence Packet Loss for specific route/Offered Load per route Convergence Packet Loss for specific route / Offered Load per route
- (Convergence Event Instant - Traffic Start Instant) - (Convergence Event Instant - Traffic Start Instant)
Equation 5 Equation 5
The Route-Specific Convergence Time benchmarks enable minimum, The Route-Specific Convergence Time benchmarks enable minimum,
maximum, average, and median convergence time measurements to be maximum, average, and median convergence time measurements to be
reported by comparing the results for the different route entries. reported by comparing the results for the different route entries.
It also enables benchmarking of convergence time when configuring a It also enables benchmarking of convergence time when configuring
priority value for route entry(ies). Since multiple Route-Specific a priority value for the route entry or entries. Since multiple
Convergence Times can be measured it is possible to have an array of Route-Specific Convergence Times can be measured, it is possible
results. The format for reporting Route-Specific Convergence Time is to have an array of results. The format for reporting Route-
provided in [Po11m]. Specific Convergence Time is provided in [Po11m].
Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions) Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions)
See Also: See Also:
Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method, Convergence Event, Convergence Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method, Convergence Event, Convergence
Event Instant, Convergence Packet Loss, Connectivity Packet Loss, Event Instant, Convergence Packet Loss, Connectivity Packet Loss,
Route Convergence Route Convergence
3.6.4. Loss-Derived Convergence Time 3.6.4. Loss-Derived Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The average Route Convergence time for all routes in the Forwarding The average Route Convergence time for all routes in the
Information Base (FIB), as calculated from the amount of Impaired Forwarding Information Base (FIB), as calculated from the amount
Packets [Section 3.8.1] during convergence. of Impaired Packets (Section 3.8.1) during convergence.
Discussion: Discussion:
Loss-Derived Convergence Time is measured using the Loss-Derived Loss-Derived Convergence Time is measured using the Loss-Derived
Method. Method.
If the applied Convergence Event causes instantaneous traffic loss If the applied Convergence Event causes instantaneous traffic loss
for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, Connectivity Packet for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, Connectivity
Loss [Section 3.7.3] should be observed. Connectivity Packet Loss is Packet Loss (Section 3.7.3) should be observed. Connectivity
the combined Impaired Packet count observed on Preferred Egress Packet Loss is the combined Impaired Packet count observed on
Interface and Next-Best Egress Interface. When benchmarking Loss- Preferred Egress Interface and Next-Best Egress Interface. When
Derived Convergence Time, Connectivity Packet Loss is measured and benchmarking Loss-Derived Convergence Time, Connectivity Packet
Equation 6 is applied. Loss is measured, and Equation 6 is applied.
Loss-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time =
Connectivity Packet Loss/Offered Load Connectivity Packet Loss / Offered Load
Equation 6 Equation 6
If the applied Convergence Event does not cause instantaneous traffic If the applied Convergence Event does not cause instantaneous
loss for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, then the Tester traffic loss for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, then
SHOULD collect timestamps of the Start Traffic Instant and of the the Tester SHOULD collect timestamps of the Start Traffic Instant
Convergence Event Instant and the Tester SHOULD observe Convergence and of the Convergence Event Instant, and the Tester SHOULD
Packet Loss [Section 3.7.2] separately on the Next-Best Egress observe Convergence Packet Loss (Section 3.7.2) separately on the
Interface. When benchmarking Loss-Derived Convergence Time, Next-Best Egress Interface. When benchmarking Loss-Derived
Convergence Packet Loss is measured and Equation 7 is applied. Convergence Time, Convergence Packet Loss is measured and Equation
7 is applied.
Loss-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time =
Convergence Packet Loss/Offered Load Convergence Packet Loss / Offered Load
- (Convergence Event Instant - Traffic Start Instant) - (Convergence Event Instant - Traffic Start Instant)
Equation 7 Equation 7
Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions) Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions)
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss, Connectivity Packet Loss, Route Convergence, Convergence Packet Loss, Connectivity Packet Loss, Route
Loss-Derived Method Convergence, Loss-Derived Method
3.6.5. Route Loss of Connectivity Period 3.6.5. Route Loss of Connectivity Period
Definition: Definition:
The time duration of packet impairments for a specific route entry The time duration of packet impairments for a specific route entry
following a Convergence Event until Full Convergence completion, as following a Convergence Event until Full Convergence completion,
observed using the Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method. as observed using the Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method.
Discussion: Discussion:
In general the Route Loss of Connectivity Period is not equal to the In general, the Route Loss of Connectivity Period is not equal to
Route-Specific Convergence Time. If the DUT continues to forward the Route-Specific Convergence Time. If the DUT continues to
traffic to the Preferred Egress Interface after the Convergence Event forward traffic to the Preferred Egress Interface after the
is applied then the Route Loss of Connectivity Period will be smaller Convergence Event is applied, then the Route Loss of Connectivity
than the Route-Specific Convergence Time. This is also specifically Period will be smaller than the Route-Specific Convergence Time.
the case after reversing a failure event. This is also specifically the case after reversing a failure
event.
The Route Loss of Connectivity Period may be equal to the Route- The Route Loss of Connectivity Period may be equal to the Route-
Specific Convergence Time if, as a characteristic of the Convergence Specific Convergence Time if, as a characteristic of the
Event, traffic for all routes starts dropping instantaneously on the Convergence Event, traffic for all routes starts dropping
Convergence Event Instant. See discussion in [Po11m]. instantaneously on the Convergence Event Instant. See discussion
in [Po11m].
For the test cases described in [Po11m] the Route Loss of For the test cases described in [Po11m], the Route Loss of
Connectivity Period is expected to be a single Loss Period [Ko02]. Connectivity Period is expected to be a single Loss Period [Ko02].
When benchmarking Route Loss of Connectivity Period, Connectivity When benchmarking the Route Loss of Connectivity Period,
Packet Loss is measured for each route and Equation 8 is applied for Connectivity Packet Loss is measured for each route, and Equation
each measured route entry. The calculation is equal to Equation 4 in 8 is applied for each measured route entry. The calculation is
Section 3.6.3. equal to Equation 4 in Section 3.6.3.
Route Loss of Connectivity Period = Route Loss of Connectivity Period =
Connectivity Packet Loss for specific route/Offered Load per route Connectivity Packet Loss for specific route / Offered Load per route
Equation 8 Equation 8
Route Loss of Connectivity Period SHOULD be measured using Route- Route Loss of Connectivity Period SHOULD be measured using Route-
Specific Loss-Derived Method. Specific Loss-Derived Method.
Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions) Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions)
See Also: See Also:
Route-Specific Convergence Time, Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method, Route-Specific Convergence Time, Route-Specific Loss-Derived
Connectivity Packet Loss Method, Connectivity Packet Loss
3.6.6. Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period 3.6.6. Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period
Definition: Definition:
The average time duration of packet impairments for all routes The average time duration of packet impairments for all routes
following a Convergence Event until Full Convergence completion, as following a Convergence Event until Full Convergence completion,
observed using the Loss-Derived Method. as observed using the Loss-Derived Method.
Discussion: Discussion:
In general the Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period is not equal In general, the Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period is not
to the Loss-Derived Convergence Time. If the DUT continues to equal to the Loss-Derived Convergence Time. If the DUT continues
forward traffic to the Preferred Egress Interface after the to forward traffic to the Preferred Egress Interface after the
Convergence Event is applied then the Loss-Derived Loss of Convergence Event is applied, then the Loss-Derived Loss of
Connectivity Period will be smaller than the Loss-Derived Convergence Connectivity Period will be smaller than the Loss-Derived
Time. This is also specifically the case after reversing a failure Convergence Time. This is also specifically the case after
event. reversing a failure event.
The Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period may be equal to the The Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period may be equal to the
Loss-Derived Convergence Time if, as a characteristic of the Loss-Derived Convergence Time if, as a characteristic of the
Convergence Event, traffic for all routes starts dropping Convergence Event, traffic for all routes starts dropping
instantaneously on the Convergence Event Instant. See discussion in instantaneously on the Convergence Event Instant. See discussion
[Po11m]. in [Po11m].
For the test cases described in [Po11m] each route's Route Loss of For the test cases described in [Po11m], each route's Route Loss
Connectivity Period is expected to be a single Loss Period [Ko02]. of Connectivity Period is expected to be a single Loss Period
[Ko02].
When benchmarking Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period, When benchmarking the Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period,
Connectivity Packet Loss is measured for all routes and Equation 9 is Connectivity Packet Loss is measured for all routes, and Equation
applied. The calculation is equal to Equation 6 in Section 3.6.4. 9 is applied. The calculation is equal to Equation 6 in
Section 3.6.4.
Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period = Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period =
Connectivity Packet Loss for all routes/Offered Load Connectivity Packet Loss for all routes / Offered Load
Equation 9 Equation 9
Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period SHOULD be measured using The Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period SHOULD be measured
Loss-Derived Method. using the Loss-Derived Method.
Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions) Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions)
See Also: See Also:
Loss-Derived Convergence Time, Loss-Derived Method, Connectivity Loss-Derived Convergence Time, Loss-Derived Method, Connectivity
Packet Loss Packet Loss
3.7. Measurement Terms 3.7. Measurement Terms
3.7.1. Convergence Event 3.7.1. Convergence Event
Definition: Definition:
The occurrence of an event in the network that will result in a The occurrence of an event in the network that will result in a
change in the egress interface of the Device Under Test (DUT) for change in the egress interface of the DUT for routed packets.
routed packets.
Discussion: Discussion:
All test cases in [Po11m] are defined such that a Convergence Event All test cases in [Po11m] are defined such that a Convergence
results in a change of egress interface of the DUT. Local or remote Event results in a change of egress interface of the DUT. Local
triggers that cause a route calculation which does not result in a or remote triggers that cause a route calculation that does not
change in forwarding are not considered. result in a change in forwarding are not considered.
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
See Also: Convergence Event Instant N/A
See Also:
Convergence Event Instant
3.7.2. Convergence Packet Loss 3.7.2. Convergence Packet Loss
Definition: Definition:
The number of Impaired Packets [Section 3.8.1] as observed on the The number of Impaired Packets (Section 3.8.1) as observed on the
Next-Best Egress Interface of the DUT during convergence. Next-Best Egress Interface of the DUT during convergence.
Discussion: Discussion:
An Impaired Packet is considered as a lost packet. An Impaired Packet is considered as a lost packet.
Measurement Units: number of packets Measurement Units:
number of packets
See Also: See Also:
Connectivity Packet Loss Connectivity Packet Loss
3.7.3. Connectivity Packet Loss 3.7.3. Connectivity Packet Loss
Definition: Definition:
The number of Impaired Packets observed on all DUT egress interfaces The number of Impaired Packets observed on all DUT egress
during convergence. interfaces during convergence.
Discussion: Discussion:
An Impaired Packet is considered as a lost packet. Connectivity An Impaired Packet is considered as a lost packet. Connectivity
Packet Loss is equal to Convergence Packet Loss if the Convergence Packet Loss is equal to Convergence Packet Loss if the Convergence
Event causes instantaneous traffic loss for all egress interfaces of Event causes instantaneous traffic loss for all egress interfaces
the DUT except for the Next-Best Egress Interface. of the DUT except for the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Measurement Units: number of packets Measurement Units:
number of packets
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
3.7.4. Packet Sampling Interval 3.7.4. Packet Sampling Interval
Definition: Definition:
The interval at which the Tester (test equipment) polls to make The interval at which the Tester (test equipment) polls to make
measurements for arriving packets. measurements for arriving packets.
Discussion: Discussion:
At least one packet per route for all routes matched in the Offered At least one packet per route for all routes matched in the
Load MUST be offered to the DUT within the Packet Sampling Interval. Offered Load MUST be offered to the DUT within the Packet Sampling
Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval MUST include Interval. Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval MUST
Forwarding Rate and received packets. include Forwarding Rate and received packets.
Packet Sampling Interval can influence the convergence graph as Packet Sampling Interval can influence the convergence graph as
observed with the Rate-Derived Method. This is particularly true observed with the Rate-Derived Method. This is particularly true
when implementations complete Full Convergence in less time than the when implementations complete Full Convergence in less time than
Packet Sampling Interval. The Convergence Event Instant and First the Packet Sampling Interval. The Convergence Event Instant and
Route Convergence Instant may not be easily identifiable and the First Route Convergence Instant may not be easily identifiable,
Rate-Derived Method may produce a larger than actual convergence and the Rate-Derived Method may produce a larger than actual
time. convergence time.
Using a small Packet Sampling Interval in the presence of IPDV [De02] Using a small Packet Sampling Interval in the presence of IPDV
may cause fluctuations of the Forwarding Rate observation and can [De02] may cause fluctuations of the Forwarding Rate observation
prevent correct observation of the different convergence time and can prevent correct observation of the different convergence
instants. time instants.
The value of the Packet Sampling Interval only contributes to the The value of the Packet Sampling Interval only contributes to the
measurement accuracy of the Rate-Derived Method. For maximum measurement accuracy of the Rate-Derived Method. For maximum
accuracy the value for the Packet Sampling Interval SHOULD be as accuracy, the value for the Packet Sampling Interval SHOULD be as
small as possible, but the presence of IPDV may enforce using a small as possible, but the presence of IPDV may enforce using a
larger Packet Sampling Interval. larger Packet Sampling Interval.
Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions) Measurement Units:
See Also: Rate-Derived Method seconds (and fractions)
See Also:
Rate-Derived Method
3.7.5. Sustained Convergence Validation Time 3.7.5. Sustained Convergence Validation Time
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time for which the completion of Full Convergence is The amount of time for which the completion of Full Convergence is
maintained without additional Impaired Packets being observed. maintained without additional Impaired Packets being observed.
Discussion: Discussion:
The purpose of the Sustained Convergence Validation Time is to The purpose of the Sustained Convergence Validation Time is to
produce convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation in produce convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation in
Forwarding Rate after the completion of Full Convergence is observed. Forwarding Rate after the completion of Full Convergence is
The RECOMMENDED Sustained Convergence Validation Time to be used is observed. The RECOMMENDED Sustained Convergence Validation Time
the time to send 5 consecutive packets to each destination with a to be used is the time to send 5 consecutive packets to each
minimum of 5 seconds. The Benchmarking Methodology Working Group destination with a minimum of 5 seconds. The Benchmarking
(BMWG) selected 5 seconds based upon [Br99] which recommends waiting Methodology Working Group (BMWG) selected 5 seconds based upon
2 seconds for residual frames to arrive (this is the Forwarding Delay [Br99], which recommends waiting 2 seconds for residual frames to
Threshold for the last packet sent) and 5 seconds for DUT arrive (this is the Forwarding Delay Threshold for the last packet
restabilization. sent) and 5 seconds for DUT restabilization.
Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions) Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions)
See Also: See Also:
Full Convergence, Convergence Recovery Instant Full Convergence, Convergence Recovery Instant
3.7.6. Forwarding Delay Threshold 3.7.6. Forwarding Delay Threshold
Definition: Definition:
The maximum waiting time threshold used to distinguish between The maximum waiting time threshold used to distinguish between
packets with very long delay and lost packets that will never arrive. packets with very long delay and lost packets that will never
arrive.
Discussion: Discussion:
Applying a Forwarding Delay Threshold allows to consider packets with Applying a Forwarding Delay Threshold allows packets with a too
a too large Forwarding Delay as being lost, as is required for some large Forwarding Delay to be considered lost, as is required for
applications (e.g. voice, video, etc.). The Forwarding Delay some applications (e.g. voice, video, etc.). The Forwarding Delay
Threshold is a parameter of the methodology, and it MUST be reported. Threshold is a parameter of the methodology, and it MUST be
[Br99] recommends waiting 2 seconds for residual frames to arrive. reported. [Br99] recommends waiting 2 seconds for residual frames
to arrive.
Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions) Measurement Units:
seconds (and fractions)
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss, Connectivity Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss, Connectivity Packet Loss
3.8. Miscellaneous Terms 3.8. Miscellaneous Terms
3.8.1. Impaired Packet 3.8.1. Impaired Packet
Definition: Definition:
A packet that experienced at least one of the following impairments: A packet that experienced at least one of the following
loss, excessive Forwarding Delay, corruption, duplication, impairments: loss, excessive Forwarding Delay, corruption,
reordering. duplication, reordering.
Discussion: Discussion:
A lost packet, a packet with a Forwarding Delay exceeding the A lost packet, a packet with a Forwarding Delay exceeding the
Forwarding Delay Threshold, a corrupted packet, a Duplicate Packet Forwarding Delay Threshold, a corrupted packet, a Duplicate Packet
[Po06], and an Out-of-Order Packet [Po06] are Impaired Packets. [Po06], and an Out-of-Order Packet [Po06] are Impaired Packets.
Packet ordering is observed for each individual flow (See [Th00], Packet ordering is observed for each individual flow (see [Th00],
Section 3) of the Offered Load. Section 3) of the Offered Load.
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
See Also: Forwarding Delay Threshold N/A
See Also:
Forwarding Delay Threshold
4. Security Considerations 4. Security Considerations
Benchmarking activities as described in this memo are limited to Benchmarking activities as described in this memo are limited to
technology characterization using controlled stimuli in a laboratory technology characterization using controlled stimuli in a laboratory
environment, with dedicated address space and the constraints environment, with dedicated address space and the constraints
specified in the sections above. specified in the sections above.
The benchmarking network topology will be an independent test setup The benchmarking network topology will be an independent test setup
and MUST NOT be connected to devices that may forward the test and MUST NOT be connected to devices that may forward the test
traffic into a production network, or misroute traffic to the test traffic into a production network or misroute traffic to the test
management network. management network.
Further, benchmarking is performed on a "black-box" basis, relying Further, benchmarking is performed on a "black-box" basis, relying
solely on measurements observable external to the DUT/SUT. solely on measurements observable external to the DUT/SUT.
Special capabilities SHOULD NOT exist in the DUT/SUT specifically for Special capabilities SHOULD NOT exist in the DUT/SUT specifically for
benchmarking purposes. Any implications for network security arising benchmarking purposes. Any implications for network security arising
from the DUT/SUT SHOULD be identical in the lab and in production from the DUT/SUT SHOULD be identical in the lab and in production
networks. networks.
5. IANA Considerations 5. Acknowledgements
This document requires no IANA considerations.
6. Acknowledgements
Thanks to Sue Hares, Al Morton, Kevin Dubray, Ron Bonica, David Ward, Thanks to Sue Hares, Al Morton, Kevin Dubray, Ron Bonica, David Ward,
Peter De Vriendt, Anuj Dewagan, Adrian Farrel, Stewart Bryant, Peter De Vriendt, Anuj Dewagan, Adrian Farrel, Stewart Bryant,
Francis Dupont, and the Benchmarking Methodology Working Group for Francis Dupont, and the Benchmarking Methodology Working Group for
their contributions to this work. their contributions to this work.
7. Normative References 6. Normative References
[Br91] Bradner, S., "Benchmarking terminology for network [Br91] Bradner, S., "Benchmarking terminology for network
interconnection devices", RFC 1242, July 1991. interconnection devices", RFC 1242, July 1991.
[Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[Br99] Bradner, S. and J. McQuaid, "Benchmarking Methodology for [Br99] Bradner, S. and J. McQuaid, "Benchmarking Methodology for
Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, March 1999. Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, March 1999.
skipping to change at page 26, line 25 skipping to change at page 28, line 28
[Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN Switching [Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN Switching
Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998. Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998.
[Mo98] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998. [Mo98] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998.
[Po06] Poretsky, S., Perser, J., Erramilli, S., and S. Khurana, [Po06] Poretsky, S., Perser, J., Erramilli, S., and S. Khurana,
"Terminology for Benchmarking Network-layer Traffic Control "Terminology for Benchmarking Network-layer Traffic Control
Mechanisms", RFC 4689, October 2006. Mechanisms", RFC 4689, October 2006.
[Po11m] Poretsky, S., Imhoff, B., and K. Michielsen, "Benchmarking [Po11m] Poretsky, S., Imhoff, B., and K. Michielsen, "Benchmarking
Methodology for Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Methodology for Link-State IGP Data-Plane Route
Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-23 Convergence", RFC 6413, November 2011.
(work in progress), January 2011.
[Th00] Thaler, D. and C. Hopps, "Multipath Issues in Unicast and [Th00] Thaler, D. and C. Hopps, "Multipath Issues in Unicast and
Multicast Next-Hop Selection", RFC 2991, November 2000. Multicast Next-Hop Selection", RFC 2991, November 2000.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
Allot Communications Allot Communications
67 South Bedford Street, Suite 400 300 TradeCenter
Burlington, MA 01803 Woburn, MA 01801
USA USA
Phone: + 1 508 309 2179 Phone: + 1 508 309 2179
Email: sporetsky@allot.com EMail: sporetsky@allot.com
Brent Imhoff Brent Imhoff
Juniper Networks F5 Networks
1194 North Mathilda Ave 401 Elliott Avenue West
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Seattle, WA 98119
USA USA
Phone: + 1 314 378 2571 Phone: + 1 314 378 2571
Email: bimhoff@planetspork.com EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com
Kris Michielsen Kris Michielsen
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
6A De Kleetlaan 6A De Kleetlaan
Diegem, BRABANT 1831 Diegem, BRABANT 1831
Belgium Belgium
Email: kmichiel@cisco.com EMail: kmichiel@cisco.com
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