draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-16.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-17.txt 
Network Working Group S. Poretsky Network Working Group S. Poretsky
Internet Draft Allot Communications Internet Draft Allot Communications
Expires: September 08, 2009
Intended Status: Informational Brent Imhoff Intended Status: Informational Brent Imhoff
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
October 15, 2008 March 08, 2009
Terminology for Benchmarking Terminology for Benchmarking
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
<draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-16.txt> <draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-17.txt>
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ABSTRACT ABSTRACT
This document describes the terminology for benchmarking Interior This document describes the terminology for benchmarking Interior
Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The terminology is to Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The terminology is to
be used for benchmarking IGP convergence time through externally be used for benchmarking IGP convergence time through externally
observable (black box) data plane measurements. The terminology observable (black box) data plane measurements. The terminology
can be applied to any link-state IGP, such as ISIS and OSPF. can be applied to any link-state IGP, such as ISIS and OSPF.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction .................................................2 1. Introduction and Scope........................................3
2. Existing definitions .........................................3 2. Existing Definitions .........................................4
3. Term definitions..............................................4 3. Term Definitions..............................................4
3.1 Convergence Event.........................................4 3.1 States
3.2 Route Convergence.........................................4 3.1.1 Route Convergence....................................4
3.3 Full Convergence..........................................5 3.1.2 Full Convergence.....................................5
3.4 Network Convergence.......................................5 3.1.3 Network Convergence..................................5
3.5 Route-Specific Convergence................................6 3.1.4 Route-Specific Convergence...........................6
3.6 Packet Loss...............................................7 3.1.5 Stale Forwarding.....................................6
3.7 Convergence Packet Loss...................................7 3.2 Events
3.8 Convergence Event Instant.................................8 3.2.1 Convergence Event....................................7
3.9 Convergence Recovery Instant..............................8 3.2.2 Convergence Event Trigger............................7
3.10 First Route Convergence Instant..........................9 3.2.3 Convergence Event Instant............................8
3.11 Convergence Event Transition.............................9 3.2.4 Convergence Recovery Instant.........................8
3.12 Convergence Recovery Transition..........................10 3.2.5 First Route Convergence Instant......................9
3.13 Rate-Derived Convergence Time............................10 3.2.6 Convergence Event Transition.........................9
3.14 Loss-Derived Convergence Time............................11 3.2.7 Convergence Recovery Transition......................10
3.15 Route-Specific Convergence Time..........................12 3.2.8 Nested Convergence Events............................10
3.16 Sustained Convergence Validation Time....................13 3.3 Interfaces
3.17 First Route Convergence Time.............................14 3.3.1 Local Interface......................................11
3.18 Reversion Convergence Time...............................15 3.3.2 Neighbor Interface...................................11
3.19 Packet Sampling Interval.................................15 3.3.3 Remote Interface.....................................11
3.20 Local Interface..........................................16 3.3.4 Preferred Egress Interface...........................12
3.21 Neighbor Interface.......................................16 3.3.5 Next-Best Egress Interface...........................12
3.22 Remote Interface.........................................17 3.4 Benchmarking Method
3.23 Preferred Egress Interface...............................17 3.4.1 Packet Loss..........................................13
3.24 Next-Best Egress Interface...............................17 3.4.2 Convergence Packet Loss..............................13
3.25 Stale Forwarding.........................................18 3.4.3 Rate-Derived Convergence Method......................14
3.26 Nested Convergence Events................................18 3.4.4 Loss-Derived Convergence Method......................14
3.4.5 Packet Sampling Interval.............................15
3.5 Benchmarks
3.5.1 Full Convergence Time................................17
3.5.2 First Route Convergence Time.........................17
3.5.3 Route-Specific Convergence Time......................17
3.5.4 Sustained Convergence Validation Time................18
3.5.5 Reversion Convergence Time...........................19
4. IANA Considerations...........................................19 4. IANA Considerations...........................................19
5. Security Considerations.......................................19 5. Security Considerations.......................................19
6. Acknowledgements..............................................19 6. Acknowledgements..............................................20
7. References....................................................19 7. References....................................................20
8. Author's Address..............................................20 8. Author's Address..............................................21
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
1. Introduction and Scope
1. Introduction
This draft describes the terminology for benchmarking Interior This draft describes the terminology for benchmarking Interior
Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The motivation and Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The motivation and
applicability for this benchmarking is provided in [Po07a]. The applicability for this benchmarking is provided in [Po07a]. The
methodology to be used for this benchmarking is described in [Po07m]. methodology to be used for this benchmarking is described in [Po07m].
The methodology and terminology to be used for benchmarking Route The purpose of this document is to introduce new terms required to
Convergence can be applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [Ca90]
and OSPF [Mo98]. The data plane is measured to obtain black-box
(externally observable) convergence benchmarking metrics. The
purpose of this document is to introduce new terms required to
complete execution of the IGP Route Convergence Methodology [Po07m]. complete execution of the IGP Route Convergence Methodology [Po07m].
These terms apply to IPv4 and IPv6 traffic and IGPs. These terms apply to IPv4 and IPv6 traffic and IGPs.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Convergence times are measured at the Tester on the data plane by
observing packet loss through the DUT. The methodology and
terminology to be used for benchmarking Route Convergence can be
applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [Ca90] and OSPF [Mo98].
The data plane is measured to obtain black-box (externally
observable) convergence benchmarking metrics. When there is no
packer loss observed in the data plane, the convergence time
SHALL be reported as zero.
An example of Route Convergence as observed and measured from the An example of Route Convergence as observed and measured from the
data plane is shown in Figure 1. The graph in Figure 1 shows data plane is shown in Figure 1. The graph in Figure 1 shows
Forwarding Rate versus Time. Time 0 on the X-axis is on the far Forwarding Rate versus Time. Time 0 on the X-axis is on the far
right of the graph. The Offered Load to the ingress interface of right of the graph. The Offered Load to the ingress interface of
the DUT SHOULD equal the measured maximum Throughput [Ba99][Ma98] the DUT SHOULD equal the measured Throughput [Ba99][Ma98] of the DUT
of the DUT and the Forwarding Rate [Ma98] is measured at the egress and the Forwarding Rate [Ma98] and Convergence Packet Loss is
interfaces of the DUT. The components of the graph and the metrics measured at the Preferred and Next-Best Egress interfaces of the DUT
are defined in the Term Definitions section. befire, during, and after a Convergence Event Trigger. These
components of the graph are defined in the Term Definitions section.
Full Convergence, Full Convergence-> Convergence Convergence
Convergence Convergence Recovery Event Event Time=
Recovery Event Instant Instant Trigger 0sec
Instant Instant Time = 0sec Forwarding Rate= ^ ^ ^ ^ Offered Load=
Forwarding Rate = ^ ^ ^ Offered Load = Offered Load --> ------\ Packet /----------- <--Max Throughput
Offered Load --> ------\ Packet /-------- <---Max Throughput
\ Loss /<----Convergence \ Loss /<----Convergence
Convergence------->\ / Event Transition Convergence------->\ / Event Transition
Recovery Transition \ / Recovery Transition \ /
\_____/<------Maximum Packet Loss \_____/<------Maximum Packet Loss
^ ^
First Route First Route
Convergence Instant Convergence Instant
Y-axis = Forwarding Rate Y-axis = Forwarding Rate
X-axis = Time (increases right to left to match commercial test X-axis = Time (increases right to left to match commercial test
equipment displays) equipment displays)
Figure 1. Convergence Graph Figure 1. Convergence Graph
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
2. Existing definitions 2. Existing Definitions
This document uses existing terminology defined in other BMWG This document uses existing terminology defined in other BMWG
work. Examples include, but are not limited to: work. Examples include, but are not limited to:
Latency [Ref.[Ba91], section 3.8] Latency [Ref.[Ba91], section 3.8]
Frame Loss Rate [Ref.[Ba91], section 3.6] Frame Loss Rate [Ref.[Ba91], section 3.6]
Throughput [Ref.[Ba91], section 3.17] Throughput [Ref.[Ba91], section 3.17]
Device Under Test (DUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.1] Device Under Test (DUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.1]
System Under Test (SUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.2] System Under Test (SUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.2]
Out-of-order Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.2] Out-of-order Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.2]
Duplicate Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.3] Duplicate Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.3]
Packet Reordering [Ref.[Mo06], section 3.3] Packet Reordering [Ref.[Mo06], section 3.3]
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
[Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the [Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the
intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this
document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track
document. document.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3. Term Definitions 3. Term Definitions
3.1 Convergence Event
Definition:
The occurrence of a planned or unplanned event in the network
that results in a change in the egress interface of the Device
Under Test (DUT) for routed packets.
Discussion:
Convergence Events include link loss, routing protocol session
loss, router failure, configuration change, and better next-hop
learned via a routing protocol.
Measurement Units:
N/A
Issues:
None
See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Event Instant
3.2 Route Convergence 3.1 States
3.1.1 Route Convergence
Definition: Definition:
The action to update all components of the router with the The action to update all components of the router with the
most recent route change(s) including the Routing most recent route change(s) including the Routing
Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base (FIB), Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base (FIB),
along with software and hardware tables, such that forwarding along with software and hardware tables, such that forwarding
is successful for one or more route entries. is successful for one or more route entries.
Discussion: Discussion:
Route Convergence MUST occur after a Convergence Event. Route Convergence MUST occur after a Convergence Event.
Route Convergence can be observed externally by the rerouting Route Convergence can be observed externally by the rerouting
of data traffic to the Next-best Egress Interface. Also, of data traffic to the Next-best Egress Interface. Also,
completion of Route Convergence may or may not be sustained completion of Route Convergence may or may not be sustained
over time. over time.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units: N/A
N/A
Issues: Issues: None
None
See Also: See Also:
Network Convergence Network Convergence
Full Convergence Full Convergence
Convergence Event Convergence Event
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.3 Full Convergence 3.1.2 Full Convergence
Definition: Definition:
Route Convergence for an entire FIB in which complete recovery Route Convergence for an entire FIB in which complete recovery
from the Convergence Event is indicated by the DUT Throughput from the Convergence Event is indicated by the DUT throughput
equal to the offered load. equal to the offered load.
Discussion: Discussion:
When benchmarking convergence, it is useful to measure When benchmarking convergence, it is useful to measure
the time to converge an entire FIB. For example, the time to converge an entire FIB. For example,
a Convergence Event can be produced for an OSPF table of a Convergence Event can be produced for an OSPF table of
5000 routes so that the time to converge routes 1 through 5000 routes so that the time to converge routes 1 through
5000 is measured. Completion of Full Convergence is externally 5000 is measured. Completion of Full Convergence is externally
observable from the data plane when the Throughput of the data observable from the data plane when the Throughput of the data
plane traffic on the Next-Best Egress Interface equals the plane traffic on the Next-Best Egress Interface equals the
offered load. offered load.
Full convergence MAY be measured using Rate-Derived Convergence Full Convergence MAY be measured using Rate-Derived Convergence
Time (3.13) or calculated using Loss-Derived Convergence Time Method or calculated using Loss-Derived Convergence Method.
(3.14). When performing Route-Specific Convergence (3.5) Full Convergence may or may not be sustained over time. The
measurements, Full Convergence may be obtained by measuring the Sustained Convergence Validation Time MUST be applied.
maximum Route Specific Convergence Time (3.15). Full
Convergence may or may not be sustained over time. The
Sustained Convergence Validation Time (3.16) MUST be applied.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units: N/A
N/A
Issues: Issues: None
None
See Also: See Also:
Network Convergence Network Convergence
Route Convergence Route Convergence
Convergence Event Convergence Event
3.4 Network Convergence 3.1.3 Network Convergence
Definition: Definition:
The process of updating of all routing tables, including The process of updating of all routing tables, including
distributed FIBs, in all routers throughout the network. distributed FIBs, in all routers throughout the network.
Discussion: Discussion:
Network Convergence requires completion of all Route Network Convergence requires completion of all Route
Convergence operations for all routers in the network following Convergence operations for all routers in the network following
a Convergence Event. Completion of Network Convergence can be a Convergence Event. Completion of Network Convergence can be
observed by recovery of System Under Test (SUT) Throughput to observed by recovery of System Under Test (SUT) Throughput to
equal the offered load, with no Stale Forwarding, and no equal the offered load, with no Stale Forwarding, and no
Blenders [Ca01][Ci03]. Blenders [Ca01][Ci03].
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Measurement Units: N/A
Measurement Units:
N/A
Issues: Issues: None
None Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
See Also: See Also:
Route Convergence Route Convergence
Stale Forwarding Stale Forwarding
3.5 Route-Specific Convergence 3.1.4 Route-Specific Convergence
Definition: Definition:
Route Convergence for one or more specific route entries in Route Convergence for one or more specific route entries in
the FIB in which recovery from the Convergence Event is the FIB in which recovery from the Convergence Event is
indicated by data-plane traffic for a flow [Po06] matching that indicated when data-plane traffic for the flow [Po06] matching
route entry(ies) being routed to the Next-Best Egress Interface. that route entry(ies) is routed to the Next-Best Egress
Interface.
Discussion: Discussion:
When benchmarking convergence, it is sometimes useful to When benchmarking convergence, it is sometimes useful to
measure the time to converge a single flow [Po06] or group of measure the time to converge a single flow [Po06] or group of
flows to benchmark convergence time for one or a few route flows to benchmark convergence time for one or a few route
entries in the FIB instead of the entire FIB. Route-Specific entries in the FIB instead of the entire FIB. Route-Specific
Convergence of a flow is externally observable from the data Convergence of a flow is externally observable from the data
plane when the data plane traffic for that flow is routed to plane when the data plane traffic for that flow is routed to
the Next-Best Egress Interface. the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units: N/A
N/A
Issues: Issues: None
None
See Also: See Also:
Full Convergence Full Convergence
Route Convergence Route Convergence
Convergence Event Convergence Event
3.1.5 Stale Forwarding
Definition:
Forwarding of traffic to route entries that no longer exist
or to route entries with next-hops that are no longer preferred.
Discussion:
Stale Forwarding can be caused by a Convergence Event and can
manifest as a "black-hole" or microloop that produces packet
loss. Stale Forwarding can exist until Network Convergence is
completed. Stale Forwarding cannot be observed with a single
DUT.
Measurement Units: N/A
Issues: None
See Also:
Network Convergence
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.6 Packet Loss 3.2 Events
3.2.1 Convergence Event
Definition: Definition:
The number of packets that should have been forwarded The occurrence of a planned or unplanned event in the network
by a DUT under a constant offered load that were that results in a change in the egress interface of the Device
not forwarded due to lack of resources. Under Test (DUT) for routed packets.
Discussion: Discussion:
Packet Loss is a modified version of the term "Frame Loss Rate" Convergence Events include link loss, routing protocol session
as defined in [Ba91]. The term "Frame Loss" is intended for loss, router failure, configuration change, and better next-hop
Ethernet Frames while "Packet Loss" is intended for IP packets. learned via a routing protocol.
Packet Loss can be measured as a reduction in forwarded traffic
from the Throughput [Ba91] of the DUT.
Measurement units: Measurement Units:
Number of offered packets that are not forwarded. N/A
Issues: None Issues:
None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Event Instant
3.7 Convergence Packet Loss 3.2.2 Convergence Event Trigger
Definition: Definition:
The number of packets lost due to a Convergence Event An action taken by the Tester to produce a Convergence Event.
until Full Convergence completes.
Discussion: Discussion:
Convergence Packet Loss includes packets that were lost and The Convergence Event Trigger is introduced by the Tester and
packets that were delayed due to buffering. The Convergence may be indicated by link loss, routing protocol session loss,
Packet Loss observed in a Packet Sampling Interval may or may router failure, configuration change, or a better next-hop
not be equal to the number of packets in the offered load learned via a routing protocol introduced by the Tester.
during the interval following a Convergence Event (see Figure
1).
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
number of packets N/A
Issues: None Issues:
None
See Also: See Also:
Packet Loss
Route Convergence
Convergence Event Convergence Event
Packet Sampling Interval Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Recovery Instant
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.8 Convergence Event Instant 3.2.3 Convergence Event Instant
Definition: Definition:
The time instant that a Convergence Event becomes observable in The time instant that a Convergence Event becomes observable in
the data plane. the data plane.
Discussion: Discussion:
Convergence Event Instant is observable from the data Convergence Event Instant is observable from the data
plane as the precise time that the device under test begins plane as the precise time that the device under test begins
to exhibit packet loss. to exhibit packet loss. The Convergence Event Instant is
produced by the Convergence Event Trigger. The Convergence
Event Instant always occurs concurrent or subsequent to the
Tester introducing the Convergence Event Trigger.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
hh:mm:ss:nnn:uuu, hh:mm:ss:nnn:uuu,
where 'nnn' is milliseconds and 'uuu' is microseconds. where 'nnn' is milliseconds and 'uuu' is microseconds.
Issues: Issues: None
None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Event Convergence Event
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Recovery Instant Convergence Recovery Instant
3.9 Convergence Recovery Instant 3.2.4 Convergence Recovery Instant
Definition: Definition:
The time instant that Full Convergence completion is The time instant that Full Convergence completion is
measured and then maintained for an interval of duration observed.
equal to the Sustained Convergence Validation Time.
Discussion: Discussion:
Convergence Recovery Instant is measurable from the data Convergence Recovery Instant is measurable from the data
plane as the precise time that the device under test plane as the precise time that the device under test completes
completes Full Convergence. Full Convergence. The Convergence Recovery Instant MUST be
maintained for an interval of duration equal to the Sustained
Convergence Validation Time.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
hh:mm:ss:nnn:uuu, hh:mm:ss:nnn:uuu,
where 'nnn' is milliseconds and 'uuu' is microseconds. where 'nnn' is milliseconds and 'uuu' is microseconds.
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Sustained Convergence Validation Time Sustained Convergence Validation Time
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Event Instant Convergence Event Instant
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.10 First Route Convergence Instant 3.2.5 First Route Convergence Instant
Definition: Definition:
The time instant a first route entry has converged The time instant a first route entry has converged
following a Convergence Event, as observed by receipt of following a Convergence Event, as observed by receipt of
the first packet from the Next-Best Egress Interface. the first packet from the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Discussion: Discussion:
The First Route Convergence Instant is an indication that the The First Route Convergence Instant is an indication that the
process to achieve Full Convergence has begun. Any route may process to achieve Full Convergence has begun. Any route may
be the first to converge for First Route Convergence Instant. be the first to converge for First Route Convergence Instant.
Measurement on the data-plane enables the First Route Measurement on the data-plane enables the First Route
Convergence Instant to be observed without any white-box Convergence Instant to be observed without any white-box
information from the DUT. information from the DUT.
Measurement Units: N/A Measurement Units:
hh:mm:ss:nnn:uuu,
where 'nnn' is milliseconds and 'uuu' is microseconds.
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Route Convergence Route Convergence
Full Convergence Full Convergence
Stale Forwarding Stale Forwarding
3.11 Convergence Event Transition 3.2.6 Convergence Event Transition
Definition: Definition:
A time interval observed following a Convergence Event in which A time interval observed following a Convergence Event in which
Throughput gradually reduces to a minimum value. Throughput gradually reduces to a minimum value.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Convergence Event Transition is best observed for Full The Convergence Event Transition is best observed for Full
Convergence. The egress packet rate observed during a Convergence. The egress packet rate observed during a
Convergence Event Transition may not decrease linearly and may Convergence Event Transition may not decrease linearly and may
not decrease to zero. Both the offered load and the Packet not decrease to zero. Both the offered load and the Packet
Sampling Interval influence the observations of the Convergence Sampling Interval influence the observations of the Convergence
Event Transition. For example, even if the Convergence Event Event Transition. For example, it is possible that if the
were to cause the Throughput [Ba91] to drop to zero there would Convergence Event were to cause the Throughput [Ba91] to drop
be some number of packets observed, unless the Packet Sampling to zero then this may not be observed if the Packet Sampling
Interval is exactly aligned with the Convergence Event. This Interval is set too high. This is further discussed with the
is further discussed with the term "Packet Sampling Interval". term "Packet Sampling Interval".
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds seconds
Issues: Issues: None
None Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Event Convergence Event
Full Convergence Full Convergence
Packet Sampling Interval Packet Sampling Interval
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.12 Convergence Recovery Transition 3.2.7 Convergence Recovery Transition
Definition: Definition:
The characteristic of the DUT in which Throughput gradually The characteristic of the DUT in which Throughput gradually
increases to equal the offered load. increases to equal the offered load.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Convergence Recovery Transition is best observed for The Convergence Recovery Transition is best observed for
Full Convergence. The egress packet rate observed during Full Convergence. The egress packet rate observed during
a Convergence Recovery Transition may not increase linearly. a Convergence Recovery Transition may not increase linearly.
Both the offered load and the Packet Sampling Interval Both the offered load and the Packet Sampling Interval
skipping to change at page 10, line 30 skipping to change at page 10, line 35
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds seconds
Issues: None Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Full Convergence Full Convergence
Packet Sampling Interval Packet Sampling Interval
3.13 Rate-Derived Convergence Time 3.2.8 Nested Convergence Events
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time for Convergence Packet Loss to persist upon The occurrence of a Convergence Event while the route
occurrence of a Convergence Event until Full Convergence has table is converging from a prior Convergence Event.
completed.
Rate-Derived Convergence Time can be measured as the time
difference from the Convergence Event Instant to the
Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown with Equation 1.
(Equation 1)
Rate-Derived Convergence Time =
Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant.
Discussion: Discussion:
Rate-Derived Convergence Time SHOULD be measured at the maximum The Convergence Events for a Nested Convergence Event
Throughput of the DUT. At least one packet per route in the FIB MUST occur with different neighbors. A common
for all routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT within the observation from a Nested Convergence Event will be
Packet Sampling Interval. the withdrawal of routes from one neighbor while the
routes of another neighbor are being installed.
Failure to achieve Full Convergence results in a Rate-Derived Measurement Units: N/A
Convergence Time benchmark of infinity. It is RECOMMENDED that
the Rate-Derived Convergence Time be measured when benchmarking
Full Convergence.
Issues: None
See Also:
Convergence Event
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Measurement Units: 3.3 Interfaces
seconds
3.3.1 Local Interface
Definition:
An interface on the DUT.
Discussion:
A failure of the Local Interface indicates that the failure
occurred directly on the DUT.
Measurement Units: N/A
Issues: None Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss Neighbor Interface
Convergence Recovery Instant Remote Interface
Convergence Event Instant
Full Convergence
3.14 Loss-Derived Convergence Time 3.3.2 Neighbor Interface
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time it takes for Full Convergence to be The interface on the neighbor router or tester that is
completed as calculated from the amount of Convergence directly linked to the DUT's Local Interface.
Packet Loss. Loss-Derived Convergence Time can be
calculated from Convergence Packet Loss as shown with
Equation 2.
Equation 2 - Discussion:
Loss-Derived Convergence Time = A failure of a Neighbor Interface indicates that a
Convergence Packets Loss / Offered Load failure occurred on a neighbor router's interface that
where units are packets / packets/second = seconds directly links the neighbor router to the DUT.
Measurement Units: N/A
Issues: None
See Also:
Local Interface
Remote Interface
3.3.3 Remote Interface
Definition:
An interface on a neighboring router that is not directly
connected to any interface on the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
Optimally, the Convergence Event Transition and Convergence A failure of a Remote Interface indicates that the failure
Recovery Transition are instantaneous so that the occurred on a neighbor router's interface that is not
Rate-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time. directly connected to the DUT.
However, router implementations are less than ideal.
Loss-Derived Convergence Time gives a better than
actual result when converging many routes simultaneously
because it ignores the Convergence Recovery Transition.
Rate-Derived Convergence Time takes the Convergence Recovery
Transition into account. Equation 2 calculates the average
convergence time over all routes to which packets have been
sent. Since this average convergence time is in general
smaller than the maximum convergence time over all routes,
Loss-Derived Convergence Time is not the preferred metric to
indicate Full Convergence completion. For this reason the
RECOMMENDED benchmark metric for Full Convergence is the
Rate-Derived Convergence Time.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Guidelines for reporting Loss-Derived Convergence Time are
provided in [Po07m].
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Event Local Interface
Convergence Packet Loss Neighbor Interface
Rate-Derived Convergence Time
Route-Specific Convergence
Convergence Event Transition
Convergence Recovery Transition
3.15 Route-Specific Convergence Time 3.3.4 Preferred Egress Interface
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time it takes for Route-Specific Convergence to The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the
be completed as calculated from the amount of Convergence preferred next-hop.
Packet Loss per flow.
Route-Specific Convergence Time can be calculated from Discussion:
Convergence Packet Loss as shown with Equation 3. The Preferred Egress Interface is the egress interface prior
to a Convergence Event.
Equation 3 - Measurement Units:
Route-Specific Convergence Time = N/A
Convergence Packets Loss / Offered Load
where units are packets / packets/second = seconds Issues:
None
See Also:
Next-Best Egress Interface
3.3.5 Next-Best Egress Interface
Definition:
The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the
second-best next-hop. It is the same media type and link speed
as the Preferred Egress Interface
Discussion: Discussion:
The Next-Best Egress Interface becomes the egress interface
after a Convergence Event.
It is possible to provide an offered load that has flows Measurement Units:
matching every route entry in the FIB and benchmarking N/A
Route-Specific Convergence Time for all route entries. The
number of flows that can be measured is dependent upon the flow
measurement capabilities of the Tester. When benchmarking
Route-Specific Convergence, Convergence Packet Loss is measured
for specific flow(s) and Equation 3 is applied for each flow.
Each flow has a single destination address matching a different
route entry. The fastest measurable convergence time is equal
to the time between two consecutive packets of a flow offered
by the Tester.
The Route-Specific Convergence Time benchmarks enable minimum, Issues: None
maximum, average, and median convergence time measurements to be
reported by comparing the results for the different route See Also:
Preferred Egress Interface
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.4 Benchmarking Methods
entries. It also enables benchmarking of convergence time when 3.4.1 Packet Loss
configuring a priority value for route entry(ies). Since
multiple Route-Specific Convergence Times can be measured it is
possible to have an array of results. The format for reporting
Route-Specific Convergence Time is provided in [Po07m].
The Route-Specific Convergence Time MAY be used to benchmark Definition:
Full Convergence when used in combination with many flows The number of packets that should have been forwarded
matching every FIB entry. In this case by a DUT under a constant offered load that were
Full Convergence = max(Route-Specific Convergence Time). not forwarded due to lack of resources.
Measurement Units: Discussion:
seconds Packet Loss is a modified version of the term "Frame Loss Rate"
as defined in [Ba91]. The term "Frame Loss" is intended for
Ethernet Frames while "Packet Loss" is intended for IP packets.
Packet Loss can be measured as a reduction in forwarded traffic
from the Throughput [Ba91] of the DUT.
Issues: Measurement units:
None Number of offered packets that are not forwarded.
Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Event
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
Route-Specific Convergence
3.16 Sustained Convergence Validation Time 3.4.2 Convergence Packet Loss
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time for which the completion of Full The number of packets lost due to a Convergence Event
Convergence is maintained without additional packet loss. until Full Convergence completes.
Discussion: Discussion:
The purpose of the Sustained Convergence Validation Time is to Convergence Packet Loss includes packets that were lost and
produce Convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation packets that were delayed due to buffering. The Convergence
in Throughput after the completion of Full Convergence is Packet Loss observed in a Packet Sampling Interval may or may
observed. The RECOMMENDED Sustained Convergence Validation not be equal to the number of packets in the offered load
Time to be used is 5 seconds. The BMWG selected 5 seconds during the interval following a Convergence Event (see Figure
based upon RFC 2544 [Ba99] which recommends waiting 2 seconds 1).
for residual frames to arrive and 5 seconds for DUT
restabilization.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds number of packets
Issues: None Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Full Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Recovery Instant Route Convergence
Convergence Event
Packet Sampling Interval
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.17 First Route Convergence Time 3.4.3 Rate-Derived Convergence Method
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time for Convergence Packet Loss until the The method to calculate convergence time benchmarks from the
convergence of a first route entry on the Next-Best Egress amount of time that Convergence Packet Loss persists upon
Interface, as indicated by the First Route Convergence occurrence of a Convergence Event.
Instant.
Discussion:
The First Route Convergence Time benchmarking metric can be
measured when benchmarking either Full Convergence or
Route-Specific Convergence. When benchmarking Full Convergence,
First Route Convergence Time can be measured as the time
difference from the Convergence Event Instant and the First
Route Convergence Instant, as shown with Equation 4a.
(Equation 4a) Rate-Derived Convergence Method can be calculated as the time
First Route Convergence Time = difference from the Convergence Event Instant to the
First Route Convergence Instant - Convergence Event Instant Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown with Equation 1.
When benchmarking Route-Specific Convergence, First Route (Equation 1)
Convergence Time can be measured as the minimum Route-Specific Rate-Derived Convergence Method =
Convergence Time, as shown with Equation 4b. Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant.
(Equation 4b) Discussion:
First Route Convergence Time = It is RECOMMENDED that the Rate-Derived Convergence Method be
min(Route-Specific Convergence Time) measured when benchmarking convergence times. The Rate-Derived
Convergence Method SHOULD be measured with an Offered Load at
the Throughput of the DUT. At least one packet per route
in the FIB for all routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT
within the Packet Sampling Interval.
First Route Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum It is possible to measure no packet loss, which results in a
Throughput of the DUT. At least one packet per route in the FIB Rate-Derived Convergence Time benchmark of zero. Failure to
for all routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT within the achieve Full Convergence results in a Rate-Derived Convergence
Packet Sampling Interval. Failure to achieve the First Route Time benchmark of infinity.
Convergence Instant results in a First Route Convergence Time
benchmark of infinity.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds seconds
Issues: None Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
First Route Convergence Instant Convergence Recovery Instant
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Convergence Event Instant
Full Convergence
3.18 Reversion Convergence Time 3.4.4 Loss-Derived Convergence Method
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time for the DUT to complete Full Convergence The method to calculate convergence time benchmarks from the
to the Preferred Egress Interface, instead of the Next-Best amount of Convergence Packet Loss. Loss-Derived Convergence
Egress Interface, upon recovery from a Convergence Event. Method can be calculated from Convergence Packet Loss as shown
with Equation 2.
Equation 2 -
Loss-Derived Convergence Method =
Convergence Packets Loss / Offered Load
where units are packets / packets/second = seconds
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Discussion: Discussion:
Reversion Convergence Time is the amount of time for Full Ideally, the Convergence Event Transition and Convergence
Convergence to the original egress interface. This is Recovery Transition are instantaneous so that the Rate-Derived
achieved by recovering from the Convergence Event, such as Convergence Method = Loss-Derived Convergence Method. However,
restoring the failed link. Reversion Convergence Time is router implementations are less than ideal. Loss-Derived
measured using the Rate-Derived Convergence Time calculation Convergence Method gives a better than actual result when
technique, as provided in Equation 1. It is possible to have converging many routes simultaneously because it ignores the
the Reversion Convergence Time differ from the Rate-Derived transitions. The Rate-Derived Convergence Method takes the
Convergence Time. transitions into account.
Measurement Units: seconds Equation 2 calculates the average convergence time over all
routes to which packets have been sent. The average convergence
time is often lower than the maximum convergence time
over all routes, so it can produce a result that is faster than
the actual convergence time.. Therefore, Loss-Derived
Convergence Method is not the preferred method to measure
convergence benchmarks. For these reasons the RECOMMENDED
method to obtain a benchmark metric for convergence time is the
Rate-Derived Convergence Method.
Measurement Units:
seconds
Issues: None Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Preferred Egress Interface Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Event Rate-Derived Convergence Method
Rate-Derived Convergence Time Route-Specific Convergence
Convergence Event Transition
Convergence Recovery Transition
3.19 Packet Sampling Interval 3.4.5 Packet Sampling Interval
Definition: Definition:
The interval at which the tester (test equipment) polls to make The interval at which the tester (test equipment) polls to make
measurements for arriving packet flows. measurements for arriving packet flows.
Discussion: Discussion:
At least one packet per route in the FIB for all routes in the At least one packet per route in the FIB for all routes in the
FIB MUST be offered to the DUT within the Packet Sampling FIB MUST be offered to the DUT within the Packet Sampling
Interval. Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval Interval. Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval
MUST include Forwarding Rate and Convergence Packet Loss. MUST include Forwarding Rate and Convergence Packet Loss.
Packet Sampling Interval can influence the Convergence Graph. Packet Sampling Interval can influence the Convergence Graph.
This is particularly true when implementations complete Full This is particularly true when implementations complete Full
Convergence in less than the Packet Sampling Interval. The Convergence in less time than the Packet Sampling Interval. The
Convergence Event Transition and Convergence Recovery Transition Convergence Event Transition and Convergence Recovery Transition
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
can become exaggerated when the Packet Sampling Interval is too can become exaggerated when the Packet Sampling Interval is too
long. This will produce a larger than actual Rate-Derived long. In this condition, the Rate-Derived Convergence Method
Convergence Time. The recommended value for configuration of may produce a larger than actual convergence time. In such
cases the Loss-Derived Convergence Method may produce a more
accurate result. The recommended value for configuration of
the Packet Sampling Interval is provided in [Po07m]. the Packet Sampling Interval is provided in [Po07m].
Measurement Units: seconds Measurement Units: seconds
Issues: None Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Event Transition Convergence Event Transition
Convergence Recovery Transition Convergence Recovery Transition
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.20 Local Interface 3.5 Benchmarks
3.5.1 Full Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
An interface on the DUT. The amount of time it takes for Full Convergence to occur.
Discussion: Discussion:
A failure of the Local Interface indicates that the failure Full Convergence Time can be determined using the Rate-Derived
occurred directly on the DUT. Convergence Method or Loss-Derived Convergence Method. The
Rate-Derived Convergence Method is RECOMMENDED. When
measuring Route-Specific Convergence Time, there may be
conditions in which the maximum Route Specific Convergence Time
can be reported as the Full Convergence Time. Full Convergence
may or may not be sustained over time. The Sustained
Convergence Validation Time MUST be applied.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A seconds
Issues: Issues: None
None
See Also: See Also:
Neighbor Interface Full Convergence
Remote Interface Rate-Derived Convergence Method
Loss-Derived Convergence Method
3.21 Neighbor Interface 3.5.2 First Route Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The interface on the neighbor router or tester that is The amount of time for Convergence Packet Loss until the
directly linked to the DUT's Local Interface. convergence of a first route entry on the Next-Best Egress
Interface, as indicated by the First Route Convergence
Discussion: Instant.
A failure of a Neighbor Interface indicates that a
failure occurred on a neighbor router's interface that
directly links the neighbor router to the DUT.
Measurement Units:
N/A
Issues:
None
See Also:
Local Interface
Remote Interface
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.22 Remote Interface Discussion:
The First Route Convergence Time benchmarking metric can be
measured when benchmarking either Full Convergence or
Route-Specific Convergence. When benchmarking Full Convergence,
First Route Convergence Time can be measured as the time
difference from the Convergence Event Instant and the First
Route Convergence Instant, as shown with Equation 4a.
Definition: (Equation 4a)
An interface on a neighboring router that is not directly First Route Convergence Time =
connected to any interface on the DUT. First Route Convergence Instant - Convergence Event Instant
Discussion: First Route Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum
A failure of a Remote Interface indicates that the failure Throughput of the DUT. At least one packet per route in the FIB
occurred on a neighbor router's interface that is not for all routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT within the
directly connected to the DUT. Packet Sampling Interval. Failure to achieve the First Route
Convergence Instant results in a First Route Convergence Time
benchmark of infinity.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A seconds
Issues: Issues: None
None
See Also: See Also:
Local Interface Convergence Packet Loss
Neighbor Interface First Route Convergence Instant
3.23 Preferred Egress Interface 3.5.3 Route-Specific Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the The amount of time it takes for Route-Specific Convergence to
preferred next-hop. be completed as calculated from the amount of Convergence
Packet Loss for the flow associated to a specific route.
Route-Specific Convergence Time can be calculated from
Convergence Packet Loss as shown with Equation 3.
(Equation 3) Route-Specific Convergence Time =
Convergence Packets Loss / Offered Load
where units are packets / packets/second = seconds
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Discussion: Discussion:
The Preferred Egress Interface is the egress interface prior It is possible to provide an offered load that has flows
to a Convergence Event. matching every route entry in the FIB and benchmarking
Route-Specific Convergence Time for all route entries. The
number of flows that can be measured is dependent upon the flow
measurement capabilities of the Tester. When benchmarking
Route-Specific Convergence, Convergence Packet Loss is measured
for specific flow(s) and Equation 3 is applied for each flow.
Each flow has a single destination address matching a different
route entry. The fastest measurable convergence time is equal
to the time between two consecutive packets of a flow offered
by the Tester. In practice, the fastest measurable
convergence time is the Packet Sampling Interval of the Tester.
The Route-Specific Convergence Time benchmarks enable minimum,
maximum, average, and median convergence time measurements to be
reported by comparing the results for the different route
entries. It also enables benchmarking of convergence time when
configuring a priority value for route entry(ies). Since
multiple Route-Specific Convergence Times can be measured it is
possible to have an array of results. The format for reporting
Route-Specific Convergence Time is provided in [Po07m].
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A seconds
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Next-Best Egress Interface Convergence Event
Convergence Packet Loss
3.24 Next-Best Egress Interface Route-Specific Convergence
3.5.4 Sustained Convergence Validation Time
Definition: Definition:
The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the The amount of time for which the completion of Full
second-best next-hop. It is the same media type and link speed Convergence is maintained without additional packet loss.
as the Preferred Egress Interface
Discussion: Discussion:
The Next-Best Egress Interface becomes the egress interface The purpose of the Sustained Convergence Validation Time is to
after a Convergence Event. produce Convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation
in Throughput after the completion of Full Convergence is
observed. The RECOMMENDED Sustained Convergence Validation
Time to be used is 5 seconds. The BMWG selected 5 seconds
based upon RFC 2544 [Ba99] which recommends waiting 2 seconds
for residual frames to arrive and 5 seconds for DUT
restabilization.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A seconds
Issues: None
See Also:
Preferred Egress Interface
3.25 Stale Forwarding
Definition:
Forwarding of traffic to route entries that no longer exist
or to route entries with next-hops that are no longer preferred.
Discussion:
Stale Forwarding can be caused by a Convergence Event and can
manifest as a "black-hole" or microloop that produces packet
loss. Stale Forwarding can exist until Network Convergence is
completed. Stale Forwarding cannot be observed with a single
DUT.
Measurement Units:
N/A
Issues: None Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Network Convergence Full Convergence
Convergence Recovery Instant
3.26 Nested Convergence Events 3.5.5 Reversion Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The occurrence of a Convergence Event while the route The amount of time for the DUT to complete Full Convergence
table is converging from a prior Convergence Event. to the Preferred Egress Interface, instead of the Next-Best
Egress Interface, upon recovery from a Convergence Event.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Convergence Events for a Nested Convergence Event Reversion Convergence Time is the amount of time for Full
MUST occur with different neighbors. A common Convergence to the original egress interface. This is
observation from a Nested Convergence Event will be achieved by recovering from the Convergence Event, such as
the withdrawal of routes from one neighbor while the restoring the failed link. Reversion Convergence Time
routes of another neighbor are being installed. can be measured using the Rate-Derived Convergence Method
or Loss-Derived Convergence Method. The Rate-Derived
Convergence Method is RECOMMENDED. It is possible to have
the Reversion Convergence Time differ from the Full
Convergence Time.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units: seconds
N/A
Issues: None Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Preferred Egress Interface
Convergence Event Convergence Event
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Rate-Derived Convergence Method
4. IANA Considerations 4. IANA Considerations
This document requires no IANA considerations. This document requires no IANA considerations.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of
Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking is not
is not performed on devices or systems connected to production performed on devices or systems connected to production networks.
networks. Security threats and how to counter these in SIP and the media
layer is discussed in RFC3261, RFC3550, and RFC3711 and various
other drafts. This document attempts to formalize a set of
common terminology for benchmarking IGP convergence performance
in a lab environment.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
6. Acknowledgements 6. Acknowledgements
Thanks to Sue Hares, Al Morton, Kevin Dubray, Ron Bonica, David Ward, Thanks to Sue Hares, Al Morton, Kevin Dubray, Ron Bonica, David Ward,
Kris Michielsen and the BMWG for their contributions to this work. Kris Michielsen and the BMWG for their contributions to this work.
7. References 7. References
7.1 Normative References 7.1 Normative References
[Ba91] Bradner, S. "Benchmarking Terminology for Network [Ba91] Bradner, S. "Benchmarking Terminology for Network
Interconnection Devices", RFC1242, July 1991. Interconnection Devices", RFC1242, July 1991.
[Ba99] Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking [Ba99] Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking
Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices", Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices",
RFC 2544, March 1999. RFC 2544, March 1999.
[Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
[Ca90] Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual [Ca90] Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual
Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990. Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990.
skipping to change at page 19, line 49 skipping to change at page 20, line 38
[Mo06] Morton, A., et al, "Packet Reordering Metrics", RFC 4737, [Mo06] Morton, A., et al, "Packet Reordering Metrics", RFC 4737,
November 2006. November 2006.
[Po06] Poretsky, S., et al., "Terminology for Benchmarking [Po06] Poretsky, S., et al., "Terminology for Benchmarking
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms", RFC 4689, Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms", RFC 4689,
November 2006. November 2006.
[Po07a] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for Link-State [Po07a] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for Link-State
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence", IGP Data Plane Route Convergence",
draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-16, work in progress, draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-17, work in progress,
October 2008. March 2009.
[Po07m] Poretsky, S. and Imhoff, B., "Benchmarking Methodology for [Po07m] Poretsky, S. and Imhoff, B., "Benchmarking Methodology for
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence", Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence",
draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-16, work in progress, draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-17, work in progress,
October 2008. March 2009.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
7.2 Informative References 7.2 Informative References
[Ca01] S. Casner, C. Alaettinoglu, and C. Kuan, "A Fine-Grained View [Ca01] S. Casner, C. Alaettinoglu, and C. Kuan, "A Fine-Grained View
of High Performance Networking", NANOG 22, June 2001. of High Performance Networking", NANOG 22, June 2001.
[Ci03] L. Ciavattone, A. Morton, and G. Ramachandran, "Standardized [Ci03] L. Ciavattone, A. Morton, and G. Ramachandran, "Standardized
Active Measurements on a Tier 1 IP Backbone", IEEE Active Measurements on a Tier 1 IP Backbone", IEEE
Communications Magazine, pp90-97, May 2003. Communications Magazine, pp90-97, May 2003.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
8. Author's Address 8. Author's Address
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
Allot Communications Allot Communications
67 South Bedford Street, Suite 400 67 South Bedford Street, Suite 400
Burlington, MA 01803 Burlington, MA 01803
USA USA
Phone: + 1 508 309 2179 Phone: + 1 508 309 2179
Email: sporetsky@allot.com Email: sporetsky@allot.com
Brent Imhoff Brent Imhoff
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
1194 North Mathilda Ave 1194 North Mathilda Ave
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Sunnyvale, CA 94089
USA USA
Phone: + 1 314 378 2571 Phone: + 1 314 378 2571
EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com
Full Copyright Statement
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Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
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