draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-13.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-14.txt 
Network Working Group Network Working Group
INTERNET-DRAFT INTERNET-DRAFT
Expires in: January 2008
Intended Status: Informational Intended Status: Informational
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
Reef Point Systems Reef Point Systems
Brent Imhoff Brent Imhoff
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
November 2007
Terminology for Benchmarking Terminology for Benchmarking
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
<draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-13.txt> <draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-14.txt>
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) statement: Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) statement:
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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2. Existing definitions .........................................3 2. Existing definitions .........................................3
3. Term definitions..............................................4 3. Term definitions..............................................4
3.1 Convergence Event.........................................4 3.1 Convergence Event.........................................4
3.2 Route Convergence.........................................4 3.2 Route Convergence.........................................4
3.3 Network Convergence.......................................5 3.3 Network Convergence.......................................5
3.4 Full Convergence..........................................5 3.4 Full Convergence..........................................5
3.5 Packet Loss...............................................6 3.5 Packet Loss...............................................6
3.6 Convergence Packet Loss...................................6 3.6 Convergence Packet Loss...................................6
3.7 Convergence Event Instant.................................7 3.7 Convergence Event Instant.................................7
3.8 Convergence Recovery Instant..............................7 3.8 Convergence Recovery Instant..............................7
3.9 Rate-Derived Convergence Time.............................8 3.9 First Prefix Convergence Instant..........................8
3.10 Convergence Event Transition.............................8 3.10 Convergence Event Transition.............................8
3.11 Convergence Recovery Transition..........................9 3.11 Convergence Recovery Transition..........................9
3.12 Loss-Derived Convergence Time............................9 3.12 Rate-Derived Convergence Time............................9
3.13 Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time....................10 3.13 Loss-Derived Convergence Time............................10
3.14 Restoration Convergence Time.............................11 3.14 Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time....................11
3.15 Packet Sampling Interval.................................12 3.15 First Prefix Convergence Time............................12
3.16 Local Interface..........................................12 3.16 Reversion Convergence Time...............................12
3.17 Neighbor Interface.......................................13 3.17 Packet Sampling Interval.................................13
3.18 Remote Interface.........................................13 3.18 Local Interface..........................................13
3.19 Preferred Egress Interface...............................13 3.19 Neighbor Interface.......................................14
3.20 Next-Best Egress Interface...............................14 3.20 Remote Interface.........................................14
3.21 Stale Forwarding.........................................14 3.21 Preferred Egress Interface...............................15
3.22 Nested Convergence Events................................15 3.22 Next-Best Egress Interface...............................15
4. IANA Considerations...........................................15 3.23 Stale Forwarding.........................................15
5. Security Considerations.......................................15 3.24 Nested Convergence Events................................16
6. Acknowledgements..............................................15 4. IANA Considerations...........................................16
7. References....................................................15 5. Security Considerations.......................................16
8. Author's Address..............................................16 6. Acknowledgements..............................................16
7. References....................................................17
8. Author's Address..............................................18
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This draft describes the terminology for benchmarking Interior This draft describes the terminology for benchmarking Interior
Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The motivation and Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The motivation and
applicability for this benchmarking is provided in [Po07a]. The applicability for this benchmarking is provided in [Po07a]. The
methodology to be used for this benchmarking is described in [Po07m]. methodology to be used for this benchmarking is described in [Po07m].
The methodology and terminology to be used for benchmarking Route The methodology and terminology to be used for benchmarking Route
Convergence can be applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [Ca90] Convergence can be applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [Ca90]
and OSPF [Mo98]. The data plane is measured to obtain black-box and OSPF [Mo98]. The data plane is measured to obtain black-box
(externally observable) convergence benchmarking metrics. The (externally observable) convergence benchmarking metrics. The
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3.2 Route Convergence 3.2 Route Convergence
Definition: Definition:
Route Convergence is the action to update all components of the Route Convergence is the action to update all components of the
router with the most recent route change(s) including the router with the most recent route change(s) including the
Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base
(FIB), along with software and hardware tables, such that (FIB), along with software and hardware tables, such that
forwarding is successful for one or more destinations. forwarding is successful for one or more destinations.
Discussion: Discussion:
Route Convergence is required after a Convergence Event. Route Convergence MUST occur after a Convergence Event.
Route Convergence can be observed externally by the rerouting Route Convergence can be observed externally by the rerouting
of data traffic to the next-best egress interface. Also, of data traffic to the Next-best Egress Interface. Also,
Route Convergence may or may not be sustained over time. Route Convergence may or may not be sustained over time.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Network Convergence Network Convergence
Full Convergence Full Convergence
Convergence Event Convergence Event
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.3 Network Convergence 3.3 Network Convergence
Definition: Definition:
The completion of updating of all routing tables, including the The completion of updating of all routing tables, including
FIB, in all routers throughout the network. distributed FIBs, in all routers throughout the network.
Discussion: Discussion:
Network Convergence requires completion of all Route Convergence Network Convergence requires completion of all Route
operations for all routers in the network following a Convergenceoperations for all routers in the network following
Convergence Event. Network Convergence can be observed by a Convergence Event. Network Convergence can be observed by
recovery of System Under Test (SUT) Throughput to equal the recovery of System Under Test (SUT) Throughput to equal the
offered load, with no Stale Forwarding, and no Blenders offered load, with no Stale Forwarding, and no Blenders
[Ca01][Ci03]. [Ca01][Ci03].
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
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a Convergence Event can be produced for an OSPF table of a Convergence Event can be produced for an OSPF table of
5000 routes so that the time to converge routes 1 through 5000 routes so that the time to converge routes 1 through
5000 is measured. Full Convergence is externally observable 5000 is measured. Full Convergence is externally observable
from the data plane when the Throughput of the data from the data plane when the Throughput of the data
plane traffic on the Next-Best Egress Interface equals the plane traffic on the Next-Best Egress Interface equals the
offered load. offered load.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: None Issues:
None
See Also: See Also:
Network Convergence Network Convergence
Route Convergence Route Convergence
Convergence Event Convergence Event
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.5 Packet Loss 3.5 Packet Loss
Definition: Definition:
The number of packets that should have been forwarded The number of packets that should have been forwarded
by a DUT under steady state (constant) load that were by a DUT under a constant offered load that were
not forwarded due to lack of resources. not forwarded due to lack of resources.
Discussion: Discussion:
Packet Loss is a modified version of the term "Frame Loss Rate" Packet Loss is a modified version of the term "Frame Loss Rate"
as defined in [Ba91]. The term "Frame Loss" is intended for as defined in [Ba91]. The term "Frame Loss" is intended for
Ethernet Frames while "Packet Loss" is intended for IP packets. Ethernet Frames while "Packet Loss" is intended for IP packets.
Packet Loss can be measured as a reduction in forwarded traffic Packet Loss can be measured as a reduction in forwarded traffic
from the Throughput [Ba91] of the DUT. from the Throughput [Ba91] of the DUT.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Number of N-octet offered packets that are not forwarded. Number of offered packets that are not forwarded.
Issues: None Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
3.6 Convergence Packet Loss 3.6 Convergence Packet Loss
Definition: Definition:
The number of packets lost due to a Convergence Event The number of packets lost due to a Convergence Event
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Definition: Definition:
The time instant that a Convergence Event becomes observable in The time instant that a Convergence Event becomes observable in
the data plane. the data plane.
Discussion: Discussion:
Convergence Event Instant is observable from the data Convergence Event Instant is observable from the data
plane as the precise time that the device under test begins plane as the precise time that the device under test begins
to exhibit packet loss. to exhibit packet loss.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
hh:mm:ss:nnn, where 'nnn' is milliseconds hh:mm:ss:nnn:uuu,
where 'nnn' is milliseconds and 'uuu' is microseconds.
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Event Convergence Event
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Recovery Instant Convergence Recovery Instant
3.8 Convergence Recovery Instant 3.8 Convergence Recovery Instant
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The time instant that Full Convergence is measured The time instant that Full Convergence is measured
and then maintained for an interval of duration equal to and then maintained for an interval of duration equal to
the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time
Discussion: Discussion:
Convergence Recovery Instant is measurable from the data Convergence Recovery Instant is measurable from the data
plane as the precise time that the device under test plane as the precise time that the device under test
achieves Full Convergence. achieves Full Convergence.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
hh:mm:ss:nnn, where 'nnn' is milliseconds hh:mm:ss:nnn:uuu,
where 'nnn' is milliseconds and 'uuu' is microseconds.
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Event Instant Convergence Event Instant
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.9 Rate-Derived Convergence Time 3.9 First Prefix Convergence Instant
Definition:
The amount of time for Convergence Packet Loss to persist upon
occurrence of a Convergence Event until occurrence of Route
Convergence.
Rate-Derived Convergence Time can be measured as the time
difference from the Convergence Event Instant to the
Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown with Equation 1.
Equation 1 - Definition:
Rate-Derived Convergence Time = The time instant for convergence of a first route entry
Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant. following a Convergence Event, as observed by receipt of
the first packet from the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Discussion: Discussion:
Rate-Derived Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum The First Prefix Convergence Instant is an indication that the
Throughput. Failure to achieve Full Convergence results in process to achieve Full Convergence has begun. Any route may be
a Rate-Derived Convergence Time benchmark of infinity. the first to converge for First Convergence. Measurement on the
data-plane enables First Convergence to be observed without any
white-box information from the DUT.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds/milliseconds N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss Route Convergence
Convergence Recovery Instant
Convergence Event Instant
Full Convergence Full Convergence
Stale Forwarding
3.10 Convergence Event Transition 3.10 Convergence Event Transition
Definition: Definition:
A time interval observed following a Convergence Event in which A time interval observed following a Convergence Event in which
Throughput gradually reduces to zero. Throughput gradually reduces to zero.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Convergence Event Transition is best observed for Full The Convergence Event Transition is best observed for Full
Convergence. The egress packet rate observed during a Convergence. The egress packet rate observed during a
Convergence Event Transition may not decrease linearly. Both Convergence Event Transition may not decrease linearly. Both
the offered load and the Packet Sampling Interval influence the the offered load and the Packet Sampling Interval influence the
observations of the Convergence Event Transition. For example, observations of the Convergence Event Transition. For example,
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observations of the Convergence Event Transition. For example, observations of the Convergence Event Transition. For example,
even if the Convergence Event were to cause the Throughput even if the Convergence Event were to cause the Throughput
[Ba91] to drop to zero there would be some number of packets [Ba91] to drop to zero there would be some number of packets
observed, unless the Packet Sampling Interval is exactly observed, unless the Packet Sampling Interval is exactly
aligned with the Convergence Event. This is further discussed aligned with the Convergence Event. This is further discussed
with the term "Packet Sampling Interval". with the term "Packet Sampling Interval".
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds/milliseconds seconds
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Event Convergence Event
Full Convergence Full Convergence
Packet Sampling Interval Packet Sampling Interval
3.11 Convergence Recovery Transition 3.11 Convergence Recovery Transition
Definition: Definition:
The characteristic of a router in which Throughput The characteristic of the DUT in which Throughput gradually
gradually increases to equal the offered load. increases to equal the offered load.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Convergence Recovery Transition is best observed for The Convergence Recovery Transition is best observed for
Full Convergence. The egress packet rate observed during Full Convergence. The egress packet rate observed during
a Convergence Recovery Transition may not increase linearly. a Convergence Recovery Transition may not increase linearly.
Both the offered load and the Packet Sampling Interval Both the offered load and the Packet Sampling Interval
influence the observations of the Convergence Recovery influence the observations of the Convergence Recovery
Transition. This is further discussed with the term Transition. This is further discussed with the term
"Packet Sampling Interval". "Packet Sampling Interval".
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds/milliseconds seconds
Issues: None Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Full Convergence Full Convergence
Packet Sampling Interval Packet Sampling Interval
3.12 Loss-Derived Convergence Time 3.12 Rate-Derived Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time it takes for Route Convergence to The amount of time for Convergence Packet Loss to persist upon
to be achieved as calculated from the Convergence Packet occurrence of a Convergence Event until measurement of Full
Loss. Loss-Derived Convergence Time can be calculated Convergence.
from Convergence Packet Loss that occurs due to a
Convergence Event and Route Convergence as shown with Rate-Derived Convergence Time can be measured as the time
Equation 2. difference from the Convergence Event Instant to the
Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown with Equation 1.
(Equation 1)
Rate-Derived Convergence Time =
Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Discussion:
Rate-Derived Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum
Throughput of the DUT. At least one packet per route in the FIB
for all routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT per second.
Failure to achieve Full Convergence results in a Rate-Derived
Convergence Time benchmark of infinity.
Measurement Units:
seconds
Issues:
None
See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Recovery Instant
Convergence Event Instant
Full Convergence
3.13 Loss-Derived Convergence Time
Definition:
The amount of time it takes for Full Convergence to be
achieved as calculated from the amount of Convergence
Packet Loss. Loss-Derived Convergence Time can be
calculated from Convergence Packet Loss that occurs due
to a Convergence Event and Route Convergence as shown
with Equation 2.
Equation 2 - Equation 2 -
Loss-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time =
Convergence Packets Loss / Offered Load Convergence Packets Loss / Offered Load
NOTE: Units for this measurement are NOTE: Units for this measurement are
packets / packets/second = seconds packets / packets/second = seconds
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Discussion: Discussion:
Loss-Derived Convergence Time gives a better than Loss-Derived Convergence Time gives a better than
actual result when converging many routes simultaneously. actual result when converging many routes simultaneously.
Rate-Derived Convergence Time takes the Convergence Recovery Rate-Derived Convergence Time takes the Convergence Recovery
Transition into account, but Loss-Derived Convergence Time Transition into account, but Loss-Derived Convergence Time
ignores the Route Convergence Recovery Transition because ignores the Route Convergence Recovery Transition because
it is obtained from the measured Convergence Packet Loss. it is obtained from the measured Convergence Packet Loss.
Ideally, the Convergence Event Transition and Convergence Ideally, the Convergence Event Transition and Convergence
Recovery Transition are instantaneous so that the Recovery Transition are instantaneous so that the
Rate-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time. Rate-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time.
However, router implementations are less than ideal. However, router implementations are less than ideal.
For these reasons the preferred reporting benchmark for IGP For these reasons the preferred reporting benchmark for IGP
Route Convergence is the Rate-Derived Convergence Time. Route Convergence is the Rate-Derived Convergence Time.
Guidelines for reporting Loss-Derived Convergence Time are Guidelines for reporting Loss-Derived Convergence Time are
provided in [Po07m]. provided in [Po07m].
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds/milliseconds seconds
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Event Convergence Event
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
Rate-Derived Convergence Time Rate-Derived Convergence Time
Convergence Event Transition Convergence Event Transition
Convergence Recovery Transition Convergence Recovery Transition
3.13 Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time 3.14 Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time for which Full Convergence is maintained The amount of time for which Full Convergence is maintained
without additional packet loss. without additional packet loss.
Discussion: Discussion:
The purpose of the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time is to The purpose of the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time is to
produce Convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation produce Convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation
in Throughput after Full Convergence is observed. The in Throughput after Full Convergence is observed. The
Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time to be used is calculated Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time to be used is calculated
as shown in Equation 3. as shown in Equation 3.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Equation 3 - Equation 3 -
Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time = Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time =
C*(Convergence Packet Loss/Offered Load) C*(Convergence Packet Loss/Offered Load)
where, where,
a. units are packets/pps = sec and a. units are packets/pps = sec and
b. C is a constant. The RECOMMENDED value for C is 5 as b. C is a constant. The RECOMMENDED value for C is 5 as
selected from working group consensus. The value 5 was selected from working group consensus. This is similar
obtained from RFC 2544 [Ba99] which uses 5 seconds as the to RFC 2544 [Ba99] which recommends waiting 2 seconds for
recommended time for residual frames and DUT restabilization. residual frames to arrive and 5 seconds for DUT
restabilization.
c. at least one packet per route in the FIB for all c. at least one packet per route in the FIB for all
routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT per second. routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT per second.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds or milliseconds seconds
Issues: None Issues: None
See Also: See Also:
Full Convergence Full Convergence
Convergence Recovery Instant Convergence Recovery Instant
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.14 Restoration Convergence Time 3.15 First Prefix Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time for the router under test to restore The amount of time for Convergence Packet Loss until the
traffic to the original outbound port after recovery from convergence of a first route entry on the Next-Best Egress
a Convergence Event. Interface, as indicated by the First Prefix Convergence
Instant.
First Prefix Convergence Time can be measured as the time
difference from the Convergence Event Instant and the First
Prefix Convergence Instant, as shown with Equation 4.
(Equation 4)
First Prefix Convergence Time =
First Prefix Convergence Instant -
Convergence Event Instant.
Discussion: Discussion:
Restoration Convergence Time is the amount of time for routes First Prefix Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum
Throughput of the DUT. At least one packet per route in the FIB
for all routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT per second.
Failure to achieve the First Prefix Convergence Instant results
in a First Prefix Convergence Time benchmark of infinity.
Measurement Units:
hh:mm:ss:nnn:uuu,
where 'nnn' is milliseconds and 'uuu' is microseconds.
Issues:
None
See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss
First Prefix Convergence Instant
3.16 Reversion Convergence Time
Definition:
The amount of time for the DUT to forward traffic from the
Preferred Egress Interface, instead of the Next-Best Egress
Interface, upon recovery from a Convergence Event.
Discussion:
Reversion Convergence Time is the amount of time for routes
to converge to the original outbound port. This is achieved to converge to the original outbound port. This is achieved
by recovering from the Convergence Event, such as restoring by recovering from the Convergence Event, such as restoring
the failed link. Restoration Convergence Time is measured the failed link. Reversion Convergence Time is measured
using the Rate-Derived Convergence Time calculation technique, using the Rate-Derived Convergence Time calculation technique,
as provided in Equation 1. It is possible to have the as provided in Equation 1. It is possible to have the
Restoration Convergence Time differ from the Rate-Derived Reversion Convergence Time differ from the Rate-Derived
Convergence Time. Convergence Time.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds or milliseconds seconds
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Preferred Egress Interface
Convergence Event Convergence Event
Rate-Derived Convergence Time Rate-Derived Convergence Time
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.15 Packet Sampling Interval 3.17 Packet Sampling Interval
Definition: Definition:
The interval at which the tester (test equipment) polls to make The interval at which the tester (test equipment) polls to make
measurements for arriving packet flows. measurements for arriving packet flows.
Discussion: Discussion:
Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval MUST include Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval MUST include
Forwarding Rate and Convergence Packet Loss. Forwarding Rate and Convergence Packet Loss.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds or milliseconds seconds
Issues: Issues:
Packet Sampling Interval can influence the Convergence Graph. Packet Sampling Interval can influence the Convergence Graph.
This is particularly true when implementations achieve Full This is particularly true when implementations achieve Full
Convergence in less than 1 second. The Convergence Event Convergence in less than 1 second. The Convergence Event
Transition and Convergence Recovery Transition can become Transition and Convergence Recovery Transition can become
exaggerated when the Packet Sampling Interval is too long. exaggerated when the Packet Sampling Interval is too long.
This will produce a larger than actual Rate-Derived This will produce a larger than actual Rate-Derived
Convergence Time. The recommended value for configuration Convergence Time. The recommended value for configuration
of the Packet Sampling Interval is provided in [Po07m]. of the Packet Sampling Interval is provided in [Po07m].
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Event Transition Convergence Event Transition
Convergence Recovery Transition Convergence Recovery Transition
3.16 Local Interface 3.18 Local Interface
Definition: Definition:
An interface on the DUT. An interface on the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
None A failure of the Local Interface indicates that the failure
occured directly on the DUT.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Neighbor Interface Neighbor Interface
Remote Interface Remote Interface
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.17 Neighbor Interface 3.19 Neighbor Interface
Definition: Definition:
The interface on the neighbor router or tester that is The interface on the neighbor router or tester that is
directly linked to the DUT's Local Interface. directly linked to the DUT's Local Interface.
Discussion: Discussion:
None None
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Local Interface Local Interface
Remote Interface Remote Interface
3.18 Remote Interface 3.20 Remote Interface
Definition: Definition:
An interface on a neighboring router that is not directly An interface on a neighboring router that is not directly
connected to any interface on the DUT. connected to any interface on the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
None A failure of a Remote Interface indicates that the failure
occurred on an interface that is not directly connected
to the DUT.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Local Interface Local Interface
Neighbor Interface Neighbor Interface
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.19 Preferred Egress Interface 3.21 Preferred Egress Interface
Definition: Definition:
The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the
preferred next-hop. preferred next-hop.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Preferred Egress Interface is the egress interface prior The Preferred Egress Interface is the egress interface prior
to a Convergence Event. to a Convergence Event.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Next-Best Egress Interface Next-Best Egress Interface
3.20 Next-Best Egress Interface 3.22 Next-Best Egress Interface
Definition: Definition:
The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the
second-best next-hop. It is the same media type and link speed second-best next-hop. It is the same media type and link speed
as the Preferred Egress Interface as the Preferred Egress Interface
Discussion: Discussion:
The Next-Best Egress Interface becomes the egress interface The Next-Best Egress Interface becomes the egress interface
after a Convergence Event. after a Convergence Event.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Preferred Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface
3.21 Stale Forwarding 3.23 Stale Forwarding
Definition: Definition:
Forwarding of traffic to route entries that no longer exist Forwarding of traffic to route entries that no longer exist
or to route entries with next-hops that are no longer preferred. or to route entries with next-hops that are no longer preferred.
Discussion: Discussion:
Stale Forwarding can be caused by a Convergence Event and is Stale Forwarding can be caused by a Convergence Event and is
also known as a "black-hole" since it may produce packet loss. also known as a "black-hole" or microloop since it may produce
Stale Forwarding exists until Network Convergence is achieved. packet loss. Stale Forwarding exists until Network Convergence
is achieved.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Network Convergence Network Convergence
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.22 Nested Convergence Events 3.24 Nested Convergence Events
Definition: Definition:
The occurrence of a Convergence Event while the route The occurrence of a Convergence Event while the route
table is converging from a prior Convergence Event. table is converging from a prior Convergence Event.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Convergence Events for a Nested Convergence Event The Convergence Events for a Nested Convergence Event
MUST occur with different neighbors. A common MUST occur with different neighbors. A common
observation from a Nested Convergence Event will be observation from a Nested Convergence Event will be
the withdrawal of routes from one neighbor while the the withdrawal of routes from one neighbor while the
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This document requires no IANA considerations. This document requires no IANA considerations.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of
Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking
is not performed on devices or systems connected to production is not performed on devices or systems connected to production
networks. networks.
6. Acknowledgements 6. Acknowledgements
Thanks to Sue Hares, Al Morton, Kevin Dubray, and participants of Thanks to Sue Hares, Al Morton, Kevin Dubray, Ron Bonica, David Ward,
the BMWG for their contributions to this work. and the BMWG for their contributions to this work.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
7. References 7. References
7.1 Normative References 7.1 Normative References
[Ba91] Bradner, S. "Benchmarking Terminology for Network [Ba91] Bradner, S. "Benchmarking Terminology for Network
Interconnection Devices", RFC1242, July 1991. Interconnection Devices", RFC1242, July 1991.
[Ba99] Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking [Ba99] Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking
Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices", Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices",
RFC 2544, March 1999. RFC 2544, March 1999.
[Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
[Ca90] Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual [Ca90] Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual
Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990. Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990.
[Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN [Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN
Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998. Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998.
[Mo98] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998. [Mo98] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998.
[Mo06] Morton, A., et al, "Packet Reordering Metrics", RFC 4737, [Mo06] Morton, A., et al, "Packet Reordering Metrics", RFC 4737,
November 2006. November 2006.
[Po06] Poretsky, S., et al., "Terminology for Benchmarking [Po06] Poretsky, S., et al., "Terminology for Benchmarking
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms", RFC 4689, Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms", RFC 4689,
November 2006. November 2006.
[Po07a] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for IGP Data Plane [Po07a] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for Link-State
Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-13, IGP Data Plane Route Convergence",
work in progress, July 2007. draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-14, work in progress,
November 2007.
[Po07m] Poretsky, S. and Imhoff, B., "Benchmarking Methodology for [Po07m] Poretsky, S. and Imhoff, B., "Benchmarking Methodology for
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence", Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence",
draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-13, work in progress, draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-14, work in progress,
July 2007. November 2007.
7.2 Informative References 7.2 Informative References
[Ca01] S. Casner, C. Alaettinoglu, and C. Kuan, "A Fine-Grained View [Ca01] S. Casner, C. Alaettinoglu, and C. Kuan, "A Fine-Grained View
of High Performance Networking", NANOG 22, June 2001. of High Performance Networking", NANOG 22, June 2001.
[Ci03] L. Ciavattone, A. Morton, and G. Ramachandran, "Standardized [Ci03] L. Ciavattone, A. Morton, and G. Ramachandran, "Standardized
Active Measurements on a Tier 1 IP Backbone", IEEE Active Measurements on a Tier 1 IP Backbone", IEEE
Communications Magazine, pp90-97, May 2003. Communications Magazine, pp90-97, May 2003.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
8. Author's Address 8. Author's Address
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
Reef Point Systems Reef Point Systems
8 New England Executive Park 3 Federal Street
Burlington, MA 01803 Billerica, MA 01821
USA USA
Phone: + 1 508 439 9008 Phone: + 1 508 439 9008
EMail: sporetsky@reefpoint.com EMail: sporetsky@reefpoint.com
Brent Imhoff Brent Imhoff
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
1194 North Mathilda Ave 1194 North Mathilda Ave
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Sunnyvale, CA 94089
USA USA
Phone: + 1 314 378 2571 Phone: + 1 314 378 2571
EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
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retain all their rights. retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided This document and the information contained herein are provided
skipping to change at page 17, line 40 skipping to change at page 19, line 5
on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
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IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
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Acknowledgement Acknowledgement
Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
Internet Society. Internet Society.
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