draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-11.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-12.txt 
Network Working Group Network Working Group
INTERNET-DRAFT INTERNET-DRAFT
Expires in: November 2006 Expires in: August 2007
Intended Status: Informational
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
Reef Point Systems Reef Point Systems
Brent Imhoff Brent Imhoff
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
February 2007
Terminology for Benchmarking Terminology for Benchmarking
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
<draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-11.txt> <draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-12.txt>
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
ABSTRACT ABSTRACT
This document describes the terminology for benchmarking IGP This document describes the terminology for benchmarking Interior
Route Convergence as described in Applicability document [Po061] and Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The terminology is to
Methodology document [Po062]. The methodology and terminology are to be used for benchmarking IGP convergence time through externally
be used for benchmarking Convergence Time and can be applied to observable (black box) data plane measurements. The terminology
any link-state IGP such as ISIS [Ca90] and OSPF [Mo98]. The data plane can be applied to any link-state IGP, such as ISIS and OSPF.
is measured to obtain the convergence benchmarking metrics
described in [Po062].
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction .................................................2 1. Introduction .................................................2
2. Existing definitions .........................................3 2. Existing definitions .........................................3
3. Term definitions..............................................3 3. Term definitions..............................................3
3.1 Convergence Event.........................................3 3.1 Convergence Event.........................................3
3.2 Route Convergence.........................................4 3.2 Route Convergence.........................................4
3.3 Network Convergence.......................................4 3.3 Network Convergence.......................................4
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3.19 Next-Best Egress Interface...............................12 3.19 Next-Best Egress Interface...............................12
3.20 Stale Forwarding.........................................13 3.20 Stale Forwarding.........................................13
3.21 Nested Convergence Events................................13 3.21 Nested Convergence Events................................13
4. IANA Considerations...........................................13 4. IANA Considerations...........................................13
5. Security Considerations.......................................14 5. Security Considerations.......................................14
6. Acknowledgements..............................................14 6. Acknowledgements..............................................14
7. Normative References..........................................14 7. Normative References..........................................14
8. Author's Address..............................................15 8. Author's Address..............................................15
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This draft describes the terminology for benchmarking IGP Route This draft describes the terminology for benchmarking Interior
Convergence. The motivation and applicability for this Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The motivation and
benchmarking is provided in [Po061]. The methodology to be used for applicability for this benchmarking is provided in [Po07a]. The
this benchmarking is described in [Po062]. The methodology and methodology to be used for this benchmarking is described in [Po07m].
terminology to be used for benchmarking Route Convergence can be The methodology and terminology to be used for benchmarking Route
applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [Ca90] and OSPF [Mo98]. The Convergence can be applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [Ca90]
data plane is measured to obtain black-box (externally observable) and OSPF [Mo98]. The data plane is measured to obtain black-box
convergence benchmarking metrics. The purpose of this document is (externally observable) convergence benchmarking metrics. The
to introduce new terms required to complete execution of the IGP purpose of this document is to introduce new terms required to
Route Convergence Methodology [Po062]. These terms apply to IPv4 and complete execution of the IGP Route Convergence Methodology [Po07m].
IPv6 traffic as well as IPv4 and IPv6 IGPs. These terms apply to IPv4 and IPv6 traffic and IGPs.
An example of Route Convergence as observed and measured from the An example of Route Convergence as observed and measured from the
data plane is shown in Figure 1. The graph in Figure 1 shows data plane is shown in Figure 1. The graph in Figure 1 shows
Forwarding Rate versus Time. Time 0 on the X-axis is on the far Forwarding Rate versus Time. Time 0 on the X-axis is on the far
right of the graph. The Offered Load to the ingress interface of right of the graph. The Offered Load to the ingress interface of
the DUT SHOULD equal the measured maximum Throughput [5,6] of the DUT the DUT SHOULD equal the measured maximum Throughput [Ba99][Ma98]
and the Forwarding Rate [Ma98] is measured at the egress interfaces of the DUT and the Forwarding Rate [Ma98] is measured at the egress
of the DUT. The components of the graph and the metrics are defined interfaces of the DUT. The components of the graph and the metrics
in the Term Definitions section. are defined in the Term Definitions section.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Convergence Convergence Convergence Convergence
Recovery Event Recovery Event
Instant Instant Time = 0sec Instant Instant Time = 0sec
Forwarding Rate = ^ ^ ^ Offered Load = Forwarding Rate = ^ ^ ^ Offered Load =
Offered Load --> ------\ Packet /-------- <---Max Throughput Offered Load --> ------\ Packet /-------- <---Max Throughput
\ Loss /<----Convergence \ Loss /<----Convergence
Convergence------->\ / Event Transition Convergence------->\ / Event Transition
Recovery Transition \ / Recovery Transition \ /
\_____/<------Maximum Packet Loss \_____/<------Maximum Packet Loss
X-axis = Time X-axis = Time
Y-axis = Forwarding Rate Y-axis = Forwarding Rate
Figure 1. Convergence Graph Figure 1. Convergence Graph
2. Existing definitions 2. Existing definitions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119. document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the [Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the
intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this
document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track
document. The term Throughput is defined in [Ba91] and [Ba99]. document. The term Throughput is defined in [Ba91] and [Ba99].
3. Term Definitions 3. Term Definitions
3.1 Convergence Event 3.1 Convergence Event
Definition: Definition:
The occurrence of a planned or unplanned action in the network The occurrence of a planned or unplanned action in the network
that results in a change in the egress interface of the Device that results in a change in the egress interface of the Device
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3.2 Route Convergence 3.2 Route Convergence
Definition: Definition:
Recovery from a Convergence Event indicated by the DUT Recovery from a Convergence Event indicated by the DUT
Throughput equal to the offered load. Throughput equal to the offered load.
Discussion: Discussion:
Route Convergence is the action of all components of the router Route Convergence is the action of all components of the router
being updated with the most recent route change(s) including the being updated with the most recent route change(s) including the
Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwaridng Information Base Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base
(FIB), along with software and hardware tables. Route (FIB), along with software and hardware tables. Route
Convergence can be observed externally by the rerouting of data Convergence can be observed externally by the rerouting of data
Traffic to a new egress interface. Traffic to a new egress interface.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
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3.3 Network Convergence 3.3 Network Convergence
Definition: Definition:
The completion of updating of all routing tables, including the The completion of updating of all routing tables, including the
FIB, in all routers throughout the network. FIB, in all routers throughout the network.
Discussion: Discussion:
Network Convergence is bounded by the sum of Route Convergence Network Convergence is bounded by the sum of Route Convergence
for all routers in the network. Network Convergence can be for all routers in the network. Network Convergence can be
determined by recovery of the Throughput to equal the determined by recovery of the Throughput to equal the offered
offered load, with no Stale Forwarding, and no blenders[Ca01][Ci03]. load, with no Stale Forwarding, and no blenders [Ca01][Ci03].
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Route Convergence Route Convergence
Stale Forwarding Stale Forwarding
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3.8 Rate-Derived Convergence Time 3.8 Rate-Derived Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time for Convergence Packet Loss to persist upon The amount of time for Convergence Packet Loss to persist upon
occurrence of a Convergence Event until occurrence of Route occurrence of a Convergence Event until occurrence of Route
Convergence. Convergence.
Rate-Derived Convergence Time can be measured as the time Rate-Derived Convergence Time can be measured as the time
difference from the Convergence Event Instant to the difference from the Convergence Event Instant to the
Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown with Equation 1. Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown with Equation 1.
(eq 1) Rate-Derived Convergence Time = Equation 1 -
Rate-Derived Convergence Time =
Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant. Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant.
Discussion: Discussion:
Rate-Derived Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum Rate-Derived Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum
Throughput. Failure to achieve Full Convergence results in Throughput. Failure to achieve Full Convergence results in
a Rate-Derived Convergence Time benchmark of infinity. a Rate-Derived Convergence Time benchmark of infinity.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds/milliseconds seconds/milliseconds
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3.11 Loss-Derived Convergence Time 3.11 Loss-Derived Convergence Time
Definition: Definition:
The amount of time it takes for Route Convergence to The amount of time it takes for Route Convergence to
to be achieved as calculated from the Convergence Packet to be achieved as calculated from the Convergence Packet
Loss. Loss-Derived Convergence Time can be calculated Loss. Loss-Derived Convergence Time can be calculated
from Convergence Packet Loss that occurs due to a from Convergence Packet Loss that occurs due to a
Convergence Event and Route Convergence as shown with Convergence Event and Route Convergence as shown with
Equation 2. Equation 2.
(eq 2) Loss-Derived Convergence Time = Equation 2 -
Loss-Derived Convergence Time =
Convergence Packets Loss / Offered Load Convergence Packets Loss / Offered Load
NOTE: Units for this measurement are NOTE: Units for this measurement are
packets / packets/second = seconds packets / packets/second = seconds
Discussion: Discussion:
Loss-Derived Convergence Time gives a better than Loss-Derived Convergence Time gives a better than
actual result when converging many routes simultaneously. actual result when converging many routes simultaneously.
Rate-Derived Convergence Time takes the Convergence Recovery Rate-Derived Convergence Time takes the Convergence Recovery
Transition into account, but Loss-Derived Convergence Time Transition into account, but Loss-Derived Convergence Time
ignores the Route Convergence Recovery Transition because ignores the Route Convergence Recovery Transition because
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Ideally, the Convergence Event Transition and Convergence Ideally, the Convergence Event Transition and Convergence
Recovery Transition are instantaneous so that the Recovery Transition are instantaneous so that the
Rate-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time. Rate-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time.
However, router implementations are less than ideal. However, router implementations are less than ideal.
For these reasons the preferred reporting benchmark for IGP For these reasons the preferred reporting benchmark for IGP
Route Convergence is the Rate-Derived Convergence Time. Route Convergence is the Rate-Derived Convergence Time.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Guidelines for reporting Loss-Derived Convergence Time are Guidelines for reporting Loss-Derived Convergence Time are
provided in [Po062]. provided in [Po07m].
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds/milliseconds seconds/milliseconds
Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Route Convergence Route Convergence
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
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The amount of time for which Full Convergence is maintained The amount of time for which Full Convergence is maintained
without additional packet loss. without additional packet loss.
Discussion: Discussion:
The purpose of the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time is to The purpose of the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time is to
produce Convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation produce Convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation
in Throughput after Full Convergence is observed. The in Throughput after Full Convergence is observed. The
Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time to be used is calculated Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time to be used is calculated
as shown in Equation 3. as shown in Equation 3.
(eq 3) Equation 3 -
Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time = Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time =
5*(Convergence Packet Loss/Offered Load) 5*(Convergence Packet Loss/Offered Load)
units are packets/pps = sec units are packets/pps = sec
for which at least one packet per route in the FIB for all for which at least one packet per route in the FIB for all
routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT per second. routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT per second.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
seconds or milliseconds seconds or milliseconds
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seconds or milliseconds seconds or milliseconds
Issues: Issues:
Packet Sampling Interval can influence the Convergence Graph. Packet Sampling Interval can influence the Convergence Graph.
This is particularly true when implementations achieve Full This is particularly true when implementations achieve Full
Convergence in less than 1 second. The Convergence Event Convergence in less than 1 second. The Convergence Event
Transition and Convergence Recovery Transition can become Transition and Convergence Recovery Transition can become
exaggerated when the Packet Sampling Interval is too long. exaggerated when the Packet Sampling Interval is too long.
This will produce a larger than actual Rate-Derived This will produce a larger than actual Rate-Derived
Convergence Time. The recommended value for configuration Convergence Time. The recommended value for configuration
of the Packet Sampling Interval is provided in [Po062]. of the Packet Sampling Interval is provided in [Po07m].
See Also: See Also:
Convergence Packet Loss Convergence Packet Loss
Convergence Event Transition Convergence Event Transition
Convergence Recovery Transition Convergence Recovery Transition
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.15 Local Interface 3.15 Local Interface
Definition: Definition:
An interface on the DUT. An interface on the DUT.
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Issues: Issues:
None None
See Also: See Also:
Network Convergence Network Convergence
3.21 Nested Convergence Events 3.21 Nested Convergence Events
Definition: Definition:
The occurence of Convergence Event while the route table The occurrence of a Convergence Event while the route
is converging from a prior Convergence Event. table is converging from a prior Convergence Event.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Convergence Events for a Nested Convergence Events The Convergence Events for a Nested Convergence Event
MUST occur with different neighbors. A common MUST occur with different neighbors. A common
observation from a Nested Convergence Event will be observation from a Nested Convergence Event will be
the withdrawal of routes from one neighbor while the the withdrawal of routes from one neighbor while the
routes of another neighbor are being installed. routes of another neighbor are being installed.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N/A N/A
Issues: Issues:
None None
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7. References 7. References
7.1 Normative References 7.1 Normative References
[Ba91]Bradner, S. "Benchmarking Terminology for Network [Ba91]Bradner, S. "Benchmarking Terminology for Network
Interconnection Devices", RFC1242, July 1991. Interconnection Devices", RFC1242, July 1991.
[Ba99]Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking [Ba99]Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking
Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices", Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices",
RFC 2544, March 1999. RFC 2544, March 1999.
[Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
[Ca90]Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual [Ca90]Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual
Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990. Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990.
[Ma98]Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN [Ma98]Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN
Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998. Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998.
[Mo98]Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998. [Mo98]Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998.
[Po061]Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for IGP Data Plane [Po07a] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for IGP Data Plane
Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-11, Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-12,
work in progress, May 2006. work in progress, February 2007.
[Po062]Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Methodology for IGP Data Plane [Po07m] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Methodology for IGP Data Plane
Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-11, Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-12,
work in progress, May 2006. work in progress, February 2007.
7.2 Informative References 7.2 Informative References
[Ca01]S. Casner, C. Alaettinoglu, and C. Kuan, "A Fine-Grained View [Ca01]S. Casner, C. Alaettinoglu, and C. Kuan, "A Fine-Grained View
of High Performance Networking", NANOG 22, June 2001. of High Performance Networking", NANOG 22, June 2001.
[Ci03]L. Ciavattone, A. Morton, and G. Ramachandran, "Standardized [Ci03]L. Ciavattone, A. Morton, and G. Ramachandran, "Standardized
Active Measurements on a Tier 1 IP Backbone", IEEE Active Measurements on a Tier 1 IP Backbone", IEEE
Communications Magazine, pp90-97, May 2003. Communications Magazine, pp90-97, May 2003.
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Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
1194 North Mathilda Ave 1194 North Mathilda Ave
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Sunnyvale, CA 94089
USA USA
Phone: + 1 314 378 2571 Phone: + 1 314 378 2571
EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights. retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an This document and the information contained herein are provided
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS on an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE
OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, IETF TRUST AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL
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WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
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