draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-11.txt | draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-12.txt | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

Network Working Group | Network Working Group | |||

INTERNET-DRAFT | INTERNET-DRAFT | |||

Expires in: November 2006 | Expires in: August 2007 | |||

Intended Status: Informational | ||||

Scott Poretsky | Scott Poretsky | |||

Reef Point Systems | Reef Point Systems | |||

Brent Imhoff | Brent Imhoff | |||

Juniper Networks | Juniper Networks | |||

February 2007 | ||||

Terminology for Benchmarking | Terminology for Benchmarking | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

<draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-11.txt> | <draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-12.txt> | |||

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) statement: | Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) statement: | |||

By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any | By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any | |||

applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware | applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware | |||

have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes | have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes | |||

aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. | aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. | |||

Status of this Memo | Status of this Memo | |||

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering | Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering | |||

skipping to change at page 1, line 40 | skipping to change at page 1, line 44 | |||

time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference | time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference | |||

material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." | material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." | |||

The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at | The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at | |||

http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. | http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. | |||

The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at | The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at | |||

http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. | http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. | |||

Copyright Notice | Copyright Notice | |||

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). | Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). | |||

ABSTRACT | ABSTRACT | |||

This document describes the terminology for benchmarking IGP | This document describes the terminology for benchmarking Interior | |||

Route Convergence as described in Applicability document [Po061] and | Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The terminology is to | |||

Methodology document [Po062]. The methodology and terminology are to | be used for benchmarking IGP convergence time through externally | |||

be used for benchmarking Convergence Time and can be applied to | observable (black box) data plane measurements. The terminology | |||

any link-state IGP such as ISIS [Ca90] and OSPF [Mo98]. The data plane | can be applied to any link-state IGP, such as ISIS and OSPF. | |||

is measured to obtain the convergence benchmarking metrics | ||||

described in [Po062]. | ||||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

Table of Contents | Table of Contents | |||

1. Introduction .................................................2 | 1. Introduction .................................................2 | |||

2. Existing definitions .........................................3 | 2. Existing definitions .........................................3 | |||

3. Term definitions..............................................3 | 3. Term definitions..............................................3 | |||

3.1 Convergence Event.........................................3 | 3.1 Convergence Event.........................................3 | |||

3.2 Route Convergence.........................................4 | 3.2 Route Convergence.........................................4 | |||

3.3 Network Convergence.......................................4 | 3.3 Network Convergence.......................................4 | |||

skipping to change at page 2, line 39 | skipping to change at page 2, line 39 | |||

3.19 Next-Best Egress Interface...............................12 | 3.19 Next-Best Egress Interface...............................12 | |||

3.20 Stale Forwarding.........................................13 | 3.20 Stale Forwarding.........................................13 | |||

3.21 Nested Convergence Events................................13 | 3.21 Nested Convergence Events................................13 | |||

4. IANA Considerations...........................................13 | 4. IANA Considerations...........................................13 | |||

5. Security Considerations.......................................14 | 5. Security Considerations.......................................14 | |||

6. Acknowledgements..............................................14 | 6. Acknowledgements..............................................14 | |||

7. Normative References..........................................14 | 7. Normative References..........................................14 | |||

8. Author's Address..............................................15 | 8. Author's Address..............................................15 | |||

1. Introduction | 1. Introduction | |||

This draft describes the terminology for benchmarking IGP Route | This draft describes the terminology for benchmarking Interior | |||

Convergence. The motivation and applicability for this | Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The motivation and | |||

benchmarking is provided in [Po061]. The methodology to be used for | applicability for this benchmarking is provided in [Po07a]. The | |||

this benchmarking is described in [Po062]. The methodology and | methodology to be used for this benchmarking is described in [Po07m]. | |||

terminology to be used for benchmarking Route Convergence can be | The methodology and terminology to be used for benchmarking Route | |||

applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [Ca90] and OSPF [Mo98]. The | Convergence can be applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [Ca90] | |||

data plane is measured to obtain black-box (externally observable) | and OSPF [Mo98]. The data plane is measured to obtain black-box | |||

convergence benchmarking metrics. The purpose of this document is | (externally observable) convergence benchmarking metrics. The | |||

to introduce new terms required to complete execution of the IGP | purpose of this document is to introduce new terms required to | |||

Route Convergence Methodology [Po062]. These terms apply to IPv4 and | complete execution of the IGP Route Convergence Methodology [Po07m]. | |||

IPv6 traffic as well as IPv4 and IPv6 IGPs. | These terms apply to IPv4 and IPv6 traffic and IGPs. | |||

An example of Route Convergence as observed and measured from the | An example of Route Convergence as observed and measured from the | |||

data plane is shown in Figure 1. The graph in Figure 1 shows | data plane is shown in Figure 1. The graph in Figure 1 shows | |||

Forwarding Rate versus Time. Time 0 on the X-axis is on the far | Forwarding Rate versus Time. Time 0 on the X-axis is on the far | |||

right of the graph. The Offered Load to the ingress interface of | right of the graph. The Offered Load to the ingress interface of | |||

the DUT SHOULD equal the measured maximum Throughput [5,6] of the DUT | the DUT SHOULD equal the measured maximum Throughput [Ba99][Ma98] | |||

and the Forwarding Rate [Ma98] is measured at the egress interfaces | of the DUT and the Forwarding Rate [Ma98] is measured at the egress | |||

of the DUT. The components of the graph and the metrics are defined | interfaces of the DUT. The components of the graph and the metrics | |||

in the Term Definitions section. | are defined in the Term Definitions section. | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

Convergence Convergence | Convergence Convergence | |||

Recovery Event | Recovery Event | |||

Instant Instant Time = 0sec | Instant Instant Time = 0sec | |||

Forwarding Rate = ^ ^ ^ Offered Load = | Forwarding Rate = ^ ^ ^ Offered Load = | |||

Offered Load --> ------\ Packet /-------- <---Max Throughput | Offered Load --> ------\ Packet /-------- <---Max Throughput | |||

\ Loss /<----Convergence | \ Loss /<----Convergence | |||

Convergence------->\ / Event Transition | Convergence------->\ / Event Transition | |||

Recovery Transition \ / | Recovery Transition \ / | |||

\_____/<------Maximum Packet Loss | \_____/<------Maximum Packet Loss | |||

X-axis = Time | X-axis = Time | |||

Y-axis = Forwarding Rate | Y-axis = Forwarding Rate | |||

Figure 1. Convergence Graph | Figure 1. Convergence Graph | |||

2. Existing definitions | 2. Existing definitions | |||

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", | The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", | |||

"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this | "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this | |||

document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119. | document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 | |||

RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the | [Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the | |||

intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this | intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this | |||

document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track | document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track | |||

document. The term Throughput is defined in [Ba91] and [Ba99]. | document. The term Throughput is defined in [Ba91] and [Ba99]. | |||

3. Term Definitions | 3. Term Definitions | |||

3.1 Convergence Event | 3.1 Convergence Event | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The occurrence of a planned or unplanned action in the network | The occurrence of a planned or unplanned action in the network | |||

that results in a change in the egress interface of the Device | that results in a change in the egress interface of the Device | |||

skipping to change at page 4, line 15 | skipping to change at page 4, line 15 | |||

3.2 Route Convergence | 3.2 Route Convergence | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

Recovery from a Convergence Event indicated by the DUT | Recovery from a Convergence Event indicated by the DUT | |||

Throughput equal to the offered load. | Throughput equal to the offered load. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Route Convergence is the action of all components of the router | Route Convergence is the action of all components of the router | |||

being updated with the most recent route change(s) including the | being updated with the most recent route change(s) including the | |||

Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwaridng Information Base | Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base | |||

(FIB), along with software and hardware tables. Route | (FIB), along with software and hardware tables. Route | |||

Convergence can be observed externally by the rerouting of data | Convergence can be observed externally by the rerouting of data | |||

Traffic to a new egress interface. | Traffic to a new egress interface. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

N/A | N/A | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

skipping to change at page 4, line 40 | skipping to change at page 4, line 40 | |||

3.3 Network Convergence | 3.3 Network Convergence | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The completion of updating of all routing tables, including the | The completion of updating of all routing tables, including the | |||

FIB, in all routers throughout the network. | FIB, in all routers throughout the network. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Network Convergence is bounded by the sum of Route Convergence | Network Convergence is bounded by the sum of Route Convergence | |||

for all routers in the network. Network Convergence can be | for all routers in the network. Network Convergence can be | |||

determined by recovery of the Throughput to equal the | determined by recovery of the Throughput to equal the offered | |||

offered load, with no Stale Forwarding, and no blenders[Ca01][Ci03]. | load, with no Stale Forwarding, and no blenders [Ca01][Ci03]. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

N/A | N/A | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Route Convergence | Route Convergence | |||

Stale Forwarding | Stale Forwarding | |||

skipping to change at page 7, line 16 | skipping to change at page 7, line 16 | |||

3.8 Rate-Derived Convergence Time | 3.8 Rate-Derived Convergence Time | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The amount of time for Convergence Packet Loss to persist upon | The amount of time for Convergence Packet Loss to persist upon | |||

occurrence of a Convergence Event until occurrence of Route | occurrence of a Convergence Event until occurrence of Route | |||

Convergence. | Convergence. | |||

Rate-Derived Convergence Time can be measured as the time | Rate-Derived Convergence Time can be measured as the time | |||

difference from the Convergence Event Instant to the | difference from the Convergence Event Instant to the | |||

Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown with Equation 1. | Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown with Equation 1. | |||

(eq 1) Rate-Derived Convergence Time = | Equation 1 - | |||

Rate-Derived Convergence Time = | ||||

Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant. | Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Rate-Derived Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum | Rate-Derived Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum | |||

Throughput. Failure to achieve Full Convergence results in | Throughput. Failure to achieve Full Convergence results in | |||

a Rate-Derived Convergence Time benchmark of infinity. | a Rate-Derived Convergence Time benchmark of infinity. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

seconds/milliseconds | seconds/milliseconds | |||

skipping to change at page 8, line 38 | skipping to change at page 8, line 38 | |||

3.11 Loss-Derived Convergence Time | 3.11 Loss-Derived Convergence Time | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The amount of time it takes for Route Convergence to | The amount of time it takes for Route Convergence to | |||

to be achieved as calculated from the Convergence Packet | to be achieved as calculated from the Convergence Packet | |||

Loss. Loss-Derived Convergence Time can be calculated | Loss. Loss-Derived Convergence Time can be calculated | |||

from Convergence Packet Loss that occurs due to a | from Convergence Packet Loss that occurs due to a | |||

Convergence Event and Route Convergence as shown with | Convergence Event and Route Convergence as shown with | |||

Equation 2. | Equation 2. | |||

(eq 2) Loss-Derived Convergence Time = | Equation 2 - | |||

Loss-Derived Convergence Time = | ||||

Convergence Packets Loss / Offered Load | Convergence Packets Loss / Offered Load | |||

NOTE: Units for this measurement are | NOTE: Units for this measurement are | |||

packets / packets/second = seconds | packets / packets/second = seconds | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Loss-Derived Convergence Time gives a better than | Loss-Derived Convergence Time gives a better than | |||

actual result when converging many routes simultaneously. | actual result when converging many routes simultaneously. | |||

Rate-Derived Convergence Time takes the Convergence Recovery | Rate-Derived Convergence Time takes the Convergence Recovery | |||

Transition into account, but Loss-Derived Convergence Time | Transition into account, but Loss-Derived Convergence Time | |||

ignores the Route Convergence Recovery Transition because | ignores the Route Convergence Recovery Transition because | |||

skipping to change at page 9, line 8 | skipping to change at page 9, line 8 | |||

Ideally, the Convergence Event Transition and Convergence | Ideally, the Convergence Event Transition and Convergence | |||

Recovery Transition are instantaneous so that the | Recovery Transition are instantaneous so that the | |||

Rate-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time. | Rate-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time. | |||

However, router implementations are less than ideal. | However, router implementations are less than ideal. | |||

For these reasons the preferred reporting benchmark for IGP | For these reasons the preferred reporting benchmark for IGP | |||

Route Convergence is the Rate-Derived Convergence Time. | Route Convergence is the Rate-Derived Convergence Time. | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

Guidelines for reporting Loss-Derived Convergence Time are | Guidelines for reporting Loss-Derived Convergence Time are | |||

provided in [Po062]. | provided in [Po07m]. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

seconds/milliseconds | seconds/milliseconds | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Route Convergence | Route Convergence | |||

Convergence Packet Loss | Convergence Packet Loss | |||

skipping to change at page 9, line 36 | skipping to change at page 9, line 36 | |||

The amount of time for which Full Convergence is maintained | The amount of time for which Full Convergence is maintained | |||

without additional packet loss. | without additional packet loss. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

The purpose of the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time is to | The purpose of the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time is to | |||

produce Convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation | produce Convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation | |||

in Throughput after Full Convergence is observed. The | in Throughput after Full Convergence is observed. The | |||

Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time to be used is calculated | Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time to be used is calculated | |||

as shown in Equation 3. | as shown in Equation 3. | |||

(eq 3) | Equation 3 - | |||

Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time = | Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time = | |||

5*(Convergence Packet Loss/Offered Load) | 5*(Convergence Packet Loss/Offered Load) | |||

units are packets/pps = sec | units are packets/pps = sec | |||

for which at least one packet per route in the FIB for all | for which at least one packet per route in the FIB for all | |||

routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT per second. | routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT per second. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

seconds or milliseconds | seconds or milliseconds | |||

skipping to change at page 10, line 47 | skipping to change at page 10, line 47 | |||

seconds or milliseconds | seconds or milliseconds | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

Packet Sampling Interval can influence the Convergence Graph. | Packet Sampling Interval can influence the Convergence Graph. | |||

This is particularly true when implementations achieve Full | This is particularly true when implementations achieve Full | |||

Convergence in less than 1 second. The Convergence Event | Convergence in less than 1 second. The Convergence Event | |||

Transition and Convergence Recovery Transition can become | Transition and Convergence Recovery Transition can become | |||

exaggerated when the Packet Sampling Interval is too long. | exaggerated when the Packet Sampling Interval is too long. | |||

This will produce a larger than actual Rate-Derived | This will produce a larger than actual Rate-Derived | |||

Convergence Time. The recommended value for configuration | Convergence Time. The recommended value for configuration | |||

of the Packet Sampling Interval is provided in [Po062]. | of the Packet Sampling Interval is provided in [Po07m]. | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Convergence Packet Loss | Convergence Packet Loss | |||

Convergence Event Transition | Convergence Event Transition | |||

Convergence Recovery Transition | Convergence Recovery Transition | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

3.15 Local Interface | 3.15 Local Interface | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

An interface on the DUT. | An interface on the DUT. | |||

skipping to change at page 13, line 29 | skipping to change at page 13, line 29 | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Network Convergence | Network Convergence | |||

3.21 Nested Convergence Events | 3.21 Nested Convergence Events | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The occurence of Convergence Event while the route table | The occurrence of a Convergence Event while the route | |||

is converging from a prior Convergence Event. | table is converging from a prior Convergence Event. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

The Convergence Events for a Nested Convergence Events | The Convergence Events for a Nested Convergence Event | |||

MUST occur with different neighbors. A common | MUST occur with different neighbors. A common | |||

observation from a Nested Convergence Event will be | observation from a Nested Convergence Event will be | |||

the withdrawal of routes from one neighbor while the | the withdrawal of routes from one neighbor while the | |||

routes of another neighbor are being installed. | routes of another neighbor are being installed. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

N/A | N/A | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

skipping to change at page 14, line 28 | skipping to change at page 14, line 28 | |||

7. References | 7. References | |||

7.1 Normative References | 7.1 Normative References | |||

[Ba91]Bradner, S. "Benchmarking Terminology for Network | [Ba91]Bradner, S. "Benchmarking Terminology for Network | |||

Interconnection Devices", RFC1242, July 1991. | Interconnection Devices", RFC1242, July 1991. | |||

[Ba99]Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking | [Ba99]Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking | |||

Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices", | Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices", | |||

RFC 2544, March 1999. | RFC 2544, March 1999. | |||

[Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate | ||||

[Ca90]Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual | [Ca90]Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual | |||

Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990. | Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990. | |||

[Ma98]Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN | [Ma98]Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN | |||

Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998. | Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998. | |||

[Mo98]Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998. | [Mo98]Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998. | |||

[Po061]Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for IGP Data Plane | [Po07a] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for IGP Data Plane | |||

Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-11, | Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-12, | |||

work in progress, May 2006. | work in progress, February 2007. | |||

[Po062]Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Methodology for IGP Data Plane | [Po07m] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Methodology for IGP Data Plane | |||

Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-11, | Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-12, | |||

work in progress, May 2006. | work in progress, February 2007. | |||

7.2 Informative References | 7.2 Informative References | |||

[Ca01]S. Casner, C. Alaettinoglu, and C. Kuan, "A Fine-Grained View | [Ca01]S. Casner, C. Alaettinoglu, and C. Kuan, "A Fine-Grained View | |||

of High Performance Networking", NANOG 22, June 2001. | of High Performance Networking", NANOG 22, June 2001. | |||

[Ci03]L. Ciavattone, A. Morton, and G. Ramachandran, "Standardized | [Ci03]L. Ciavattone, A. Morton, and G. Ramachandran, "Standardized | |||

Active Measurements on a Tier 1 IP Backbone", IEEE | Active Measurements on a Tier 1 IP Backbone", IEEE | |||

Communications Magazine, pp90-97, May 2003. | Communications Magazine, pp90-97, May 2003. | |||

skipping to change at page 15, line 29 | skipping to change at page 15, line 29 | |||

Juniper Networks | Juniper Networks | |||

1194 North Mathilda Ave | 1194 North Mathilda Ave | |||

Sunnyvale, CA 94089 | Sunnyvale, CA 94089 | |||

USA | USA | |||

Phone: + 1 314 378 2571 | Phone: + 1 314 378 2571 | |||

EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com | EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com | |||

Full Copyright Statement | Full Copyright Statement | |||

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). | Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). | |||

This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions | This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions | |||

contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors | contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors | |||

retain all their rights. | retain all their rights. | |||

This document and the information contained herein are provided on an | This document and the information contained herein are provided | |||

"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS | on an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE | |||

OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET | REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE | |||

ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, | IETF TRUST AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL | |||

INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE | WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY | |||

INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED | WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE | |||

WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. | ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS | |||

FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. | ||||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

Intellectual Property | Intellectual Property | |||

The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any | The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any | |||

Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to | Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to | |||

pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in | pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in | |||

this document or the extent to which any license under such rights | this document or the extent to which any license under such rights | |||

might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has | might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has | |||

made any independent effort to identify any such rights. Information | made any independent effort to identify any such rights. Information | |||

End of changes. 22 change blocks. | ||||

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