draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-08.txt | draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-09.txt | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

Network Working Group | Network Working Group | |||

INTERNET-DRAFT | INTERNET-DRAFT | |||

Expires in: April 2006 | Expires in: June 2006 | |||

Scott Poretsky | Scott Poretsky | |||

Reef Point Systems | Reef Point Systems | |||

Brent Imhoff | Brent Imhoff | |||

Juniper Networks | ||||

October 2005 | January 2006 | |||

Terminology for Benchmarking | Terminology for Benchmarking | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

<draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-08.txt> | <draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-09.txt> | |||

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) statement: | Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) statement: | |||

By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any | By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any | |||

applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware | applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware | |||

have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes | have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes | |||

aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. | aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. | |||

Status of this Memo | Status of this Memo | |||

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering | Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering | |||

skipping to change at page 1, line 42 | skipping to change at page 1, line 43 | |||

time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference | time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference | |||

material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." | material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." | |||

The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at | The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at | |||

http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. | http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. | |||

The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at | The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at | |||

http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. | http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. | |||

Copyright Notice | Copyright Notice | |||

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). All Rights Reserved. | Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). | |||

ABSTRACT | ABSTRACT | |||

This draft describes the terminology for benchmarking IGP Route | This document describes the terminology for benchmarking IGP | |||

Convergence as described in Applicability document [1] and | Route Convergence as described in Applicability document [1] and | |||

Methodology document [2]. The methodology and terminology is to | Methodology document [2]. The methodology and terminology are to | |||

be used for benchmarking Route Convergence and can be applied to | be used for benchmarking Convergence Time and can be applied to | |||

any link-state IGP such as ISIS [3] and OSPF [4]. The data plane | any link-state IGP such as ISIS [3] and OSPF [4]. The data plane | |||

is measured to obtain the convergence benchmarking metrics | is measured to obtain the convergence benchmarking metrics | |||

described in [2]. | described in [2]. | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

Table of Contents | Table of Contents | |||

1. Introduction .................................................2 | 1. Introduction .................................................2 | |||

2. Existing definitions .........................................3 | 2. Existing definitions .........................................3 | |||

skipping to change at page 2, line 53 | skipping to change at page 2, line 53 | |||

terminology to be used for benchmarking Route Convergence can be | terminology to be used for benchmarking Route Convergence can be | |||

applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [3] and OSPF [4]. The | applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [3] and OSPF [4]. The | |||

data plane is measured to obtain black-box (externally observable) | data plane is measured to obtain black-box (externally observable) | |||

convergence benchmarking metrics. The purpose of this document is | convergence benchmarking metrics. The purpose of this document is | |||

to introduce new terms required to complete execution of the IGP | to introduce new terms required to complete execution of the IGP | |||

Route Convergence Methodology [2]. These terms apply to IPv4 and | Route Convergence Methodology [2]. These terms apply to IPv4 and | |||

IPv6 traffic as well as IPv4 and IPv6 IGPs. | IPv6 traffic as well as IPv4 and IPv6 IGPs. | |||

An example of Route Convergence as observed and measured from the | An example of Route Convergence as observed and measured from the | |||

data plane is shown in Figure 1. The graph in Figure 1 shows | data plane is shown in Figure 1. The graph in Figure 1 shows | |||

Forwarding Rate versus Time. Time 0 on the X-axis is on the far | Throughput versus Time. Time 0 on the X-axis is on the far | |||

right of the graph. The components of the graph and metrics are | right of the graph. The components of the graph and metrics are | |||

defined in the Term Definitions section. | defined in the Term Definitions section. | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

Convergence Convergence | Convergence Convergence | |||

Recovery Event | Recovery Event | |||

Instant Instant Time = 0sec | Instant Instant Time = 0sec | |||

Maximum ^ ^ ^ | Maximum ^ ^ ^ | |||

Forwarding Rate--> ------\ Packet /--------------- | Throughput--> ------\ Packet /--------------- | |||

\ Loss /<----Convergence | \ Loss /<----Convergence | |||

Convergence------->\ / Event Transition | Convergence------->\ / Event Transition | |||

Recovery Transition \ / | Recovery Transition \ / | |||

\_____/<------Maximum Packet Loss | \_____/<------Maximum Packet Loss | |||

X-axis = Time | X-axis = Time | |||

Y-axis = Forwarding Rate | Y-axis = Throughput | |||

Figure 1. Convergence Graph | Figure 1. Convergence Graph | |||

2. Existing definitions | 2. Existing definitions | |||

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", | The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", | |||

"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this | "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this | |||

document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119. | document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119. | |||

RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the | RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the | |||

intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this | intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this | |||

document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track | document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track | |||

document. | document. The term Throughput is defined in RFC 2544. | |||

3. Term Definitions | 3. Term Definitions | |||

3.1 Convergence Event | 3.1 Convergence Event | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The occurrence of a planned or unplanned action in the network | The occurrence of a planned or unplanned action in the network | |||

that results in a change in the egress interface of the DUT for | that results in a change in the egress interface of the Device | |||

Under Test (DUT) for | ||||

routed packets. | routed packets. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Convergence Events include link loss, routing protocol session | Convergence Events include link loss, routing protocol session | |||

loss, router failure, configuration change, and better next-hop | loss, router failure, configuration change, and better next-hop | |||

learned via a routing protocol. | learned via a routing protocol. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

N/A | N/A | |||

skipping to change at page 4, line 10 | skipping to change at page 4, line 10 | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Convergence Packet Loss | Convergence Packet Loss | |||

Convergence Event Instant | Convergence Event Instant | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

3.2 Route Convergence | 3.2 Route Convergence | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

Recovery from a Convergence Event indicated by the DUT | Recovery from a Convergence Event indicated by the DUT | |||

forwarding rate equal to the offered load. | Throughput equal to the offered load. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Route Convergence is the action of all components of the router | Route Convergence is the action of all components of the router | |||

being updated with the most recent route change(s) including the | being updated with the most recent route change(s) including the | |||

RIB and FIB, along with software and hardware tables. Route | Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwaridng Information Base | |||

(FIB), along with software and hardware tables. Route | ||||

Convergence can be observed externally by the rerouting of data | Convergence can be observed externally by the rerouting of data | |||

Traffic to a new egress interface. | Traffic to a new egress interface. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

N/A | N/A | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

skipping to change at page 4, line 39 | skipping to change at page 4, line 40 | |||

3.3 Network Convergence | 3.3 Network Convergence | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The completion of updating of all routing tables, including the | The completion of updating of all routing tables, including the | |||

FIB, in all routers throughout the network. | FIB, in all routers throughout the network. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Network Convergence is bounded by the sum of Route Convergence | Network Convergence is bounded by the sum of Route Convergence | |||

for all routers in the network. Network Convergence can be | for all routers in the network. Network Convergence can be | |||

determined by recovery of the forwarding rate to equal the offered | determined by recovery of the Throughput to equal the | |||

load, no Stale Forwarding, and no blenders[5][6]. | offered load, with no Stale Forwarding, and no blenders[5][6]. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

N/A | N/A | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Route Convergence | Route Convergence | |||

Stale Forwarding | Stale Forwarding | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

3.4 Full Convergence | 3.4 Full Convergence | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

Route Convergence for an entire FIB. | Route Convergence for an entire FIB. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

When benchmarking convergence it is useful to measure | When benchmarking convergence, it is useful to measure | |||

the time to converge an entire FIB. For example, | the time to converge an entire FIB. For example, | |||

a Convergence Event can be produced for an OSPF table of | a Convergence Event can be produced for an OSPF table of | |||

5000 routes so that the time to converge routes 1 through | 5000 routes so that the time to converge routes 1 through | |||

5000 is measured. Full Convergence is externally observable | 5000 is measured. Full Convergence is externally observable | |||

from the data plane when the forwarding rate of the data | from the data plane when the Throughput of the data | |||

plane traffic on the Next-Best Egress Interface equals the | plane traffic on the Next-Best Egress Interface equals the | |||

offered load. | offered load. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

N/A | N/A | |||

Issues: | Issues: None | |||

None | ||||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Network Convergence | Network Convergence | |||

Route Convergence | Route Convergence | |||

Convergence Event | Convergence Event | |||

3.5 Convergence Packet Loss | 3.5 Convergence Packet Loss | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The amount of packet loss produced by a Convergence Event | The amount of packet loss produced by a Convergence Event | |||

until Route Convergence occurs. | until Route Convergence occurs. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Packet loss can be observed as a reduction of forwarded traffic from | Packet loss can be observed as a reduction of forwarded traffic | |||

the maximum forwarding rate. Convergence Packet Loss include packets | from the maximum Throughput. Convergence Packet Loss | |||

that were lost and packets that were delayed due to buffering. | includes packets that were lost and packets that were delayed | |||

Convergence Packet Loss may or may not reach 100%. | due to buffering. The maximum Convergence Packet Loss observed | |||

in a Packet Sampling Interval may or may not reach 100% during | ||||

Route Convergence (see Figure 1). | ||||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

number of packets | number of packets | |||

Issues: | Issues: None | |||

None | ||||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Route Convergence | Route Convergence | |||

Convergence Event | Convergence Event | |||

Rate-Derived Convergence Time | Rate-Derived Convergence Time | |||

Loss-Derived Convergence Time | Loss-Derived Convergence Time | |||

Packet Sampling Interval | ||||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

3.6 Convergence Event Instant | 3.6 Convergence Event Instant | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The time instant that a Convergence Event becomes observable in the | The time instant that a Convergence Event becomes observable in | |||

data plane. | the data plane. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Convergence Event Instant is observable from the data | Convergence Event Instant is observable from the data | |||

plane as the precise time that the device under test begins | plane as the precise time that the device under test begins | |||

to exhibit packet loss. | to exhibit packet loss. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

hh:mm:ss:uuu | hh:mm:ss:nnn, where 'nnn' is milliseconds | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Convergence Event | Convergence Event | |||

Convergence Packet Loss | Convergence Packet Loss | |||

Convergence Recovery Instant | Convergence Recovery Instant | |||

3.7 Convergence Recovery Instant | 3.7 Convergence Recovery Instant | |||

skipping to change at page 7, line 21 | skipping to change at page 7, line 21 | |||

Rate-Derived Convergence Time can be measured as the time | Rate-Derived Convergence Time can be measured as the time | |||

difference from the Convergence Event Instant to the | difference from the Convergence Event Instant to the | |||

Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown with Equation 1. | Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown with Equation 1. | |||

(eq 1) Rate-Derived Convergence Time = | (eq 1) Rate-Derived Convergence Time = | |||

Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant. | Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Rate-Derived Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum | Rate-Derived Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum | |||

forwarding rate. Failure to achieve Full Convergence results in | Throughput. Failure to achieve Full Convergence results in | |||

a Rate-Derived Convergence Time benchmark of infinity. | a Rate-Derived Convergence Time benchmark of infinity. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

seconds/milliseconds | seconds/milliseconds | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Convergence Packet Loss | Convergence Packet Loss | |||

Convergence Recovery Instant | Convergence Recovery Instant | |||

Convergence Event Instant | Convergence Event Instant | |||

Full Convergence | Full Convergence | |||

3.9 Convergence Event Transition | 3.9 Convergence Event Transition | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The characteristic of a router in which forwarding rate | The characteristic of a router in which Throughput | |||

gradually reduces to zero after a Convergence Event. | gradually reduces to zero after a Convergence Event. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

The Convergence Event Transition is best observed for | The Convergence Event Transition is best observed for | |||

Full Convergence. The Convergence Event Transition may | Full Convergence. The Convergence Event Transition may | |||

not be linear. | not be linear. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

seconds/milliseconds | seconds/milliseconds | |||

skipping to change at page 8, line 9 | skipping to change at page 8, line 9 | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Convergence Event | Convergence Event | |||

Rate-Derived Convergence Time | Rate-Derived Convergence Time | |||

Convergence Packet Loss | Convergence Packet Loss | |||

Convergence Recovery Transition | Convergence Recovery Transition | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

3.10 Convergence Recovery Transition | 3.10 Convergence Recovery Transition | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The characteristic of a router in which forwarding rate | The characteristic of a router in which Throughput | |||

gradually increases to equal the offered load. | gradually increases to equal the offered load. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

The Convergence Recovery Transition is best observed for | The Convergence Recovery Transition is best observed for | |||

Full Convergence. The Convergence Event Transition may | Full Convergence. The Convergence Event Transition may | |||

not be linear. | not be linear. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

seconds/milliseconds | seconds/milliseconds | |||

skipping to change at page 9, line 31 | skipping to change at page 9, line 31 | |||

Convergence Recovery Transition | Convergence Recovery Transition | |||

3.12 Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time | 3.12 Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The amount of time for which Full Convergence is maintained | The amount of time for which Full Convergence is maintained | |||

without additional packet loss. | without additional packet loss. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

The purpose of the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time is to | The purpose of the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time is to | |||

produce Convergence Time benchmarks protected against fluctuation | produce Convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation | |||

in Forwarding Rate after Full Convergence is observed. The | in Throughput after Full Convergence is observed. The | |||

Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time to be used is calculated | Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time to be used is calculated | |||

as shown in Equation 3. | as shown in Equation 3. | |||

(eq 3) | (eq 3) | |||

Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time = | Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time = 5 packets/Offered Load | |||

5 x (# routes in FIB) / (Offered Load) | units are packets/pps = sec | |||

for which at least one packet per destination MUST be received | for which at least one packet per route in the FIB for all | |||

at the DUT. | routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT per second. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

seconds or milliseconds | seconds or milliseconds | |||

Issues: None | Issues: None | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Full Convergence | Full Convergence | |||

Convergence Recovery Instant | Convergence Recovery Instant | |||

3.13 Restoration Convergence Time | 3.13 Restoration Convergence Time | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The amount of time for the router under test to restore | The amount of time for the router under test to restore | |||

traffic to the original outbound port after recovery from | traffic to the original outbound port after recovery from | |||

a Convergence Event. | a Convergence Event. | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Restoration Convergence Time is the amount of time to | Restoration Convergence Time is the amount of time for routes | |||

Converge back to the original outbound port. This is achieved | to converge to the original outbound port. This is achieved | |||

by recovering from the Convergence Event, such as restoring | by recovering from the Convergence Event, such as restoring | |||

the failed link. Restoration Convergence Time is measured | the failed link. Restoration Convergence Time is measured | |||

using the Rate-Derived Convergence Time calculation technique, | using the Rate-Derived Convergence Time calculation technique, | |||

as provided in Equation 1. It is possible, but not desired | as provided in Equation 1. It is possible to have the | |||

to have the Restoration Convergence Time differ from the | Restoration Convergence Time differ from the Rate-Derived | |||

Rate-Derived Convergence Time. | Convergence Time. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

seconds or milliseconds | seconds or milliseconds | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Convergence Event | Convergence Event | |||

Rate-Derived Convergence Time | Rate-Derived Convergence Time | |||

3.14 Packet Sampling Interval | 3.14 Packet Sampling Interval | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The interval at which the tester (test equipment) polls to make | The interval at which the tester (test equipment) polls to make | |||

measurements for arriving packet flows. | measurements for arriving packet flows. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval may include | Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval may include | |||

Forwarding Rate and Convergence Packet Loss. | Throughput and Convergence Packet Loss. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

seconds or milliseconds | seconds or milliseconds | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

Packet Sampling Interval can influence the Convergence Graph. | Packet Sampling Interval can influence the Convergence Graph. | |||

This is particularly true as implementations achieve Full | This is particularly true when implementations achieve Full | |||

Convergence in less than 1 second. The Convergence Event | Convergence in less than 1 second. The Convergence Event | |||

Transition and Convergence Recovery Transition can become | Transition and Convergence Recovery Transition can become | |||

exaggerated when the Packet Sampling Interval is too long. | exaggerated when the Packet Sampling Interval is too long. | |||

This will produce a larger than actual Rate-Derived | This will produce a larger than actual Rate-Derived | |||

Convergence Time. The recommended value for configuration | Convergence Time. The recommended value for configuration | |||

of the Packet Sampling Interval is provided in [2]. | of the Packet Sampling Interval is provided in [2]. | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Convergence Packet Loss | Convergence Packet Loss | |||

Convergence Event Transition | Convergence Event Transition | |||

skipping to change at page 12, line 17 | skipping to change at page 12, line 17 | |||

Local Interface | Local Interface | |||

Neighbor Interface | Neighbor Interface | |||

3.18 Preferred Egress Interface | 3.18 Preferred Egress Interface | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the | The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the | |||

preferred next-hop. | preferred next-hop. | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Preferred Egress Interface is the egress interface prior to | The Preferred Egress Interface is the egress interface prior | |||

a Convergence Event | to a Convergence Event. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

N/A | N/A | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Next-Best Egress Interface | Next-Best Egress Interface | |||

3.19 Next-Best Egress Interface | 3.19 Next-Best Egress Interface | |||

Definition: | Definition: | |||

The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the | The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the | |||

second-best next-hop. It is the same media type and link speed | second-best next-hop. It is the same media type and link speed | |||

as the Preferred Egress Interface | as the Preferred Egress Interface | |||

Discussion: | Discussion: | |||

Next-Best Egress Interface is the egress interface after | The Next-Best Egress Interface becomes the egress interface | |||

a Convergence Event. | after a Convergence Event. | |||

Measurement Units: | Measurement Units: | |||

N/A | N/A | |||

Issues: | Issues: | |||

None | None | |||

See Also: | See Also: | |||

Preferred Egress Interface | Preferred Egress Interface | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

skipping to change at page 14, line 14 | skipping to change at page 14, line 14 | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | |||

5. Security Considerations | 5. Security Considerations | |||

Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of | Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of | |||

Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking | Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking | |||

is not performed on devices or systems connected to production | is not performed on devices or systems connected to production | |||

networks. | networks. | |||

6. Normative References | 6. References | |||

6.1 Normative References | ||||

[1] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for IGP Data Plane | [1] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for IGP Data Plane | |||

Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-08, | Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-09, | |||

work in progress, October 2005. | work in progress, January 2006. | |||

[2] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Methodology for IGP Data Plane | [2] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Methodology for IGP Data Plane | |||

Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-08, | Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-09, | |||

work in progress, October 2005. | work in progress, January 2006. | |||

[3] Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual | [3] Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual | |||

Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990. | Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990. | |||

[4] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998. | [4] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998. | |||

6.2 Informative References | ||||

[5] S. Casner, C. Alaettinoglu, and C. Kuan, "A Fine-Grained View | [5] S. Casner, C. Alaettinoglu, and C. Kuan, "A Fine-Grained View | |||

of High Performance Networking", NANOG 22, June 2001. | of High Performance Networking", NANOG 22, June 2001. | |||

[6] L. Ciavattone, A. Morton, and G. Ramachandran, "Standardized | [6] L. Ciavattone, A. Morton, and G. Ramachandran, "Standardized | |||

Active Measurements on a Tier 1 IP Backbone", IEEE | Active Measurements on a Tier 1 IP Backbone", IEEE | |||

Communications Magazine, pp90-97, May 2003. | Communications Magazine, pp90-97, May 2003. | |||

7. Author's Address | 7. Author's Address | |||

Scott Poretsky | Scott Poretsky | |||

Reef Point Systems | Reef Point Systems | |||

8 New England Executive Park | 8 New England Executive Park | |||

Burlington, MA 01803 | Burlington, MA 01803 | |||

USA | USA | |||

Phone: + 1 508 439 9008 | Phone: + 1 508 439 9008 | |||

EMail: sporetsky@reefpoint.com | EMail: sporetsky@reefpoint.com | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | ||||

Brent Imhoff | Brent Imhoff | |||

Juniper Networks | ||||

1194 North Mathilda Ave | ||||

Sunnyvale, CA 94089 | ||||

USA | USA | |||

Phone: + 1 314 378 2571 | ||||

EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com | EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com | |||

IGP Data Plane Route Convergence | ||||

Full Copyright Statement | Full Copyright Statement | |||

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). | Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). | |||

This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions | This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions | |||

contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors | contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors | |||

retain all their rights. | retain all their rights. | |||

This document and the information contained herein are provided on an | This document and the information contained herein are provided on an | |||

"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS | "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS | |||

OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET | OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET | |||

ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, | ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, | |||

INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE | INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE | |||

End of changes. 43 change blocks. | ||||

57 lines changed or deleted | | 69 lines changed or added | ||

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