draft-ietf-bier-bgp-ls-bier-ext-05.txt   draft-ietf-bier-bgp-ls-bier-ext-06.txt 
Networking Working Group Ran. Chen Networking Working Group R. Chen
Internet-Draft Zheng. Zhang Internet-Draft Zh. Zhang
Intended status: Standards Track ZTE Corporation Intended status: Standards Track ZTE Corporation
Expires: November 11, 2019 Vengada. Govindan Expires: May 2, 2020 V. Govindan
IJsbrand. Wijnands IJ. Wijnands
Cisco Cisco
MAY 10, 2019 October 30, 2019
BGP Link-State extensions for BIER BGP Link-State extensions for BIER
draft-ietf-bier-bgp-ls-bier-ext-05 draft-ietf-bier-bgp-ls-bier-ext-06
Abstract Abstract
Bit Index Explicit Replication (BIER) is an architecture that Bit Index Explicit Replication (BIER) is an architecture that
provides optimal multicast forwarding through a "BIER domain" without provides optimal multicast forwarding through a "BIER domain" without
requiring intermediate routers to maintain any multicast related per- requiring intermediate routers to maintain any multicast related per-
flow state. BIER also does not require any explicit tree-building flow state. BIER also does not require any explicit tree-building
protocol for its operation. A multicast data packet enters a BIER protocol for its operation. A multicast data packet enters a BIER
domain at a "Bit-Forwarding Ingress Router" (BFIR), and leaves the domain at a "Bit-Forwarding Ingress Router" (BFIR), and leaves the
BIER domain at one or more "Bit-Forwarding Egress Routers" (BFERs). BIER domain at one or more "Bit-Forwarding Egress Routers" (BFERs).
The BFIR router adds a BIER header to the packet. The BIER header The BFIR router adds a BIER header to the packet. The BIER header
contains a bitstring in which each bit represents exactly one BFER to contains a bitstring in which each bit represents exactly one BFER to
forward the packet to. The set of BFERs to which the multicast forward the packet to. The set of BFERs to which the multicast
packet needs to be forwarded is expressed by setting the bits that packet needs to be forwarded is expressed by setting the bits that
correspond to those routers in the BIER header. correspond to those routers in the BIER header.
This document specifies extensions to the BGP Link-state address- This document specifies extensions to the BGP Link-state address-
family in order to advertising BIER information. family in order to advertise BIER information.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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This Internet-Draft will expire on November 11, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on May 2, 2020.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 25 skipping to change at page 2, line 25
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. BGP-LS Extensions for BIER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. BGP-LS Extensions for BIER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1. The BIER TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.1. Prefix Attributes TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.2. The BIER MPLS Encapsulation Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1.1. The BIER information TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.2. The BIER MPLS Encapsulation TLV . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Equivalent IS-IS BIER TLVs/Sub-TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. Equivalent OSPFv2/OSPFV3 BIER TLVs/Sub-TLVs . . . . . . . . . 6
7. Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
9. Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Bit Index Explicit Replication (BIER) is an architecture that Bit Index Explicit Replication (BIER) is an architecture that
provides optimal multicast forwarding through a "BIER domain" without provides optimal multicast forwarding through a "BIER domain" without
requiring intermediate routers to maintain any multicast related per- requiring intermediate routers to maintain any multicast related per-
flow state. BIER also does not require any explicit tree-building flow state. BIER also does not require any explicit tree-building
protocol for its operation. A multicast data packet enters a BIER protocol for its operation. A multicast data packet enters a BIER
domain at a "Bit-Forwarding Ingress Router" (BFIR), and leaves the domain at a "Bit-Forwarding Ingress Router" (BFIR), and leaves the
BIER domain at one or more "Bit-Forwarding Egress Routers" (BFERs). BIER domain at one or more "Bit-Forwarding Egress Routers" (BFERs).
The BFIR router adds a BIER header to the packet. The BIER header The BFIR router adds a BIER header to the packet. The BIER header
contains a bitstring in which each bit represents exactly one BFER to contains a bitstring in which each bit represents exactly one BFER to
forward the packet to. The set of BFERs to which the multicast forward the packet to. The set of BFERs to which the multicast
packet needs to be forwarded is expressed by setting the bits that packet needs to be forwarded is expressed by setting the bits that
correspond to those routers in the BIER header. correspond to those routers in the BIER header.
When BIER is enabled in an IGP domain, BIER-related information will
be advertised via IGP link-state routing protocols. IGP extensions
are described in: ISIS[[RFC8401]],OSPFv2[[RFC8444]] and
OSPFv3[[I-D.ietf-bier-ospfv3-extensions]].The contents of a Link
State Database (LSDB) or of an IGP's Traffic Engineering Database
(TED) has the scope of an IGP area and therefore, by using the IGP
alone it is not enough to construct segments across multiple IGP Area
or AS boundaries.
In order to satisfy the need for applications that require
topological visibility across one area or Autonomous System (AS).
This document specifies extensions to the BGP Link-state address- This document specifies extensions to the BGP Link-state address-
family in order to advertising BIER-specific. An external component family in order to advertise BIER-specific. An external component
(e.g., a controller) then can collect BIER information in the (e.g., a controller) then can collect BIER information in the
"northbound" direction within the BIER domain. "northbound" direction within the BIER domain.
2. Conventions used in this document 2. Conventions used in this document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119.
3. BGP-LS Extensions for BIER 3. BGP-LS Extensions for BIER
Each BFR MUST be assigned a "BFR-Prefix". A BFR's BFR-Prefix MUST be [RFC8279] defines the BFR - A router that supports BIER is known as a
an IP address (either IPv4 or IPv6) of the BFR, and MUST be unique "Bit-Forwarding Router"(BFR), and each BFR MUST be assigned a "BFR-
and routable within the BIER domain as described in section 2 of Prefix". A BFR's BFR-Prefix MUST be an IP address (either IPv4 or
[RFC8279], and then external component (e.g., a controller) need to IPv6) of the BFR, and MUST be unique and routable within the BIER
collect BIER information of BIER routers are associated with the BFR- domain as described in section 2 of [RFC8279], and then external
Prefix in the "northbound" direction within the BIER domain. component (e.g., a controller) need to collect BIER information of
BIER routers are associated with the BFR-Prefix in the "northbound"
direction within the BIER domain.
Given that the BIER information is associated with the prefix, the Given that the BIER information is associated with the prefix, the
BGP-LS Prefix Attribute TLV [RFC7752] can be used to carry the BIER Prefix Attribute TLV [RFC7752] can be used to carry the BIER
information. A new Prefix Attribute TLV and Sub-TLV are defined for information. A new Prefix Attribute TLVs are defined for the
the encoding of BIER information. encoding of BIER information.
3.1. The BIER TLV 3.1. Prefix Attributes TLVs
The following Prefix Attribute TLVs are defined:
+------+-----------------------+---------------+
| Type | Description | Section |
+------+-----------------------+---------------+
| TBD |BIER information | Section 3.1.1 |
| TBD |BIER MPLS Encapsulation| Section 3.1.2 |
+------+-----------------------+---------------+
Table 1:The new Prefix Attribute TLVs
3.1.1. The BIER information TLV
A new Prefix Attribute TLV (defined in [RFC7752] is defined for A new Prefix Attribute TLV (defined in [RFC7752] is defined for
distributing BIER information. The new TLV is called the BIER TLV. distributing BIER information. The new TLV is called the BIER TLV.
The BIER TLVs may appear multiple times. The BIER information TLVs may appear multiple times.
The following BIER TLV is defined: The following BIER information TLV is defined:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | | Type | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BAR | IPA | subdomain-id | MT-ID | | BAR | IPA | subdomain-id |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BFR-id | BS Length | Reserved | | BFR-id |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Sub-TLVs (variable) | | Sub-TLVs (variable) |
+- -+ +- -+
| | | |
Figure 1 Figure 2: The BIER information TLV
Type:as indicated in IANA Considerations section. Type: 2 octet field with value TBD, see IANA Considerations section.
Length: 2 octet. Length: 2 octet.
Reserved: MUST be 0 on transmission, ignored on reception. May be Reserved: MUST be 0 on transmission, ignored on reception. May be
used in future versions. used in future versions.
BAR: A 1 octet field encoding the BIER Algorithm, used to calculate BAR: A 1 octet field encoding the BIER Algorithm, used to calculate
underlay paths to reach BFERs. Values are allocated from the "BIER underlay paths to reach BFERs. Values are allocated from the "BIER
Algorithms" registry which is defined in [RFC8401]. Algorithms" registry which is defined in [RFC8401].
skipping to change at page 4, line 33 skipping to change at page 5, line 23
[RFC8279]. If the BFR-id is zero, it means, the advertising router [RFC8279]. If the BFR-id is zero, it means, the advertising router
is not advertising any BIER-id.In some environment, BFR-id can be is not advertising any BIER-id.In some environment, BFR-id can be
configured by NMS, The BFR-id should be sent to a controller. configured by NMS, The BFR-id should be sent to a controller.
BS Length: A 1 octet field encoding the Bitstring length as per BS Length: A 1 octet field encoding the Bitstring length as per
[RFC8296]. [RFC8296].
If the MT-ID value is outside of the values specified in [RFC4915], If the MT-ID value is outside of the values specified in [RFC4915],
the BIER Sub-TLV MUST be ignored. the BIER Sub-TLV MUST be ignored.
3.2. The BIER MPLS Encapsulation Sub-TLV 3.1.2. The BIER MPLS Encapsulation TLV
The BIER MPLS Encapsulation Sub-TLV is a sub-TLV of the BIER TLV. The BIER MPLS Encapsulation TLV is used in order to advertise MPLS
BIER MPLS Encapsulation Sub-TLV is used in order to advertise MPLS specific information used for BIER. It MAY appear multiple times.
specific information used for BIER. It MUST appear multiple times in
the BIER TLV as described in [RFC8444]
In some environment, each router allocates its labels, and advertises In some environment, each router allocates its labels, and advertises
it to the controller.That solution is simpler as the controller does it to the controller.That solution is simpler as the controller does
not need to deal with label allocation. If the controller has to not need to deal with label allocation. If the controller has to
deal with Label allocation , there needs to be a (global) range deal with Label allocation , there needs to be a (global) range
carved out such there are no conflicts. We can avoid all that by carved out such there are no conflicts. We can avoid all that by
having the router allocate the BIER Label range and advertise it to having the router allocate the BIER Label range and advertise it to
the controller. the controller.
The following the BIER MPLS Encapsulation Sub-TLV is defined: The following the BIER MPLS Encapsulation Sub-TLV is defined:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | | Type | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Max SI | Label | | Max SI | Label |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BS Length | Reserved | |BS Len | Reserved |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 2 Figure 3: The BIER MPLS Encapsulation TLV
Type: as indicated in IANA Considerations section. Type: 2 octet field with value TBD, see IANA Considerations section.
Length: 2 octet. Length: 2 octet.
Max SI: A 1 octet field encoding the maximum Set Identifier(as Max SI: A 1 octet field encoding the maximum Set Identifier(as
defined in [RFC8279]), used in the encapsulation for this BIER defined in [RFC8279]), used in the encapsulation for this BIER
subdomain for this BitString length. subdomain for this BitString length.
Label: A 3 octet field, where the 20 rightmost bits represent the Label: A 3 octet field, where the 20 rightmost bits represent the
first label in the label range. first label in the label range.
BS Length: A 1 octet field encoding the Bitstring length as per BS Length: A 1 octet field encoding the Bitstring length as per
[RFC8296] [RFC8296]
BS length in multiple BIER MPLS Encapsulation Sub-TLV inside the same BS length in multiple BIER MPLS Encapsulation Sub-TLV inside the same
BIER Sub-TLV MUST NOT repeat, otherwise only the first BIER MPLS BIER Sub-TLV MUST NOT repeat, otherwise only the first BIER MPLS
Encapsulation Sub-TLV with such BS length MUST be used and any Encapsulation Sub-TLV with such BS length MUST be used and any
subsequent BIER MPLS Encapsulation Sub-TLVs with the same BS length subsequent BIER MPLS Encapsulation Sub-TLVs with the same BS length
MUST be ignored. MUST be ignored.
4. IANA Considerations 4. Equivalent IS-IS BIER TLVs/Sub-TLVs
This document requests assigning code-points from the registry for This section illustrate the BIER TLVs mapped to the ones defined in
the new Prefix Attribute TLV and Sub-TLV. this document.
+-------------------+---------------+-----------------+ The following table, illustrates for each BGP-LS TLV, its equivalence
| TLV Code Point | Description | Value defined | in IS-IS.
+-------------------+---------------+-----------------+
| 1174( recommend ) | BIER | this document |
+-------------------+---------------+-----------------+
Table 1: The new Prefix Attribute TLV +--------------+-------------------------+----------------------------------+
| Descriptio | IS-IS TLV | Reference |
| n | /Sub-TLV | |
+--------------+-------------------------+----------------------------------+
| BIER | BIER Info Sub-TLV | [RFC8401] |
| information | | |
| | | |
| BIER MPLS |BIER MPLS Encapsulation | [RFC8401] |
| Encapsulation|Sub-Sub-TLV | |
+--------------+-------------------------+----------------------------------+
+-----------------+-------------------------------+-----------------+ Table 2:IS-IS BIER Sub-TLVs/Sub-Sub-TLVs
| Sub-TLV | Description | Value |
| Code Point | | |
+-----------------+-------------------------------+-----------------+
| 1 ( recommend) | BIER MPLS Encapsulation | this document |
+------------+-------------------------------+----------------------+
Table 2: The new Prefix Attribute Sub-TLV 5. Equivalent OSPFv2/OSPFV3 BIER TLVs/Sub-TLVs
5. Security Considerations This section illustrate the BIER TLVs mapped to the ones defined in
this document.
The following table, illustrates for each BGP-LS TLV, its equivalence
in OSPFv2/OSPFV3.
+--------------+-------------------------+----------------------------------+
| Descriptio | OSPFv2/OSPFV3 sub-TLV | Reference |
| n | /Sub-Sub-TLV | |
+--------------+-------------------------+----------------------------------+
| BIER | BIER Sub-TLV |[RFC8444] & |
| information | |[I-D. ietf-bier-ospfv3-extensions |
| | | |
| BIER MPLS |BIER MPLS Encapsulation |[RFC8444]& |
| Encapsulation|Sub-TLV |[I-D. ietf-bier-ospfv3-extensions |
+--------------+-------------------------+----------------------------------+
Table 3: OSPFv2/OSPFV3 BIER TLVs/Sub-TLVs
6. IANA Considerations
This document requests assigning code-points from the registry for
the new Prefix Attribute TLVs.
+-------------------+-------------------------+-----------------+
| TLV Code Point | Description | Value defined |
+-------------------+-------------------------+-----------------+
| TBD | BIER information | this document |
+-------------------+-------------------------+-----------------+
| TBD | BIER MPLS Encapsulation | this document |
+-------------------+-------------------------+-----------------+
Table 4: The new Prefix Attribute TLV
7. Security Considerations
Procedures and protocol extensions defined in this document do not Procedures and protocol extensions defined in this document do not
affect the BGP security model. See [RFC6952] for details. affect the BGP security model. See the "Security
Considerations"section of [RFC4271] for a discussion of BGP security.
Also, refer to [RFC4272] and [RFC6952] for analyses of security
issues for BGP.Security considerations for acquiring and distributing
BGP-LS information are discussed in [RFC7752].
6. Acknowledgements The TLVs introduced in this document are used to propagate the Bit
Index Explicit Replication (BIER) defined in [[RFC8401]], [[RFC8444]]
and [[I-D.ietf-bier-ospfv3-extensions]]. These TLVs represent the
bier information associated with the prefix. It is assumed that the
IGP instances originating these TLVs will support all the required
security and authentication mechanisms in [[RFC8401]], [[RFC8444]]
and [[I-D.ietf-bier-ospfv3-extensions]] in order to prevent any
security issues when propagating the TLVs into BGP-LS. The
advertisement of the link attribute information defined in this
document presents no additional risk beyond that associated with the
existing link attribute information already supported in [RFC7752].
We would like to thank Peter Psenak (Cisco) for his comments and 8. Acknowledgements
support of this work.
7. Normative references We would like to thank Peter Psenak (Cisco) and Ketan
Talaulikar(Cisco) for his comments and support of this work.
9. Normative references
[I-D.ietf-bier-ospfv3-extensions]
Psenak, P., Kumar, N., and I. Wijnands, "OSPFv3 Extensions
for BIER", draft-ietf-bier-ospfv3-extensions-00 (work in
progress), May 2019.
[RFC3630] Katz, D., Kompella, K., and D. Yeung, "Traffic Engineering [RFC3630] Katz, D., Kompella, K., and D. Yeung, "Traffic Engineering
(TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2", RFC 3630, (TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2", RFC 3630,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3630, September 2003, DOI 10.17487/RFC3630, September 2003,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3630>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3630>.
[RFC4271] Rekhter, Y., Ed., Li, T., Ed., and S. Hares, Ed., "A
Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4271, January 2006,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4271>.
[RFC4272] Murphy, S., "BGP Security Vulnerabilities Analysis",
RFC 4272, DOI 10.17487/RFC4272, January 2006,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4272>.
[RFC4915] Psenak, P., Mirtorabi, S., Roy, A., Nguyen, L., and P. [RFC4915] Psenak, P., Mirtorabi, S., Roy, A., Nguyen, L., and P.
Pillay-Esnault, "Multi-Topology (MT) Routing in OSPF", Pillay-Esnault, "Multi-Topology (MT) Routing in OSPF",
RFC 4915, DOI 10.17487/RFC4915, June 2007, RFC 4915, DOI 10.17487/RFC4915, June 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4915>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4915>.
[RFC6952] Jethanandani, M., Patel, K., and L. Zheng, "Analysis of [RFC6952] Jethanandani, M., Patel, K., and L. Zheng, "Analysis of
BGP, LDP, PCEP, and MSDP Issues According to the Keying BGP, LDP, PCEP, and MSDP Issues According to the Keying
and Authentication for Routing Protocols (KARP) Design and Authentication for Routing Protocols (KARP) Design
Guide", RFC 6952, DOI 10.17487/RFC6952, May 2013, Guide", RFC 6952, DOI 10.17487/RFC6952, May 2013,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6952>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6952>.
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