Network Working Group                                              X. Xu
Internet-Draft                                       Huawei Technologies
Intended status: Informational                                 R. Raszuk
Expires: May 30, 2016                                       Bloomberg LP                              C. Jacquenet
Expires: June 11, 2016                                            Orange
                                                               R. Raszuk
                                                                T. Boyes
                                                            Bloomberg LP
                                                                  B. Fee
                                                        Extreme Networks
                                                       November 27,
                                                        December 9, 2015

   Virtual Subnet: A BGP/MPLS IP VPN-based Subnet Extension Solution
                   draft-ietf-bess-virtual-subnet-06
                   draft-ietf-bess-virtual-subnet-07

Abstract

   This document describes a BGP/MPLS IP VPN-based subnet extension
   solution referred to as Virtual Subnet, which can be used for
   building Layer 3 network virtualization overlays within and/or
   between data centers.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 30, June 11, 2016.

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   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Solution Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Unicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.1.1.  Intra-subnet Unicast  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.1.2.  Inter-subnet Unicast  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.3.  Host Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.4.  ARP/ND Proxy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.5.  Host Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.6.  Forwarding Table Scalability on Data Center Switches  . .  10
     3.7.  ARP/ND Cache Table Scalability on Default Gateways  . . .  10
     3.8.  ARP/ND and Unknown Unicast Flood Avoidance  . . . . . . .  10
     3.9.  Path Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.1.  Non-support of Non-IP Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.2.  Non-support of IP Broadcast and Link-local Multicast  . .  11
     4.3.  TTL and Traceroute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12  13
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12  13
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   For business continuity purposes, Virtual Machine (VM) migration
   across data centers is commonly used in situations such as data
   center maintenance, migration, consolidation, expansion, or disaster
   avoidance.  It's generally admitted  The IETF community has recognized that IP renumbering of
   servers (i.e., VMs) after the migration is usually complex and costly at the
   risk of extending the business downtime during the process of
   migration.
   costly.  To allow the migration of a VM from one data center to
   another without IP renumbering, the subnet on which the VM resides
   needs to be extended across these data centers.

   To achieve subnet extension across multiple cloud data centers in a
   scalable way, the following requirements and challenges must be
   considered:

   a.  VPN Instance Space Scalability: In a modern cloud data center
       environment, thousands or even tens of thousands of tenants could
       be hosted over a shared network infrastructure.  For security and
       performance isolation purposes, these tenants need to be isolated
       from one another.

   b.  Forwarding Table Scalability: With the development of server
       virtualization technologies, it's not uncommon for a single cloud
       data center to contain millions of VMs.  This number already
       implies a big challenge to the forwarding table scalability of
       data center switches.  Provided multiple data centers of such
       scale were interconnected at Layer 2, this challenge would become
       even worse.

   c.  ARP/ND Cache Table Scalability: [RFC6820] notes that the Address
       Resolution Protocol (ARP)/Neighbor Discovery (ND) cache tables
       maintained by default gateways within cloud data centers can
       raise scalability issues.  Therefore, mastering the size of the
       ARP/ND cache tables is critical as the number of data centers to
       be connected increases.

   d.  ARP/ND and Unknown Unicast Flooding: It's well-known that the
       flooding of ARP/ND broadcast/multicast messages as well as
       unknown unicast traffic within large Layer 2 networks is likely
       to affect network and host performance.  When multiple data
       centers that each hosts millions of VMs are interconnected at
       Layer 2, the impact of such flooding would become even worse.  As
       such, it becomes increasingly important to avoid the flooding of
       ARP/ND broadcast/multicast as well as unknown unicast traffic
       across data centers.

   e.  Path Optimization: A subnet usually indicates a location in the
       network.  However, when a subnet has been extended across
       multiple geographically-dispersed data center locations, the
       location semantics of such subnet is not retained any longer.  As
       a result, traffic exchanged between a specific user and a server
       that would be located in different data centers, may first be
       forwarded through a third data center.  This suboptimal routing
       would obviously result in an unnecessary consumption of the
       bandwidth resources between data centers.  Furthermore, in the
       case where traditional VPLS technology [RFC4761] [RFC4762] is
       used for data center interconnect, return traffic from a server
       may be forwarded to a default gateway located in a different data
       center due to the configuration of a virtual router redundancy
       group.  This suboptimal routing would also unnecessarily consume
       the bandwidth resources between data centers.

   This document describes a BGP/MPLS IP VPN-based subnet extension
   solution referred to as Virtual Subnet, which can be used for data
   center interconnection while addressing all of the aforementioned
   requirements and challenges.  Here the BGP/MPLS IP VPN means both
   BGP/MPLS IPv4 VPN [RFC4364] and BGP/MPLS IPv6 VPN [RFC4659].  In
   addition, since Virtual Subnet is mainly built on proven technologies
   such as BGP/MPLS IP VPN and ARP/ND proxy [RFC0925][RFC1027][RFC4389],
   those service providers that provide Infrastructure as a Service
   (IaaS) cloud services can rely upon their existing BGP/MPLS IP VPN
   infrastructure and take advantage of their BGP/MPLS VPN operational
   experience to interconnect data centers.

   Although Virtual Subnet is described in this document as an approach
   for data center interconnection, it can be used within data centers
   as well.

   Note that the approach described in this document is not intended to
   achieve an exact emulation of Layer 2 connectivity and therefore it
   can only support a restricted Layer 2 connectivity service model with
   limitations that are discussed in Section 4.  As for the discussion
   about where this service model can apply, it's outside the scope of
   this document.

2.  Terminology

   This memo makes use of the terms defined in [RFC4364].

3.  Solution Description

3.1.  Unicast

3.1.1.  Intra-subnet Unicast
                           +--------------------+
    +------------------+   |                    |   +------------------+
    |VPN_A:192.0.2.1/24|   |                    |   |VPN_A:192.0.2.1/24|
    |              \   |   |                    |   |  /               |
    |    +------+   \ ++---+-+                +-+---++/   +------+     |
    |    |Host A+-----+ PE-1 |                | PE-2 +----+Host B|     |
    |    +------+\    ++-+-+-+                +-+-+-++   /+------+     |
    |     192.0.2.2/24 | | |                    | | |  192.0.2.3/24    |
    |                  | | |                    | | |                  |
    |     DC West      | | |  IP/MPLS Backbone  | | |     DC East      |
    +------------------+ | |                    | | +------------------+
                         | +--------------------+ |
                         |                        |
VRF_A :                  V                VRF_A : V
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|   Prefix   | Nexthop |Protocol|      |   Prefix   | Nexthop |Protocol|
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.1/32|127.0.0.1| Direct |      |192.0.2.1/32|127.0.0.1| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.2/32|192.0.2.2| Direct |      |192.0.2.2/32|   PE-1  |  IBGP  |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.3/32|   PE-2  |  IBGP  |      |192.0.2.3/32|192.0.2.3| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.0/24|192.0.2.1| Direct |      |192.0.2.0/24|192.0.2.1| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
                   Figure 1: Intra-subnet Unicast Example

   As shown in Figure 1, two hosts (i.e., Hosts A and B) belonging to
   the same subnet (i.e., 192.0.2.0/24) are located in different data
   centers (i.e., DC West and DC East) respectively.  PE routers (i.e.,
   PE-1 and PE-2) that are used for interconnecting these two data
   centers create host routes for their own local hosts respectively and
   then advertise these routes by means of the BGP/MPLS IP VPN
   signaling.  Meanwhile, an ARP proxy is enabled on Virtual Routing and
   Forwarding (VRF) attachment circuits of these PE routers.

   Let's now assume that host A sends an ARP request for host B before
   communicating with host B.  Upon receiving the ARP request, PE-1
   acting as an ARP proxy returns its own MAC address as a response.
   Host A then sends IP packets for host B to PE-1.  PE-1 tunnels such
   packets towards PE-2 which in turn forwards them to host B.  Thus,
   hosts A and B can communicate with each other as if they were located
   within the same subnet.

3.1.2.  Inter-subnet Unicast

                           +--------------------+
    +------------------+   |                    |   +------------------+
    |VPN_A:192.0.2.1/24|   |                    |   |VPN_A:192.0.2.1/24|
    |              \   |   |                    |   |  /               |
    |  +------+     \ ++---+-+                +-+---++/     +------+   |
    |  |Host A+-------+ PE-1 |                | PE-2 +-+----+Host B|   |
    |  +------+\      ++-+-+-+                +-+-+-++ |   /+------+   |
    |   192.0.2.2/24   | | |                    | | |  | 192.0.2.3/24  |
    |   GW=192.0.2.4   | | |                    | | |  | GW=192.0.2.4  |
    |                  | | |                    | | |  |    +------+   |
    |                  | | |                    | | |  +----+  GW  +-- |
    |                  | | |                    | | |      /+------+   |
    |                  | | |                    | | |    192.0.2.4/24  |
    |                  | | |                    | | |                  |
    |     DC West      | | |  IP/MPLS Backbone  | | |      DC East     |
    +------------------+ | |                    | | +------------------+
                        | +--------------------+ |
                        |                        |
VRF_A :                 V                VRF_A : V
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|   Prefix   | Nexthop |Protocol|      |   Prefix   | Nexthop |Protocol|
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.1/32|127.0.0.1| Direct |      |192.0.2.1/32|127.0.0.1| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.2/32|192.0.2.2| Direct |      |192.0.2.2/32|  PE-1   |  IBGP  |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.3/32|   PE-2  |  IBGP  |      |192.0.2.3/32|192.0.2.3| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.4/32|   PE-2  |  IBGP  |      |192.0.2.4/32|192.0.2.4| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.0/24|192.0.2.1| Direct |      |192.0.2.0/24|192.0.2.1| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
| 0.0.0.0/0  |   PE-2  |  IBGP  |      | 0.0.0.0/0  |192.0.2.4| Static |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
                   Figure 2: Inter-subnet Unicast Example (1)

   As shown in Figure 2, only one data center (i.e., DC East) is
   deployed with a default gateway (i.e., GW).  PE-2 that is connected
   to GW would either be configured with or learn from GW a default
   route with the next-hop being pointed at GW.  Meanwhile, this route
   is distributed to other PE routers (i.e., PE-1) as per normal
   [RFC4364] operation.  Assume host A sends an ARP request for its
   default gateway (i.e., 192.0.2.4) prior to communicating with a
   destination host outside of its subnet.  Upon receiving this ARP
   request, PE-1 acting as an ARP proxy returns its own MAC address as a
   response.  Host A then sends a packet for Host B to PE-1.  PE-1
   tunnels such packet towards PE-2 according to the default route
   learnt from PE-2, which in turn forwards that packet to GW.

                           +--------------------+
    +------------------+   |                    |   +------------------+
    |VPN_A:192.0.2.1/24|   |                    |   |VPN_A:192.0.2.1/24|
    |              \   |   |                    |   |  /               |
    |  +------+     \ ++---+-+                +-+---++/     +------+   |
    |  |Host A+----+--+ PE-1 |                | PE-2 +-+----+Host B|   |
    |  +------+\   |  ++-+-+-+                +-+-+-++ |   /+------+   |
    |  192.0.2.2/24 |  | | |                    | | |  | 192.0.2.3/24  |
    |  GW=192.0.2.4 |  | | |                    | | |  | GW=192.0.2.4  |
    |  +------+    |   | | |                    | | |  |    +------+   |
    |--+ GW-1 +----+   | | |                    | | |  +----+ GW-2 +-- |
    |  +------+\       | | |                    | | |      /+------+   |
    |  192.0.2.4/24    | | |                    | | |    192.0.2.4/24  |
    |                  | | |                    | | |                  |
    |     DC West      | | |  IP/MPLS Backbone  | | |      DC East     |
    +------------------+ | |                    | | +------------------+
                        | +--------------------+ |
                        |                        |
VRF_A :                 V                VRF_A : V
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|   Prefix   | Nexthop |Protocol|      |   Prefix   | Nexthop |Protocol|
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.1/32|127.0.0.1| Direct |      |192.0.2.1/32|127.0.0.1| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.2/32|192.0.2.2| Direct |      |192.0.2.2/32|  PE-1   |  IBGP  |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.3/32|   PE-2  |  IBGP  |      |192.0.2.3/32|192.0.2.3| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.4/32|192.0.2.4| Direct |      |192.0.2.4/32|192.0.2.4| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.0/24|192.0.2.1| Direct |      |192.0.2.0/24|192.0.2.1| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
| 0.0.0.0/0  |192.0.2.4| Static |      | 0.0.0.0/0  |192.0.2.4| Static |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
                   Figure 3: Inter-subnet Unicast Example (2)

   As shown in Figure 3, in the case where each data center is deployed
   with a default gateway, hosts will get ARP responses directly from
   their local default gateways, rather than from their local PE routers
   when sending ARP requests for their default gateways.

                                  +------+
                           +------+ PE-3 +------+
    +------------------+   |      +------+      |   +------------------+
    |VPN_A:192.0.2.1/24|   |                    |   |VPN_A:192.0.2.1/24|
    |              \   |   |                    |   |  /               |
    |  +------+     \ ++---+-+                +-+---++/     +------+   |
    |  |Host A+-------+ PE-1 |                | PE-2 +------+Host B|   |
    |  +------+\      ++-+-+-+                +-+-+-++     /+------+   |
    |  192.0.2.2/24    | | |                    | | |    192.0.2.3/24  |
    |  GW=192.0.2.1    | | |                    | | |    GW=192.0.2.1  |
    |                  | | |                    | | |                  |
    |     DC West      | | |  IP/MPLS Backbone  | | |      DC East     |
    +------------------+ | |                    | | +------------------+
                         | +--------------------+ |
                         |                        |
VRF_A :                  V                VRF_A : V
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|   Prefix   | Nexthop |Protocol|      |   Prefix   | Nexthop |Protocol|
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.1/32|127.0.0.1| Direct |      |192.0.2.1/32|127.0.0.1| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.2/32|192.0.2.2| Direct |      |192.0.2.2/32|  PE-1   |  IBGP  |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.3/32|   PE-2  |  IBGP  |      |192.0.2.3/32|192.0.2.3| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
|192.0.2.0/24|192.0.2.1| Direct |      |192.0.2.0/24|192.0.2.1| Direct |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
| 0.0.0.0/0  |   PE-3  |  IBGP  |      | 0.0.0.0/0  |   PE-3  |  IBGP  |
+------------+---------+--------+      +------------+---------+--------+
                   Figure 4: Inter-subnet Unicast Example (3)

   Alternatively, as shown in Figure 4, PE routers themselves could be
   configured as default gateways for their locally connected hosts as
   long as these PE routers have routes to reach outside networks.

3.2.  Multicast

   To support IP multicast between hosts of the same Virtual Subnet,
   MVPN technologies [RFC6513] could be used without any change.  For
   example, PE routers attached to a given VPN join a default provider
   multicast distribution tree which is dedicated to that VPN.  Ingress
   PE routers, upon receiving multicast packets from their local hosts,
   forward them towards remote PE routers through the corresponding
   default provider multicast distribution tree.  Within this context,
   the IP multicast doesn't include link-local multicast.

3.3.  Host Discovery

   PE routers should be able to dynamically discover their local hosts
   and keep the list of these hosts up-to-date in a timely manner so as
   to ensure the availability and accuracy of the corresponding host
   routes originated from them.  PE routers could accomplish local host
   discovery by some traditional host discovery mechanisms using ARP or
   ND protocols.

3.4.  ARP/ND Proxy

   Acting as an ARP or ND proxy, a PE router should only respond to an
   ARP request or Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message for a target host
   when it has a best route for that target host in the associated VRF
   and the outgoing interface of that best route is different from the
   one over which the ARP request or NS message is received.  In the
   scenario where a given VPN site (i.e., a data center) is multi-homed
   to more than one PE router via an Ethernet switch or an Ethernet
   network, the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) [RFC5798] is
   usually enabled on these PE routers.  In this case, only the PE
   router being elected as the VRRP Master is allowed to perform the
   ARP/ND proxy function.

3.5.  Host Mobility

   During the VM migration process, the PE router to which the moving VM
   is now attached would create a host route for that host upon
   receiving a notification message of VM attachment (e.g., a gratuitous
   ARP or unsolicited NA message).  The PE router to which the moving VM
   was previously attached would withdraw the corresponding host route
   when noticing the detachment of that VM.  Meanwhile, the latter PE
   router could optionally broadcast a gratuitous ARP or send an
   unsolicited NA message on behalf of that host with source MAC address
   being one of its own.  In this way, the ARP/ND entry of this host
   that moved and which has been cached on any local host would be
   updated accordingly.  In the case where there is no explicit VM
   detachment notification mechanism, the PE router could also use the
   following trick to detect the VM detachment: upon learning a route
   update for a local host from a remote PE router for the first time,
   the PE router could immediately check whether that local host is
   still attached to it by some means (e.g., ARP/ND PING and/or ICMP
   PING).  It is important to ensure that the same MAC and IP are
   associated to the default gateway active in each data center, as the
   VM would most likely continue to send packets to the same default
   gateway address after having migrated from one data center to
   another.  One possible way to achieve this goal is to configure the
   same VRRP group on each location so as to ensure that the default
   gateway active in each data center shares the same virtual MAC and
   virtual IP addresses.

3.6.  Forwarding Table Scalability on Data Center Switches

   In a Virtual Subnet environment, the MAC learning domain associated
   with a given Virtual Subnet which has been extended across multiple
   data centers is partitioned into segments and each segment is
   confined within a single data center.  Therefore data center switches
   only need to learn local MAC addresses, rather than learning both
   local and remote MAC addresses.

3.7.  ARP/ND Cache Table Scalability on Default Gateways

   When default gateway functions are implemented on PE routers as shown
   in Figure 4, the ARP/ND cache table on each PE router only needs to
   contain ARP/ND entries of local hosts.  As a result, the ARP/ND cache
   table size would not grow as the number of data centers to be
   connected increases.

3.8.  ARP/ND and Unknown Unicast Flood Avoidance

   In a Virtual Subnet environment, the flooding domain associated with
   a given Virtual Subnet that has been extended across multiple data
   centers, is partitioned into segments and each segment is confined
   within a single data center.  Therefore, the performance impact on
   networks and servers imposed by the flooding of ARP/ND broadcast/
   multicast and unknown unicast traffic is minimized.

3.9.  Path Optimization

   Take the scenario shown in Figure 4 as an example, to optimize the
   forwarding path for the traffic between cloud users and cloud data
   centers, PE routers located in cloud data centers (i.e., PE-1 and PE-
   2), which are also acting as default gateways, propagate host routes
   for their own local hosts respectively to remote PE routers which are
   attached to cloud user sites (i.e., PE-3).  As such, traffic from
   cloud user sites to a given server on the Virtual Subnet which has
   been extended across data centers would be forwarded directly to the
   data center location where that server resides, since traffic is now
   forwarded according to the host route for that server, rather than
   the subnet route.  Furthermore, for traffic coming from cloud data
   centers and forwarded to cloud user sites, each PE router acting as a
   default gateway would forward traffic according to the longest-match
   route in the corresponding VRF.  As a result, traffic from data
   centers to cloud user sites is forwarded along an optimal path as
   well.

4.  Limitations

4.1.  Non-support of Non-IP Traffic

   Although most traffic within and across data centers is IP traffic,
   there may still be a few legacy clustering applications which rely on
   non-IP communications (e.g., heartbeat messages between cluster
   nodes).  Since Virtual Subnet is strictly based on L3 forwarding,
   those non-IP communications cannot be supported in the Virtual Subnet
   solution.  In order to support those few non-IP traffic (if present)
   in the environment where the Virtual Subnet solution has been
   deployed, the approach following the idea of "route all IP traffic,
   bridge non-IP traffic" could be considered.  In other words, all IP
   traffic including both intra- and inter-subnet, would be processed
   according to the Virtual Subnet design, while non-IP traffic would be
   forwarded according to a particular Layer 2 VPN approach.  Such
   unified L2/L3 VPN approach requires ingress PE routers to classify
   packets received from hosts before distributing them to the
   corresponding L2 or L3 VPN forwarding processes.  Note that more and
   more cluster vendors are offering clustering applications based on
   Layer 3 interconnection.

4.2.  Non-support of IP Broadcast and Link-local Multicast

   As illustrated before, intra-subnet traffic across PE routers is
   forwarded at Layer 3 in the Virtual Subnet solution.  Therefore, IP
   broadcast and link-
   local link-local multicast traffic cannot be supported by forwarded across
   PE routers in the Virtual Subnet solution.  In order to support the
   IP broadcast and link-local multicast traffic in the environment
   where the Virtual Subnet solution has been deployed, the unified L2/L3 L2/
   L3 overlay approach as described in Section 4.1 could be considered
   as well.  That is, IP broadcast and link-local multicast messages
   would be forwared at Layer 2 while routable IP traffic would be
   processed according to the Virtual Subnet design.

4.3.  TTL and Traceroute

   As mentioned before, intra-subnet traffic is forwarded at Layer 3 in
   the Virtual Subnet context.  Since it doesn't require any change to
   the Time To Live (TTL) handling mechanism of the BGP/MPLS IP VPN,
   when doing a traceroute operation on one host for another host
   (assuming that these two hosts are within the same subnet but are
   attached to different sites), the traceroute output would reflect the
   fact that these two hosts within the same subnet are actually
   connected via a Virtual Subnet, rather than a Layer 2 connection
   since the PE routers to which those two hosts are connected would be
   displayed in the traceroute output.  In addition, for any other
   applications that generate intra-subnet traffic with TTL set to 1,
   these applications may not work properly in the Virtual Subnet
   context, unless special TTL processing and loop-prevention mechanisms
   for such context has have been
   implemented (e.g., if the source and destination addresses of a
   packet whose TTL is set to 1 belong to the same extended subnet,
   neither ingress nor egress PE routers should decrement the TTL of implemented.  Details about such packet.  Furthermore, the special
   TTL of such packet should not be
   copied into processing and loop-prevention mechanisms are outside the TTL scope
   of the transport tunnel and vice versa). this document.

5.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Susan Hares, Yongbing Fan, Dino Farinacci, Himanshu Shah,
   Nabil Bitar, Giles Heron, Ronald Bonica, Monique Morrow, Rajiv Asati,
   Eric Osborne, Thomas Morin, Martin Vigoureux, Pedro Roque Marque, Joe
   Touch and
   Touch, Wim Henderickx Henderickx, Alia Atlas and Stephen Farrell for their
   valuable comments and suggestions on this document.  Thanks to Loa
   Andersson for his WG LC review on this document.  Thanks to Alvaro
   Retana for his AD review on this document.  Thanks to Ronald Bonica
   for his RtgDir review.  Thanks to Donald Eastlake for his Sec-DIR
   review of this document.  Thanks to Jouni Korhonen for the OPS-Dir
   review of this document.  Thanks to Roni Even for the Gen-ART review
   of this document.  Thanks to Sabrina Tanamal for the IANA review of
   this document.

6.  IANA Considerations

   There is no requirement for any IANA action.

7.  Security Considerations

   Since the BGP/MPLS IP VPN signaling is reused without any change,
   those security considerations as described in [RFC4364] are
   applicable to this document.  Meanwhile, since security issues
   associated with the NDP are inherited due to the use of NDP proxy,
   those security considerations and recommendations as described in
   [RFC6583] are applicable to this document as well.

   Inter data-center traffic often carries highly sensitive information
   at higher layers that is not directly understood (parsed) within an
   egress or ingress PE.  For example, migrating a VM will often mean
   moving private keys and other sensitive configuration information.
   For this reason inter data-center traffic should always be protected
   for both confidentiality and integrity using a strong security
   mechanism such as IPsec [RFC4301].  In future it may be feasible to
   protect that traffic within the MPLS layer
   [I-D.ietf-mpls-opportunistic-encrypt] though at the time of writing
   the mechanism for that is not sufficiently mature to recommend.
   Exactly how such security mechanisms are deployed will vary from case
   to case, so securing the inter data-center traffic may or may not
   involve deploying security mechanisms on the ingress/egress PEs or
   further "inside" the data centers concerned.  Note though that if
   security is not deployed on the egress/ingress PEs there is a
   substantial risk that some sensitive traffic may be sent in clear and
   therefore be vulnerable to pervasive monitoring [RFC7258] or other
   attacks.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0925]  Postel, J., "Multi-LAN address resolution", RFC 925,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0925, October 1984,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc925>.

   [RFC1027]  Carl-Mitchell, S. and J. Quarterman, "Using ARP to
              implement transparent subnet gateways", RFC 1027,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1027, October 1987,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1027>.

   [RFC4364]  Rosen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private
              Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4364, DOI 10.17487/RFC4364, February
              2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4364>.

   [RFC4389]  Thaler, D., Talwar, M., and C. Patel, "Neighbor Discovery
              Proxies (ND Proxy)", RFC 4389, DOI 10.17487/RFC4389, April
              2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4389>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-mpls-opportunistic-encrypt]
              Farrel, A. and S. Farrell, "Opportunistic Security in MPLS
              Networks", draft-ietf-mpls-opportunistic-encrypt-00 (work
              in progress), July 2015.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301,
              December 2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>.

   [RFC4659]  De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Carugi, M., and F. Le Faucheur,
              "BGP-MPLS IP Virtual Private Network (VPN) Extension for
              IPv6 VPN", RFC 4659, DOI 10.17487/RFC4659, September 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4659>.

   [RFC4761]  Kompella, K., Ed. and Y. Rekhter, Ed., "Virtual Private
              LAN Service (VPLS) Using BGP for Auto-Discovery and
              Signaling", RFC 4761, DOI 10.17487/RFC4761, January 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4761>.

   [RFC4762]  Lasserre, M., Ed. and V. Kompella, Ed., "Virtual Private
              LAN Service (VPLS) Using Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
              Signaling", RFC 4762, DOI 10.17487/RFC4762, January 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4762>.

   [RFC5798]  Nadas, S., Ed., "Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
              Version 3 for IPv4 and IPv6", RFC 5798,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5798, March 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5798>.

   [RFC6513]  Rosen, E., Ed. and R. Aggarwal, Ed., "Multicast in MPLS/
              BGP IP VPNs", RFC 6513, DOI 10.17487/RFC6513, February
              2012, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6513>.

   [RFC6583]  Gashinsky, I., Jaeggli, J., and W. Kumari, "Operational
              Neighbor Discovery Problems", RFC 6583,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6583, March 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6583>.

   [RFC6820]  Narten, T., Karir, M., and I. Foo, "Address Resolution
              Problems in Large Data Center Networks", RFC 6820,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6820, January 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6820>.

   [RFC7258]  Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
              Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, DOI 10.17487/RFC7258, May
              2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7258>.

Authors' Addresses

   Xiaohu Xu
   Huawei Technologies
   No.156 Beiqing Rd
   Beijing  100095
   CHINA

   Email: xuxiaohu@huawei.com

   Christian Jacquenet
   Orange
   4 rue du Clos Courtel
   Cesson-Sevigne,  35512
   FRANCE

   Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com
   Robert Raszuk
   Bloomberg LP
   731 Lexington Ave
   New York City, NY  10022
   USA

   Email: robert@raszuk.net

   Christian Jacquenet
   Orange
   4 rue du Clos Courtel
   Cesson-Sevigne,   35512
   FRANCE

   Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com

   Truman Boyes
   Bloomberg LP

   Email: tboyes@bloomberg.net

   Brendan Fee
   Extreme Networks

   Email: bfee@extremenetworks.com