draft-ietf-avtcore-clksrc-01.txt   draft-ietf-avtcore-clksrc-02.txt 
Audio/Video Transport Core A. Williams Audio/Video Transport Core Maintenance A. Williams
Maintenance Audinate Internet-Draft Audinate
Internet-Draft K. Gross Intended status: Standards Track K. Gross
Intended status: Standards Track AVA Networks Expires: August 23, 2013 AVA Networks
Expires: April 25, 2013 R. van Brandenburg R. van Brandenburg
H. Stokking H. Stokking
TNO TNO
October 22, 2012 February 19, 2013
RTP Clock Source Signalling RTP Clock Source Signalling
draft-ietf-avtcore-clksrc-01 draft-ietf-avtcore-clksrc-02
Abstract Abstract
NTP timestamps are used by several RTP protocols for synchronisation NTP timestamps are used by several RTP protocols for synchronisation
and statistical measurement. This memo specifies SDP signalling and statistical measurements. This memo specifies SDP signalling
identifying NTP timestamp clock sources and SDP signalling identifying NTP timestamp clock sources and SDP signalling
identifying the media clock sources in a multimedia session. identifying the media clock sources in a multimedia session.
Requirements Language Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1].
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2013. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 23, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
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1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Timestamp Reference Clock Source Signalling . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Timestamp Reference Clock Source Signalling . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1. Clock synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.1. Clock synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2. Identifying NTP Reference Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2. Identifying NTP Reference Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.3. Identifying PTP Reference Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.3. Identifying PTP Reference Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.4. Identifying Global Reference Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.4. Identifying Global Reference Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.5. Other Reference Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.5. Other Reference Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.6. Traceable Reference Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.6. Traceable Reference Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.7. Synchronisation Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.7. SDP Signalling of Timestamp Clock Source . . . . . . . . . 8
4.8. SDP Signalling of Timestamp Clock Source . . . . . . . . . 9 4.7.1. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.8.1. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5. Media Clock Source Signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5. Media Clock Source Signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1. Asynchronously Generated Media Clock . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1. Asynchronously Generated Media Clock . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.2. Direct-Referenced Media Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2. Direct-Referenced Media Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.3. Stream-Referenced Media Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.3. Stream-Referenced Media Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.4. Signalling Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.4. SDP Signalling of Media Clock Source . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6. Signalling considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.1. Usage in Offer/Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2. Usage Outside of Offer/Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
RTP protocols use NTP format timestamps to facilitate media stream RTP protocols use NTP format timestamps to facilitate multimedia
synchronisation and for providing estimates of round trip time (RTT) session synchronisation and for providing estimates of round trip
and other statistical parameters. time (RTT) and other statistical parameters.
Information about media clock timing exchanged in NTP format Information about media clock timing exchanged in NTP format
timestamps may come from a clock which is synchronised to a global timestamps may come from a clock which is synchronised to a global
time reference, but this cannot be assumed nor is there a time reference, but this cannot be assumed nor is there a
standardised mechanism available to indicate that timestamps are standardised mechanism available to indicate that timestamps are
derived from a common reference clock. Therefore, RTP derived from a common reference clock. Therefore, RTP
implementations typically assume that NTP timestamps are taken using implementations typically assume that NTP timestamps are taken using
unsynchronised clocks and must compensate for absolute time unsynchronised clocks and must compensate for absolute time
differences and rate differences. Without a shared reference clock, differences and rate differences. Without a shared reference clock,
RTP can time align flows from the same source at a given receiver RTP can time align flows from the same source at a given receiver
using relative timing, however tight synchronisation between two or using relative timing, however tight synchronisation between two or
more different receivers (possibly with different network paths) or more different receivers (possibly with different network paths) or
between two or more senders is not possible. between two or more senders is not possible.
High performance AV systems often use a reference media clock High performance AV systems often use a reference media clock
distributed to all devices in the system. The reference media clock distributed to all devices in the system. The reference media clock
is often distinct from the reference clock used to provide is often distinct from the reference clock used to provide
timestamps. A reference media clock may be provided along with an timestamps. A reference media clock may be provided along with an
audio or video signal interface, or via a dedicated clock signal audio or video signal interface, or via a dedicated clock signal
(e.g. genlock [16] or audio word clock [17]). If sending and (e.g. genlock [19] or audio word clock [20]). If sending and
receiving media clocks are known to be synchronised to a common receiving media clocks are known to be synchronised to a common
reference clock, performance can improved by minimising buffering and reference clock, performance can improved by minimising buffering and
avoiding rate conversion. avoiding rate conversion.
This specification defines SDP signalling of timestamp clock sources This specification defines SDP signalling of timestamp clock sources
and media reference clock sources. and media reference clock sources.
2. Applications 2. Applications
Timestamp clock source and reference media clock signalling benefit Timestamp clock source and reference media clock signalling benefit
applications requiring synchronised media capture or playout and low applications requiring synchronised media capture or playout and low
latency operation. latency operation.
Examples include, but are not limited to: Examples include, but are not limited to:
Social TV RTCP for inter-destination media synchronization [8] Social TV : RTCP for inter-destination media synchronization [9]
defines social TV as the combination of media content consumption defines social TV as the combination of media content consumption
by two or more users at different devices and locations and real- by two or more users at different devices and locations and real-
time communication between those users. An example of Social TV, time communication between those users. An example of Social TV,
is where two or more users are watching the same television is where two or more users are watching the same television
broadcast at different devices and/or locations, while broadcast at different devices and/or locations, while
communicating with each other using text, audio and/or video. A communicating with each other using text, audio and/or video. A
skew in the media playout of the two or more users can have skew in the media playout of the two or more users can have
adverse effects on their experience. A well-known use case here adverse effects on their experience. A well-known use case here
is one friend experiencing a goal in a football match well before is one friend experiencing a goal in a football match well before
or after other friends. or after other friends.
Video Walls A video wall consists of multiple computer monitors, Video Walls : A video wall consists of multiple computer monitors,
video projectors, or television sets tiled together contiguously video projectors, or television sets tiled together contiguously
or overlapped in order to form one large screen. Each of the or overlapped in order to form one large screen. Each of the
screens reproduces a portion of the larger picture. In some screens reproduces a portion of the larger picture. In some
implementations, each screen or projector may be individually implementations, each screen or projector may be individually
connected to the network and receive its portion of the overall connected to the network and receive its portion of the overall
image from a network-connected video server or video scaler. image from a network-connected video server or video scaler.
Screens are refreshed at 50 or 60 hertz or potentially faster. If Screens are refreshed at 50 or 60 hertz or potentially faster. If
the refresh is not synchronized, the effect of multiple screens the refresh is not synchronized, the effect of multiple screens
acting as one is broken. acting as one is broken.
Networked Audio Networked loudspeakers, amplifiers and analogue I/O Networked Audio : Networked loudspeakers, amplifiers and analogue
devices transmitting or receiving audio signals via RTP can be I/O devices transmitting or receiving audio signals via RTP can be
connected to various parts of a building or campus network. Such connected to various parts of a building or campus network. Such
situations can for example be found in large conference rooms, situations can for example be found in large conference rooms,
legislative chambers, classrooms (especially those supporting legislative chambers, classrooms (especially those supporting
distance learning) and other large-scale environments such as distance learning) and other large-scale environments such as
stadiums. Since humans are more susceptible to differences in stadiums. Since humans are more susceptible to differences in
audio delay, this use case needs even more accuracy than the video audio delay, this use case needs even more accuracy than the video
wall use case. Depending on the exact application, the need for wall use case. Depending on the exact application, the need for
accuracy can then be in the range of microseconds [18]. accuracy can then be in the range of microseconds [21].
Sensor Arrays Sensor arrays contain many synchronised measurement Sensor Arrays : Sensor arrays contain many synchronised measurement
elements producing signals which are then combined to form an elements producing signals which are then combined to form an
overall measurement. Accurate capture of the phase relationships overall measurement. Accurate capture of the phase relationships
between the various signals arriving at each element of the array between the various signals arriving at each element of the array
is critically important for proper operation. Examples include is critically important for proper operation. Examples include
towed or fixed sonar arrays, seismic arrays and phased arrays used towed or fixed sonar arrays, seismic arrays and phased arrays used
in radar applications, for instance. in radar applications, for instance.
3. Definitions 3. Definitions
The definitions of streams, sources and levels of information in SDP The following definitions are used in this draft:
descriptions follow the definitions found in Source-Specific Media
Attributes in the Session Description Protocol (SDP) [2].
multimedia session A set of multimedia senders and receivers as well media level : Media level information applies to a single SDP media
as the data streams flowing from senders to receivers. The stream. In an SDP description, media-level information appears
Session Description Protocol (SDP) [3] describes multimedia after each "m"-line.
multimedia session : A set of multimedia senders and receivers as
well as the data streams flowing from senders to receivers. The
Session Description Protocol (SDP) [2] describes multimedia
sessions. sessions.
media stream An RTP session potentially containing more than one RTP RTP media stream : A single stream of RTP packets identified by an
source. SDP media descriptions beginning with an "m"-line define RTP SSRC.
the parameters of a media stream.
media source A media source is single stream of RTP packets, RTP media sender : The device generating an associated RTP media
identified by an RTP SSRC. stream
session level Session level information applies to an entire SDP media stream : An RTP session potentially containing more than
one RTP source. SDP media descriptions beginning with an "m"-line
define the parameters of an SDP media stream.
session level : Session level information applies to an entire
multimedia session. In an SDP description, session-level multimedia session. In an SDP description, session-level
information appears before the first "m"-line. information appears before the first "m"-line.
media level Media level information applies to a single media stream source level : Source level information applies to a RTP media
(RTP session). In an SDP description, media-level information stream Source-Specific Media Attributes in the Session Description
appears after each "m"-line. Protocol (SDP) [3] defines how source-level information is
included into an SDP session description.
source level Source level information applies to a single stream of
RTP packets, identified by an RTP SSRC Source-Specific Media
Attributes in the Session Description Protocol (SDP) [2] defines
how source-level information is included into an SDP session
description.
traceable time A clock is considered to provide traceable time if it traceable time : A clock is considered to provide traceable time if
can be proven to be synchronised to a global time reference. GPS it can be proven to be synchronised to International Atomic Time
[9] is commonly used to provide a traceable time reference. Some (TAI). Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a time standard
network time synchronisation protocols (e.g. PTP [10], NTP) can synchronized to TAI. UTC is therefore also considered traceable
time once leap seconds have been taken unto account. GPS [10] is
commonly used to provide a TAI traceable time reference. Some
network time synchronisation protocols (e.g. PTP [11], NTP) can
explicitly indicate that the master clock is providing a traceable explicitly indicate that the master clock is providing a traceable
time reference over the network. time reference over the network.
4. Timestamp Reference Clock Source Signalling 4. Timestamp Reference Clock Source Signalling
The NTP timestamps used by RTP are taken by reading a local real-time The NTP timestamps used by RTP are taken by reading a local real-time
clock at the sender or receiver. This local clock may be clock at the sender or receiver. This local clock may be
synchronised to another clock (time source) by some means or it may synchronised to another clock (time source) by some means or it may
be unsynchronised. A variety of methods are available to synchronise be unsynchronised. A variety of methods are available to synchronise
local clocks to a reference time source, including network time local clocks to a reference time source, including network time
protocols (e.g. NTP [11]) and radio clocks (e.g. GPS [9]). protocols (e.g. NTP [12]) and radio clocks (e.g. GPS [10]).
The following sections describe and define SDP signalling, indicating The following sections describe and define SDP signalling, indicating
whether and how the local timestamping clock in an RTP sender/ whether and how the local timestamping clock in an RTP sender/
receiver is synchronised to a reference clock. receiver is synchronised to a reference clock.
4.1. Clock synchronization 4.1. Clock synchronization
Two or more local clocks that are sufficiently synchronised will Two or more local clocks that are sufficiently synchronised will
produce timestamps for a given RTP event can be used as if they came produce timestamps for a given RTP event can be used as if they came
from the same clock. Providing they are sufficiently synchronised, from the same clock. Providing they are sufficiently synchronised,
timestamps produced in one RTP sender or receiver can be directly timestamps produced in one RTP sender or receiver can be directly
compared to a local clock in another RTP sender or receiver. compared to a local clock in another RTP sender or receiver.
The accuracy of synchronization required is application dependent. The accuracy of synchronisation required is application dependent.
See Applications (Section 2) section for a discussion of applications See Applications (Section 2) section for a discussion of applications
and their corresponding requirements. To serve as a reference clock, and their corresponding requirements. To serve as a reference clock,
clocks must minimally be syntonized (exactly frequency matched) to clocks must minimally be syntonised (exactly frequency matched) to
one another. one another.
Sufficient synchronization can typically be achieving by using a Sufficient synchronisation can typically be achieving by using a
network time protocol (e.g. NTP, 802.1AS, IEEE 1588-2008) to network time protocol (e.g. NTP, 802.1AS, IEEE 1588-2008) to
synchronize all devices to a single master clock. synchronize all devices to a single master clock.
Another approach is to use clocks providing a global time reference Another approach is to use clocks providing a global time reference
(e.g. GPS, Galileo). This concept may be used in conjunction with (e.g. GPS, Galileo). This concept may be used in conjunction with
network time protocols as some protocols (e.g. PTP, NTP) allow network time protocols as some protocols (e.g. PTP, NTP) allow
master clocks to indicate explicitly that they are "traceable" back master clocks to indicate explicitly that they are providing
to a global time reference. traceable time.
4.2. Identifying NTP Reference Clocks 4.2. Identifying NTP Reference Clocks
A single NTP server is identified by hostname (or IP address) and an A single NTP server is identified by hostname (or IP address) and an
optional port number. If the port number is not indicated, it is optional port number. If the port number is not indicated, it is
assumed to be the standard NTP port (123). assumed to be the standard NTP port (123).
Two or more NTP servers may be listed at the same level in the Two or more NTP servers may be listed at the same level in the
session description to indicate that they are interchangeable. RTP session description to indicate that they are interchangeable. RTP
senders or receivers can use any of the listed NTP servers to govern senders or receivers can use any of the listed NTP servers to govern
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synchronisation protocols provides a shared reference clock in an synchronisation protocols provides a shared reference clock in an
network - typically a LAN. IEEE 1588 provides sub-microsecond network - typically a LAN. IEEE 1588 provides sub-microsecond
synchronisation between devices on a LAN and typically locks within synchronisation between devices on a LAN and typically locks within
seconds at startup. With support from Ethernet switches, IEEE 1588 seconds at startup. With support from Ethernet switches, IEEE 1588
protocols can achieve nanosecond timing accuracy in LANs. Network protocols can achieve nanosecond timing accuracy in LANs. Network
interface chips and cards supporting hardware time-stamping of timing interface chips and cards supporting hardware time-stamping of timing
critical protocol messages are also available. critical protocol messages are also available.
Three flavours of IEEE 1588 are in use today: Three flavours of IEEE 1588 are in use today:
o IEEE 1588-2002 [12]: the original "Standard for a Precision Clock o IEEE 1588-2002 [13]: the original "Standard for a Precision Clock
Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control
Systems". This is also known as IEEE1588v1 or PTPv1. Systems". This is also known as IEEE1588v1 or PTPv1.
o IEEE 1588-2008 [10]: the second version of the "Standard for a o IEEE 1588-2008 [11]: the second version of the "Standard for a
Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement
and Control Systems". This is a revised version of the original and Control Systems". This is a revised version of the original
IEEE1588-2002 standard and is also known as IEEE1588v2 or PTPv2. IEEE1588-2002 standard and is also known as IEEE1588v2 or PTPv2.
IEEE 1588-2008 is not protocol compatible with IEEE 1588-2002. IEEE 1588-2008 is not protocol compatible with IEEE 1588-2002.
o IEEE 802.1AS [13]: "Timing and Synchronization for Time Sensitive o IEEE 802.1AS [14]: "Timing and Synchronization for Time Sensitive
Applications in Bridged Local Area Networks". This is a Layer-2 Applications in Bridged Local Area Networks". This is a Layer-2
only profile of IEEE 1588-2008 for use in Audio/Video Bridged LANs only profile of IEEE 1588-2008 for use in Audio/Video Bridged LANs
as described in IEEE 802.1BA-2011 [14]. as described in IEEE 802.1BA-2011 [15].
Each IEEE 1588 clock is identified by a globally unique EUI-64 called Each IEEE 1588 clock is identified by a globally unique EUI-64 called
a "ClockIdentity". A slave clock using one of the IEEE 1588 family a "ClockIdentity". A slave clock using one of the IEEE 1588 family
of network time protocols acquires the ClockIdentity/EUI-64 of the of network time protocols acquires the ClockIdentity/EUI-64 of the
grandmaster clock that is the ultimate source of timing information grandmaster clock that is the ultimate source of timing information
for the network. A boundary clock which is itself slaved to another for the network. A boundary clock which is itself slaved to another
boundar clock or the grandmaster passes the grandmaster ClockIdentity boundary clock or the grandmaster passes the grandmaster
through to its slaves. ClockIdentity through to its slaves.
Several instances of the IEEE 1588 protocol may operate independently Several instances of the IEEE 1588 protocol may operate independently
on a single network, forming distinct PTP domains, each of which may on a single network, forming distinct PTP domains, each of which may
have a different grandmaster clock. As the IEEE 1588 standards have have a different grandmaster clock. As the IEEE 1588 standards have
developed, the definition of PTP domains has changed. IEEE 1588-2002 developed, the definition of PTP domains has changed. IEEE 1588-2002
identifies protocol subdomains by a textual name, but IEEE 1588-2008 identifies protocol subdomains by a textual name, but IEEE 1588-2008
identifies protocol domains using a numeric domain number. 802.1AS is identifies protocol domains using a numeric domain number. 802.1AS is
a Layer-2 profile of IEEE 1588-2008 supporting a single numeric clock a Layer-2 profile of IEEE 1588-2008 supporting a single numeric clock
domain (0). domain (0).
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Global reference clocks provide a source of traceable time, typically Global reference clocks provide a source of traceable time, typically
via a hardware radio receiver interface. Examples include GPS and via a hardware radio receiver interface. Examples include GPS and
Galileo. Apart from the name of the reference clock system, no Galileo. Apart from the name of the reference clock system, no
further identification is required. further identification is required.
4.5. Other Reference Clocks 4.5. Other Reference Clocks
RFC 3550 allows senders and receivers to either use a local wallclock RFC 3550 allows senders and receivers to either use a local wallclock
reference for their NTP timestamps or, by setting the timestamp field reference for their NTP timestamps or, by setting the timestamp field
to 0, to supply no timstamps at all. Both are common practice in to 0, to supply no timestamps at all. Both are common practice in
embedded RTP implementations. These clocks are identified as "local" embedded RTP implementations. These clocks are identified as "local"
and can only be assumed to be equivalent to clocks originating from and can only be assumed to be equivalent to clocks originating from
the same device. the same device.
In other systems, all RTP senders and receivers may use a timestamp In other systems, all RTP senders and receivers may use a timestamp
clock synchronised to a reference clock that is not provided by one clock synchronised to a reference clock that is not provided by one
of the methods listed above. Examples may include the reference time of the methods listed above. Examples may include the reference time
information provided by digital television or cellular services. information provided by digital television or cellular services.
These sources are identified as "private" reference clocks. All RTP These sources are identified as "private" reference clocks. All RTP
senders and receivers in a session using a private reference clock senders and receivers in a session using a private reference clock
are assumed to have a mechanism outside this specification for are assumed to have a mechanism outside this specification for
determining whether their timestamp clocks are equivalent. determining whether their timestamp clocks are equivalent.
4.6. Traceable Reference Clocks 4.6. Traceable Reference Clocks
A timestamp clock source may be labelled "traceable" if it is known A timestamp clock source may be labelled "traceable" if it is known
to be sourced from a global time reference such as TAI or UTC. to be to delivering traceable time. Providing adjustments are made
Providing adjustments are made for differing time bases, timestamps for differing epochs, timezones and leap seconds, timestamps taken
taken using clocks synchronised to a traceable time source can be using clocks synchronised to a traceable time source can be directly
directly compared even if the clocks are synchronised to different compared even if the clocks are synchronised to different sources or
sources or via different mechanisms. via different mechanisms.
Since all NTP and PTP servers providing traceable time can be Since all NTP and PTP servers providing traceable time can be
directly compared, it is not necessary to identify traceable time directly compared, it is not necessary to identify traceable time
servers by protocol address or other identifiers. servers by protocol address or other identifiers.
4.7. Synchronisation Quality 4.7. SDP Signalling of Timestamp Clock Source
Network time protocol services periodically exchange timestamped
messages between servers and clients. Assuming RTP device clocks are
based on commonly available quartz crystal hardware which is subject
to drift, tight synchronisation requires frequent exchange of
synchronisation messages.
Unfortunately, in some implementations, it is not possible to control
the frequency of synchronisation messages nor is it possible to
discover when the last synchronisation message occurred. In order to
provide a measure of synchronization quality, an optional timestamp
may be included in the SDP clock source signalling. In addition, the
frequency of synchronisation messages may also be signalled.
The optional timestamp and synchronisation frequency parameters
provide an indication of synchronisation quality to the receiver of
those parameters. If the synchronisation quality timestamp is far
from the timestamp clock at the receiver of the parameters, it can be
assumed that synchronisation has not occurred recently, the timestamp
reference clock source cannot be contacted or the SDP information has
not been recently refreshed. To eliminate the latter possiblity,
updated SDP information should be retrieved. If the synchronisation
quality timestamp is still far from the timestamp clock the receiver
can take action to prevent unsynchronised playout or may fall back to
assuming that the timestamp clocks are not synchronised.
Synchronisation frequency is expressed as a signed (two's-compliment)
8-bit field which is the base-2 logarithm of the frequency in Hz.
The synchronisation frequencies represented by this field range from
2^-128 Hz to 2^+127 Hz. The field value of 0 corresponds to an
update frequency of 1 Hz.
When multiple reference clocks are specified, a sender or receiver
may wish to base selection of the clock used based on most recent or
most frequent update as indicated by the synchronization quality
signalling.
4.8. SDP Signalling of Timestamp Clock Source
Specification of the timestamp reference clock source may be at any Specification of the timestamp reference clock source may be at any
or all levels (session, media or source) of an SDP description (see or all levels (session, media or source) of an SDP description (see
level definitions (Section 3) earlier in this document for more level definitions (Section 3) earlier in this document for more
information). information).
Timestamp clock source signalling included at session-level provides Timestamp clock source signalling included at session-level provides
default parameters for all RTP sessions and sources in the session default parameters for all RTP sessions and sources in the session
description. More specific signalling included at the media level description. More specific signalling included at the media level
overrides default session level signalling. overrides default session level signalling. More specific signalling
included at the source level overrides default media level
signalling.
If timestamp clock source signalling is included anywhere in an SDP If timestamp clock source signalling is included anywhere in an SDP
description, it must be properly defined for all levels in the description, it must be properly defined for all levels in the
description. This may simply be achieved by providing default description. This may simply be achieved by providing default
signalling at the session level. signalling at the session level.
Timestamp reference clock parameters may be repeated at a given level Timestamp reference clock parameters may be repeated at a given level
(i.e. for a session or source) to provide information about (i.e. for a session or source) to provide information about
additional servers or clock sources. If the attribute is repeated at additional servers or clock sources. If the attribute is repeated at
a given level, all clocks described at that level are assumed to be a given level, all clocks described at that level are assumed to be
equivalent. Traceable clock sources MUST NOT be mixed with non- equivalent. Traceable time sources MUST NOT be mixed with non-
traceable clock sources at any given level. Unless synchronisation traceable time sources at any given level.
quality information is available for each of the reference clocks
listed at a given level, it SHOULD only be included with the first
reference clock source attribute at that level.
Note that clock source parameters may change from time to time, for Note that clock source parameters may change from time to time, for
example, as a result of a PTP clock master election. The SIP [4] example, as a result of a PTP clock master election. The SIP [4]
protocol supports re-signalling of updated SDP information, however protocol supports re-signalling of updated SDP information, however
other protocols may require additional notification mechanisms. other protocols may require additional notification mechanisms.
Figure 1 shows the ABNF [5] grammar for the SDP reference clock Figure 1 shows the ABNF [5] grammar for the SDP reference clock
source information. source information.
timestamp-refclk = "a=ts-refclk:" clksrc [ SP sync-quality ] CRLF timestamp-refclk = "a=ts-refclk:" clksrc CRLF
clksrc = ntp / ptp / gps / gal / local / private / clksrc-ext
clksrc = ntp / ptp / gps / gal / local / private
ntp = "ntp=" ntp-server-addr ntp = "ntp=" ntp-server-addr
ntp-server-addr = host [ ":" port ] ntp-server-addr = host [ ":" port ]
ntp-server-addr =/ "traceable" ) ntp-server-addr =/ "traceable"
ptp = "ptp=" ptp-version ":" ptp-server ptp = "ptp=" ptp-version ":" ptp-server
ptp-version = "IEEE1588-2002" ptp-version = "IEEE1588-2002"
ptp-version =/ "IEEE1588-2008" ptp-version =/ "IEEE1588-2008"
ptp-version =/ "IEEE802.1AS-2011" ptp-version =/ "IEEE802.1AS-2011"
ptp-version =/ ptp-version-ext
ptp-version-ext = token
ptp-server = ptp-gmid [":" ptp-domain] / "traceable" ptp-server = ptp-gmid [":" ptp-domain] / "traceable"
ptp-gmid = EUI64 ptp-gmid = EUI64
ptp-domain = ptp-domain-name / ptp-domain-nmbr ptp-domain = ptp-domain-name / ptp-domain-nmbr
ptp-domain-name = "domain-name=" 16ptp-domain-char ptp-domain-name = "domain-name=" 16ptp-domain-char
ptp-domain-char = %x21-7E / %x00 ptp-domain-char = %x21-7E / %x00
; allowed characters: 0x21-0x7E (IEEE 1588-2002) ; allowed characters: 0x21-0x7E (IEEE 1588-2002)
ptp-domain-nmbr = "domain-nmbr=" %x00-7f ptp-domain-nmbr = "domain-nmbr=" %x00-7f
; allowed number range: 0-127 (IEEE 1588-2008) ; allowed number range: 0-127 (IEEE 1588-2008)
gps = "gps" gps = "gps"
gal = "gal" gal = "gal"
local = "local" local = "local"
private = "private" [ ":" "traceable" ] private = "private" [ ":" "traceable" ]
sync-quality = sync-timestamp [SP sync-frequency] clksrc-ext = token
sync-timestamp = sync-date SP sync-time SP sync-UTCoffset
sync-date = 4DIGIT "-" 2DIGIT "-" 2DIGIT
; yyyy-mm-dd (e.g., 1982-12-02)
sync-time = 2DIGIT ":" 2DIGIT ":" 2DIGIT "." 3DIGIT
; 00:00:00.000 - 23:59:59.999
sync-UTCoffset = ( "+" / "-" ) 2DIGIT ":" 2DIGIT
; +HH:MM or -HH:MM
sync-frequency = 2HEXDIG
; If N is the field value, HZ=2^(N-127)
host = hostname / IPv4address / IPv6reference host = hostname / IPv4address / IPv6reference
hostname = *( domainlabel "." ) toplabel [ "." ] hostname = *( domainlabel "." ) toplabel [ "." ]
toplabel = ALPHA / ALPHA *( alphanum / "-" ) alphanum toplabel = ALPHA / ALPHA *( alphanum / "-" ) alphanum
domainlabel = alphanum domainlabel = alphanum
=/ alphanum *( alphanum / "-" ) alphanum / alphanum *( alphanum / "-" ) alphanum
IPv4address = 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT IPv4address = 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT
IPv6reference = "[" IPv6address "]" IPv6reference = "[" IPv6address "]"
IPv6address = hexpart [ ":" IPv4address ] IPv6address = hexpart [ ":" IPv4address ]
hexpart = hexseq / hexseq "::" [ hexseq ] / "::" [ hexseq ] hexpart = hexseq / hexseq "::" [ hexseq ] / "::" [ hexseq ]
hexseq = hex4 *( ":" hex4) hexseq = hex4 *( ":" hex4)
hex4 = 1*4HEXDIG hex4 = 1*4HEXDIG
port = 1*DIGIT port = 1*DIGIT
EUI64 = 7(2HEXDIG "-") 2HEXDIG EUI64 = 7(2HEXDIG "-") 2HEXDIG
Figure 1: Timestamp Reference Clock Source Signalling Figure 1: Timestamp Reference Clock Source Signalling
4.8.1. Examples 4.7.1. Examples
Figure 2 shows an example SDP description with a timestamp reference Figure 2 shows an example SDP description with a timestamp reference
clock source defined at the session level. clock source defined at the session level.
v=0 v=0
o=jdoe 2890844526 2890842807 IN IP4 10.47.16.5 o=jdoe 2890844526 2890842807 IN IP4 192.0.2.1
s=SDP Seminar s=SDP Seminar
i=A Seminar on the session description protocol i=A Seminar on the session description protocol
u=http://www.example.com/seminars/sdp.pdf u=http://www.example.com/seminars/sdp.pdf
e=j.doe@example.com (Jane Doe) e=j.doe@example.com (Jane Doe)
c=IN IP4 224.2.17.12/127 c=IN IP4 233.252.0.1/64
t=2873397496 2873404696 t=2873397496 2873404696
a=recvonly a=recvonly
a=ts-refclk:ntp=traceable a=ts-refclk:ntp=traceable
m=audio 49170 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 49170 RTP/AVP 0
m=video 51372 RTP/AVP 99 m=video 51372 RTP/AVP 99
a=rtpmap:99 h263-1998/90000 a=rtpmap:99 h263-1998/90000
Figure 2: Timestamp reference clock definition at the session level Figure 2: Timestamp reference clock definition at the session level
Figure 3 shows an example SDP description with timestamp reference Figure 3 shows an example SDP description with timestamp reference
clock definitions at the media level overriding the session level clock definitions at the media level overriding the session level
defaults. Note that the synchronisation confidence timestamp appears defaults. Note that the synchronisation confidence timestamp appears
on the first attribute at the media level only. on the first attribute at the media level only.
v=0 v=0
o=jdoe 2890844526 2890842807 IN IP4 10.47.16.5 o=jdoe 2890844526 2890842807 IN IP4 192.0.2.1
s=SDP Seminar s=SDP Seminar
i=A Seminar on the session description protocol i=A Seminar on the session description protocol
u=http://www.example.com/seminars/sdp.pdf u=http://www.example.com/seminars/sdp.pdf
e=j.doe@example.com (Jane Doe) e=j.doe@example.com (Jane Doe)
c=IN IP4 224.2.17.12/127 c=IN IP4 233.252.0.1/64
t=2873397496 2873404696 t=2873397496 2873404696
a=recvonly a=recvonly
a=ts-refclk:local a=ts-refclk:local
m=audio 49170 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 49170 RTP/AVP 0
a=ts-refclk:ntp=203.0.113.10 2011-02-19 21:03:20.345+01:00 a=ts-refclk:ntp=203.0.113.10 2011-02-19 21:03:20.345+01:00
a=ts-refclk:ntp=198.51.100.22 a=ts-refclk:ntp=198.51.100.22
m=video 51372 RTP/AVP 99 m=video 51372 RTP/AVP 99
a=rtpmap:99 h263-1998/90000 a=rtpmap:99 h263-1998/90000
a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE802.1AS-2011:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0 a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE802.1AS-2011:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0
Figure 3: Timestamp reference clock definition at the media level Figure 3: Timestamp reference clock definition at the media level
Figure 4 shows an example SDP description with a timestamp reference Figure 4 shows an example SDP description with a timestamp reference
clock definition at the source level overriding the session level clock definition at the source level overriding the session level
default. default.
v=0 v=0
o=jdoe 2890844526 2890842807 IN IP4 10.47.16.5 o=jdoe 2890844526 2890842807 IN IP4 192.0.2.1
s=SDP Seminar s=SDP Seminar
i=A Seminar on the session description protocol i=A Seminar on the session description protocol
u=http://www.example.com/seminars/sdp.pdf u=http://www.example.com/seminars/sdp.pdf
e=j.doe@example.com (Jane Doe) e=j.doe@example.com (Jane Doe)
c=IN IP4 224.2.17.12/127 c=IN IP4 233.252.0.1/64
t=2873397496 2873404696 t=2873397496 2873404696
a=recvonly a=recvonly
a=ts-refclk:local a=ts-refclk:local
m=audio 49170 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 49170 RTP/AVP 0
m=video 51372 RTP/AVP 99 m=video 51372 RTP/AVP 99
a=rtpmap:99 h263-1998/90000 a=rtpmap:99 h263-1998/90000
a=ssrc:12345 ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE802.1AS-2011:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0 a=ssrc:12345 ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE802.1AS-2011:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0
Figure 4: Timestamp reference clock signalling at the source level Figure 4: Timestamp reference clock signalling at the source level
skipping to change at page 13, line 26 skipping to change at page 12, line 51
The asynchronously generated media clock is the assumed mode of The asynchronously generated media clock is the assumed mode of
operation when there is no signalling of media clock source. operation when there is no signalling of media clock source.
Alternatively, asynchronous media clock may be explicitly signalled. Alternatively, asynchronous media clock may be explicitly signalled.
a=mediaclk:sender a=mediaclk:sender
5.2. Direct-Referenced Media Clock 5.2. Direct-Referenced Media Clock
A media clock may be directly derived from a reference clock. For A media clock may be directly derived from a reference clock. For
this case it is required that a reference clock be specified with an this case it is required that a reference clock be specified with an
a=ts-refclk attribute (Section 4.8). a=ts-refclk attribute (Section 4.7).
The signalling optionally indicates a media clock offset value. The The signalling optionally indicates a media clock offset value. The
offset indicates the RTP timestamp value at the epoch (time of offset indicates the RTP timestamp value at the epoch (time of
origin) of the reference clock. If no offset is signalled, the origin) of the reference clock. If no offset is signalled, the
offset can be inferred at the receiver by examining RTCP sender offset can be inferred at the receiver by examining RTCP sender
reports which contain NTP and RTP timestamps which combined define a reports which contain NTP and RTP timestamps which combined define a
mapping. mapping.
A rate modifier may be specified. The modifier is expressed as the A rate modifier may be specified. The modifier is expressed as the
ratio of two integers and modifies the rate specified or implied by ratio of two integers and modifies the rate specified or implied by
skipping to change at page 14, line 16 skipping to change at page 13, line 40
A common synchronisation architecture for audio/visual systems A common synchronisation architecture for audio/visual systems
involves distributing a reference media clock from a master device to involves distributing a reference media clock from a master device to
a number of slave devices, typically by means of a cable. Examples a number of slave devices, typically by means of a cable. Examples
include audio word clock distribution and video black burst include audio word clock distribution and video black burst
distribution. In this case, the media clock is locally generated, distribution. In this case, the media clock is locally generated,
often by a crystal oscillator and is not locked to a timestamp often by a crystal oscillator and is not locked to a timestamp
reference clock. reference clock.
To support this architecture across a network, a master clock To support this architecture across a network, a master clock
identifier is associated with media sources carrying media clock identifier is associated with an RTP media stream carrying media
timing information from a master device. The master clock identifier clock timing information from a master device. The master clock
represents a media clock source in the master device. Slave devices identifier represents a media clock source in the master device.
in turn associate the master media clock identifer with streams they Slave devices in turn associate the master media clock identifier
transmit, signalling the synchronisation relationship between the with streams they transmit, signalling the synchronisation
master and slave devices. relationship between the master and slave devices.
Slave devices recover media clock timing from the clock master Slave devices recover media clock timing from the clock master
stream, using it to synchronise the slave media clock with the stream, using it to synchronise the slave media clock with the
master. Timestamps in the master clock media stream are taken using master. Timestamps in the master clock RTP media stream are taken
the timestamp reference clock shared by the master and slave devices. using the timestamp reference clock shared by the master and slave
The timestamps communicate information about media clock timing devices. The timestamps communicate information about media clock
(rate, phase) from the master to the slave devices. Timestamps are timing (rate, phase) from the master to the slave devices.
communicated in the usual RTP fashion via RTCP SRs, or via the
RFC6051 [6] header extension. The stream media format may indicate Timestamps are communicated in the usual RTP fashion via RTCP SRs, or
other clock information, such as the nominal rate. via the RFC6051 [6] header extension. The stream media format may
indicate other clock information, such as the nominal rate.
Note that slaving of a device media clock to a master device does not Note that slaving of a device media clock to a master device does not
affect the usual RTP lip sync / time alignment algorithms. Time affect the usual RTP lip sync / time alignment algorithms. Time
aligned playout of two or more RTP sources still relies upon NTP aligned playout of two or more RTP sources still relies upon NTP
timestamps supplied via RTCP SRs or by the RFC6051 timestamp header timestamps supplied via RTCP SRs or by the RFC6051 timestamp header
extension. extension.
In a given system, master clock identifiers must be unique. Such In a given system, master clock identifiers must be unique. Such
identifiers MAY be manually configured, however 17 octet string identifiers MAY be manually configured, however 17 octet string
identifiers SHOULD be generated according to the "short-term identifiers SHOULD be generated according to the "short-term
persistent RTCP CNAME" algorithm as described in RFC6222 [7]. persistent RTCP CNAME" algorithm as described in RFC6222 [7].
A reference stream can be an RTP stream or AVB stream based on the A reference stream can be an RTP stream or AVB stream based on the
IEEE 1722 [15] standard. IEEE 1722 [16] standard.
An RTP clock master stream SHOULD be identified at the source level An RTP clock master stream SHOULD be identified at the source level
by an SSRC and master clock identifier. If master clock identifiers by an SSRC and master clock identifier. If master clock identifiers
are declared at the media or session level, all RTP sources at or are declared at the media or session level, all RTP sources at or
below the level of declaration MUST provide equivalent timing to a below the level of declaration MUST provide equivalent timing to a
slave receiver. slave receiver.
a=ssrc:12345 mediaclk:master id=<media-clock-master-id> a=ssrc:<media-clock-master-ssrc-id> mediaclk:master-id=<media-
clock-master-id>
An RTP media source indicates that it is slaved to a clock master via An RTP media sender indicates that it is slaved to a clock master via
a clock master identifier: a clock master identifier:
a=mediaclk:slave id=<media-clock-master-id> a=mediaclk:master-id=<media-clock-master-id>
An RTP media source indicates that it is slaved to an IEEE 1722 clock An RTP media sender indicates that it is slaved to an IEEE 1722 clock
master via a stream identifier (an EUI-64): master via a stream identifier (an EUI-64):
a=mediaclk:IEEE1722=<StreamID> a=mediaclk:IEEE1722=<StreamID>
5.4. Signalling Grammar 5.4. SDP Signalling of Media Clock Source
Specification of the media clock source may be at any or all levels Specification of the media clock source may be at any or all levels
(session, media or source) of an SDP description (see level (session, media or source) of an SDP description (see level
definitions (Section 3) earlier in this document for more definitions (Section 3) earlier in this document for more
information). information).
Media clock source signalling included at session level provides Media clock source signalling included at session level provides
default parameters for all RTP sessions and sources in the session default parameters for all RTP sessions and sources in the session
description. More specific signalling included at the media level description. More specific signalling included at the media level
overrides default session level signalling. Further, source-level overrides default session level signalling. Further, source-level
skipping to change at page 16, line 5 skipping to change at page 15, line 20
Media clock source parameters may be repeated at a given level (i.e. Media clock source parameters may be repeated at a given level (i.e.
for a session or source) to provide information about additional for a session or source) to provide information about additional
clock sources. If the attribute is repeated at a given level, all clock sources. If the attribute is repeated at a given level, all
clocks described at that level are comparable clock sources and may clocks described at that level are comparable clock sources and may
be used interchangeably. be used interchangeably.
Figure 5 shows the ABNF [5] grammar for the SDP media clock source Figure 5 shows the ABNF [5] grammar for the SDP media clock source
information. information.
timestamp-mediaclk = "a=mediaclk:" mediaclock mediaclk-master = "a=ssrc:" integer SP clk-master-id
mediaclock = refclk / streamid / sender clk-master-id = "mediaclk:master-id=" master-id
rate = [ SP "rate=" 1*DIGIT "/" 1*DIGIT ] timestamp-mediaclk = "a=mediaclk:" mediaclock
refclk = "direct" [ "=" 1*DIGIT ] rate mediaclock = sender / refclk / streamid / mediaclock-ext
streamid = "master-id=" clk-master-id sender = "sender" sender-ext
streamid =/ "slave-to=" clk-master-id sender-ext = token
streamid =/ "IEEE1722=" EUI64 refclk = "direct" [ "=" 1*DIGIT ] [rate] [direct-ext]
clk-master-id = EUI48 rate = [ SP "rate=" integer "/" integer ]
sender = "sender" direct-ext = token
EUI48 = 5(2HEXDIG ":") 2HEXDIG streamid = "master-id=" master-id
EUI64 = 7(2HEXDIG ":") 2HEXDIG streamid =/ "IEEE1722=" avb-stream-id
streamid =/ streamid-ext
master-id = EUI48
avb-stream-id = EUI64
EUI48 = 5(2HEXDIG ":") 2HEXDIG
EUI64 = 7(2HEXDIG ":") 2HEXDIG
streamid-ext = token
mediaclock-ext = token
Figure 5: Media Clock Source Signalling Figure 5: Media Clock Source Signalling
5.5. Examples 5.5. Examples
Figure 6 shows an example SDP description 8 channels of 24-bit, 48 Figure 6 shows an example SDP description 8 channels of 24-bit, 48
kHz audio transmitted as a multicast stream. Media clock is derived kHz audio transmitted as a multicast stream. Media clock is derived
directly from an IEEE 1588-2008 reference. directly from an IEEE 1588-2008 reference.
v=0 v=0
o=- 1311738121 1311738121 IN IP4 192.168.1.1 o=- 1311738121 1311738121 IN IP4 192.0.2.1
c=IN IP4 239.0.0.2/255 c=IN IP4 233.252.0.1/64
s= s=
t=0 0 t=0 0
m=audio 5004 RTP/AVP 96 m=audio 5004 RTP/AVP 96
a=rtpmap:96 L24/48000/8 a=rtpmap:96 L24/48000/8
a=sendonly a=sendonly
a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE1588-2008:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0:0 a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE1588-2008:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0:0
a=mediaclk:direct=963214424 a=mediaclk:direct=963214424
Figure 6: Media clock directly referenced to IEEE 1588-2008 Figure 6: Media clock directly referenced to IEEE 1588-2008
skipping to change at page 17, line 4 skipping to change at page 16, line 28
a=rtpmap:96 L24/48000/8 a=rtpmap:96 L24/48000/8
a=sendonly a=sendonly
a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE1588-2008:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0:0 a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE1588-2008:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0:0
a=mediaclk:direct=963214424 a=mediaclk:direct=963214424
Figure 6: Media clock directly referenced to IEEE 1588-2008 Figure 6: Media clock directly referenced to IEEE 1588-2008
Figure 7 shows an example SDP description 2 channels of 24-bit, 44056 Figure 7 shows an example SDP description 2 channels of 24-bit, 44056
kHz NTSC "pull-down" media clock derived directly from an IEEE 1588- kHz NTSC "pull-down" media clock derived directly from an IEEE 1588-
2008 reference clock 2008 reference clock
v=0 v=0
o=- 1311738121 1311738121 IN IP4 192.168.1.1 o=- 1311738121 1311738121 IN IP4 192.0.2.1
c=IN IP4 239.0.0.2/255 c=IN IP4 233.252.0.1/64
s= s=
t=0 0 t=0 0
m=audio 5004 RTP/AVP 96 m=audio 5004 RTP/AVP 96
a=rtpmap:96 L24/44100/2 a=rtpmap:96 L24/44100/2
a=sendonly a=sendonly
a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE1588-2008:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0:0 a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE1588-2008:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0:0
a=mediaclk:direct=963214424 rate=1000/1001 a=mediaclk:direct=963214424 rate=1000/1001
Figure 7: "Oddball" sample rate directly referenced to IEEE 1588-2008 Figure 7: "Oddball" sample rate directly referenced to IEEE 1588-2008
Figure 8 shows the same 48 kHz audio transmission from Figure 6 with Figure 8 shows the same 48 kHz audio transmission from Figure 6 with
media clock derived from another RTP stream. media clock derived from another RTP stream.
v=0 v=0
o=- 1311738121 1311738121 IN IP4 192.168.1.1 o=- 1311738121 1311738121 IN IP4 192.0.2.1
c=IN IP4 224.2.228.230/32 c=IN IP4 233.252.0.1/64
s= s=
t=0 0 t=0 0
m=audio 5004 RTP/AVP 96 m=audio 5004 RTP/AVP 96
a=rtpmap:96 L24/48000/2 a=rtpmap:96 L24/48000/2
a=sendonly a=sendonly
a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE1588-2008:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0:0 a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE1588-2008:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0:0
a=mediaclk:slave id=00:60:2b:20:12:1f a=mediaclk:master-id=00:60:2b:20:12:1f
Figure 8: RTP stream with media clock slaved to a master device Figure 8: RTP stream with media clock slaved to a master device
Figure 9 shows the same 48 kHz audio transmission from Figure 6 with Figure 9 shows the same 48 kHz audio transmission from Figure 6 with
media clock derived from an IEEE 1722 AVB stream. media clock derived from an IEEE 1722 AVB stream.
v=0 v=0
o=- 1311738121 1311738121 IN IP4 192.168.1.1 o=- 1311738121 1311738121 IN IP4 192.0.2.1
c=IN IP4 224.2.228.230/32 c=IN IP4 233.252.0.1/64
s= s=
t=0 0 t=0 0
m=audio 5004 RTP/AVP 96 m=audio 5004 RTP/AVP 96
a=rtpmap:96 L24/48000/2 a=rtpmap:96 L24/48000/2
a=sendonly a=sendonly
a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE1588-2008:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0:0 a=ts-refclk:ptp=IEEE1588-2008:39-A7-94-FF-FE-07-CB-D0:0
a=mediaclk:IEEE1722=38-D6-6D-8E-D2-78-13-2F a=mediaclk:IEEE1722=38-D6-6D-8E-D2-78-13-2F
Figure 9: RTP stream with media clock slaved to an IEEE1722 master Figure 9: RTP stream with media clock slaved to an IEEE1722 master
device device
6. IANA Considerations 6. Signalling considerations
Signaling for timestamp clock source (Section 4.7) and media clock
source (Section 5.4) is defined to be used either by applications
that implement the SDP Offer/Answer model [8] or by applications that
use SDP to describe media and transport configurations.
A description or offer may include reference clock signalling, media
clock signalling or both. If no reference clock is specified, the
direct-referenced media clock (Section 5.2) is not allowed. If no
media clock is specified, an asynchronous media clock (Section 5.1)
is assumed. stream-referenced media clock (Section 5.3) may be used
with or without a reference clock specification. If a reference
clock is not signalled, the stream may be established as rate
synchronized however time synchronisation is not guaranteed.
6.1. Usage in Offer/Answer
An answer to an offer with direct-referenced media clock and
reference clock specification must include the same media clock and
reference clock signalling in which case a connection is established
using the specified synchronisation. Alternatively the answer may
omit both the signals or return only the reference clock
specification. In this case, a connection is established assuming an
asynchronous media clock.
An answer to an offer with media-referenced media clock specification
must include the same media clock specification. The answer MUST
include the same reference clock signalling or may drop the reference
clock signalling. If reference clock signalling is not present in
the answer, either due to not being present in the offer or due to
being dropped by the answerer, the stream may be established as rate
synchronized but not time synchronized.
An asynchronous media clock is the default media clock mode. This
mode may be explicitly signalled or presumed due to lack of
signalling. Asynchronous media clocking does not require reference
clock signalling. An offer with asynchronous media clocking MAY
include reference clock signalling. Because the asynchronous media
clock is the default mode, the answerer is not required to explicitly
signal this even if it is explicitly signalled in the offer.
6.2. Usage Outside of Offer/Answer
SDP can be employed outside of the Offer/Answer context, for instance
for multimedia sessions that are announced through the Session
Announcement Protocol (SAP) [17], or streamed through the Real Time
Streaming Protocol (RTSP) [18]. The signaling model is simpler, as
the sender does not negotiate parameters, but the functionality
expected from specifying medial clock and reference clock attributes
is the same as in Offer/Answer.
7. Security Considerations
Entities receiving and acting upon an SDP message SHOULD be aware
that a session description cannot be trusted unless it has been
obtained by an authenticated transport protocol from a known and
trusted source. Many different transport protocols may be used to
distribute session description, and the nature of the authentication
will differ from transport to transport. For some transports,
security features are often not deployed. In case a session
description has not been obtained in a trusted manner, the endpoint
SHOULD exercise care because, among other attacks, the media sessions
received may not be the intended ones, the destination where media is
sent to may not be the expected one, any of the parameters of the
session may be incorrect.
Incorrect reference or media clock parameters may cause devices or
streams to synchronize to unintended clock sources. Normally this
simply results in failure to make a media connection or failure to
synchronize once connected. Enough devices fraudulently assigned to
a specific clock source (e.g. a particular IEEE 1588 grandmaster)
may, however, constitute a successful a denial of service attack on
that source. Devices MAY wish to validate the integrity of the clock
description through some means before connecting to unfamiliar clock
sources.
8. IANA Considerations
The SDP attribute "ts-refclk" defined by this document is registered The SDP attribute "ts-refclk" defined by this document is registered
with the IANA registry of SDP Parameters as follows: with the IANA registry of SDP Parameters as follows:
SDP Attribute ("att-field"): SDP Attribute ("att-field"):
Attribute name: ts-refclk Attribute name: ts-refclk
Long form: Timestamp reference clock source Long form: Timestamp reference clock source
skipping to change at page 19, line 17 skipping to change at page 20, line 17
Attribute name: mediaclk Attribute name: mediaclk
Long form: Media clock source Long form: Media clock source
Type of name: att-field Type of name: att-field
Type of attribute: session and media level Type of attribute: session and media level
Subject to charset: no Subject to charset: no
Purpose: See section 6 of this document Purpose: See section 5 of this document
Reference: This document Reference: This document
Values: see this document and registrations below Values: see this document and registrations below
The attribute has an extensible parameter field and therefore a The attribute has an extensible parameter field and therefore a
registry for these parameters is required. This document creates an registry for these parameters is required. This document creates an
IANA registry called the Media Clock Source Parameters Registry. It IANA registry called the Media Clock Source Parameters Registry. It
contains the three parameters defined in Figure 5: "sender", contains the three parameters defined in Figure 5: "sender",
"direct", "master", "slave" and "IEEE1722". "direct", "master", "slave" and "IEEE1722".
7. References 9. References
7.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[2] Lennox, J., Ott, J., and T. Schierl, "Source-Specific Media [2] Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.
[3] Lennox, J., Ott, J., and T. Schierl, "Source-Specific Media
Attributes in the Session Description Protocol (SDP)", Attributes in the Session Description Protocol (SDP)",
RFC 5576, June 2009. RFC 5576, June 2009.
[3] Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.
[4] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A., [4] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP: Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002. Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.
[5] Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax [5] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997. Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.
[6] Perkins, C. and T. Schierl, "Rapid Synchronisation of RTP [6] Perkins, C. and T. Schierl, "Rapid Synchronisation of RTP
Flows", RFC 6051, November 2010. Flows", RFC 6051, November 2010.
[7] Begen, A., Perkins, C., and D. Wing, "Guidelines for Choosing [7] Begen, A., Perkins, C., and D. Wing, "Guidelines for Choosing
RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Canonical Names (CNAMEs)", RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Canonical Names (CNAMEs)",
RFC 6222, April 2011. RFC 6222, April 2011.
7.2. Informative References [8] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model with
Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264, June 2002.
[8] Brandenburg, R., Stokking, H., Deventer, O., Boronat, F., 9.2. Informative References
[9] Brandenburg, R., Stokking, H., Deventer, O., Boronat, F.,
Montagud, M., and K. Gross, "Inter-destination Media Montagud, M., and K. Gross, "Inter-destination Media
Synchronization using the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP)", Synchronization using the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP)",
draft-ietf-avtcore-idms-07 (work in progress), October 2012. draft-ietf-avtcore-idms-08 (work in progress), January 2013.
[9] Global Positioning Systems Directorate, "Navstar GPS Space [10] Global Positioning Systems Directorate, "Navstar GPS Space
Segment/Navigation User Segment Interfaces", September 2011. Segment/Navigation User Segment Interfaces", September 2011.
[10] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "1588-2008 - [11] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "1588-2008 -
IEEE Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol IEEE Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol
for Networked Measurement and Control Systems", IEEE Std 1588- for Networked Measurement and Control Systems", IEEE Std 1588-
2008, 2008, 2008, 2008,
<http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/1588-2008.html>. <http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/1588-2008.html>.
[11] Mills, D., Martin, J., Burbank, J., and W. Kasch, "Network Time [12] Mills, D., Martin, J., Burbank, J., and W. Kasch, "Network Time
Protocol Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms Specification", Protocol Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms Specification",
RFC 5905, June 2010. RFC 5905, June 2010.
[12] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "1588-2002 - [13] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "1588-2002 -
IEEE Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol IEEE Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol
for Networked Measurement and Control Systems", IEEE Std 1588- for Networked Measurement and Control Systems", IEEE Std 1588-
2002, 2002, 2002, 2002,
<http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/1588-2002.html>. <http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/1588-2002.html>.
[13] "Timing and Synchronization for Time-Sensitive Applications in [14] "Timing and Synchronization for Time-Sensitive Applications in
Bridged Local Area Networks", Bridged Local Area Networks",
<http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/ <http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/
802.1AS-2011.html>. 802.1AS-2011.html>.
[14] "Audio Video Bridging (AVB) Systems", [15] "Audio Video Bridging (AVB) Systems",
<http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/ <http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/
802.1BA-2011.html>. 802.1BA-2011.html>.
[15] "IEEE Standard for Layer 2 Transport Protocol for Time [16] "IEEE Standard for Layer 2 Transport Protocol for Time
Sensitive Applications in a Bridged Local Area Network", Sensitive Applications in a Bridged Local Area Network",
<http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/1722-2011.html>. <http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/1722-2011.html>.
[17] Handley, M., Perkins, C., and E. Whelan, "Session Announcement
Protocol", RFC 2974, October 2000.
[18] Schulzrinne, H., Rao, A., and R. Lanphier, "Real Time Streaming
Protocol (RTSP)", RFC 2326, April 1998.
URIs URIs
[16] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genlock> [19] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genlock>
[17] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Word_clock> [20] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Word_clock>
[18] <http://www.ieee802.org/1/files/public/docs2007/ [21] <http://www.ieee802.org/1/files/public/docs2007/
as-dolsen-time-accuracy-0407.pdf> as-dolsen-time-accuracy-0407.pdf>
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Aidan Williams Aidan Williams
Audinate Audinate
Level 1, 458 Wattle St Level 1, 458 Wattle St
Ultimo, NSW 2007 Ultimo, NSW 2007
Australia Australia
skipping to change at page 21, line 39 skipping to change at page 23, line 4
URI: http://www.avanw.com/ URI: http://www.avanw.com/
Ray van Brandenburg Ray van Brandenburg
TNO TNO
Brassersplein 2 Brassersplein 2
Delft 2612CT Delft 2612CT
the Netherlands the Netherlands
Phone: +31-88-866-7000 Phone: +31-88-866-7000
Email: ray.vanbrandenburg@tno.nl Email: ray.vanbrandenburg@tno.nl
Hans Stokking Hans Stokking
TNO TNO
Brassersplein 2 Brassersplein 2
Delft 2612CT Delft 2612CT
the Netherlands the Netherlands
Phone: Email: hans.stokking@tno.nl
Email: stokking@tno.nl
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