draft-ietf-avtcore-6222bis-06.txt   rfc7022.txt 
Network Working Group A. Begen Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) A. Begen
Internet-Draft Cisco Request for Comments: 7022 Cisco
Obsoletes: 6222 (if approved) C. Perkins Obsoletes: 6222 C. Perkins
Updates: 3550 (if approved) University of Glasgow Updates: 3550 University of Glasgow
Intended status: Standards Track D. Wing Category: Standards Track D. Wing
Expires: January 15, 2014 Cisco ISSN: 2070-1721 Cisco
E. Rescorla E. Rescorla
RTFM, Inc. RTFM, Inc.
July 14, 2013 September 2013
Guidelines for Choosing RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Guidelines for Choosing RTP Control Protocol (RTCP)
Canonical Names (CNAMEs) Canonical Names (CNAMEs)
draft-ietf-avtcore-6222bis-06
Abstract Abstract
The RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Canonical Name (CNAME) is a The RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Canonical Name (CNAME) is a
persistent transport-level identifier for an RTP endpoint. While the persistent transport-level identifier for an RTP endpoint. While the
Synchronization Source (SSRC) identifier of an RTP endpoint may Synchronization Source (SSRC) identifier of an RTP endpoint may
change if a collision is detected or when the RTP application is change if a collision is detected or when the RTP application is
restarted, its RTCP CNAME is meant to stay unchanged, so that RTP restarted, its RTCP CNAME is meant to stay unchanged, so that RTP
endpoints can be uniquely identified and associated with their RTP endpoints can be uniquely identified and associated with their RTP
media streams. media streams.
For proper functionality, RTCP CNAMEs should be unique within the For proper functionality, RTCP CNAMEs should be unique within the
participants of an RTP session. However, the existing guidelines for participants of an RTP session. However, the existing guidelines for
choosing the RTCP CNAME provided in the RTP standard are insufficient choosing the RTCP CNAME provided in the RTP standard (RFC 3550) are
to achieve this uniqueness. RFC 6222 was published to update those insufficient to achieve this uniqueness. RFC 6222 was published to
guidelines to allow endpoints to choose unique RTCP CNAMEs. update those guidelines to allow endpoints to choose unique RTCP
Unfortunately, later investigations showed that some parts of the new CNAMEs. Unfortunately, later investigations showed that some parts
algorithms were unnecessarily complicated and/or ineffective. This of the new algorithms were unnecessarily complicated and/or
document addresses these concerns and replaces RFC 6222. ineffective. This document addresses these concerns and replaces RFC
6222.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This is an Internet Standards Track document.
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- received public review and has been approved for publication by the
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7022.
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 15, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction ....................................................2
2. Requirements Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Requirements Notation ...........................................3
3. Deficiencies with Earlier Guidelines for Choosing an RTCP 3. Deficiencies with Earlier Guidelines for Choosing an
CNAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 RTCP CNAME ......................................................3
4. Choosing an RTCP CNAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. Choosing an RTCP CNAME ..........................................4
4.1. Persistent RTCP CNAMEs versus Per-Session RTCP CNAMEs . . 4 4.1. Persistent RTCP CNAMEs versus Per-Session RTCP CNAMEs ......4
4.2. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.2. Requirements ...............................................5
5. Procedure to Generate a Unique Identifier . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. Procedure to Generate a Unique Identifier .......................6
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. Security Considerations .........................................7
6.1. Considerations on Uniqueness of RTCP CNAMEs . . . . . . . 7 6.1. Considerations on Uniqueness of RTCP CNAMEs ................7
6.2. Session Correlation Based on RTCP CNAMEs . . . . . . . . 7 6.2. Session Correlation Based on RTCP CNAMEs ...................7
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7. Acknowledgments .................................................8
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8. References ......................................................8
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8.1. Normative References .......................................8
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8.2. Informative References .....................................8
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
In Section 6.5.1 of [RFC3550], there are a number of recommendations In Section 6.5.1 of [RFC3550], there are a number of recommendations
for choosing a unique RTCP CNAME for an RTP endpoint. However, in for choosing a unique RTCP CNAME for an RTP endpoint. However, in
practice, some of these methods are not guaranteed to produce a practice, some of these methods are not guaranteed to produce a
unique RTCP CNAME. [RFC6222] updated the guidelines for choosing unique RTCP CNAME. [RFC6222] updated the guidelines for choosing
RTCP CNAMEs, superseding those presented in Section 6.5.1 of RTCP CNAMEs, superseding those presented in Section 6.5.1 of
[RFC3550]. Unfortunately, some parts of the new algorithms are [RFC3550]. Unfortunately, some parts of the new algorithms are
rather complicated and also produce RTCP CNAMEs which in some cases rather complicated and also produce RTCP CNAMEs that, in some cases,
are potentially linkable over multiple RTCP sessions even if a new are potentially linkable over multiple RTCP sessions even if a new
RTCP CNAME is generated for each session. This document specifies a RTCP CNAME is generated for each session. This document specifies a
replacement for the algorithm in Section 5 of [RFC6222], which does replacement for the algorithm in Section 5 of [RFC6222], which does
not have this limitation and is also simpler to implement. not have this limitation and is also simpler to implement.
For a discussion on the linkability of RTCP CNAMES produced by For a discussion on the linkability of RTCP CNAMEs produced by
[RFC6222], refer to [I-D.rescorla-avtcore-random-cname]. [RFC6222], refer to [RESCORLA].
2. Requirements Notation 2. Requirements Notation
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
[RFC2119]. [RFC2119].
3. Deficiencies with Earlier Guidelines for Choosing an RTCP CNAME 3. Deficiencies with Earlier Guidelines for Choosing an RTCP CNAME
The recommendation in [RFC3550] is to generate an RTCP CNAME of the The recommendation in [RFC3550] is to generate an RTCP CNAME of the
form "user@host" for multiuser systems, or "host" if the username is form "user@host" for multiuser systems, or "host" if the username is
not available. The "host" part is specified to be the fully not available. The "host" part is specified to be the fully
qualified domain name (FQDN) of the host from which the real-time qualified domain name (FQDN) of the host from which the real-time
data originates. While this guidance was appropriate at the time data originates. While this guidance was appropriate at the time
[RFC3550] was written, FQDNs are no longer necessarily unique and can [RFC3550] was written, FQDNs are no longer necessarily unique and can
sometimes be common across several endpoints in large service sometimes be common across several endpoints in large service
provider networks. This document replaces the use of FQDN as an RTCP provider networks. This document replaces the use of the FQDN as an
CNAME by alternative mechanisms. RTCP CNAME by alternative mechanisms.
IPv4 addresses are also suggested for use in RTCP CNAMEs in IPv4 addresses are also suggested for use in RTCP CNAMEs in
[RFC3550], where the "host" part of the RTCP CNAME is the numeric [RFC3550], where the "host" part of the RTCP CNAME is the numeric
representation of the IPv4 address of the interface from which the representation of the IPv4 address of the interface from which the
RTP data originates. As noted in [RFC3550], the use of private RTP data originates. As noted in [RFC3550], the use of private
network address space [RFC1918] can result in hosts having network network address space [RFC1918] can result in hosts having network
addresses that are not globally unique. Additionally, this shared addresses that are not globally unique. Additionally, this shared
use of the same IPv4 address can also occur with public IPv4 use of the same IPv4 address can occur with public IPv4 addresses if
addresses if multiple hosts are assigned the same public IPv4 address multiple hosts are assigned the same public IPv4 address and are
and connected to a Network Address Translation (NAT) device connected to a Network Address Translation (NAT) device [RFC3022].
[RFC3022]. When multiple hosts share the same IPv4 address, whether When multiple hosts share the same IPv4 address, whether private or
private or public, using the IPv4 address as the RTCP CNAME leads to public, using the IPv4 address as the RTCP CNAME leads to RTCP CNAMEs
RTCP CNAMEs that are not necessarily unique. that are not necessarily unique.
It is also noted in [RFC3550] that if hosts with private addresses It is also noted in [RFC3550] that if hosts with private addresses
and no direct IP connectivity to the public Internet have their RTP and no direct IP connectivity to the public Internet have their RTP
packets forwarded to the public Internet through an RTP-level packets forwarded to the public Internet through an RTP-level
translator, they could end up having non-unique RTCP CNAMEs. The translator, they could end up having non-unique RTCP CNAMEs. The
suggestion in [RFC3550] is that such applications provide a suggestion in [RFC3550] is that such applications provide a
configuration option to allow the user to choose a unique RTCP CNAME; configuration option to allow the user to choose a unique RTCP CNAME;
this technique puts the burden on the translator to translate RTCP this technique puts the burden on the translator to translate RTCP
CNAMEs from private addresses to public addresses if necessary to CNAMEs from private addresses to public addresses if necessary to
keep private addresses from being exposed. Experience has shown that keep private addresses from being exposed. Experience has shown that
skipping to change at page 4, line 34 skipping to change at page 4, line 23
4.1. Persistent RTCP CNAMEs versus Per-Session RTCP CNAMEs 4.1. Persistent RTCP CNAMEs versus Per-Session RTCP CNAMEs
The RTCP CNAME can be either persistent across different RTP sessions The RTCP CNAME can be either persistent across different RTP sessions
for an RTP endpoint or unique per session, meaning that an RTP for an RTP endpoint or unique per session, meaning that an RTP
endpoint chooses a different RTCP CNAME for each RTP session. endpoint chooses a different RTCP CNAME for each RTP session.
An RTP endpoint that is emitting multiple related RTP streams that An RTP endpoint that is emitting multiple related RTP streams that
require synchronization at the other endpoint(s) MUST use the same require synchronization at the other endpoint(s) MUST use the same
RTCP CNAME for all streams that are to be synchronized. This RTCP CNAME for all streams that are to be synchronized. This
requires a short-term persistent RTCP CNAME that is common across requires a short-term, persistent RTCP CNAME that is common across
several RTP streams, and potentially across several related RTP several RTP streams, and potentially across several related RTP
sessions. A common example of such use occurs when lip-syncing audio sessions. A common example of such use occurs when syncing audio and
and video streams in a multimedia session, where a single participant video streams in a multimedia session, where a single participant has
has to use the same RTCP CNAME for its audio RTP session and for its to use the same RTCP CNAME for its audio RTP session and for its
video RTP session. Another example might be to synchronize the video RTP session. Another example might be to synchronize the
layers of a layered audio codec, where the same RTCP CNAME has to be layers of a layered audio codec, where the same RTCP CNAME has to be
used for each layer. used for each layer.
If the multiple RTP streams in an RTP session are not related, thus If the multiple RTP streams in an RTP session are not related, and
do not require synchronization, an RTP endpoint can use different thus do not require synchronization, an RTP endpoint can use
RTCP CNAMEs for these streams. different RTCP CNAMEs for these streams.
A longer-term persistent RTCP CNAME is sometimes useful to facilitate A longer-term persistent RTCP CNAME is sometimes useful to facilitate
third-party monitoring, consistent with [RFC3550]. One such use third-party monitoring, consistent with [RFC3550]. One such use
might be to allow network management tools to correlate the ongoing might be to allow network management tools to correlate the ongoing
quality of service for a participant across multiple RTP sessions for quality of service for a participant across multiple RTP sessions for
fault diagnosis, and to understand long-term network performance fault diagnosis and to understand long-term network performance
statistics. An application developer that wishes to discourage this statistics. An application developer that wishes to discourage this
type of third-party monitoring can choose to generate a unique RTCP type of third-party monitoring can choose to generate a unique RTCP
CNAME for each RTP session, or group of related RTP sessions, that CNAME for each RTP session, or group of related RTP sessions, that
the application will join. Such a per-session RTCP CNAME cannot be the application will join. Such a per-session RTCP CNAME cannot be
used for traffic analysis, and so provides some limited form of used for traffic analysis, and so provides some limited form of
privacy. Note that there are non-RTP means that can be used by a privacy. Note that there are non-RTP means that can be used by a
third party to correlate RTP sessions, so the use of per-session RTCP third party to correlate RTP sessions, so the use of per-session RTCP
CNAMEs will not prevent a determined traffic analyst from monitoring CNAMEs will not prevent a determined traffic analyst from monitoring
such sessions. such sessions.
This memo defines several different ways by which an implementation This memo defines several different ways by which an implementation
can choose an RTCP CNAME. It is possible, and legitimate, for can choose an RTCP CNAME. It is possible, and legitimate, for
independent implementations to make different choices of RTCP CNAME independent implementations to make different choices of RTCP CNAME
when running on the same host. This can hinder third-party when running on the same host. This can hinder third-party
monitoring, unless some external means is provided to configure a monitoring, unless some external means is provided to configure a
persistent choice of RTCP CNAME for those implementations. persistent choice of RTCP CNAME for those implementations.
Note that there is no backwards compatibility issue (with Note that there is no backwards compatibility issue (with
[RFC3550]-compatible implementations) introduced in this memo, since implementations compatible with [RFC3550]) introduced in this memo,
the RTCP CNAMEs are opaque strings to remote peers. since the RTCP CNAMEs are opaque strings to remote peers.
4.2. Requirements 4.2. Requirements
RTP endpoints will choose to generate RTCP CNAMEs that are persistent RTP endpoints will choose to generate RTCP CNAMEs that are persistent
or per-session. An RTP endpoint that wishes to generate a persistent or per-session. An RTP endpoint that wishes to generate a persistent
RTCP CNAME MUST use one of the following two methods: RTCP CNAME MUST use one of the following two methods:
o To produce a long-term persistent RTCP CNAME, an RTP endpoint MUST o To produce a long-term persistent RTCP CNAME, an RTP endpoint MUST
generate and store a Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) generate and store a Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID)
[RFC4122] for use as the "host" part of its RTCP CNAME. The UUID [RFC4122] for use as the "host" part of its RTCP CNAME. The UUID
MUST be version 1, 2, or 4, as described in [RFC4122], with the MUST be version 1, 2, or 4, as described in [RFC4122], with the
"urn:uuid:" stripped, resulting in a 36-octet printable string "urn:uuid:" stripped, resulting in a 36-octet printable string
representation. representation.
o To produce a short-term persistent RTCP CNAME, an RTP endpoint o To produce a short-term persistent RTCP CNAME, an RTP endpoint
MUST generate and use an identifier by following the procedure MUST generate and use an identifier by following the procedure
described in Section 5. That procedure is performed at least once described in Section 5. That procedure is performed at least once
per initialization of the software. After obtaining an per initialization of the software. After obtaining an
identifier, minimally the least significant 96 bits SHOULD be identifier, minimally the least significant 96 bits SHOULD be
converted to ASCII using Base64 encoding [RFC4648] (to compromise converted to ASCII using Base64 encoding [RFC4648] (to compromise
between packet size and uniqueness - refer to Section 6.1). If 96 between packet size and uniqueness -- refer to Section 6.1). If
bits are used, the resulting string will be 16 octets. Note the 96 bits are used, the resulting string will be 16 octets. Note
Base64 encoded value cannot exceed the maximum RTCP CNAME length the Base64 encoded value cannot exceed the maximum RTCP CNAME
of 255 octets [RFC3550]. length of 255 octets [RFC3550].
In the two cases above, the "user@" part of the RTCP CNAME MAY be In the two cases above, the "user@" part of the RTCP CNAME MAY be
omitted on single-user systems and MAY be replaced by an opaque token omitted on single-user systems and MAY be replaced by an opaque token
on multi-user systems, to preserve privacy. on multiuser systems, to preserve privacy.
An RTP endpoint that wishes to generate a per-session RTCP CNAME MUST An RTP endpoint that wishes to generate a per-session RTCP CNAME MUST
use the following method: use the following method:
o For every new RTP session, a new RTCP CNAME is generated following o For every new RTP session, a new RTCP CNAME is generated following
the procedure described in Section 5. After performing that the procedure described in Section 5. After performing that
procedure, minimally the least significant 96 bits SHOULD be procedure, minimally the least significant 96 bits SHOULD be
converted to ASCII using Base64 encoding [RFC4648]. The RTCP converted to ASCII using Base64 encoding [RFC4648]. The RTCP
CNAME cannot change over the life of an RTP session [RFC3550]. CNAME cannot change over the life of an RTP session [RFC3550].
The "user@" part of the RTCP CNAME is omitted when generating The "user@" part of the RTCP CNAME is omitted when generating
per-session RTCP CNAMEs. per-session RTCP CNAMEs.
It is believed that obtaining uniqueness (with a high probability) is It is believed that obtaining uniqueness (with a high probability) is
an important property that requires careful evaluation of the method. an important property that requires careful evaluation of the method.
This document provides a number of methods, at least one of which This document provides a number of methods, at least one of which
would be suitable for all deployment scenarios. This document would be suitable for any given deployment scenarios. This document
therefore does not provide for the implementor to define and select therefore does not provide for the implementor to define and select
an alternative method. an alternative method.
A future specification might define an alternative method for A future specification might define an alternative method for
generating RTCP CNAMEs, as long as the proposed method has generating RTCP CNAMEs, as long as the proposed method has
appropriate uniqueness and there is consistency between the methods appropriate uniqueness and there is consistency between the methods
used for multiple RTP sessions that are to be correlated. However, used for multiple RTP sessions that are to be correlated. However,
such a specification needs to be reviewed and approved before such a specification needs to be reviewed and approved before
deployment. deployment.
skipping to change at page 6, line 42 skipping to change at page 6, line 34
purpose unique identifiers. purpose unique identifiers.
5. Procedure to Generate a Unique Identifier 5. Procedure to Generate a Unique Identifier
To locally produce a unique identifier, one simply generates a To locally produce a unique identifier, one simply generates a
cryptographically pseudorandom value as described in [RFC4086]. This cryptographically pseudorandom value as described in [RFC4086]. This
value MUST be at least 96 bits. value MUST be at least 96 bits.
The biggest bottleneck to implementation of this algorithm is the The biggest bottleneck to implementation of this algorithm is the
availability of an appropriate cryptographically secure pseudorandom availability of an appropriate cryptographically secure pseudorandom
number generator (CSPRNG). In any setting which already has a secure number generator (CSPRNG). In any setting that already has a secure
PRNG, this algorithm described is far simpler than the algorithm PRNG, this algorithm described is far simpler than the algorithm
described in Section 5 of [RFC6222]. SIP stacks [RFC3261] are described in Section 5 of [RFC6222]. SIP stacks [RFC3261] are
required to use cryptographically random numbers to generate To and required to use cryptographically random numbers to generate To and
From tags (Section 19.3). RTCWEB implementations From tags (Section 19.3). Real-Time Communications on the Web
[I-D.ietf-rtcweb-security-arch] will need to have secure PRNGs to (RTCWEB) implementations [ARCH] will need to have secure PRNGs to
implement ICE [RFC5245] and DTLS-SRTP [RFC5764]. And, of course, implement ICE [RFC5245] and DTLS-SRTP [RFC5764]. And, of course,
essentially every Web browser already supports TLS, which requires a essentially every Web browser already supports TLS, which requires a
secure PRNG. secure PRNG.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
The security considerations of [RFC3550] apply to this memo. The security considerations of [RFC3550] apply to this memo.
6.1. Considerations on Uniqueness of RTCP CNAMEs 6.1. Considerations on Uniqueness of RTCP CNAMEs
The considerations in this section apply to random RTCP CNAMEs. The considerations in this section apply to random RTCP CNAMEs.
The recommendations given in this document for RTCP CNAME generation The recommendations given in this document for RTCP CNAME generation
ensure that a set of cooperating participants in an RTP session will, ensure that a set of cooperating participants in an RTP session will,
with very high probability, have unique RTCP CNAMEs. However, with very high probability, have unique RTCP CNAMEs. However,
neither [RFC3550] nor this document provides any way to ensure that neither [RFC3550] nor this document provides any way to ensure that
participants will choose RTCP CNAMEs appropriately, and thus participants will choose RTCP CNAMEs appropriately; thus,
implementations MUST NOT rely on the uniqueness of RTCP CNAMEs for implementations MUST NOT rely on the uniqueness of RTCP CNAMEs for
any essential security services. This is consistent with [RFC3550], any essential security services. This is consistent with [RFC3550],
which does not require that RTCP CNAMEs are unique within a session which does not require that RTCP CNAMEs are unique within a session
but instead says that condition SHOULD hold. As described in the but instead says that condition SHOULD hold. As described in the
Security Considerations section of [RFC3550], because each Security Considerations section of [RFC3550], because each
participant in a session is free to choose its own RTCP CNAME, they participant in a session is free to choose its own RTCP CNAME, they
can do so in such a way as to impersonate another participant. That can do so in such a way as to impersonate another participant. That
is, participants are trusted to not impersonate each other. No is, participants are trusted not to impersonate each other. No
recommendation for generating RTCP CNAMEs can prevent this recommendation for generating RTCP CNAMEs can prevent this
impersonation, because an attacker can neglect the stipulation. impersonation, because an attacker can neglect the stipulation.
Secure RTP (SRTP) [RFC3711] keeps unauthorized entities out of an RTP Secure RTP (SRTP) [RFC3711] keeps unauthorized entities out of an RTP
session, but it does not aim to prevent impersonation attacks from session, but it does not aim to prevent impersonation attacks from
authorized entities. authorized entities.
Because of the properties of the PRNG, there is no significant Because of the properties of the PRNG, there is no significant
privacy/linkability difference between long and short RTCP CNAMEs. privacy/linkability difference between long and short RTCP CNAMEs.
However, the requirement to generate unique RTCP CNAMEs implies a However, the requirement to generate unique RTCP CNAMEs implies a
certain minimum length. A length of 96 bits allows on the order of certain minimum length. A length of 96 bits allows on the order of
skipping to change at page 8, line 12 skipping to change at page 8, line 8
addresses [RFC4941] or IPv4 Network Address Port Translation (NAPT) addresses [RFC4941] or IPv4 Network Address Port Translation (NAPT)
[RFC3022]. [RFC3022].
This specification no longer describes a procedure to generate fixed This specification no longer describes a procedure to generate fixed
RTCP CNAME values, so RTCP CNAME values no longer provide such RTCP CNAME values, so RTCP CNAME values no longer provide such
linkage between RTP sessions. This was necessary to eliminate such linkage between RTP sessions. This was necessary to eliminate such
linking by an attacker, but of course complicates linking by traffic linking by an attacker, but of course complicates linking by traffic
analysis devices (e.g., devices that are looking for dropped or analysis devices (e.g., devices that are looking for dropped or
delayed packets). delayed packets).
7. IANA Considerations 7. Acknowledgments
No IANA actions are required.
8. Acknowledgments
Thanks to Marc Petit-Huguenin, who suggested using UUIDs in Thanks to Marc Petit-Huguenin, who suggested using UUIDs in
generating RTCP CNAMEs. Also, thanks to David McGrew for providing generating RTCP CNAMEs. Also, thanks to David McGrew for providing
text for the Security Considerations section in RFC 6222. text for the Security Considerations section in RFC 6222.
9. References 8. References
9.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC3550] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V. [RFC3550] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, July 2003. Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, July 2003.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally [RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122, July Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122, July
2005. 2005.
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data [RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006. Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.
[RFC5342] Eastlake, D., "IANA Considerations and IETF Protocol Usage
for IEEE 802 Parameters", BCP 141, RFC 5342, September
2008.
[RFC4086] Eastlake, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker, "Randomness [RFC4086] Eastlake, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker, "Randomness
Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086, June 2005. Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086, June 2005.
9.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[RFC6222] Begen, A., Perkins, C., and D. Wing, "Guidelines for [RFC6222] Begen, A., Perkins, C., and D. Wing, "Guidelines for
Choosing RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Canonical Names Choosing RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Canonical Names
(CNAMEs)", RFC 6222, April 2011. (CNAMEs)", RFC 6222, April 2011.
[RFC1918] Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and [RFC1918] Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and
E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets", BCP E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets", BCP
5, RFC 1918, February 1996. 5, RFC 1918, February 1996.
[RFC3022] Srisuresh, P. and K. Egevang, "Traditional IP Network [RFC3022] Srisuresh, P. and K. Egevang, "Traditional IP Network
skipping to change at page 9, line 35 skipping to change at page 9, line 23
[RFC5764] McGrew, D. and E. Rescorla, "Datagram Transport Layer [RFC5764] McGrew, D. and E. Rescorla, "Datagram Transport Layer
Security (DTLS) Extension to Establish Keys for the Secure Security (DTLS) Extension to Establish Keys for the Secure
Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC 5764, May 2010. Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC 5764, May 2010.
[RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, [RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
June 2002. June 2002.
[I-D.ietf-rtcweb-security-arch] [ARCH] Rescorla, E., "WebRTC Security Architecture", Work in
Rescorla, E., "RTCWEB Security Architecture", draft-ietf- Progress, July 2013.
rtcweb-security-arch-06 (work in progress), January 2013.
[I-D.rescorla-avtcore-random-cname] [RESCORLA] Rescorla, E., "Random algorithm for RTP CNAME generation",
Rescorla, E., "Random algorithm for RTP CNAME generation", Work in Progress, July 2012.
draft-rescorla-avtcore-random-cname-00 (work in progress),
July 2012.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Ali Begen Ali Begen
Cisco Cisco
181 Bay Street 181 Bay Street
Toronto, ON M5J 2T3 Toronto, ON M5J 2T3
CANADA CANADA
EMail: abegen@cisco.com EMail: abegen@cisco.com
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